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									Author Guide to Writing and Editing
Technical Reports for AFRL at
Wright Research Site
   Prepared by Det 1 AFRL/WSC (STINFO)
   Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH


   AUGUST 2007



       Approved for public release; distribution unlimited.
              Cleared by AFRL/PA, 5-11-07, WS 07-1164
                                                     Table of Contents
Section                                                                                                                            Page
List of Figures .................................................................................................................... iv
List of Tables ...................................................................................................................... iv
Preface ................................................................................................................................ v
1.      Required Elements of a Technical Report........................................................... 1
 1.1 Front Matter ............................................................................................................. 2
      1.1.1 Cover Page ......................................................................................................... 2
      1.1.2 Notice and Signature Page ................................................................................. 4
      1.1.3 Report Documentation (SF 298) Page ............................................................... 6
      1.1.4 Table of Contents Pages .................................................................................... 7
      1.1.5 Abstracts, Forewords, Prefaces, and Acknowledgements ................................. 9
 1.2 Body Matter Text ..................................................................................................... 9
      1.2.1 Summary (or Executive Summary) ................................................................... 9
      1.2.2 Introduction........................................................................................................ 9
      1.2.3 Methods, Assumptions, and Procedures ............................................................ 9
      1.2.4 Results and Discussions ..................................................................................... 9
      1.2.5 Conclusions........................................................................................................ 10
      1.2.6 Recommendations.............................................................................................. 10
      1.2.7 References.......................................................................................................... 10
 1.3 Back Matter ............................................................................................................. 11
      1.3.1 Appendices ........................................................................................................ 11
      1.3.2 Bibliography ...................................................................................................... 12
      1.3.3 Lists of Acronyms, Abbreviations, and Symbols .............................................. 12
      1.3.4 Glossary of Terminology ................................................................................... 12
      1.3.5 Distribution List ................................................................................................. 12
2.      Grammar and Mechanical Conventions ............................................................. 13
 2.1 Paper, Margin, Line Spacing, and Typeface Characteristics ................................... 14
 2.2 Publication Formats—Reports in Volumes ............................................................. 14
 2.3 Figure/Table/Page Numbering Conventions ........................................................... 14
 2.4 Pagination ................................................................................................................ 14
 2.5 Heading Conventions............................................................................................... 15
 2.6 Sentence/Paragraph Phrasing................................................................................... 15
 2.7 Word Form and Meaning......................................................................................... 15
 2.8 Spelling and Grammar ............................................................................................. 15
 2.9 Mathematical Work ................................................................................................. 16
 2.10 Figure Format .......................................................................................................... 16
      2.10.1Line Drawings and Illustrations ....................................................................... 16
      2.10.2Photographs ...................................................................................................... 17
 2.11 Table Format ............................................................................................................ 17
 2.12 Footnotes.................................................................................................................. 17
 2.13 Data Rights Portion Marking .................................................................................. 18




                                                                    iii
                                                 List of Figures
Figure                                                                                                                Page

 1.      Sample Cover Page ............................................................................................ 3
 2a.     Sample Notice and Signature Page for Unlimited Reports ............................... 4
 2b.     Sample Notice and Signature Page for SBIR Reports ....................................... 5
 3.      Sample SF 298 ................................................................................................... 7
 4.      Sample TOC Page.............................................................................................. 9
 5.      Sample Equation Layout.................................................................................. 16
 6.      Vertical Bar Portion-Marked Paragraph .......................................................... 18

                                                  List of Tables
Table                                                                                                                Page

 1.      Report Section/Element Descriptions ................................................................ 1
 2.      Cover/Title Page Elements ................................................................................ 2
 3.      Report Documentation Page (SF 298) Components .......................................... 6
 4.      Table of Contents, List of Figures, and List of Tables ...................................... 8
 5.      Common Grammatical, Mechanical, and Format Conventions ...................... 13




                                                           iv
Preface
   This guide was prepared by the Wright Site Scientific and Technical Information
   (STINFO) Office for authors of technical reports, including in-house AFRL scientists
   and engineers, and contractors to the AFRL Wright Research Site. It explains the
   requirements for preparing scientific and technical reports for STINFO. Technical
   memos and papers are of secondary concern in these instructions.
   Document format, organization, textual consistency, and grammar and mechanical
   issues are described. Compliant documents ease final preparation and production
   processes and result in a quality product. Required elements for each document are
   also described in Tables 1 through 5. Editorial guidelines are also provided. Note that
   how this guide is formatted does not reflect how technical reports are to be formatted.
   This guide does not address markings, notices, or other limitations. Contractors
   should consult with their AFRL project manager about key requirements of your
   contracts, such as
      how to conform or limit material in the report to the contracted export control
       nature or distribution of the final document
      how to correctly mark classified and limited data rights (proprietary) material
      how to protect the work while it is in your company
      destruction methods.
   Many of the rules presented here are general. Authors should review the following
   resources, from which some material in this guide is derived, before writing reports:
      United States Government Printing Office Style Manual (2000),
       http://www.gpoaccess.gov/stylemanual/index.html
      ANSI/NISO Z39.18-2005 Scientific and Technical Reports—Preparation,
       Presentation, and Preservation (ISSN: 1-880124-66-1) (http://www.niso.org/)
      The Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement (DFARS) Subpart
       227.71 ―RIGHTS IN TECHNICAL DATA‖ (Revised June 21, 2005),
       http://www.acq.osd.mil/dpap/dars/dfars/html/current/227_71.htm
      For classified reports, see DoD 5200.1-R and Guidelines for CAPCO Markings:
       http://www.dtic.mil/whs/directives/corres/pdf/520001r.pdf
       http://www.fas.org/sgp/othergov/dod/af053006.pdf. Mark all report elements in
       classified reports according to rules in these resources.
   Data and format requirements in these resources differ from those required by AFRL.
   If in doubt, conform to the instructions in this guide. Key concerns to address when
   submitting your reports include the following:
      Supply a single MS Word/MS Word-compatible file on a CD and one paper copy.
      Ensure that the MS Word or Acrobat .pdf file is not password protected.
      If only an Acrobat .pdf file is available, the STINFO editor corrections will be
       limited. (Adobe Acrobat files are acceptable for postprint technical papers.)
      Remove all running page header material: no company logos or addresses or
       report numbers, no limitation text, no report date, no contract number, no
       final/draft indication, and no author names.
      Ensure that all elements described in Table 1 are included and complete.


                                           v
1. Required Elements of a Technical Report
                             Three major sections–front, body, and back–comprise technical reports, with
                             subsections within the major sections. Table 1 outlines these. Each major section,
                             whether required or optional, starts on a new page of the report.
                                                       Table 1. Report Section/Element Descriptions
                                        Elements                                                          Explanation
                                        Cover/Title Page                Unnumbered, provides info for description and bibliographic
                                                                        control (see Table 2 for a list of required data and Figure 1 sample).
                                        Notice and Signature Page       Shows restrictions or limitations on distribution (unnumbered;
                                                                        responsibility of USAF; optional for technical papers; see Figures
                                                                        2a and 2b).
           Front Matter Section (1.1)




                                        Report Documentation Page       Contains document title, author name(s), filing/funding numbers,
                                        (SF 298)–includes Abstract      subject terms, abstract, and report classification. The abstract
                                        (always numbered i)             briefly describes purpose, scope, and findings. All symbols,
                                                                        abbreviations, or acronyms should be spelled out.
                                        Abstract                        Briefly informs of purpose, scope, and findings (optional since
                                                                        provided on SF 298; this is page ii).
                                        Table of Contents               Outlines the sections in the document and cross references titled
                                        (first page always iii)         sections with pages.
                                        List(s) of Figures and Tables   Required for five or more figures or tables or any combination
                                                                        thereof (sequential Roman pagination continues).
                                        Foreword                        Optional: Provides background or context for the report
                                                                        (sequential Roman pagination continues).
                                        Preface                         Optional: Announces purpose and scope; acknowledges contri-
                                                                        butions of nonauthors (sequential Roman pagination continues).
                                        Acknowledgments                 Optional: Used if acknowledgments are too lengthy to present in
                                                                        the Preface (sequential Roman pagination continues).

                                        Summary                         Summarizes the problem, results, conclusions, and recommend-
                                                                        ations (page numbered 1).
 Body Matter Section (1.2)




                                        Introduction                    States subject, purpose, scope and plan for developing the
                                                                        document.
                                        Methods, Assumptions and        Describes research methodology.
                                        Procedures
                                        Results and Discussion          Presents findings and discusses their significance.
                                        Conclusions                     Presents substantiated findings, discusses their implications, and
                                                                        presents author’s opinion.
                                        Recommendations                 Suggests a course of action.
                                        References                      Cites sources of information used (optional if no refs were cited).

                                        Appendices                      Optional: Contains supplemental info not essential to the text.
 Back Matter Section (1.3)




                                        Bibliography (Pubs)             Optional: Lists addl. sources of information not cited in the text.
                                        List of Symbols, Abbre-         Contains explanations of symbols, abbreviations, and acronyms;
                                        viations, and Acronyms          required if more than five not readily recognized as standard.
                                        Glossary                        Optional: Contains definitions of unfamiliar terms.
                                        Index                           Optional: Lists major topics alphabetically.
                                        Distribution List               Required element for classified reports only, the distribution list
                                                                        provides a permanent record of initial distribution of the report.



                                                                                      1
1.1 Front Matter
 1.1.1 Cover Page
   Table 2 describes the elements of the cover/title page.

                        Table 2. Cover/Title Page Elements

    Component                                  Explanation
    Document            Supplied by STINFO.
    number
    Title               Accurate and specific to describe the contents of the report.
    Subtitle            If required, such as for a Delivery Order or volume series.
    Author Names        Full names, including middle initials of all authors, editors,
                        etc. who collaborated to write the document.
    Contractor/         Full address of the site where the majority of the research took
    Author Address      place or where the authors were stationed.
    Report Date         Month and year of the report, typically the month of or after
                        the ending period of performance month.
    Report Type         Final or Interim for the period of performance.
    Period of           The day, month, and year that the research began on the part
    Performance         covered by the document, followed by the ending day, month,
                        and year.
    Distribution        Per the contract or as determined in house, the standard
    Statement           statement of distribution for the work.
    Warning             Standard export control warning (if applicable).
    Destruction         Standard destruction notice for documents that require
    Notice              destruction.
    Copyright Notice    (Optional) Asserted copyrights.
    Classification      For classified documents, derived from and declassification
    Notice              info.
    Sponsor             Address supplied by STINFO.
    Directorate




                                          2
Shield on
the left
                                          Document
                                          number



Title
Subtitle

Author
names                                     Prime
                                          contractor
                                          co. name

Type of                                   Report date
report

                                          Distribution
                                          Statement

                                          Warning




                                          Destruction
                                          Notice
                                          Pointer text
                                          to other limits
Copyright
Notice




Sponsor
Direct-
orate




            Figure 1. Sample Cover Page




                          3
1.1.2 Notice and Signature Page [for in-house authors only]
  Notice and Signature Pages are provided by the work unit managers, who obtain
  government approval signatures to publish the document. The Notice and Signature
  Page, optional for technical papers, is then inserted after the Cover/Title page.
  Figures 2a and 2b show a sample unlimited, Distribution Statement A Notice and
  Signature Page and a SBIR data rights Notice and Signature Page.
  For a complete list of Notice pages, see this STINFO web site (currently publicly
  available) http://www.afrl.af.mil/wrslibrary/STINFO-GuideSection7.doc or this
  Livelink site (available only to CAC-enabled users):
  https://livelink.ebs.afrl.af.mil/livelink/llisapi.dll/open/8658207 .



                                                                         Page name

                                                                         Standard caveat
                                                                        Evidence of clearance and
                                                                        document availability


                                                                         Document availability

                                                                         Review verification



                                                                        Signatures would appear
                                                                        here for non-public
                                                                        release documents
                                                                         Name and office of
                                                                         signing approver




                                                                           Intent of use of material
                                                                           in the document and
                                                                           legal caveat


    Figure 2a. Sample Notice and Signature Page for Unlimited Reports




                                        4
                                                               Page name

                                                               Standard caveat



                                                               SBIR contract
                                                               number, contractor
                                                               information, and
                                                               location and
                                                               expiration of SBIR
                                                               data rights
                                                               Government usage
                                                               rights


                                                               Document
                                                               availability
                                                               Review verification


                                                               Signature of
                                                               government
                                                               approvers would
                                                               appear here.




                                                               Intent of use of
                                                               material in the
                                                               document and legal
                                                               caveat



Figure 2b. Sample Notice and Signature Page for SBIR Reports




                               5
1.1.3 Report Documentation (SF 298) Page
  Table 3 describes unique elements on the SF 298 that weren’t described in Table 2
  for elements in common on the Cover/Title page. Figure 3 shows a sample SF 298.

         Table 3. Report Documentation Page (SF 298) Components

   Component                                 Explanation
   Blocks 5a through      Likely to appear on your contract. If not, your AFRL
   5f, funding numbers    project manager/monitor or STINFO Office will provide.
   Performing             The ID number by which your document is referred
   organization report    within your organization.
   number
   Sponsoring/monitori    The first 8 or 9 digits and hyphens of the AFRL
   ng                     document number.
   Supplementary notes    Copyright notice, special grant numbers, refs to related
                          docs, etc.
   Abstract               Confine to 200 words. Use the back of the SF 298 only if
                          necessary.
   Security               For both classified and unclassified documents,
   classification of      classification of the report, the abstract on the SF 298,
                          and the SF 298 as a whole.
   Limitation of          Same as report, or SAR.
   abstract
   Number of pages        Estimate this number. STINFO will correct for final
                          document.
   Name of responsible    Your AFRL work unit manager’s/monitor’s name and
   person/telephone       phone number (omit phone number on Distribution
   No.                    Statement A documents).
   SF 298 page number     Always i (reverse side is assumed to be ii).
   Reverse side           Often, instructions for completing the form, but might be
                          blank.




                                       6
               1.1.4 T

Report type
                                                   Period of
Report date                                        Performance
Report title
and subtitle
                                                   Contract and
                                                   funding info

Author
names

                                                   Performing
                                                   Organization’s
Author                                             report number
addresses                                          Sponsoring/
                                                   Monitoring
                                                   abbreviation
Sponsoring                                         and number
name and
address

Distribution
                                                   Supplementary
statement
                                                   notes



Abstract
                         Figure 3. Sample SF 298


                                                   Work unit mgr.
                                                   name and
Subject terms
                                                   phone

                                                   Limitations and
                                                   Page count




SF 298 page
number




                                 7
1.1.5 Table of Contents Pages
  Include a table of contents for documents over 20 pages, numbering the first page
  iii. Cross referencing the first three section heading levels with page numbers is
  required. The List of Figures and List of Tables follows the table of contents,
  sequentially Roman numbered (see Table 4 for details). Single space entries and
  align page numbers flush right.

        Table 4. Table of Contents, List of Figures, and List of Tables

   Component                                          Explanation
   Page margins               Consistent, and at least 1 inch on all sides.
   Section title              Centered, consistent serif font and type size for
                              sections, bold.
   Column Headings            For TOC, Section on the left side, Page on the right;
                              LOF, Figure on the left, Page on the right; LOT, Table
                              on the left, Page on the right.
   Body text Section/         The number of each body sectional heading, figure, or
   Figure/Table Numbers       table.
                              NOTE: Since the column heading is Section, Figure,
                              or Table, omit these words in this column. Only
                              headings are numbered sectionally; Figures and Tables
                              are numbered sequentially.
   Numbered                   Listed exactly as they appear in the body text, though
   headings/titles            the typeface used for all headings should be consistent
                              in the contents pages.
                              NOTE: Use title case, avoid active verb forms, omit
                              extra notes.
   Leader dots                Use these to direct the reader’s eye to the Page
                              column.
   Page cross reference       Preferably, hyperlink the page number cross reference
                              to the location in the body associated with the
                              numbered headings/titles.
   Subsequent pages           For each contents type of page, repeat the page title,
                              followed by either (continued) or (concluded), & both
                              column headings.




                                        8
    Figure 4 shows a sample Table of Contents page.

                                                                       Section name


                                                                        Column headings
                                                                         Page numbers




                                                   Section titles
                   Sectional title numbers
                                         iii                            Always this page’s number

                            Figure 4. Sample TOC Page

 1.1.6 Abstracts, Forewords, Prefaces, and Acknowledgements
    See Table 1 for brief descriptions of these sequentially Roman-numbered
    components.

1.2 Body Matter Text
    The body text section consists of a combination of elements, and the first page is
    numbered 1. Each major section starts on a new page in the document.

 1.2.1 Summary (or Executive Summary)
    Section and page numbered 1, the summary explains why the work was initiated, or
    outlines principal conclusions and recommendations. It clearly states the problem,
    the key points of the report, major results, conclusions, and recommendations.

 1.2.2 Introduction
    An introduction is required to acquaint the reader with the work being described and
    to show the relationship between the present task and previous or current work. It
    also indicates the value of the results achieved.

 1.2.3 Methods, Assumptions, and Procedures
    This required element includes information concerning materials, equipment, and
    techniques used, system of measurement used, and circumstances (environment,
    etc.) involved in the work. This information allows individuals qualified in the field
    to reproduce the work in an attempt to achieve (replicate) similar results.

 1.2.4 Results and Discussions
    This element can be separated into Results and Discussion of Results. Address the
    degree of accuracy and the significance of the research results, impacts on other
    disciplines, and provide information that substantiates conclusions.




                                           9
1.2.5 Conclusions
   Reiterate key findings and include interpretations of findings and their implications
   (positive, negative, or neutral) in the mandatory conclusions element.

1.2.6 Recommendations
   If recommendations are the logical outgrowth of the work, state them in a recom-
   mendations element so that they will have maximum visibility. Recommendations
   could include additional areas for study, alternative approaches, or specific design
   problems. It should be the last element in the major body text section.

1.2.7 References
   Begin the references element on a new page that is also the last page of the report
   preceding the document’s back matter. In the numbered order that they were
   referenced in the body text, list full references to all outside sources of information
   used in the preparation of the work. Example:
         1. Chidambaram, N., Dash, S., and Kenzakowski, D., ―Scalar Variance
            Transport in the Turbulence Modeling of Propulsive Jets,‖ Journal of
            Propulsion and Power, Vol. 17, No. 1, pp. 79-84, 2001.
  CAUTION: Do not reference classified documents in unclassified reports that
  are approved for public release (AFI 61-202, para. 5.2, July 1994).

  1.2.7.1 General Guides to Building and Formatting a Reference Section
  1. Ensure that all items in the reference section are directly referenced and cited in
     the body text, and that any reference item not specifically referenced in the text
     appears in a bibliography section (unnumbered and alphabetically ordered).
  2. Ensure that each item is correctly cited in the body text.
  3. Ensure that publication titles are spelled out and italicized if journal names.
  4. Enclose all article and chapter titles within quotes (also titles of editorials, essays,
     papers, reports, and studies); place comma separator inside ending quote mark.
  5. Include full publisher information and dates of publication in consistent formats.
  6. Use title case capitalization conventions in publication titles, in conformance
     with rules in the United States Government Printing Office Style Manual (2000).
  1.2.7.2 Citing Internet/World Wide Web
  Citation styles for Internet publications are still evolving. Like most references,
  references to Web documents should contain the name of an author, a title, and a
  date of publication. The nature of the document should be given in brackets
  immediately following the title, i.e., [Database], [Electronic data file], [FTP
  archive], [WWW document], etc. For more information on creating a reference list,
  see the ANSI/NISO Z39.18-2005.




                                          10
1.3 Back Matter
    The back matter section consists of a combination of elements.

 1.3.1     Appendices
    In appendices, include related and addendum material that is not essential to
    understanding body text material. Material in appendices provides detailed
    descriptions or explanations of points in the text, extensive test data, and complex
    and detailed justification of a report assumption. Exclude information that logically
    belongs in the text.

    1.3.1.1 Appendix Format
    Type the appendix name and title centered at the top of the first page of the
    appendix, as the following example shows:
                                         Appendix A
                                      Title of Appendix
    If there is only one appendix, identify it as the Appendix, not as Appendix A. If the
    appendix contains front matter (e.g., Table of Contents), the sections can begin on
    the appendix title page or the next page.
    For section and subsection headings within the appendix, write the appendix
    identification letter, the number of the section, a period, and then the heading of the
    section/subsection, for instance, A1.2 Title. Use the same heading formats for the
    section level as used in the body text.
    Number figures, tables, equations, and references in the appendices with the letter of
    the appendix, followed by a hyphen and a sequential number, starting at 1, e.g.,
    Figure A-1. An Appendix Figure; Table A-1. An Appendix Table; and for
    reference citations, [A-1].
    If there is only one appendix, titled Appendix, all tables and figures in that appendix
    are prefixed with A-, the ―A‖ representing the word, Appendix. EXCEPTION: If an
    appendix contains an appendix, prefix the subappendix title with the letter of the
    parent appendix, and continue alphabetic sequencing through however many
    appendices are included in the parent appendix, e.g., AA-1, AB-1, etc.
    Each appendix should be referred to in the body text. Any references cited in an
    appendix must be listed as the last page of the appendix. Appendix page numbering
    is a sequential continuation of the Arabic text page numbering.

    1.3.1.2 Security Considerations in Appendices
    In classified documents, text in the appendix page header and footer of the first page
    must indicate the highest classification that applies to any paragraph in that
    appendix.
    If all material in an appendix within a classified document is unclassified, write
    ―This section is unclassified in its entirety.‖ on the first page of the appendix, and
    include ―UNCLASSIFIED‖ in the headers and footers of each page. Portion
    markings are unnecessary when using this method.



                                           11
1.3.2 Bibliography
   In the bibliography, include entries that describe additional supplemental material
   that was not specifically referenced in the body of the document. List bibliographic
   entries on a new page after the appendices, and include information and format
   similar to that included in the Reference section entries. Arrange the entries
   alphabetically by author, and do not number them.

1.3.3 Lists of Acronyms, Abbreviations, and Symbols
   For more than 10 unfamiliar symbols, abbreviations, and acronyms combined, list
   full descriptions/definitions alphabetically by abbreviation on a new page following
   the bibliography page. NOTE: This section is not an appendix and is not given a
   section number.
  When first introduced in the body text, completely write out abbreviations and
  acronyms, followed by the abbreviation or acronym in parentheses, and
  subsequently use only the acronym/abbreviation in the body text.

1.3.4 Glossary of Terminology
   Define unusual terms, though these may or may not have been defined in the text.
   When many such terms are used, list them in alphabetical order with definitions.

1.3.5 Distribution List
   Provide the Distribution List page for classified documents (optional for
   unclassified documents). The distribution list provides the complete business
   mailing address of recipients of the report.




                                         12
2. Grammatical and Mechanical Conventions
   When proofreading, ensure compliance with the conventions in Table 5.
    Table 5. Common Grammatical, Mechanical, and Format Conventions
    Component                                                  Explanation
    Page margins                 Ensure consistent 1-inch (minimum) margins on all sides.
    Text justification           Left justify all body text globally. A ragged right margin results.
    Title case                   Capitalize initial letter of only proper nouns and titles, globally.
                                 Section, figure, and table titles are in title case, but use capitaliz-
                                 ation consistency in body text references to specific figures, tables,
                                 etc., e.g., figure 8, or Figure 8; section 8, or Section 8.
    Page numbers                 The Table of Contents begins on iii, Summary/Executive Summary
                                 starts on page 1.
    Quote marks                  Use quotes only for direct quotes and chapter/journal article titles.
    Line spacing                 Single space body text (double spacing between paragraphs).
    Acronym usage                Spell out acronyms on their first occurrence, and use the acronym
                                 thereafter, exclusively.
    Word form                    In general, join prefixes (multi-, pre-, anti-, non-, for example) with
                                 compounded words to form a single, unhyphenated word.
    Hyphenation                  Hyphenate compound unit modifiers globally, except those ending
                                 in -ly and comparative -er: fire-retardant binder is a two-word
                                 modifier that together modifies the quality of the object, binder, but
                                 fire retardant additive describes the type of additive.
                                 Use consistent hyphenation, and don’t hyphenate at ends of lines.
    Spacing with measures and    Globally ensure a space or hyphen between numbers and
    temperatures                 abbreviated units of measure: a 5-µm-thick panel; a panel that is 5
                                 µm thick. Globally ensure space between number and degree
                                 symbol for abbreviated °F and °C.
    Figure/table/equation        Sequentially number figures/tables/equations from 1, not sec-
    numbering and position       tionally, appendix elements excepted (see Section 1.3.1). Center
                                 figure/table, figure/table titles and equations on the page.
    Text alignment               Do not indent the first line of paragraphs. In lists, flush left align on
                                 the first level bullet/alpha/numeric symbol; use full indentation
                                 aligned against the start of text in the initial line of list text.
    Spelling out numbers or      For numbers under 10 that don’t appear in a series of 3 countable
    using digits                 objects, of which 1 object count is 10 or greater, spell out the
                                 number. EXCEPTION: Use numeric digits for units of measure
                                 (time, distance, size, volume, weight, etc.) on every instance.
    Punctuating equations        Use appropriate punctuation (comma/period) at terminal points in
                                 equations that are set off from the body text, globally.
    Comma usage                  In a series of three or more, include a comma after the next to last
                                 item. Ensure comma between two independent clauses and after
                                 introductory and dependent clauses.
    Classification markings      Ensure conformance with current government regulations.
    Running header/footer text   Do not write company names, trademarks, corporate seals, or logos
                                 on illustrations or include anywhere on pages, such as in running
                                 headers. Mention company names in the body text when absolutely
                                 necessary for clarity and understanding of the material or in a
                                 comparative study.




                                              13
2.1 Paper, Margin, Line Spacing, and Typeface Characteristics
    Maintain margins of at least 1 inch on all sides of text pages, and center the page
    number at least two lines below the last line of text copy. Do not use full text
    justification. The ANSI/NISO standard recommends that text be left justified,
    creating a ragged right margin.
    For body text, use at least 11- or 12-point type and use the same font throughout the
    body text, with the exception of text in figure callouts and tables. Although any
    standard serif typeface is acceptable for body text, avoid unusual type styles such as
    capitals, italic, and script.

2.2 Publication Formats—Reports in Volumes
    Select the most economical method available for final reproduction of the report,
    and divide it into volumes if it contains more than 350 physical sheets (the
    maximum that can be tape bound at the government printing shop). Break volumes
    at the end of a major section of text, or at some other logical point. With each
    volume, include an SF 298, Preface (stating which volume it is and how many
    volumes are included in the document), Table of Contents, and other appropriate
    front matter. Page numbering for subsequent volumes starts anew, independent of
    other volumes in the set.

2.3 Figure/Table/Page Numbering Conventions
    Skip one blank line below figures and add a figure title. For tables, the table title is
    above the table. Center each line of the figure/table title, which should have the
    following format: Figure 1. Title (no ending punctuation for any titles).
    Number figures/tables consecutively throughout the document (excepting
    figures/tables in appendices) using Arabic numerals. Do not use sectional
    numbering that reflects the numbered section in which the figure/table appears.
    Use initial capitals on major words in the figure/table title and use consistent
    typeface and font size across all figure/table titles.
    The figure/table title should not be a complete sentence and should not end with a
    period. Any other nontitle text that appears in the figure/table title should be
    removed and reformatted as figure/table callouts, notes, captions, or body text.
    For each continuation of a figure/table that spans several pages, write the full title
    under each segment of the continued figure (above for tables, repeating all column
    heads): ―Figure 1. Title (Continued).‖ On the last page of a spanned figure/table,
    write ―Figure 1. Title (Concluded).‖ Give subtitles, designated (a), (b), (c), etc., to
    each part or view in a figure.

2.4 Pagination
    Number pages consecutively across all sections, including appendices. Center the
    page number at the bottom of each page.




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2.5 Heading Conventions
    Divide text into logical major parts called sections and subsections. Designate each
    section/subsection with heading text that contains a sequential, sectional Arabic
    numeral that shows subordination of subsections, such as the following:
    1.      Methods and Materials (main heading) (or use san serif font for
            headings)
            Text that explains this level and introduces next heading level.
    1.1     Design of Equipment (subheading level 1)
            Text that explains this level and introduces next heading level.
    1.1.1   Components of Equipment (subheading level 2)
            Text that completes the topic idea or leads to next heading level.
    On the same line as the section/subsection numeral, write the heading in initial
    capitals, or title case, for major words, boldface the text, and align the numeral flush
    with the left margin. Consistently start the body text (or subheading text) after
    skipping one single-space line below the heading (about 6 points below). Start each
    major section division (main heading) on a new page.

2.6 Sentence/Paragraph Phrasing
    Make sentences and paragraphs effective, and avoid long or short choppy sentences
    and paragraphs. Strive for good lead sentences, and achieve readability and
    emphasis by varying the types of sentences used. Write in the active voice, which is
    more direct and eliminates unnecessary words. Observe the difference in the
    following samples:
            Active voice: ―The AFRL/ML conducts research on nonnuclear
            conventional weapons.‖
            Passive voice: ―Research of nonnuclear conventional weapons is conducted
            by AFRL/ML.‖

    Do not try to crowd a paragraph of information into one sentence; split long
    sentences into two or more sentences.

2.7 Word Form and Meaning
    Explain specialized words and expressions, and write out acronyms at their first
    occurrence in the text (unless the first occurrence is in a constricted space, such as a
    table or figure). Use official Air Force nomenclature for equipment. A shortened
    name may be used throughout the report, if it is explained in a footnote or in
    parentheses after its first use. Be consistent in the spelling, hyphenation, and format
    of words/acronyms.

2.8 Spelling and Grammar
    Use correct, acceptable spelling and standard American English word forms.
    Carelessness can affect technical accuracy. Example: ―adsorption‖ means something
    different than ―absorption.‖


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    Be sure that pronouns refer clearly to their antecedents. Misuse of references such as
    ―this‖ and ―it‖ can change or obscure technical meanings. Be sure that nouns and
    verbs agree in number.
    Watch verb tenses. Generally, the work that is being described in the report has
    already been accomplished. Therefore, the most logical tense is the past tense when
    reporting the activity. However, use the present tense when a condition, a parameter,
    a physical law, etc., is true, exists, or is in effect without regard to the information in
    the report. Use future tense if conditions of the work are expected to remain
    applicable in the future.
    Use adjectives instead of a series of nouns as adjectives. Reduce hyphenated nouns
    used as unit modifiers.

2.9 Mathematical Work
    If the formulas and equations fit on one line, present in sentence form and punctuate
    for clarity and consistency. Never start a sentence with a formula or an equation. If
    the formula or equation does not fit on one line, set it off from the text, making sure
    it is centered or indented, depending on its length; align a series of equations on the
    equality signs. Formulas and equations are always italicized whether included as
    part of the text or displayed. Place derivations of equations, methods of calculation,
    and other support mathematical work in an appendix.
    Consecutive equation numbers are enclosed in parentheses at the right-hand margin
    (as shown in Figure 5) with a minimum of one-quarter inch between the last term in
    the equation and the equation number.
                                            N          
                                       sin     cos   
                              A         2                                                 (1)
                                                     
                                        sin  cos   
                                             2        

                    Figure 5. Sample Equation Layout

    When referring to equations in the body text, use the word, Equation, followed by
    its number; for example, Equation 3.

2.10 Figure Format
    Figures can be line drawings/illustrations or photographs.

    2.10.1 Line Drawings and Illustrations
    Observe the following considerations when designing figures:
       Treat figures consistently throughout a report.
       Prepare figures so that details and callouts (labels) are clearly legible after final
        reduction; ensure that the text will be no smaller than 6 point for final
        reproduction.
       Add a border or a frame around all elements that belong to the figure.



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       Place illustrations as near as possible after the first text reference to the
        illustration.
       Crosshatching, reverses, dots, or similar techniques that can be effective
        substitutes for color.
       Whenever possible, avoid oversized illustrations that must be folded when pages
        are printed. Often a large illustration can be divided to appear on facing pages.
        When foldouts cannot be avoided, begin them on a right-side page and number
        as one page. The reverse will be blank. The next page used will be an odd-
        numbered page.
       Unless it is not possible to do so and maintain readability, place illustrations so
        that they may be reviewed without turning the page sideways. If this is not
        possible, place the illustrations sideways so that they can be seen by rotating the
        page clockwise.

    2.10.2 Photographs
    In addition to observing all guidelines for figures, consider the following when
    using photographs in figures:
       Submit digitized photographs positioned on the page where intended.
       When practical, crop or mask photographs electronically to eliminate
        insignificant detail.
       Exclude distracting or excess details from photographs.
       Exclude people from photographs except for size comparison or when needed to
        point out or emphasize a part of the subject.

2.11 Table Format
    Tables should have a simple format so that readers can easily grasp the meaning of
    the data. Locate tables as near as possible after their first text reference except in
    special situations. To maintain readability, attempt to place tables so that they may
    be viewed without turning the page sideways.
    Identify applicable units of measure or degrees in the table title, in the column
    headings, or in a note to save space in columns.
    Use a horizontal line to separate the column boxheads from the body of the table.

2.12 Footnotes
    Explanatory footnotes are included in a report only to clarify text information and
    should be as brief and clear as possible. To avoid preparing footnotes, incorporate
    material into the text by enclosing it in parentheses or by placing it in a separate
    paragraph.
    When used to clarify information, footnotes are keyed to the text of the report with
    superscript Arabic numbers. Footnotes are placed at the bottom of a page and
    separated from the text by a 12-space horizontal line. The footnote marking
    sequence starts over on each new page. If a footnote runs longer than its page
    margin, it is completed at the bottom of the subsequent page, preceding any
    footnotes from the next page.


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    Footnotes should be typed flush left at the foot of the page on which their reference
    numbers or symbols appear.
    Example:
    ____________
    1
      The United States Government Printing Office Style Manual (2000) provides
    additional information on footnoting.

    The referenced footnote number or symbol in the text is typed a half-space above
    the appropriate line of text without any type of restrictive mark or punctuation.
    Footnotes to tables should be typed directly below the table.

2.13 Data Rights Portion Marking
    Per DFARS 252.227-7013(f)(1) and DFARS 252.227-7018(f)(1), contractors are
    required to conspicuously and legibly mark the appropriate legend on all technical
    data that qualify for such markings. Such portions can be identified by circling,
    underscoring, with a note, or other appropriate identifier. Figure 6 shows a sample
    marked section of text on a page indicated by a vertical line, as described and
    identified on the Notice and Signature Page Location of data rights.

    Text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text
    text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text
    text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text


    Text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text
    text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text
    text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text

                   Figure 6. Vertical Bar Portion-Marked Paragraph

    The vertical bar is easily accomplished in MS Word by clicking the border line icon
    (     ), if displayed in the toolbar, next to the material to be marked. Set a default
    distance from the left margin of the text by selecting Format/Borders and
    Shading/Options/From Text/Left, and increase the number of points. Note that the
    document cannot also use the change bar to indicate revisions.




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