literacy_screening by keralaguest

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									Screening and Initial Assessment
       of Literacy Needs
   in the Recruitment Phase
 of Further Education Courses




 Guidelines for Providers
                           INTRODUCTION

This document offers guidelines on identifying course-related literacy
issues in the recruitment phase of further education courses. They are
intended for providers of further education programmes for adults. The
aim is to help implement a learner-centred, equality-based policy for
access, transfer and progression.
The Principles and Guidelines in Part One of the document are intended to
apply in the recruitment phase of vocational further education and
training programmes for adults. They support a process for embedding
consideration of literacy in a dialogue with the learner, as appropriate to
the particular course, person and situation.
The document is not intended to represent comprehensive guidelines on
integrating literacy into all aspects of the recruitment phase of vocational
FE programmes. The publications referenced in this document include
additional suggestions for building literacy into the engagement phase of
further education and training programmes
The document is divided into two parts.
Part One: „Principles and Guidelines‟, outlines a process for considering
literacy in dialogue with the learner. It focuses on the course application
and recruitment interview.
Part Two: contains examples of screening and initial assessment tools,
as well as integrated assessment materials that have been developed in
specific contexts and as part of a whole-organisation, learner-centred
approach to literacy.




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PART 1: PRINCIPLES AND GUIDELINES


Principles

Any discussion of literacy in the recruitment phase of vocational courses
should be part of a voluntary, holistic, welcoming, non-threatening,
learner-centred process which seeks to remove barriers to accessing
courses. It should be grounded in the purposes of the course and of the
learners.
Considering any course-related literacy issues with applicants to further
education courses should be in the context of a dialogue that is:
     learner-centred, informal;
     motivational and strengths-focused;
     realistic and focused on the learner‟s core purpose and on the aims
      of the vocational course;
     inclusive and respectful of difference, systematically avoiding bias
      relating to social or cultural issues, class or ethnicity, disability, age
      or past educational achievements;
     a facilitated consideration by the applicant of their strengths, skills,
      experience, prior knowledge as relevant to the particular course and
      job;
     a source of clear information about what the course involves -
      including the types of literacy practices and the supports available;
     a way of enabling learners to make constructive choices about the
      course and between available options;
     the start of developing a negotiated learning plan.




                                       3
Guidelines

1.     Think about the overall criteria you apply for entry to your
       vocational course - the factors that you prioritise when considering
       applications.     These are likely to include such factors as the
       applicant‟s prior learning experiences; any prior knowledge and
       experience in the vocational area; their motivation to engage in the
       course and in the vocational area. Continue to prioritise those
       overall criteria.

2.     Carry out a literacy analysis of your course. Know the specific
       kinds of language and literacy activities involved in:
         -   the teaching and assessment strategies used;
         -   the vocational area for which the students are preparing;
         -   the kinds of evidence that may be specified for certification.
       Distinguish between the literacy learning outcomes from your course
       and the literacy that students may need to engage in at the
       beginning of the course. A literacy analysis of your course will help
       you plan the programme and it will inform your discussion with
       people who apply for the course.1
3.     Think about the adult learning and literacy support systems that
       are in place on your programme. These should include an effective
       partnership between vocational and literacy specialists.
4.     Think about the range of teaching and assessment strategies
       used on the programme. Plan to include strategies that do not rely
       solely on text. Plan to explicitly teach the language and literacy that
       is an essential part of the course or of the certification system. Plan
       to use the full range of assessment methodologies allowed by
       the awarding body, such as the variety of creative media permitted.
5.     Use the normal application materials, such as the application
       form, the course outline, the college/centre prospectus, to provide
       naturally – occurring early information on literacy strengths and
       needs.

1
 Training in how to carry out a literacy analysis of your course is available from NALA. It is also available as
part of the accredited professional development programmes offered by NUIM and by the Literacy
Development Centre in WIT.

                                                         4
6.   If relevant, you might also decide to design and use other
     materials or activities in the application and recruitment process
     that would integrate literacy with activities that are useful for the
     applicant at this point. For example, some vocational teachers
     design pre-interview forms or free writing activities specifically
     relevant to the course. These help the learner to focus for the
     interview they are about to do, while at the same time giving an
     early indication of reading and writing skills. See Appendix 1 for a
     sample of a locally designed pre-interview form.
7.   At interview, inform the learner clearly and accurately about the
     course and the activities involved in it. Include any information you
     consider necessary at this stage about the kinds of literacy
     activities involved in the course. Inform the learner also about the
     supports available. Facilitate them to ask questions about the
     course. Facilitate them to give you relevant information about their
     experience, prior learning, their reasons for applying to the course,
     their motivation to engage with the course content and process.
8.   If you have any questions in relation to the learner‟s ability to deal
     with the literacy involved in your course, ask the person about this
     in a matter-of-fact and respectful way, as you would with any other
     matter that is genuinely relevant to their application and their goals.
     Check also if they would use the supports available.
9.   Be prepared, with colleagues, to facilitate the learner‟s ability to
     choose between various options. Work in partnership with adult
     guidance staff, adult literacy staff and others to ensure that learners
     have early access to information and advice on the available
     options.
     Examples of options might include the following.
      -   Starting the course applied for. An integrated induction process
          would then help develop more specific learning goals and plans,
          including those related to literacy.
      -   Doing a bridging or transition programme that would act as an
          access route to the main intended FE course.
      -   Doing the programme over a different timescale, using the
          flexibility offered by modularization.



                                     5
10. Initial assessment of literacy – including identifying literacy strengths
    and needs with learners who apply for vocational courses - is not a
    once-off event. It needs to be part of a longer-term teaching-
    learning relationship and co- assessment process between students
    and teachers.

References and Further Reading
   Learning and Skills Development Agency, Northern Ireland.
    Essential Skills Good Practice: The Assessment Process
The guidelines represent examples of good practice in Northern Ireland
Essential Skills delivery and aim to ensure consistency and understanding
by tutors of the assessment process across different sectors and providers
of Essential Skills. The guidelines are available from: www.lsdani.org.uk
   Department for Education and Skills, London, 2003. Planning
    Learning and Recording Progress and Achievement: a guide for
    practitioners

This is a good practice guide to enable practitioners to develop and
evaluate procedures and systems for assessment and planning.

It is available for order from:   www.dfes.gov.uk/readwriteplus
   Reid, Susan and Denny, Ginnie 2003 Initial Assessment: A
    tutor’s guide (New Zealand: Workbase).

This guide was produced in New Zealand to support integrated initial
assessment on vocational training programmes. It can be downloaded
from:
 http://www.workbase.org.nz/Resource.aspx?ID=209
   Casey, H .2006. You wouldn’t expect a maths teacher to teach
    plastering….(NRDC).
This is a report on a major research project carried out by the National
Research and Development Centre for Literacy and Numeracy (England).
Its findings indicate the effectiveness of embedding literacy development
in the teaching and learning of other subjects. It can be downloaded
from:
http://www.nrdc.org.uk/publications_details.asp?ID=73#




                                       6
   Hegarty, A. and Feeley, M. 2009.    Literacy-friendly further
    education and training Dublin: NALA
This is a report on NALA research carried out in collaboration with
Liberties College, Dublin. It focuses mainly on literacy issues in Level 5
further education courses (PLCs). See pages 32 – 42, and 61 – 63 for a
discussion of Academic Literacies and of screening. See pages 154 –157
for a discussion of literacy-friendly recruitment and induction procedures.
http://www.nala.ie/catalog/literacy-friendly-further-education-and-
training-research-2009-0
   McSkeane, E. 2009. Living Literacy       Dublin: NALA

This is a research report on the implementation of a whole-organisation
approach to literacy in Newbridge Youth Training and Development
Centre. It includes an account of the development and piloting of
integrated initial assessment materials and activities as well as some
examples. The full report can be downloaded from:
http://www.nala.ie/publications/search/living%20literacy/%20
   Ní Chinnéide, B. 2002 Integrating Literacy: Guidelines for
    further education and training centres Dublin: NALA
The guidelines outline 10 elements of a whole-centre approach to
integrating literacy in further education and training courses, involving a
partnership between vocational and literacy staff and systems to support
that. The document can be downloaded from:
www.nala.ie/publications/integrating-literacy-nala-guidelines-further-
education-and-training-centres
   Carrigan, J, Downes, P, Byrne, I (2008) So is there more than
    what’s the score?      Educational Disadvantage Centre, St
    Patrick’s College, Drumcondra, Dublin

This report contains a review of screening and initial assessment tools, a
literature review and a set of recommendations on initial assessment
processes. The report does not necessarily reflect the views or policy of
the Department of Education and Science.




                                     7
PART 2: SCREENING & INITIAL ASSESSMENT TOOLS


Introduction
There are distinct and different views among researchers and
practitioners on the question of initial assessment and screening. This is
contested ground, a fact that is reflected in the reading list included in
this document, and in the selection of „tools‟ attached or referenced. In
relation to the focus of Part One here - the Principles and Guidelines for
the pre-enrolment phase– there are different views on whether it is
appropriate to carry out general literacy screening of adult applicants for
FE courses.
One view is that the increase in the numbers of adults returning to further
and adult education has highlighted the need for more formalised and
consistent assessment procedures at the initial stages of recruitment and
entry to courses. In the literature, some programmes do not differentiate
between screening and initial assessment.          However, screening is
generally understood to be a process which helps establish baseline
information on the learner‟s literacy and numeracy skills and is seen as
simply the first step in supporting a positive learning experience, and as
one element in making decisions about the appropriate course for the
applicant. This initial skills check, if used, should also help to identify
whether the learner would benefit from extra support with literacy or
numeracy.
In some cases, the term „screening‟ has now been replaced with the term
„skills check‟, as „screening‟ is deemed to have negative connotations.
Initial assessment is more commonly understood to refer to the process
of determining the learner‟s actual skill levels. In Ireland, adult literacy
learners who self present to the literacy service may not undergo
screening (as opposed to initial assessment). Screening is most often
used with adults entering broader vocational or community/institutional
education programmes.




                                     8
Another view is that it is not appropriate to isolate and apply general
literacy screening of adults applying to further education programmes.
For example, D‟Amico2, in her research with over 30 learners in five
institutions found that literacy as a gate keeping mechanism “may do
more harm than good” and was often inappropriate and ineffective.
Sticht3, and Rogers4, argue that results from literacy screening are not a
reliable predictor of an adult‟s success on a vocational or academic
programme and should not be used as a determining factor in the
recruitment stage of vocational courses. Instead, they point to the ability
of adults to make great leaps in literacy when using it for meaningful,
relevant learning and work activities that meet their purposes. Such an
embedded or integrated approach improves literacy development and
persistence and success on FE courses5. The most recent Irish based
research in an Irish FE context, recommended avoiding the screening of
adults for general literacy levels in the recruitment phase of FE courses
(Hegarty and Feeley 2009).
There are also different views on how formal or informal screening and
initial assessment should be. Specific approaches may be often contested
as being either too formalised and therefore off-putting for the learner, or
on the other hand too informal and yielding little relevant information.
Looney (OECD 20086) states however that this sets up an artificial
dichotomy. In an extensive study involving seven countries Looney
emphasizes that the exemplary programmes visited took very different
approaches to the first steps for learners. In some countries, approaches
are very formalised; in others, the focus is far more on informal
approaches designed to put learners at ease. Looney does conclude that
2
 D‟Amico, Deborah (2003) Embedded Literacy: Strengthening the Connection Between Work and
Learning, Paper commissioned for Workplace Learning Conference, December 03, Chicago.

3
  See Sticht, T. G (1997) Functional context education: Making learning relevant, National Adult
Literacy Database, Montreal. And also
Sticht, T. G. (2003) Functional Context Education (FCE) part 1: New Interest in FCE theory and
Principles for Integrating Basic Skills and Work Skills.
4
 Rogers, Alan (2005) „Literacy and Productive Skills Training: Embedded Literacies, in Adult
Education 65, online journal available at: http://www.eaea.org/doc/dvv/65.pdf#page=57,
5
    See National Research and Development Centre (NRDC) (2005) Embedded teaching and learning
of adult literacy, numeracy and ESOL: Seven case studies of embedded provision, London: NRDC.
6
 Looney, Janet (2008) Teaching, Learning and Assessment for Adults: Improving Foundation
Skills, OECD, Centre for Educational Research and Innovation. See Page 114.

                                                 9
while an assessment that creates great levels of stress is not likely to
yield a useful result, validated instruments are needed to ensure that the
right questions are asked in a way that will yield the needed information.
The rest of this document includes a number of examples of approaches
to general literacy screening or skills checks, as well as some examples of
integrated assessment materials. They are provided as examples of what
is done in particular contexts.        None of the tools and integrated
assessment materials listed below have been standardised formally
against the Irish National Framework of Qualifications.
Whatever the approach or tools adopted, it is recommended that the
approach/tools used be grounded in the purposes of the course and the
needs of the learners. Furthermore, they should be used in a manner
which seeks to remove barriers to access. In all cases, staff training, in
literacy issues and in learner-centred approaches, is a pre-requisite for
the effective use of screening and assessment materials.
The examples below do not necessarily reflect the views or policy of the
committee and/or the Department of Education and Skills. Each approach
is suited to a particular context and selecting the most appropriate
approach/tool is very much a matter for professional judgement – having
regard for all the circumstances.

Examples

   Liberties College Course-Specific Interview
    Preparation Form - See Appendix 1
This is an example of a locally-designed integrated tool as proposed in
Part 1 (guideline 6). It is a course-specific pre-interview form, which
provides the teachers/interviewers with relevant information, and helps
the student to prepare for their interview. At the same time, the activity
provides an indication of the prospective learner‟s reading and writing
skills.

   Co. Dublin VEC Screening Initiative - See Appendix 2
    This tool is relatively new and was piloted during 2009. It is not
    intended to be a substitute for initial assessment for literacy. It is
    reproduced in Appendix Two, by kind permission of Co. Dublin VEC.




                                    10
   Australian Prison Service Screening Tool
    While this tool was developed in the context of prisoner education
    programmes, it can be adapted to meet the needs of education
    generally. The tool and all necessary information regarding its use
    may be accessed from the following website.
    http://www.freewebs.com/australianprisonfoundation/Correctional_Se
    rvices_LanguageLiteracyNumeracyTool.doc

   Fast Track (Basic Skills Agency and NIACE, UK)
     A version of this initial assessment pack has been mapped against the
    Irish National Framework of Qualifications, for use in FAS Community
    Training Centres. The pack has not been formally standardized against
    the Irish NFQ.      For further information, contact FAS Community
    Services.

   First Move: Initial Skills Checker
    A screening tool developed for the Probation Service in England, it is
    based on direct questions including the learner‟s education and
    employment history; the profile indicator is scored. It provides only a
    broad understanding of possible skills needs. It may be downloaded
    from the following site.
    http://www.probation.homeoffice.gov.uk/files/pdf/PC13%202007.pdf

   The Clare Adult Basic Education Service Framework
    Clare VEC have developed a framework to examine literacy activities
    in the context of learning goals and course expectations, and to
    develop literacy strategies to meet needs. It is available from Clare
    VEC Adult Basic Education Service.




                                    11
    Examples of integrated Literacy Assessment Packs
   Extracts from Induction Activity Pack - See Appendix 3
    This pack was developed by Newbridge Youth Training and
    Development Centre in Newbridge, Co Kildare.

   Extracts from A Tutor’s Guide: Initial Assessment -
    See Appendix 4
    This guide is published by Workbase (New Zealand). A copy of the full
    guidelines may be accessed at the following web address.
    http://www.workbase.org.nz/Resource.aspx?ID=209

             ----------------------------------------------------------

   Guidelines for Interviewers - See Appendix 5
    This is based on guidelines produced by the Scottish Community
    Education Council.




                                       12
                       APPENDIX 1
                             (4 PAGES)

Liberties College Course-Specific Interview Preparation
                                Form

 This is an example of a locally-designed integrated tool as proposed in
 Part 1 (guideline 6). It is a course-specific pre-interview form, which
 provides the teachers/interviewers with relevant information, and
 helps the student to prepare for their interview. At the same time, the
 activity provides an indication of the prospective learner‟s reading and
 writing skills.




                                   1
                Liberties                                     College
                              Childcare FETAC Level 5
        Childcare Certificate FETAC Level 5 with Highscope
Interview Preparation

Please answer the following questions using the spaces provided and bring the completed paper to

interview


Candidate Name              ______________________________________________

A good childcare worker needs certain qualities or skills. List four
that you think are important and explain why.
____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________

What do you hope to gain from this course?

Explain your answer.

____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________

                                                2
____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
What personal qualities or skills have you got which would make
you suitable for this course and area of work?
____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________




Please bring to interview

    I confirm that I have read and understood the attached notice.

      Considering A CAREER IN SOCIAL CARE

Signed: _________________________________________




                                  3
        CHOOSING A CAREER IN SOCIAL CARE
              An Important Notice for Applicants Considering a Career

                                        in Social Care
Selection for Social Care courses is a two way process. We invite you to ask questions about
a career in Caring. Take an honest look at your strengths and weaknesses as a Carer!

Carers have a special place in the life of a person who is being cared for. There are
conditions which make it difficult or unwise for a person to make Caring a career. For
example:

               Ill-health requiring frequent absence from work
               Abusive or aggressive behaviour
               Addiction or treatment for addiction
               Mental illness affecting ability to work with others
               Epilepsy that is not well controlled
               A chronic bad back!

This is not a full list. Please note:

       If offered a place in Liberties College you will be required to inform us of any
        condition or circumstance relevant to your placement for Work Experience
       You will be asked at interview whether you have ever been accused of or the subject
        of investigations in relation to abusive behaviour

If you have any reason to worry about your capacity to do the job as a Carer, discuss it at
interview or, if you prefer, by contacting us next week for an appointment.

GARDA CHECKS: Some institutions will only accept students for Work Experience after a
check by the Gardaí. If offered a place in Liberties College you will be asked to give consent
for Garda Check.




                            End of Appendix 1


                                                4
                           APPENDIX_2
                                  (22 PAGES)




        County Dublin VEC Key Skills Screening Tool
       A Contribution to DES Guidelines on Screening




Contents                                             Page


Background                                                  2

Screening Tool – Student Self-assessment (English)          7

Screening Tool – Level 3                                    9

Screening Tool – Level 4                                12

Screening Tool – Levels 5 and 6                         15

Screening Tool – Levels 3 – 6                           18

Sample of completed marking scheme for Level 3          21




                                      1
                                   Background
1.    Context
It is essential that this Key Skills Screening Tool is seen as a relatively new initiative
within County Dublin VEC’s strategic development of Adult Literacy. The Key Skills
Screening Initiative was identified in the Adult Literacy Services Development Plan
2006 – 2008 as an objective in relation to the enabling and support role of the
Literacy Services. The Screening Tool was piloted in three different settings within
County Dublin VEC’s Adult Education Services in 2009 and a 360° evaluation was
conducted. The Screening Tool is being introduced incrementally across the VEC’s
Adult Education Services, in accordance with local priorities. Discussions are also
underway regarding implementing the initiative in the VEC’s Further Education
Services including Youthreach.

2.    Rationale
The design and piloting of a Screening Tool was a response to concerns raised by a
range of staff within the VEC’s Adult and Further Education services in relation to
gaps in learners’ Key Skills. The initiative is intended to support completion,
certification and progression of learners on accredited courses from Levels 3 – 6.
Learners on programmes equivalent to Levels 1 and 2 are provided for within the
Adult Literacy Services and have an initial assessment in Key Skills on entry.
Similarly, Level 1 and Level 2 learners for whom English is an additional language
are assessed and provided for by the VEC’s ESOL Services.

3.    Definitions
At both national and international level, screening is understood to be a process
which helps to establish baseline information on the learner’s Key Skills of Literacy,
Numeracy, Study Skills and Information Communications Technology (ICT) at
designated levels (usually 3-6). This tool therefore is not intended as a substitute for
initial assessment. County Dublin VEC sees initial assessment as a process which
provides more detailed and comprehensive data leading to a diagnosis of students’
strengths and needs in relation to Key Skills at the designated levels. Consequently,
initial assessment is likely to include interviews as well as some kind of written brief
eg, a skills-based task, a questionnaire.

4.     Aims
The County Dublin VEC Screening Tool has 3 primary functions:

      To include students on the programme of their choice
      To include students on the programme of their choice and offer them the
       necessary learning support in Key Skills
      To re-direct students to a programme that matches more closely their current
       skills’ level.

                                            2
5.    Description
The Screening Tool for Communication and Study Skills is in two parts and is
designed to be completed within 20 minutes. It can be conducted on a one-to-one
basis but it is more efficient if students are screened in small groups (eg, groups of
five).

Part 1 of the Screening Tool is a student self-assessment questionnaire covering a
range of skills in reading, writing, speaking/listening, ICT and Study Skills. There is
space on the questionnaire for the student to include any other skills they may feel
they need help with or any other relevant information that they would like to provide.

Part 2 is a piece of free writing on a familiar topic. The rationale for this is to enable
the student to write as much as possible within the allotted time, without having to
struggle unduly with the subject matter. The task is an assessment of their writing
skills, not their knowledge of the course they are applying for, although the task for
Level 4 does enable students to refer to their intentions as regards the course itself.
There is a task for Level 3, Level 4 and Levels 5 and 6. The topic and wording of the
question varies in complexity according to the level being screened. There is an
additional task for cases where the learner is not clear which level of programme to
apply for and this is divided into three parts of increasing complexity.

The Screening Tool does not include a specific assessment of reading and
comprehension although these skills are obviously required for the student to
complete Parts 1 and 2. Part 2 is accompanied by a marking scheme which is
designed to enable the Assessor to identify quickly where the student needs support.
There is also space for the Assessor to provide examples and this is useful for giving
a snapshot of the student’s particular difficulties in literacy and/or language. A
completed marking scheme at Level 3 is provided by way of illustration.

There is an equivalent of Parts 1 and 2 in the Screening Tool for Maths. This is yet to
be fully tested by County Dublin VEC and consequently not included here.

6.     Protocols
It is essential that a set of guidelines are devised within the organisation to ensure
that:
      Screening is carried out to the highest standards
      Learners are fully involved in the process
      A consistent approach is used
      There is clear communication and clear lines of responsibility for all involved
        in the Screening process
      Information on learners is stored securely.
7.     Recommendations
7.1     Screening should be part of a semi-structured interview that takes place at
       enrolment or during induction.
                                            3
7.2    Screening should be carried out no later than three weeks from the start of the
       programme.
7.3     A schedule of screening appointments should be agreed between Screening
       staff and the relevant subject staff and these should be arranged for groups of
       5 learners at a time in 30 minute blocks.
7.4     Screening should complement existing procedures whereby students
       demonstrate that they can meet the specific admissions criteria of the
       programme in question.
7.5    Screening should be part of an inclusive and integrated service in Adult and
       Further Education.
7.6    All staff participating in the screening system should be fully briefed on
       procedures and should be given written guidelines in order to ensure that
       screening is a positive experience for learners. Such guidelines need to
       include considerations regarding the language used to describe the process
       to learners, recommendations on how to set up the room and advice to
       learners as to who will receive information about their Key Skills levels.
7.7     The Screening Tool should be administered by experienced Adult and
       Further Education staff who have been briefed in procedures and protocols
       (as mentioned).
7.8     The results of the Screening should be analysed by trained and experienced
       literacy staff and returned to the relevant Course Co-ordinator within a week.
7.9    Where students need additional help to meet the demands of their
       programme, Learning Support should be provided ie, additional tuition in small
       groups by a literacy specialist who is trained and experienced in devising
       bespoke Communication, Maths and Study Skills support.
7.10    Learning Support is often particularly effective when delivered in a workshop
       format where students negotiate individual learning plans with the tutor and
       develop their skills in the context of their chosen course.
7.11   Learning Support should be delivered and managed by the Adult Literacy
       Service in close co-operation with managers and key staff within Adult and
       Further Education.
7.12    Learning Support should commence within 2 weeks of the analysis of the
       results of the Screening.
7.13    Funding for Learning Support has to be sourced from existing budgets and
       therefore may require some re-direction of funds from the learners’ main
       programme. There are staffing costs involved in relation to marking learners’
       work ie, analysing the results of the Screening, as well as in the delivery of
       Learning Support.

                                          4
7.14 Learning Support should be directed to learners most in need who will benefit
     from a relatively short input. For learners likely to need extensive Learning
     Support, it may be advisable to recommend a programme at a more suitable
     level first.
7.15    The length and timing of the Learning Support programme should be
       negotiated between the relevant Course Co-ordinator, the Learner and the
       Literacy/Learning Support service and will of course be determined by
       learners’ needs and the resources available within the organisation. However,
       a minimum of 7 hours tuition over the duration of the learner’s programme
       may be likely.
7.16 Time needs to be allocated to enable the Learning Support team to plan and
     to liaise with the learners’ Course Co-ordinator/subject tutors to ensure that
     the Learning Support programme is relevant to the subject area and to inform
     the subject tutors of the learners’ progress.
7.17 Consideration may need to be given to allocating time to the Learning Support
     team to source or adapt materials which are contextualised ie, which enable
     learners to develop Key Skills that are directly relevant to their programme.
7.18    Where possible, Adult Guidance should be closely involved in the process
       and the role of Guidance is critical in the case of learners who need to be
       re-directed to a programme which matches more closely their current skills’
       level.
7.19 The organisation may need to devise a policy as to whether Screening is
     compulsory for learners (or at least for learners on some programmes) and on
     how to respond when a learner is reluctant to accept advice in relation to
     either Learning Support or re-direction.
7.20    It is important that procedures for monitoring and evaluating Screening and
       Learning Support are built in to the system in order to collate feedback from all
       involved (learners and staff) and to ensure continuous improvement.
7.21   It may be advisable to carry out a pilot in a number of different settings in
       Adult and further Education before mainstreaming the Screening and Learning
       Support system.
7.22    It is important to bear in mind that Screening is not a substitute for clear
       admissions criteria and initial assessment procedures and that Learning
       Support is not a ‘quick fix’ for learners that need a preparatory or taster course
       before they are ready for the programme of their choice.


Rosemarie McGill

County Co-ordinator, Research, Development and Literacy Services

                                           5
                       County Dublin VEC Screening Tool




       KEY SKILLS ASSESSMENT (ENGLISH) DATE ________________

STUDENT NAME _______________________________________ COURSE __________________________

                             SELF- ASSESSMENT                     Need a lot   Need       Can
                                                                  of help      practice   do
       READING SKILLS
       Read for main points quickly
       Read for specific information
       Use dictionaries and reference books
       Read and label diagrams
       Read and use information from maps, charts, diagrams
       Read and understand technical vocabulary
       WRITING SKILLS
       Handwriting
       Punctuation – full stops, commas etc
       Spelling
       Grammar
       Write using paragraphs
       Write notes, memos, report cards, CV
       Write leaflets/brochures
       Write letters
       Write reports/write about events
       Write descriptions- people, places, things
       Write instructions
       Write summaries
       Use illustrations in written work (charts, diagrams etc)
       SPEAKING/LISTENING SKILLS
       Pronounce words correctly
       Ask questions to find out information
       Give instructions/information
       Give a talk or presentation
       Listen for information
       Listen and write messages
       Listen and take notes
       ICT SKILLS
       Use a mobile phone for calls and text messages
       Use a computer keyboard
       Create or open a document in Word
       Edit or save a document in Word
       Use the Internet to search for information

                                                          6
Student Self-Assessment (continued)

STUDY SKILLS
Managing your time effectively
Using the library and researching information
Planning assignments
Making notes
Putting information from books etc into you own words
Using footnotes, quotations, references and bibliographies
Examination skills and techniques

Anything else? Please tell us below if there are other skills that you
need help with, especially if English is not your first language.
___________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________




                                             7
                    County Dublin VEC Screening Tool


     KEY SKILLS ASSESSMENT (ENGLISH) FOR LEVEL 3 PROGRAMMES

STUDENT NAME _____________________________           COURSE____________

                    DATE _______________________________

Take 15 minutes to write about half a page on the topic. Try to write a few lines
                                on each point.

      Your favourite place:

      1   Describe it as fully as you can
      2   Explain why it is your favourite place
      3   Describe any particular memory you have of the place.

      _________________________________________________________________________
      _________________________________________________________________________
      _________________________________________________________________________
      _________________________________________________________________________
      _________________________________________________________________________
      _________________________________________________________________________
      _________________________________________________________________________
      _________________________________________________________________________
      _________________________________________________________________________
      _________________________________________________________________________
      _________________________________________________________________________
      _________________________________________________________________________
      _________________________________________________________________________
               ________________________________________________________

      Student _____________________________________________ (Signed)

      _______________________________________________________________




                                              8
                      County Dublin VEC Screening Tool


    KEY SKILLS ASSESSMENT (ENGLISH) FOR LEVEL 3 PROGRAMMES

STUDENT NAME _______________________ COURSE ____________________

                      DATE _______________________________

STAFF USE ONLY

    Tick areas where support is needed √ and provide examples where relevant:

PUNCTUATION:

SPELLING:

VOCABULARY

GRAMMAR
            (eg, word order, articles, subject-verb agreement, verb form/tense)

SENTENCE STRUCTURE:

PARAGRAPHING

SEQUENCING

HANDWRITING:



ADDITIONAL COMMENTS: __________________________________________

________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________




                                               9
RECOMMENDATIONS




Please tick √


      Applicant can meet the Key Skills demands of the course       □
      Applicant needs learning support in the following area/s:

Reading   □ Writing □ Using images □ Speaking/Listening □
                                County Dublin VEC Screening Tool

ICT   □      Study Skills   □
           KEY SKILLS ASSESSMENT (ENGLISH) FOR LEVEL 4 PROGRAMMES

      Applicant may need further guidance or re-direction           □
            (Please check for comments above)


Signed (staff) ___________________________________           Date ___________




                                              10
                   County Dublin VEC Screening Tool


     KEY SKILLS ASSESSMENT (ENGLISH) FOR LEVEL 4 PROGRAMMES

STUDENT NAME _____________________________            COURSE____________

                    DATE _______________________________

Take 15 minutes to write about half a page on the topic. Try to write a few lines
                                on each point.

      The Importance of returning to education as an adult:

      1 Describe the barriers that adults may face on returning to education.
      2 Explain the personal benefits of returning to education.
      3 Indicate how you intend to use the new skills and knowledge from your
        proposed course in the future.

      _________________________________________________________________________
      _________________________________________________________________________
      _________________________________________________________________________
      _________________________________________________________________________
      _________________________________________________________________________
      _________________________________________________________________________
      _________________________________________________________________________
      _________________________________________________________________________
      _________________________________________________________________________
      _________________________________________________________________________
      _________________________________________________________________________
      _________________________________________________________________________
      _________________________________________________________________________
      _________________________________________________________________________
                  __________________________________________________

      Student _____________________________________________ (Signed)

      _______________________________________________________________



                                            11
                      County Dublin VEC Screening Tool


    KEY SKILLS ASSESSMENT (ENGLISH) FOR LEVEL 4 PROGRAMMES

STUDENT NAME _______________________ COURSE ____________________

                      DATE _______________________________

STAFF USE ONLY

    Tick areas where support is needed √ and provide examples where relevant:

PUNCTUATION:

SPELLING:

VOCABULARY

GRAMMAR
            (eg, word order, articles, subject-verb agreement, verb form/tense)

SENTENCE STRUCTURE:

PARAGRAPHING

SEQUENCING

HANDWRITING:



ADDITIONAL COMMENTS: __________________________________________

________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________




                                               12
RECOMMENDATIONS




Please tick √


      Applicant can meet the Key Skills demands of the course       □
      Applicant needs learning support in the following area/s:

Reading   □ Writing □ Using images □ Speaking/Listening □
                                County Dublin VEC Screening Tool

ICT   □      Study Skills   □
           KEY SKILLS ASSESSMENT (ENGLISH) FOR LEVEL 4 PROGRAMMES

      Applicant may need further guidance or re-direction           □
            (Please check for comments above)


Signed (staff) ___________________________________           Date ___________




                                              13
                      County Dublin VEC Screening Tool


    KEY SKILLS ASSESSMENT (ENGLISH) FOR PROGRAMMES AT LEVEL 5 & 6

STUDENT NAME _____________________________            COURSE____________

                    DATE _______________________________

Take 15 minutes to write about half a page on the topic. Try to write a few lines
                                on each point.

      The National Lottery:

      1   Outline arguments for and against having a National Lottery.
      2   Compare this method of raising revenue for charitable purposes with
          alternatives methods e.g., tax relief for corporations that make donations
          to charity.

      _________________________________________________________________________
      _________________________________________________________________________
      _________________________________________________________________________
      _________________________________________________________________________
      _________________________________________________________________________
      _________________________________________________________________________
      _________________________________________________________________________
      _________________________________________________________________________
      _________________________________________________________________________
      _________________________________________________________________________
      _________________________________________________________________________
      _________________________________________________________________________
      _________________________________________________________________________
      _________________________________________________________________________
                  __________________________________________________

      Student _____________________________________________ (Signed)

      _______________________________________________________________



                                            14
                      County Dublin VEC Screening Tool


   KEY SKILLS ASSESSMENT (ENGLISH) FOR PROGRAMMES AT LEVELS 5 & 6

STUDENT NAME _______________________ COURSE ____________________

                      DATE _______________________________

STAFF USE ONLY

    Tick areas where support is needed √ and provide examples where relevant:

PUNCTUATION:

SPELLING:

VOCABULARY

GRAMMAR
            (eg, word order, articles, subject-verb agreement, verb form/tense)

SENTENCE STRUCTURE:

PARAGRAPHING

SEQUENCING

HANDWRITING:



ADDITIONAL COMMENTS: __________________________________________

________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________




                                               15
RECOMMENDATIONS




 Please tick √


       Applicant can meet the Key Skills demands of the course                    □
       Applicant needs learning support in the following area/s:

 Reading   □ Writing □ Using images □ Speaking/Listening □
                                      County Dublin VEC Screening Tool

 ICT   □       Study Skills   □
            KEY SKILLS ASSESSMENT (ENGLISH) FOR LEVEL 4 PROGRAMMES

    Applicant may need further guidance or COURSE _____________________
STUDENT NAME ______________________________re-direction                            □
              (Please check for comments above)

                           DATE _______________________________
 Signed (staff) ___________________________________                     Date ___________

   Take 15 minutes to write about half a page on the topic. Try to write a few lines on each point.




                                                      16
                   County Dublin VEC Screening Tool


    KEY SKILLS ASSESSMENT (ENGLISH) FOR PROGRAMMES AT LEVEL 3 & 6

STUDENT NAME _____________________________            COURSE____________

                    DATE _______________________________

Take 15 minutes to write about half a page on the topic. Try to write a few lines
                                on each point.

      The National Lottery:

      1   Explain what you would do if you won €1 Million on the National Lottery.
      2   Outline arguments for and against having a National Lottery.
      3   Compare this method of raising revenue for charitable purposes        with
          alternative methods eg. Tax relief for corporations that make donations to
          charity.

      _________________________________________________________________________
      _________________________________________________________________________
      _________________________________________________________________________
      _________________________________________________________________________
      _________________________________________________________________________
      _________________________________________________________________________
      _________________________________________________________________________
      _________________________________________________________________________
      _________________________________________________________________________
      _________________________________________________________________________
      _________________________________________________________________________
      _________________________________________________________________________
      _________________________________________________________________________
      _________________________________________________________________________
                   __________________________________________________

      Student _____________________________________________ (Signed)




                                            17
                      County Dublin VEC Screening Tool



   KEY SKILLS ASSESSMENT (ENGLISH) FOR PROGRAMMES AT LEVELS 3 - 6

STUDENT NAME _______________________ COURSE ____________________

                      DATE _______________________________

STAFF USE ONLY

    Tick areas where support is needed √ and provide examples where relevant:

PUNCTUATION:

SPELLING:

VOCABULARY

GRAMMAR
            (eg, word order, articles, subject-verb agreement, verb form/tense)

SENTENCE STRUCTURE:

PARAGRAPHING

SEQUENCING

HANDWRITING:



ADDITIONAL COMMENTS: __________________________________________

________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________



                                               18
RECOMMENDATIONS




 Please tick √


       Applicant can meet the Key Skills demands of the course                    □
       Applicant needs learning support in the following area/s:

 Reading   □ Writing □ Using images □ Speaking/Listening □
                                      County Dublin VEC Screening Tool

 ICT   □       Study Skills   □
            KEY SKILLS ASSESSMENT (ENGLISH) FOR LEVEL 4 PROGRAMMES

    Applicant may need further guidance or COURSE _____________________
STUDENT NAME ______________________________re-direction                            □
              (Please check for comments above)

                           DATE _______________________________
 Signed (staff) ___________________________________                     Date ___________

   Take 15 minutes to write about half a page on the topic. Try to write a few lines on each point.




                                                      19
                        County Dublin VEC Screening Tool




       SAMPLE OF COMPLETED MARKING SCHEME: LEVEL 3 PROGRAMME


   STUDENT NAME: J*** McD***   COURSE: Childcare L3      DATE: 28th January 2009.

   STAFF USE ONLY

   √ Tick areas where support is needed and provide examples where relevant:


   PUNCTUATION     □mostly run-on sentences – needs basic punctuation skills.
   SPELLING        □hostapa’ls (hospitals); doin (doing); chrildern (children); by
                      (buy); famly (family).


   VOCABULARY      □ student expressed herself clearly.
   GRAMMAR        □ there selfs (themselves).
   SENTENCE STRUCTURE      □ clear, informal, conversational style.
   PARAGRAPHING     □ wrote in continuous sentences; needs basic skills here.
   HANDWRITING     □ clear print, but might like to work on cursive handwriting.

MM COMMENTS:

    J achieved Honours in Foundation Level Junior Cert English 6 years ago.

                                                 20
RECOMMENDATIONS


Please tick √

       Applicant can meet the Key Skills demands of a course at
        Level ____ (specify)

       Applicant needs learning support:            □
Reading □ Writing □ Using images □ Speaking/Listening □                 ICT   □
Study Skills □


       Applicant may need further guidance or re-direction           □
                               (Please check for comments above)




Signed (staff)   ___________________________________               Date ____________




                               End of Appendix 2




                                                       21
                         APPENDIX_3
                                (6 PAGES)
            Extracts from Induction Activity Pack,
     Newbridge Youth Training & Development Centre

This Induction Activity Pack was developed as part of a research project
carried out by NALA in partnership with Newbridge Youth Training and
Development Centre in 2008. The research was funded by the EBS
through their sponsorship of the ACE awards.
The exercises and materials in the pack are examples of tasks that
integrate literacy assessment with the teaching and learning of core
induction topics. They are based on three booklets used in the centre‟s
induction programme.
   1. The Induction Booklet
   2. The Safety and Hygiene Booklet
   3. The Introduction to the Centre booklet.
The learner activities and the tutor observation tools give an early
indication of literacy strengths and needs, while at the same time
teaching core content of induction. The tasks were mapped to outcomes
specified in FETAC Communications Awards Levels 1 – 4 helping to give
an early indication of FETAC levels. These levels were chosen based on an
analysis of the programmes on offer in the centre. The process can apply
at any level. It involves a literacy analysis of the courses in the centre,
the mapping of the course-related literacy onto FETAC levels and the
development of integrated assessment materials based on that. A fuller
description of the process and content of the integrated assessment
activities can be found in Section 5 of the research report, Living Literacy.

The first extract below is What We Do. It is an example of an activity that
combines literacy assessment with the teaching and learning of a core
induction topic.

Note:    The numbers in the boxes refer to FETAC Communications level
        and outcomes. So, for example, 3.4.1 refers to FETAC Level 3,
        Outcome 4.1.




                                      1
  What We Do

  On your own read the following page of Induction Information.

  (a) The centre is here to provide training and education in personal and
      life skills in a pleasant environment.

  (b) The centre provides a modular-based programme and each learner
      will devise an individual learner plan.

  (c)      FETAC assessment and Certification procedures form part of the
          course.

  (d) The centre will encourage all learners to participate in all the subjects
      offered.

  (e) The centre will work through other agencies who may be involved with
       learners.

  (f)     Every effort will be made to assist learners‟ progress from the centre.

  (g) The centre encourages the involvement of parents and guardians in
       the life of the centre.

  Your tutor will now read through this with you and give you more
  information about each point. 5 mins

  Reading

  3.4.1 Reading strategy: Use a range of suitable reading techniques

  3.4.2 Act: Respond appropriately to everyday written and visual
  material



  Now, in pairs, read through the page again and fill in the blanks.

(a) The centre is here to provide ____________________ and education in
   personal and life skills in a pleasant __________________________.

(b) The      centre   provides   a   modular-based      programme      and   each
   _____________________ will devise an _______________________.
                                          2
(c)        __________________ assessment and Certification procedures form
part of the course.

(d) The centre will encourage all learners to participate in all the
      ___________________________ offered.

(e) The centre will work through other ______________________ who may be
      involved with learners.

(f) Every effort will be made to assist learners’ _____________________ from
      the centre.

(g) The centre encourages the ___________________________ of parents and
      guardians in the life of the centre. 10 mins

  Reading                                   Writing

  3.4.1 Reading Strategy: Use a range       1.5.2 Copy: Transcribe simple
  of suitable reading techniques            information in specific order




  3.4.2 Act: Respond appropriately to
  everyday written and visual material




  3.4.3 Document Lay-out: Locate
  information in a range of reference
  sources




  **********************************************************
                                            3
The second extract from the Induction Activity Pack invlvolves Self
Assessment. It is an example of a tool to help learners reflect on the
tasks they have just carried out, in order to identify literacy strengths and
goals.

Self- Assessment

Take a few minutes to think about how you got on during your first few
days, and how much of the Induction material you now understand.

Don‟t worry if you are still not sure – there is a lot to take in and your
tutors are there to help you with any gaps. If you have noticed any area
yourself where you would like extra support, just let your Key Worker
know. We are all here to help you to do your best while you are with us.

                               Topic                                   A/GT/NY

A, Arrived means that you are confident you know and understand
          this.

GT, Getting There means you are not completely confident yet, but
           you can work on it.

NY, Not Yet means you are not very sure about this and would like to
          go over it again.

1. What we do in the centre.

2. Centre rules and regulations (attendance, sick leave).

3. Centre policies and procedures (safety, fire, substance
abuse).
4. Our timetable.

5. Our allowances.

6. Being in the bank.

7. Understanding maps (centre) and diagrams (ATM).



                                            4
8. Finding, recognising words.

9. Understanding new words and their meaning.

10. Looking up words and their meaning.

11. Getting information from short sentences.

12. Getting information from paragraphs.

13. Writing answers of one or two words.

14. Getting my answers across in writing.

15. Giving my opinion, justifying my answers.

16. Doing calculations (time, money)

17. Working on my own.

18. Working with other people.



The final extract from the Induction Activity Pack involves an
Observation Checklist. The tutor uses this to record the literacy skills,
levels, fluency and range demonstrated by learners during the integrated
induction activities.

Note:    The numbers in the boxes above           refer to FETAC
Communications level and outcomes. So, for example, 3.4.1 refers to
FETAC Level 3, Outcome 4.1.




                                       5
Observation Checklist Activity Review Sheet No: _________
This sheet records how you managed the reading and writing demands of the Activity.
NY = Not Yet – you found this part of the activity difficult and you need to work at it.
GT = Getting There – you managed this with some success, but found it difficult in parts. You need to improve this skill, but you are well on the way.
A = Arrived – Congratulations! You did this successfully. Keep practising!

WHAT Reading Demands                      Writing Demands
FETAC
                                         Read         Read          Understand     Use Best      Find            Use         Write       Write to        Write       Correct     Write
                                         Key          Signs +       Document       Reading       Information     Reading     for         give info       something   Writing     Accurately
                                         Words        Symbols       Lay-out        Strategies                    Rules       Daily                       creative
                                                                                                                             Tasks
LEVEL 3                                  3.4.2        3.2.1         3.4.3          3.4.1         3.4.3                       3.5.1       3.5.2 letter    3.5.4       3.5.5       .5.5
                                                      3.2.2                        Skim,         Index,                      More        3.5.3           Article,    3.5.6       Punctuation
                                         Act          Act           Act            scan,         timetable                   daily       Instructions    story,      Draft,      Sentences
                                                                                   predict       Contents                    tasks       4 steps         poem        proof,      Continuous
                                                                                                 (Reference)                                             100 words   edit3       prose
LEVEL 2                                  2.4.1        2.4.3         2.4.3          2.4.5         2.4.4 Forms     2.4.2       2.5.1       2.5.2           2.5.3       2.5.4       2.5.4
                                         Interpret    Interpret     Interpret      Context       Bills           Use         Daily       5 sentences     Range       Draft,      Spelling,
                                                                                   Prediction    Diaries         (punct,     tasks       2.5.3           of          proof,      punctuation
                                                                                   Decoding      (Factual)       abbrev)                 Instructions    purposes    edit
                                                                                                                                         3 steps
LEVEL 1                                  1.4.1        1.4.2         1.4.6          1.4.5         1.4.4 Lists     1.4.3       1.5.1       1.5.2 Copy      1.5.3       1.5.4       1.5.4
                                         Recognise    Recognise     Identify       Sight         Sentences       Aware       Personal    1.5.3 Lists,    Range of    Draft,      Capitals,
                                                                                   vocab,        (Personal)      l/r etc                 texts, cards    audiences   proof,      sentences
                                                                                   Sounds                                                                            edit

HOW                                       Process
Independence:                            How much help did you need with these reading and writing skills?
Fluency:                                 How easily did you do them? With or without hesitating? Slowly or quickly? Did you have to think hard or did you just do it?
Range:                                   Where did you carry out these reading and writing skills? Only in your class? Somewhere else in the centre? Out of the centre on a visit or trip? On
                                         work experience?
Adaptability:                            Have you managed to do roughly the same reading and writing tasks in a slightly different way? Eg a similar but not identical form?

Monthly Review, Week (1,4,8,12)_______ Learner’s Signature________________________ Date:___________

Tutor’s Signature:_________________ Example
                                                                                                                           End of Appendix 3

                                                              6
                           APPENDIX 4
                               (10 PAGES)
    Extracts from A Tutor’s Guide: Initial Assessment,
            published by Workbase (New Zealand)
The following pages are reproduced from pages 11, 12,13, 17 and 18 of A
Tutor’s Guide: Initial Assessment (Workbase, New Zealand, 2003). The
document uses a case study of a horticultural course, „Garden Grow‟, to
illustrate
          the process of doing a literacy analysis of a course;
         sample assessment tasks and materials based on a course
          analysis.

     NOTE

     A copy of the full guidelines may be accessed at the following web
     address. http://www.workbase.org.nz/Resource.aspx?ID=209

Identifying course literacy demands
         You need to decide what skills you want to assess, remembering
          that your focus for initial assessment is the literacy skills a
          learner will need during your course.

         To do this, some analysis of the literacy demands of your course
          is required.

         This involves asking yourself a number of questions:

         What skills are of most benefit to learners if they have them
          from the outset of my course?

         What skills are best developed early?

         What problems have developed previously at an early stage of
          my course because of low skill levels e.g.low comprehension
          skills or technical vocabulary mean learners can‟t access written
          texts?

         What skills serve as a good base for further development e.g.
          basic maths needed for the development of skills in metric
          measurement?

         What are the critical health and safety issues relevant to my
          course?
                                     1
   What are the reading, writing and maths tasks that all learners
    need to do?

   What are the essential texts learners have to read and write?

   What prior knowledge of the topic is needed to assist basic
    comprehension?

   It is important to remember that this is an initial assessment
    process. Do not try to do too much. There will be opportunities
    for more diagnostic assessment later e.g. when you interview
    learners to develop their ILPs.

   The next page contains a range of questions to help you to
    consider your course and the literacy demands embedded in it.
    (……)Make notes of any topics or activities that are directly
    applicable to your course. Page 13 is an example of the literacy
    demands of the course in the case study „(Garden Grow‟ - a
    horticultural course).




                               2
   Purpose:              To identify the literacy demands of a course.

Reading                                                       Writing

What do I need to know about my learners’ reading
                                                              What do I need to know about my learners’ writing skills
skills so I can plan/modify my course content or
delivery?                                                     so I can plan/modify my course content or delivery?

What sorts of texts do my learners have to read –             What sorts of writing do my learners have to do – notes,
instructional, procedural, narrative, knowledge,              letters, instructions, procedures, recounts, reports, form-
recounts, etc?
                                                              filling, assessment answers?

What kind of reading activities do my learners need to        What aspects of the writing process do my learners
do e.g. identify fact or opinion, identify key information    need
and summarise?                                                to be competent at and confident about?


                                                              How much do I need to know about their level of writing
How much do I need to know about their level of               skills (punctuation, sentence structure etc.) at this
reading skills (skimming, scanning, comprehension             stage?
etc.) at this stage?

                                                              Which writing unit standards do I assess as part of my
                                                              course?
Which reading unit standards do I assess as part of my
course?

Speaking and listening                                        Numeracy

What do I need to know about my learners’ speaking
                                                              What do I need to know about my learners’ numeracy
and
listening skills so I can plan/modify my course content       skills so I can plan/modify my course content or
or                                                            delivery?
delivery?
                                                              What sorts of numeracy do my learners have to do
What sorts of speaking/listening skills do my learners        – addition, subtraction, ratios, percentages?
have to use (asking questions, giving instructions,
giving
explanations etc.)?                                           How much do I need to know about their level of
                                                              numeracy skills (place value, addition, subtraction etc.)
                                                              at
How much do I need to know about their level of               this stage?
speaking/listening skills (articulation, vocabulary,
register
etc.) at this stage?                                          Which maths unit standards do I assess as part of my
                                                              course?
Which speaking and listening unit standards do I
assess
as part of my course?


                                                          3
    ‘Garden Grow’ case study course analysis

Reading                                                   Writing
•    Using   reading   strategies   (e.g.   predicting,   •   Using writing strategies (e.g. developing
     skimming, scanning and monitoring                        technical vocabulary, word attack skills,
     comprehension in relation to a range of                  syllabification, memorising) in relation to
     texts) • Course handbook – rules and                     a range of texts • Enrolment form • ILP •
     regulations • ILP • Course workbooks •                   Assessment answers • Work records •
     Technical vocabulary including botanical                 Work experience diary • Workplace
     names • Reading gauges – sprayers,                       notes, telephone messages
     machinery • Instructional material e.g.
     sprays, fertilisers, seeds • Written
     instructions • Signage – safety and
     workplace




Speaking and listening                                    Numeracy
•    Speaking and listening strategies in relation        •   Number, measurement and data-
•    to a range of contexts • Telephoning if              •   handling strategies in a range of contexts
•    cannot attend course • Asking questions •            •   • Estimation • Accurate calculations •
     Answering questions • Listening skills –                 Ratios (mixing fertiliser, chemicals) •
     paraphrasing, clarifying • Participating in              Tallying (plants) • Measuring distance,
     group discussions • Talking about self                   capacity, volume Using a calculator
     Interpersonal communications essential to                Using measurement tools
     build relationships while on course and
     work experience Correct pronunciation of
     technical vocabulary (including botanical
     names)




The next two pages are samples of a course analysis sheet – a
blank sample template and an example of a completed version
based on a horticultural course case study. Again, these are
reproduced from the Workbase (New Zealand) document: A
Tutor’s Guide: Initial Assessment.




                                                     4
Sample assessment tasks and materials based on a course

                            5
analysis.



The following four pages are examples of literacy assessment materials
integrated with course content. They are reproduced from A Tutor’s
Guide: Initial Assessment (Workbase, New Zealand, 2003; pages 35,
36, 39, 40).




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End of Appendix 4
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                                           APPENDIX 5
                                                (1 PAGE)

Guidelines for interviewers
The following is based on guidelines produced by the Scottish Community
Education Council. Please refer to those for further suggestions, including
notes on listening skills and on the use of open and closed questions.
Before starting the interview, here are some things to consider:

    1. Where will the interview take place?
       Is it warm comfortable informal?
       Will there be tea/coffee available?
       Will someone welcome the learner and direct him/her to you?
       Will it be free from interruptions?

    2. How do you come across as an interviewer?
       Do you have a warm and welcoming manner?
       Are you a good listener?
       Have you prepared for the interview?
       Will you be taking notes, filling in a form or remembering what you
       hear to write at a later stage?

    3. What do you expect from the interview?
       Is there essential information you need to get from the
       i
        interview?
       Is there essential information you need to give to the learner?
       How will you begin the interview?
       How will you end the interview?

    4. What action will be required after the interview by you?/by the
       learner?


                              End of Appendix 5
i
 Williams, D., Assessing Progress: Guidelines and {Practical Examples of How to Assess Progrss in Adult Basic
education, Scottish Community Education Council.




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