Docstoc

pub-priv

Document Sample
pub-priv Powered By Docstoc
					This spreadsheet provides calculations for the second generation Public:Private Framework.
The initial version was posted on my web site in 2006. http://www.general.uwa.edu.au/u/dpannell/dp0601.htm
This version was published in Land Economics, May 2008.
It includes changes 1 to 6 listed below (i.e. changes relative to the original web version).

          Date       Changes compared to the first generation version.
           1/23/2008   1 Include private net benefits (net of learning costs) in benefits component of the BCR for extension
                       2 Include private net benefits (not net of learning costs*) in benefits component of the BCR for posit
                         *because they are assumed to be paid for by the environmental manager.
                       3 Include private benefits (avoidance of learning costs**) in benefits components of the BCR for neg
                         **the cost of losing private benefits was already included, so there was a bit of inconsistency in the
                         private benefits relative to the original treatment in extension and positive incentives.
           2/18/2008   4 Include learning costs in the calculation of private net benefits used to drive the adoption lag curve
                         for extension and negative incentives.
                         Previously they were ignored, so you could get adoption of things with negative private net benefit
            3/3/2008   5 The lag to adoption in the equation for positive incentives needs to allow for the learning/transition
                         Previously it was omitted.
           5/28/2008   6 Correct the graph on sheet "Revised FW BCR=2" which mistakenly omitted technology developm
nell/dp0601.htm




mponent of the BCR for extension.
s component of the BCR for positive incentives.

s components of the BCR for negative incentives.
e was a bit of inconsistency in the treatment of
 positive incentives.
ed to drive the adoption lag curve

s with negative private net benefits.
 to allow for the learning/transition cost too.

 nly omitted technology development.
Pi         Pu
     -30         30
      30        -30


                                                   A
                                                                                 B




                      Public net benefit
                                           F


                                                               0




                                               E

                                                                             D


                                                       Private net benefit
C
Pi         Pu
     -30         30
      30        -30
                                                            Positive
                                                            incentives

                                                                                           Extension
                                           Technology




                      Public net benefit
                                           development
                                           (or no action)


                                                                           0
                                                                                                   No action (or
                                                                                               flexible negative
                                                No action
                                                (or extension or
                                                negative incentives)              Negative
                                                                                  incentives



                                                                   Private net benefit
Extension




        No action (or
    flexible negative
           incentives)
Pi         Subsidy Subsidy
     -30          50      30
       0          20       0
      30          20       0




                               Incentive
                                           Learning
                                             cost = 0                         Learning cost = L




                                                                 0
                                                        Private net benefit
arning cost = L




                  L
Cl                  0           0           0           0   Cl = learning/transition cost of adoption
Ct                  0           0           0           0   Ct = transaction costs of the program
k                  30          30          30          30   k = parameter on adoption curve. higher = longer lag withou
r                0.05        0.05        0.05        0.05   r = discount rate
A                   1           2           3           3   A = ratio of additional benefits:costs from subsidy
Pi          Pu          Pu          Pu          Pu          Pi = private net benefit (excluding subsidy)
     -100        100         200         300         300    Pu = public net benefit (excluding subsidy) that achieves A
      -99         99         198         297         297
      -98         98         196         294         294
      -97         97         194         291         291
      -96         96         192         288         288
      -95         95         190         285         285
      -94         94         188         282         282
      -93         93         186         279         279                                      BCR = 3
      -92         92         184         276         276
      -91         91         182         273         273
      -90         90         180         270         270                                  BCR = 2




                                                               Public net benefit
      -89         89         178         267         267
      -88         88         176         264         264
      -87         87         174         261         261
                                                                                    BCR = 1
      -86         86         172         258         258
      -85         85         170         255         255
      -84         84         168         252         252
      -83         83         166         249         249
      -82         82         164         246         246
      -81         81         162         243         243
      -80         80         160         240         240
      -79         79         158         237         237
      -78         78         156         234         234                                             Private net benefi
      -77         77         154         231         231
      -76         76         152         228         228
      -75         75         150         225         225
      -74         74         148         222         222
      -73         73         146         219         219
      -72         72         144         216         216
      -71         71         142         213         213
      -70         70         140         210         210
      -69         69         138         207         207
      -68         68         136         204         204
      -67         67         134         201         201
      -66         66         132         198         198
      -65         65         130         195         195
      -64         64         128         192         192
      -63         63         126         189         189
      -62         62         124         186         186
      -61         61         122         183         183
      -60         60         120         180         180
      -59         59         118         177         177
      -58         58         116         174         174
      -57         57         114         171         171
      -56         56         112         168         168
      -55         55         110         165         165
-54   54   108   162   162
-53   53   106   159   159
-52   52   104   156   156
-51   51   102   153   153
-50   50   100   150   150
-49   49    98   147   147
-48   48    96   144   144
-47   47    94   141   141
-46   46    92   138   138
-45   45    90   135   135
-44   44    88   132   132
-43   43    86   129   129
-42   42    84   126   126
-41   41    82   123   123
-40   40    80   120   120
-39   39    78   117   117
-38   38    76   114   114
-37   37    74   111   111
-36   36    72   108   108
-35   35    70   105   105
-34   34    68   102   102
-33   33    66    99    99
-32   32    64    96    96
-31   31    62    93    93
-30   30    60    90    90
-29   29    58    87    87
-28   28    56    84    84
-27   27    54    81    81
-26   26    52    78    78
-25   25    50    75    75
-24   24    48    72    72
-23   23    46    69    69
-22   22    44    66    66
-21   21    42    63    63
-20   20    40    60    60
-19   19    38    57    57
-18   18    36    54    54
-17   17    34    51    51
-16   16    32    48    48
-15   15    30    45    45
-14   14    28    42    42
-13   13    26    39    39
-12   12    24    36    36
-11   11    22    33    33
-10   10    20    30    30
 -9    9    18    27    27
 -8    8    16    24    24
 -7    7    14    21    21
 -6    6    12    18    18
 -5    5    10    15    15
 -4    4     8    12    12
 -3    3     6     9     9
-2   2   4   6   6
-1   1   2   3   3
 0   0   0   0   0
 1   0   0   0   0
 2   0   0   0   0
 3   0   0   0   0
 4   0   0   0   0
 5   0   0   0   0
 6   0   0   0   0
 7   0   0   0   0
 8   0   0   0   0
 9   0   0   0   0
10   0   0   0   0
11   0   0   0   0
12   0   0   0   0
13   0   0   0   0
14   0   0   0   0
15   0   0   0   0
16   0   0   0   0
17   0   0   0   0
18   0   0   0   0
19   0   0   0   0
20   0   0   0   0
21   0   0   0   0
22   0   0   0   0
23   0   0   0   0
24   0   0   0   0
25   0   0   0   0
26   0   0   0   0
27   0   0   0   0
28   0   0   0   0
29   0   0   0   0
30   0   0   0   0
31   0   0   0   0
32   0   0   0   0
33   0   0   0   0
34   0   0   0   0
35   0   0   0   0
36   0   0   0   0
37   0   0   0   0
38   0   0   0   0
39   0   0   0   0
40   0   0   0   0
41   0   0   0   0
42   0   0   0   0
43   0   0   0   0
44   0   0   0   0
45   0   0   0   0
46   0   0   0   0
47   0   0   0   0
48   0   0   0   0
49   0   0   0   0
 50   0   0   0   0
 51   0   0   0   0
 52   0   0   0   0
 53   0   0   0   0
 54   0   0   0   0
 55   0   0   0   0
 56   0   0   0   0
 57   0   0   0   0
 58   0   0   0   0
 59   0   0   0   0
 60   0   0   0   0
 61   0   0   0   0
 62   0   0   0   0
 63   0   0   0   0
 64   0   0   0   0
 65   0   0   0   0
 66   0   0   0   0
 67   0   0   0   0
 68   0   0   0   0
 69   0   0   0   0
 70   0   0   0   0
 71   0   0   0   0
 72   0   0   0   0
 73   0   0   0   0
 74   0   0   0   0
 75   0   0   0   0
 76   0   0   0   0
 77   0   0   0   0
 78   0   0   0   0
 79   0   0   0   0
 80   0   0   0   0
 81   0   0   0   0
 82   0   0   0   0
 83   0   0   0   0
 84   0   0   0   0
 85   0   0   0   0
 86   0   0   0   0
 87   0   0   0   0
 88   0   0   0   0
 89   0   0   0   0
 90   0   0   0   0
 91   0   0   0   0
 92   0   0   0   0
 93   0   0   0   0
 94   0   0   0   0
 95   0   0   0   0
 96   0   0   0   0
 97   0   0   0   0
 98   0   0   0   0
 99   0   0   0   0
100   0   0   0   0
e. higher = longer lag without CMA support

osts from subsidy

ng subsidy) that achieves A




                     0
          Private net benefit
Lag to adoption function                                                    k                    50
                                                                            Ps = increase in public benefits due to subsidy (re
Pi          Lamda          Pe           Ps                                  Pu                     1
     0.01         5000      1.2E-107           1                            Pe = increase in public benefits due to extenstion
      0.1           500     2.61E-12           1                            alpha = adoption shift due to extension
      0.2           250     5.17E-07    0.999995                            Cs = cost of subsidy            0.2
      0.3    166.6667       3.01E-05    0.999706                            Ce = cost of extension          0.1
      0.5           100     0.000779    0.992396
     0.75    66.66667       0.003964    0.961329




                                                   Lag to adoption if no incentive (years)
        1             50    0.008938    0.912796                                             30
     1.25             40     0.01456    0.857954
      1.5    33.33333       0.020156    0.803352                                             25
     1.75    28.57143       0.025428     0.75192
        2             25    0.030269    0.704697                                             20
        3    16.66667       0.045454     0.55655
        4          12.5        0.0557   0.456582                                             15
        5             10    0.062926    0.386087
        6    8.333333       0.068257    0.334079                                             10
        7    7.142857       0.072339    0.294255
        8          6.25      0.07556    0.262831
                                                                                             5
        9    5.555556       0.078164    0.237427
       10              5    0.080311    0.216474
       11    4.545455       0.082112    0.198903                                             0
       12    4.166667       0.083644     0.18396                                                      0           5          10
       13    3.846154       0.084962    0.171099                                                              Private net benefit (net of learning
       14    3.571429       0.086109    0.159914
       15    3.333333       0.087115    0.150098
       16        3.125      0.088005    0.141415
       17    2.941176       0.088798     0.13368
                                                                                             1.2
                                                             Public net benefit from subsidy


       18    2.777778       0.089509    0.126745
       19    2.631579       0.090149    0.120494
       20            2.5     0.09073     0.11483                                                  1
       21    2.380952       0.091258    0.109674
                                                                      (proportion)




       22    2.272727       0.091742     0.10496
       23    2.173913       0.092185    0.100634                                             0.8
       24    2.083333       0.092593    0.096651
       25              2    0.092971    0.092971                                             0.6
       26    1.923077        0.08956     0.08956
       27    1.851852       0.086391    0.086391
       28    1.785714       0.083438    0.083438                                             0.4
       29    1.724138        0.08068     0.08068
       30    1.666667       0.078099    0.078099
                                                                                             0.2
       31    1.612903
       32       1.5625
       33    1.515152                                                                             0
       34    1.470588                                                                                     0        5           10
       35    1.428571
                                                                                                                           Private net benefit ($/
       36    1.388889
       37    1.351351
       38    1.315789
       39    1.282051                                                                                  0.1
       40          1.25
                                                                                                      0.09
                                                                rom extension
41 1.219512                                       0.09




              Public net benefit from extension
                                                  0.08
                                                  0.07




                         (proportion)
                                                  0.06
                                                  0.05
                                                  0.04
                                                  0.03
                                                  0.02
                                                  0.01
                                                    0
                                                         0   5       10
                                                                 Private net benefit
              r                 0.05
c benefits due to subsidy (relative to no action)

c benefits due to extenstion (relative to no action)
due to extension                    2




                    15           20          25        30
net benefit (net of learning costs) ($/ha/year)




                    15          20            25       30
     Private net benefit ($/ha/year)
    10         15          20     25   30
Private net benefit ($/ha/year)
Cl                      10               10              10   Cl = learning/transition cost of adoption
Ct                     2.5              2.5             2.5   Ct = transaction costs of the program
k                       50               50              50   k = parameter on adoption curve. Higher = longer lag without CMA
r                     0.05            0.05             0.05   r = discount rate
BCR                      1                2               3   BCR = ratio of additional benefits:costs from subsidy or extension
Alpha                    2                2               2   Alpha = shift in adoption due to extension
Pi           Pu (extension) Pu (extension) Pu (extension)     Pi = private net benefit (excluding subsidy)
         0                                                    Pu = public net benefit (excluding subsidy) that achieves BCR
         1   3063.616907     6118.233814      9172.850721
         2   3062.616907     6117.233814      9171.850721                ISO-BCR lines for Extension
         3   3061.616907     6116.233814      9170.850721
         4   3060.616907     6115.233814      9169.850721
         5   3059.616907     6114.233814      9168.850721
         6   3058.616907     6113.233814      9167.850721




                                                                           Public net benefit ($/ha/year)
         7   3057.616907     6112.233814      9166.850721
         8   3056.616907     6111.233814      9165.850721
         9   3055.616907     6110.233814      9164.850721
        10   3054.616907     6109.233814      9163.850721
        11   278.6926777     558.3853554      838.0780331
        12   80.59402295     163.1880459      245.7820688
        13   52.00106865     107.0021373       162.003206
        14   40.88305209     85.76610417      130.6491563
        15   34.72913724     74.45827448      114.1874117
        16   30.62634952     67.25269905      103.8790486
        17   27.55956596     62.11913193      96.67869789
        18   25.08638069     58.17276139      91.25914208
        19   22.98412481     54.96824961      86.95237442
        20    21.1288186      52.2576372      83.38645579                                                     -100   -50
        21   19.44606281     49.89212563      80.33818844
        22   17.88855296     47.77710592      77.66565888
        23   16.42479511     45.84959021      75.27438532
        24   15.03301987     44.06603975      73.09905962
        25   13.69770323     42.39540647       71.0931097
        26   12.40747956     40.81495912      69.22243868
        27   11.15383825      39.3076765      67.46151474
                                                                             Public net benefit ($/ha/year)




        28   9.930281148      37.8605623      65.79084344
        29   8.731761508     36.46352302      64.19528452
        30   7.554300535     35.10860107      62.66290161
        31   6.394719335     33.78943867      61.18415801
        32   5.250447664     32.50089533      59.75134299
        33    4.11938502     31.23877004      58.35815506
        34   2.999798085     29.99959617      56.99939425
        35   1.890243902      28.7804878      55.67073171
        36   1.914259082     29.82851816      57.74277725
        37    1.93833213     30.87666426      59.81499639
        38   1.962456847     31.92491369      61.88737054
        39   1.986627892     32.97325578      63.95988368
        40   2.010840634     34.02168127       66.0325219
        41    2.03509104     35.07018208      68.10527312                                                     -100   -50
        42    2.05937558     36.11875116      70.17812674
        43   2.083691152      37.1673823      72.25107346
44   2.108035019     38.21607004   74.32410506
45   2.132404757     39.26480951   76.39721427
46    2.15679821     40.31359642   78.47039463
47   2.181213456     41.36242691   80.54364037
48   2.205648775     42.41129755   82.61694633
49   2.230102624     43.46020525   84.69030787
50   2.254573613     44.50914723   86.76372084
51   2.279060488     45.55812098   88.83718146
52   2.303562115     46.60712423   90.91068634
53   2.328077464     47.65615493   92.98423239
54   2.352605601      48.7052112    95.0578168
55   2.377145673     49.75429135   97.13143702
56   2.401696902      50.8033938   99.20509071
57   2.426258576     51.85251715   101.2787757
58   2.450830042     52.90166008   103.3524901
59      2.4754107     53.9508214   105.4262321
60             2.5            55          107.5
61   2.524597433     56.04919487   109.5737923
62   2.549202529     57.09840506   111.6476076
63   2.573814856     58.14762971   113.7214446
64   2.598434011     59.19686802    115.795302
65   2.623059623     60.24611925   117.8691789
66   2.647691344     61.29538269    119.943074
67   2.672328855     62.34465771   122.0169866
68   2.696971854     63.39394371   124.0909156
69   2.721620064     64.44324013   126.1648602
70   2.746273224     65.49254645   128.2388197
71    2.77093109     66.54186218   130.3127933
72   2.795593435     67.59118687   132.3867803
73   2.820260045     68.64052009   134.4607801
74   2.844930721     69.68986144   136.5347922
75   2.869605274     70.73921055   138.6088158
76    2.89428353     71.78856706   140.6828506
77   2.918965321     72.83793064    142.756896
78   2.943650492     73.88730098   144.8309515
79   2.968338896     74.93667779   146.9050167
80   2.993030394     75.98606079   148.9790912
81   3.017724856     77.03544971   151.0531746
82   3.042422159     78.08484432   153.1272665
83   3.067122184     79.13424437   155.2013666
84   3.091824823     80.18364965   157.2754745
85   3.116529971     81.23305994   159.3495899
86   3.141237528     82.28247506   161.4237126
87   3.165947401      83.3318948   163.4978422
88      3.1906595      84.381319   165.5719785
89   3.215373741     85.43074748   167.6461212
90   3.240090045     86.48018009   169.7202701
91   3.264808333     87.52961667    171.794425
92   3.289528535     88.57905707   173.8685856
93    3.31425058     89.62850116   175.9427517
94   3.338974403     90.67794881   178.0169232
95    3.36369994     91.72739988   180.0910998
 96   3.388427134   92.77685427   182.1652814
 97   3.413155925   93.82631185   184.2394678
 98    3.43788626   94.87577252   186.3136588
 99   3.462618086   95.92523617   188.3878543
100   3.487351355   96.97470271   190.4620541
e. Higher = longer lag without CMA support

ts:costs from subsidy or extension


ng subsidy) that achieves BCR




                             100


                                                    BCR = 3




                                                         BCR = 2
                                50




                                                                BCR = 1
                                0
          50                         0                 50                 100
                 Private net benefit ($/ha/year)




                             100




                                50
                                                    Extension




                                 0
          50                         0                  50                100
                  Private net benefit ($/ha/year)
Cl                   10          10           10   Cl = learning/transition cost of adoption
Ct                  2.5         2.5          2.5   Ct = transaction costs of the program
k                    50          50           50   k = parameter on adoption curve. Higher = longer lag without CMA supp
r                  0.05        0.05         0.05   r = discount rate
BCR                   1           2            3   BCR = ratio of additional benefits:costs from subsidy or extension
Pi           Pu           Pu          Pu           Pi = private net benefit (excluding subsidy)
      -100        112.5        225         337.5   Pu = public net benefit (excluding subsidy) that achieves A
       -99        111.5        223         334.5
       -98        110.5        221         331.5   ISO-BCR lines for Incentives
       -97        109.5        219         328.5
       -96        108.5        217         325.5
       -95        107.5        215         322.5
       -94        106.5        213         319.5                                                                    100
       -93        105.5        211         316.5                                                              BCR = 3
       -92        104.5        209         313.5




                                                      Public net benefit ($/ha/year)
       -91        103.5        207         310.5
       -90        102.5        205         307.5                                                       BCR = 2
       -89        101.5        203         304.5
       -88        100.5        201         301.5
       -87         99.5        199         298.5                                                                        50
                                                                                                    BCR = 1
       -86         98.5        197         295.5
       -85         97.5        195         292.5
       -84         96.5        193         289.5
       -83         95.5        191         286.5
       -82         94.5        189         283.5
       -81         93.5        187         280.5
       -80         92.5        185         277.5                                                                         0
       -79         91.5        183         274.5                                       -100   -50                            0
       -78         90.5        181         271.5                                                     Private net benefit ($/ha/year)
       -77         89.5        179         268.5
       -76         88.5        177         265.5
       -75         87.5        175         262.5
       -74         86.5        173         259.5                                                                    100
       -73         85.5        171         256.5
       -72         84.5        169         253.5
                                                      Public net benefit ($/ha/year)




       -71         83.5        167         250.5
       -70         82.5        165         247.5                                                       Positive
                                                                                                       incentives
       -69         81.5        163         244.5
       -68         80.5        161         241.5
       -67         79.5        159         238.5                                                                        50
       -66         78.5        157         235.5
       -65         77.5        155         232.5
       -64         76.5        153         229.5
       -63         75.5        151         226.5
       -62         74.5        149         223.5
       -61         73.5        147         220.5
       -60         72.5        145         217.5                                                                         0
       -59         71.5        143         214.5                                       -100   -50                            0
       -58         70.5        141         211.5                                                     Private net benefit ($/ha/year)
       -57         69.5        139         208.5
       -56         68.5        137         205.5
-55   67.5   135   202.5
-54   66.5   133   199.5
-53   65.5   131   196.5
-52   64.5   129   193.5
-51   63.5   127   190.5
-50   62.5   125   187.5
-49   61.5   123   184.5
-48   60.5   121   181.5
-47   59.5   119   178.5
-46   58.5   117   175.5
-45   57.5   115   172.5
-44   56.5   113   169.5
-43   55.5   111   166.5
-42   54.5   109   163.5
-41   53.5   107   160.5
-40   52.5   105   157.5
-39   51.5   103   154.5
-38   50.5   101   151.5
-37   49.5    99   148.5
-36   48.5    97   145.5
-35   47.5    95   142.5
-34   46.5    93   139.5
-33   45.5    91   136.5
-32   44.5    89   133.5
-31   43.5    87   130.5
-30   42.5    85   127.5
-29   41.5    83   124.5
-28   40.5    81   121.5
-27   39.5    79   118.5
-26   38.5    77   115.5
-25   37.5    75   112.5
-24   36.5    73   109.5
-23   35.5    71   106.5
-22   34.5    69   103.5
-21   33.5    67   100.5
-20   32.5    65    97.5
-19   31.5    63    94.5
-18   30.5    61    91.5
-17   29.5    59    88.5
-16   28.5    57    85.5
-15   27.5    55    82.5
-14   26.5    53    79.5
-13   25.5    51    76.5
-12   24.5    49    73.5
-11   23.5    47    70.5
-10   22.5    45    67.5
 -9   21.5    43    64.5
 -8   20.5    41    61.5
 -7   19.5    39    58.5
 -6   18.5    37    55.5
 -5   17.5    35    52.5
 -4   16.5    33    49.5
-3        15.5         31        46.5
-2        14.5         29        43.5
-1        13.5         27        40.5
 0        12.5         25        37.5
 1        11.5         24        36.5
 2        10.5         23        35.5
 3         9.5         22        34.5
 4         8.5         21        33.5
 5         7.5         20        32.5
 6         6.5         19        31.5
 7         5.5         18        30.5
 8         4.5         17        29.5
 9         3.5         16        28.5
10         2.5         15        27.5
11   2.694184    16.38837   30.08255
12   5.738114    23.47623   41.21434
13   9.459812    31.91962   54.37943
14   13.37732    40.75464   68.13196
15   17.37614    49.75229   82.12843
16   21.41626    58.83253   96.24879
17   25.48017    67.96035   110.4405
18   29.55902    77.11804   124.6771
19   33.64786    86.29572   138.9436
20    37.7437     95.4874   153.2311
21   41.84464    104.6893   167.5339
22   45.94942    113.8988   181.8483
23   50.05715    123.1143   196.1714
24   54.16719    132.3344   210.5016
25   58.27909    141.5582   224.8373
26    62.3925     150.785   239.1775
27   66.50715    160.0143   253.5214
28   70.62284    169.2457   267.8685
29    74.7394    178.4788   282.2182
30    78.8567    187.7134   296.5701
31   82.97464    196.9493   310.9239
32   87.09312    206.1862   325.2794
33   91.21209    215.4242   339.6363
34   95.33147    224.6629   353.9944
35   99.45122    233.9024   368.3537
36   103.5713    243.1426   382.7139
37   107.6917    252.3833    397.075
38   111.8123    261.6246   411.4369
39   115.9331    270.8663   425.7994
40   120.0542    280.1084   440.1626
41   124.1755    289.3509   454.5264
42   128.2969    298.5938   468.8906
43   132.4185    307.8369   483.2554
44   136.5402    317.0804   497.6205
45    140.662     326.324   511.9861
46    144.784     335.568    526.352
47   148.9061    344.8121   540.7182
48   153.0282    354.0565   555.0847
 49   157.1505    363.301   569.4515
 50   161.2729   372.5457   583.8186
 51   165.3953   381.7906   598.1859
 52   169.5178   391.0356   612.5534
 53   173.6404   400.2808   626.9212
 54    177.763   409.5261   641.2891
 55   181.8857   418.7715   655.6572
 56   186.0085    428.017   670.0255
 57   190.1313   437.2626   684.3939
 58   194.2542   446.5083   698.7625
 59   198.3771   455.7541   713.1312
 60      202.5        465      727.5
 61    206.623    474.246    741.869
 62    210.746    483.492    756.238
 63   214.8691   492.7381   770.6072
 64   218.9922   501.9843   784.9765
 65   223.1153   511.2306   799.3459
 66   227.2385   520.4769   813.7154
 67   231.3616   529.7233   828.0849
 68   235.4849   538.9697   842.4546
 69   239.6081   548.2162   856.8243
 70   243.7314   557.4627   871.1941
 71   247.8547   566.7093    885.564
 72    251.978   575.9559   899.9339
 73   256.1013   585.2026   914.3039
 74   260.2247   594.4493    928.674
 75    264.348   603.6961   943.0441
 76   268.4714   612.9428   957.4143
 77   272.5948   622.1897   971.7845
 78   276.7183   631.4365   986.1548
 79   280.8417   640.6834   1000.525
 80   284.9652   649.9303   1014.895
 81   289.0886   659.1772   1029.266
 82   293.2121   668.4242   1043.636
 83   297.3356   677.6712   1058.007
 84   301.4591   686.9182   1072.377
 85   305.5826   696.1653   1086.748
 86   309.7062   705.4124   1101.119
 87   313.8297   714.6595   1115.489
 88   317.9533   723.9066    1129.86
 89   322.0769   733.1537   1144.231
 90   326.2005   742.4009   1158.601
 91    330.324   751.6481   1172.972
 92   334.4476   760.8953   1187.343
 93   338.5713   770.1425   1201.714
 94   342.6949   779.3897   1216.085
 95   346.8185    788.637   1230.455
 96   350.9421   797.8843   1244.826
 97   355.0658   807.1316   1259.197
 98   359.1894   816.3789   1273.568
 99   363.3131   825.6262   1287.939
100   367.4368   834.8735    1302.31
 longer lag without CMA support

m subsidy or extension

 that achieves A




                             50   100
e net benefit ($/ha/year)




                             50   100
e net benefit ($/ha/year)
Cl                   10            10          10             10             10             10
Ct                  2.5           2.5         2.5            2.5            2.5            2.5
k                    50            50          50             50             50             50
r                  0.05         0.05         0.05          0.05           0.05           0.05
BCR                   1             2           3              1              2              3
Alpha                                                          2              2              2
Pi        Pu (subsidy) Pu (subsidy) Pu (subsidy) Pu (extension) Pu (extension) Pu (extension)
     -100        112.5           225       337.5
      -99        111.5           223       334.5
      -98        110.5           221       331.5
      -97        109.5           219       328.5
      -96        108.5           217       325.5
      -95        107.5           215       322.5
      -94        106.5           213       319.5
      -93        105.5           211       316.5
      -92        104.5           209       313.5
      -91        103.5           207       310.5
      -90        102.5           205       307.5
      -89        101.5           203       304.5
      -88        100.5           201       301.5
      -87          99.5          199       298.5
      -86          98.5          197       295.5
      -85          97.5          195       292.5
      -84          96.5          193       289.5
      -83          95.5          191       286.5
      -82          94.5          189       283.5
      -81          93.5          187       280.5
      -80          92.5          185       277.5
      -79          91.5          183       274.5
      -78          90.5          181       271.5
      -77          89.5          179       268.5
      -76          88.5          177       265.5
      -75          87.5          175       262.5
      -74          86.5          173       259.5
      -73          85.5          171       256.5
      -72          84.5          169       253.5
      -71          83.5          167       250.5
      -70          82.5          165       247.5
      -69          81.5          163       244.5
      -68          80.5          161       241.5
      -67          79.5          159       238.5
      -66          78.5          157       235.5
      -65          77.5          155       232.5
      -64          76.5          153       229.5
      -63          75.5          151       226.5
      -62          74.5          149       223.5
      -61          73.5          147       220.5
      -60          72.5          145       217.5
      -59          71.5          143       214.5
      -58          70.5          141       211.5
      -57          69.5          139       208.5
-56   68.5   137   205.5
-55   67.5   135   202.5
-54   66.5   133   199.5
-53   65.5   131   196.5
-52   64.5   129   193.5
-51   63.5   127   190.5
-50   62.5   125   187.5
-49   61.5   123   184.5
-48   60.5   121   181.5
-47   59.5   119   178.5
-46   58.5   117   175.5
-45   57.5   115   172.5
-44   56.5   113   169.5
-43   55.5   111   166.5
-42   54.5   109   163.5
-41   53.5   107   160.5
-40   52.5   105   157.5
-39   51.5   103   154.5
-38   50.5   101   151.5
-37   49.5    99   148.5
-36   48.5    97   145.5
-35   47.5    95   142.5
-34   46.5    93   139.5
-33   45.5    91   136.5
-32   44.5    89   133.5
-31   43.5    87   130.5
-30   42.5    85   127.5
-29   41.5    83   124.5
-28   40.5    81   121.5
-27   39.5    79   118.5
-26   38.5    77   115.5
-25   37.5    75   112.5
-24   36.5    73   109.5
-23   35.5    71   106.5
-22   34.5    69   103.5
-21   33.5    67   100.5
-20   32.5    65    97.5
-19   31.5    63    94.5
-18   30.5    61    91.5
-17   29.5    59    88.5
-16   28.5    57    85.5
-15   27.5    55    82.5
-14   26.5    53    79.5
-13   25.5    51    76.5
-12   24.5    49    73.5
-11   23.5    47    70.5
-10   22.5    45    67.5
 -9   21.5    43    64.5
 -8   20.5    41    61.5
 -7   19.5    39    58.5
 -6   18.5    37    55.5
 -5   17.5    35    52.5
-4           16.5            33           49.5
-3           15.5            31           46.5
-2           14.5            29           43.5
-1           13.5            27           40.5
 0           12.5            25           37.5
 1           11.5            24           36.5   3063.616907   6118.233814   9172.850721
 2           10.5            23           35.5   3062.616907   6117.233814   9171.850721
 3            9.5            22           34.5   3061.616907   6116.233814   9170.850721
 4            8.5            21           33.5   3060.616907   6115.233814   9169.850721
 5            7.5            20           32.5   3059.616907   6114.233814   9168.850721
 6            6.5            19           31.5   3058.616907   6113.233814   9167.850721
 7            5.5            18           30.5   3057.616907   6112.233814   9166.850721
 8            4.5            17           29.5   3056.616907   6111.233814   9165.850721
 9            3.5            16           28.5   3055.616907   6110.233814   9164.850721
10            2.5            15           27.5   3054.616907   6109.233814   9163.850721
11   2.694183871    16.38836774   30.08255161    278.6926777   558.3853554   838.0780331
12   5.738114325    23.47622865   41.21434297    80.59402295   163.1880459   245.7820688
13   9.459811644    31.91962329   54.37943493    52.00106865   107.0021373    162.003206
14   13.37731921    40.75463841   68.13195762    40.88305209   85.76610417   130.6491563
15   17.37614374    49.75228748   82.12843122    34.72913724   74.45827448   114.1874117
16   21.41626488    58.83252977   96.24879465    30.62634952   67.25269905   103.8790486
17   25.48017439    67.96034878   110.4405232    27.55956596   62.11913193   96.67869789
18   29.55902173    77.11804346   124.6770652    25.08638069   58.17276139   91.25914208
19   33.64785755     86.2957151   138.9435727    22.98412481   54.96824961   86.95237442
20   37.74369953    95.48739906   153.2310986     21.1288186    52.2576372   83.38645579
21   41.84464425    104.6892885   167.5339328    19.44606281   49.89212563   80.33818844
22   45.94942009    113.8988402   181.8482603    17.88855296   47.77710592   77.66565888
23   50.05714531    123.1142906   196.1714359    16.42479511   45.84959021   75.27438532
24   54.16718934    132.3343787    210.501568    15.03301987   44.06603975   73.09905962
25   58.27908934    141.5581787    224.837268    13.69770323   42.39540647    71.0931097
26    62.3924979    150.7849958   239.1774937    12.40747956   40.81495912   69.22243868
27   66.50714923    160.0142985   253.5214477    11.15383825    39.3076765   67.46151474
28   70.62283646    169.2456729   267.8685094    9.930281148    37.8605623   65.79084344
29   74.73939623    178.4787925   282.2181887    8.731761508   36.46352302   64.19528452
30    78.8566978    187.7133956   296.5700934    7.554300535   35.10860107   62.66290161
31   82.97463529    196.9492706   310.9239059    6.394719335   33.78943867   61.18415801
32   87.09312208    206.1862442   325.2793662    5.250447664   32.50089533   59.75134299
33   91.21208657    215.4241731   339.6362597     4.11938502   31.23877004   58.35815506
34   95.33146909    224.6629382   353.9944073    2.999798085   29.99959617   56.99939425
35   99.45121951     233.902439   368.3536585    1.890243902    28.7804878   55.67073171
36   103.5712954    243.1425908   382.7138862    1.914259082   29.82851816   57.74277725
37   107.6916606    252.3833213   397.0749819     1.93833213   30.87666426   59.81499639
38   111.8122842    261.6245685   411.4368527    1.962456847   31.92491369   61.88737054
39   115.9331395    270.8662789   425.7994184    1.986627892   32.97325578   63.95988368
40   120.0542032    280.1084063   440.1626095    2.010840634   34.02168127    66.0325219
41   124.1754552    289.3509104   454.5263656     2.03509104   35.07018208   68.10527312
42   128.2968779    298.5937558   468.8906337     2.05937558   36.11875116   70.17812674
43   132.4184558    307.8369115   483.2553673    2.083691152    37.1673823   72.25107346
44   136.5401751    317.0803502   497.6205253    2.108035019   38.21607004   74.32410506
45   140.6620238    326.3240476   511.9860713    2.132404757   39.26480951   76.39721427
46    144.783991    335.5679821   526.3519731     2.15679821   40.31359642   78.47039463
47   148.9060673    344.8121346   540.7182018    2.181213456   41.36242691   80.54364037
48   153.0282439    354.0564878   555.0847316    2.205648775     42.41129755   82.61694633
49   157.1505131    363.3010262   569.4515394    2.230102624     43.46020525   84.69030787
50   161.2728681    372.5457361   583.8186042    2.254573613     44.50914723   86.76372084
51   165.3953024    381.7906049   598.1859073    2.279060488     45.55812098   88.83718146
52   169.5178106    391.0356211   612.5534317    2.303562115     46.60712423   90.91068634
53   173.6403873    400.2807746    626.921162    2.328077464     47.65615493   92.98423239
54    177.763028     409.526056    641.289084    2.352605601      48.7052112    95.0578168
55   181.8857284    418.7714567   655.6571851    2.377145673     49.75429135   97.13143702
56   186.0084845     428.016969   670.0254535    2.401696902      50.8033938   99.20509071
57   190.1312929    437.2625858   684.3938786    2.426258576     51.85251715   101.2787757
58   194.2541502    446.5083004   698.7624506    2.450830042     52.90166008   103.3524901
59   198.3770535     455.754107   713.1311605       2.4754107     53.9508214   105.4262321
60          202.5           465          727.5             2.5            55          107.5
61   206.6229872    474.2459743   741.8689615    2.524597433     56.04919487   109.5737923
62   210.7460126    483.4920253   756.2380379    2.549202529     57.09840506   111.6476076
63   214.8690743    492.7381486   770.6072228    2.573814856     58.14762971   113.7214446
64   218.9921701    501.9843401   784.9765102    2.598434011     59.19686802    115.795302
65   223.1152981    511.2305962   799.3458943    2.623059623     60.24611925   117.8691789
66   227.2384567    520.4769134   813.7153702    2.647691344     61.29538269    119.943074
67   231.3616443    529.7232885   828.0849328    2.672328855     62.34465771   122.0169866
68   235.4848593    538.9697185   842.4545778    2.696971854     63.39394371   124.0909156
69   239.6081003    548.2162006    856.824301    2.721620064     64.44324013   126.1648602
70   243.7313661    557.4627322   871.1940984    2.746273224     65.49254645   128.2388197
71   247.8546555    566.7093109   885.5639664     2.77093109     66.54186218   130.3127933
72   251.9779672    575.9559343   899.9339015    2.795593435     67.59118687   132.3867803
73   256.1013002    585.2026005   914.3039007    2.820260045     68.64052009   134.4607801
74   260.2246536    594.4493072   928.6739608    2.844930721     69.68986144   136.5347922
75   264.3480264    603.6960527   943.0440791    2.869605274     70.73921055   138.6088158
76   268.4714176    612.9428353   957.4142529     2.89428353     71.78856706   140.6828506
77   272.5948266    622.1896532   971.7844798    2.918965321     72.83793064    142.756896
78   276.7182525    631.4365049   986.1547574    2.943650492     73.88730098   144.8309515
79   280.8416945     640.683389   1000.525083    2.968338896     74.93667779   146.9050167
80    284.965152    649.9303039   1014.895456    2.993030394     75.98606079   148.9790912
81   289.0886243    659.1772486   1029.265873    3.017724856     77.03544971   151.0531746
82   293.2121108    668.4242216   1043.636332    3.042422159     78.08484432   153.1272665
83   297.3356109    677.6712218   1058.006833    3.067122184     79.13424437   155.2013666
84   301.4591241    686.9182482   1072.377372    3.091824823     80.18364965   157.2754745
85   305.5826499    696.1652997    1086.74795    3.116529971     81.23305994   159.3495899
86   309.7061876    705.4123753   1101.118563    3.141237528     82.28247506   161.4237126
87    313.829737     714.659474   1115.489211    3.165947401      83.3318948   163.4978422
88   317.9532975     723.906595   1129.859892       3.1906595      84.381319   165.5719785
89   322.0768687    733.1537374   1144.230606    3.215373741     85.43074748   167.6461212
90   326.2004502    742.4009004   1158.601351    3.240090045     86.48018009   169.7202701
91   330.3240417    751.6480833   1172.972125    3.264808333     87.52961667    171.794425
92   334.4476427    760.8952853   1187.342928    3.289528535     88.57905707   173.8685856
93   338.5712529    770.1425058   1201.713759     3.31425058     89.62850116   175.9427517
94    342.694872     779.389744   1216.084616    3.338974403     90.67794881   178.0169232
95   346.8184997    788.6369994   1230.455499     3.36369994     91.72739988   180.0910998
96   350.9421357    797.8842713   1244.826407    3.388427134     92.77685427   182.1652814
97   355.0657796    807.1315592   1259.197339    3.413155925     93.82631185   184.2394678
98   359.1894313    816.3788626   1273.568294     3.43788626     94.87577252   186.3136588
99   363.3130904    825.6261809   1287.939271    3.462618086     95.92523617   188.3878543
100 367.4367568 834.8735135   1302.31027   3.487351355   96.97470271   190.4620541
Cl = learning/transition cost of adoption
Ct = transaction costs of the program
k = parameter on adoption curve. Higher = longer lag without CMA support
r = discount rate
BCR = ratio of additional benefits:costs from subsidy or extension
Alpha = shift in adoption due to extension
Pi = private net benefit (excluding subsidy)
Pu = public net benefit (excluding subsidy) that achieves A




                                              Positive incentives                         Extension
                                                              100
                                                         BCR = 3
  Public net benefit ($/ha/year)




                                                                                       BCR = 3

                                                    BCR = 2

                                          BCR = 1
                                                                                          BCR = 2
                                                               50




                                                                             BCR = 1

                                                                   0
                                   -100      -50                       0                 50           100
                                                    Private net benefit ($/ha/year)
Cl                   10             10   Cl = learning/transition cost of adoption
Ct                  2.5            2.5   Ct = transaction costs of the program
k                    50             50   k = parameter on adoption curve. Higher = longer lag without CMA support
r                  0.05          0.05    r = discount rate
BCR                   1              1   BCR = ratio of additional benefits:costs from subsidy or extension
Alpha                                2   Alpha = shift in adoption due to extension
Pi        Pu (subsidy) Pu (extension)    Pi = private net benefit (excluding subsidy)
     -100        112.5                   Pu = public net benefit (excluding subsidy) that achieves A
      -99        111.5
      -98        110.5
      -97        109.5
      -96        108.5
      -95        107.5                                                                                           100
      -94        106.5
      -93        105.5




                                                      Public net benefit ($/ha/year)
      -92        104.5                                                                              Positive
      -91        103.5                                                                              incentives
      -90        102.5
      -89        101.5
      -88        100.5                                                                                           50
      -87          99.5
      -86          98.5
      -85          97.5
      -84          96.5
      -83          95.5
      -82          94.5
      -81          93.5                                                                                           0
      -80          92.5                                                                -100   -50                      0
      -79          91.5                                                                             Private net benefit ($/ha/year)
      -78          90.5
      -77          89.5
      -76          88.5
      -75          87.5
      -74          86.5
      -73          85.5
      -72          84.5
      -71          83.5
      -70          82.5
      -69          81.5
      -68          80.5
      -67          79.5
      -66          78.5
      -65          77.5
      -64          76.5
      -63          75.5
      -62          74.5
      -61          73.5
      -60          72.5
      -59          71.5
      -58          70.5
      -57          69.5
-56   68.5
-55   67.5
-54   66.5
-53   65.5
-52   64.5
-51   63.5
-50   62.5
-49   61.5
-48   60.5
-47   59.5
-46   58.5
-45   57.5
-44   56.5
-43   55.5
-42   54.5
-41   53.5
-40   52.5
-39   51.5
-38   50.5
-37   49.5
-36   48.5
-35   47.5
-34   46.5
-33   45.5
-32   44.5
-31   43.5
-30   42.5
-29   41.5
-28   40.5
-27   39.5
-26   38.5
-25   37.5
-24   36.5
-23   35.5
-22   34.5
-21   33.5
-20   32.5
-19   31.5
-18   30.5
-17   29.5
-16   28.5
-15   27.5
-14   26.5
-13   25.5
-12   24.5
-11   23.5
-10   22.5
 -9   21.5
 -8   20.5
 -7   19.5
 -6   18.5
 -5   17.5
      -4           16.5
      -3           15.5
      -2           14.5
      -1           13.5
       0           12.5
       1           11.5
       2           10.5
       3             9.5
       4             8.5
       5             7.5
       6             6.5
       7             5.5
       8             4.5
       9             3.5
      10             2.5
      11   2.694183871
      12   5.738114325
      13   9.459811644
      14   13.37731921
      15   17.37614374
      16   21.41626488
      17   25.48017439
17.30979    26.7424311     26.74310849
17.30979            100    26.74310849
      18                   25.08638069
      19                   22.98412481
      20                    21.1288186
      21                   19.44606281
      22                   17.88855296
      23                   16.42479511
      24                   15.03301987
      25                   13.69770323
      26                   12.40747956
      27                   11.15383825
      28                   9.930281148
      29                   8.731761508
      30                   7.554300535
      31                   6.394719335
      32                   5.250447664
      33                    4.11938502
      34                   2.999798085
      35                   1.890243902
      36                   1.914259082
      37                    1.93833213
      38                   1.962456847
      39                   1.986627892
      40                   2.010840634
      41                    2.03509104
      42                    2.05937558
      43                   2.083691152
      44                   2.108035019
      45                   2.132404757
46    2.15679821
47   2.181213456
48   2.205648775
49   2.230102624
50   2.254573613
51   2.279060488
52   2.303562115
53   2.328077464
54   2.352605601
55   2.377145673
56   2.401696902
57   2.426258576
58   2.450830042
59      2.4754107
60             2.5
61   2.524597433
62   2.549202529
63   2.573814856
64   2.598434011
65   2.623059623
66   2.647691344
67   2.672328855
68   2.696971854
69   2.721620064
70   2.746273224
71    2.77093109
72   2.795593435
73   2.820260045
74   2.844930721
75   2.869605274
76    2.89428353
77   2.918965321
78   2.943650492
79   2.968338896
80   2.993030394
81   3.017724856
82   3.042422159
83   3.067122184
84   3.091824823
85   3.116529971
86   3.141237528
87   3.165947401
88      3.1906595
89   3.215373741
90   3.240090045
91   3.264808333
92   3.289528535
93    3.31425058
94   3.338974403
95    3.36369994
96   3.388427134
97   3.413155925
 98    3.43788626
 99   3.462618086
100   3.487351355
without CMA support




                            Extension




                          No action



                              50        100
net benefit ($/ha/year)
Cl                    10            10   Cl = learning/transition cost of adoption
Ct                   2.5           2.5   Ct = transaction costs of the program
k                     50            50   k = parameter on adoption curve. Higher = longer lag without CMA support
r                  0.05          0.05    r = discount rate
BCR                    2             2   BCR = ratio of additional benefits:costs from subsidy or extension
Alpha                                2   Alpha = shift in adoption due to extension
Pi        Pu (subsidy) Pu (extension)    Pi = private net benefit (excluding subsidy)
     -100           225                  Pu = public net benefit (excluding subsidy) that achieves A
      -99           223
      -98           221
      -97           219
      -96           217
      -95           215                                                                                  100
      -94           213                                                                             Positive

                                           Public net benefit ($/ha/year)
      -93           211                                                                             incentives
      -92           209                                                                                                          Extension
      -91           207
      -90           205
      -89           203
      -88           201                                                            Technology             50
      -87           199                                                            development
                                                                                   (or no action)
      -86           197
      -85           195
      -84           193
      -83           191
      -82           189                                                                                     0
      -81           187
      -80           185                                                     -100        -50                      0
      -79           183                                                                        Private net benefit ($/ha/year)
      -78           181
      -77           179
      -76           177
      -75           175
      -74           173
      -73           171
      -72           169
      -71           167
      -70           165
      -69           163
      -68           161
      -67           159
      -66           157
      -65           155
      -64           153
      -63           151
      -62           149
      -61           147
      -60           145
      -59           143
      -58           141
      -57           139
-56   137
-55   135
-54   133
-53   131
-52   129
-51   127
-50   125
-49   123
-48   121
-47   119
-46   117
-45   115
-44   113
-43   111
-42   109
-41   107
-40   105
-39   103
-38   101
-37    99
-36    97
-35    95
-34    93
-33    91
-32    89
-31    87
-30    85
-29    83
-28    81
-27    79
-26    77
-25    75
-24    73
-23    71
-22    69
-21    67
-20    65
-19    63
-18    61
-17    59
-16    57
-15    55
-14    53
-13    51
-12    49
-11    47
-10    45
 -9    43
 -8    41
 -7    39
 -6    37
 -5    35
      -4            33
      -3            31
      -2            29
      -1            27
       0            25
       1            24
       2            23
       3            22
       4            21
       5            20
       6            19
       7            18
       8            17
       9            16
      10            15
      11   16.38836774
      12   23.47622865
      13   31.91962329
      14   40.75463841
      15   49.75228748
      16   58.83252977
16.57799   64.10391844   64.10390201
16.57799           100   64.10390201
      17                 62.11913193
      18                 58.17276139
      19                 54.96824961
      20                  52.2576372
      21                 49.89212563
      22                 47.77710592
      23                 45.84959021
      24                 44.06603975
      25                 42.39540647
      26                 40.81495912
      27                  39.3076765
      28                  37.8605623
      29                 36.46352302
      30                 35.10860107
      31                 33.78943867
      32                 32.50089533
      33                 31.23877004
      34                 29.99959617
      35                  28.7804878
      36                 29.82851816
      37                 30.87666426
      38                 31.92491369
      39                 32.97325578
      40                 34.02168127
      41                 35.07018208
      42                 36.11875116
      43                  37.1673823
      44                 38.21607004
      45                 39.26480951
46   40.31359642
47   41.36242691
48   42.41129755
49   43.46020525
50   44.50914723
51   45.55812098
52   46.60712423
53   47.65615493
54    48.7052112
55   49.75429135
56    50.8033938
57   51.85251715
58   52.90166008
59    53.9508214
60            55
61   56.04919487
62   57.09840506
63   58.14762971
64   59.19686802
65   60.24611925
66   61.29538269
67   62.34465771
68   63.39394371
69   64.44324013
70   65.49254645
71   66.54186218
72   67.59118687
73   68.64052009
74   69.68986144
75   70.73921055
76   71.78856706
77   72.83793064
78   73.88730098
79   74.93667779
80   75.98606079
81   77.03544971
82   78.08484432
83   79.13424437
84   80.18364965
85   81.23305994
86   82.28247506
87    83.3318948
88     84.381319
89   85.43074748
90   86.48018009
91   87.52961667
92   88.57905707
93   89.62850116
94   90.67794881
95   91.72739988
96   92.77685427
97   93.82631185
 98   94.87577252
 99   95.92523617
100   96.97470271
without CMA support




                Extension




                  No action




                    50        100
t ($/ha/year)
Cl                     10             10               10        Cl = learning/transition cost of adoption
Ct                    2.5            2.5              2.5        Ct = transaction costs of the program
k                      50             50               50        k = parameter on adoption curve. Higher = longer
r                    0.05           0.05             0.05        r = discount rate
BCR                     1              2                3        BCR = ratio of additional benefits:costs from subs
                                                                 Alpha = shift in adoption due to extension
Pi          Pu (extension) Pu (extension) Pu (extension)         Pi = private net benefit (excluding subsidy)
        0                                                      0 Pu = public net benefit (excluding subsidy) that ac
      0.5                                                   -0.5
        1                                                     -1
        2                                                     -2
        3                                                     -3
        4                                                     -4             ISO-BCR lines for Regulation
        5                                                     -5
        6                                                     -6
        7                                                     -7
        8                                                     -8                    -100
        9     -187.85894    -375.7178796    -563.5768193      -9




                                                                               Public net benefit ($/ha/year)
       10    -313.098233    -626.1964659    -939.2946989     -10
       11    -40.1358993     -80.2717985    -120.4076978     -11
       12    -15.2385972    -30.47719447     -45.7157917     -12
       13     -12.402741    -24.80548196    -37.20822294     -13
       14    -11.9613334    -23.92266676    -35.88400014     -14
       15    -12.2167097     -24.4334194     -36.6501291     -15
       16    -12.7642828    -25.52856562    -38.29284843     -16
       17    -13.4609509    -26.92190189    -40.38285283     -17
       18    -14.2436869    -28.48737378    -42.73106067     -18
       19    -15.0805148    -30.16102969    -45.24154454     -19
       20    -15.9535195    -31.90703906    -47.86055859     -20
       21    -16.8518958    -33.70379154     -50.5556873     -21
       22    -17.7687447    -35.53748947    -53.30623421     -22
       23    -18.6994573    -37.39891458    -56.09837187     -23
       24    -19.6408379    -39.28167589    -58.92251383     -24
       25    -20.5906021    -41.18120414    -61.77180621     -25
       26    -21.5470732    -43.09414649    -64.64121974     -26
       27    -22.5089937    -45.01798736    -67.52698104     -27
       28    -23.4754013    -46.95080261    -70.42620392     -28
       29    -24.4455478    -48.89109554    -73.33664331     -29
       30    -25.4188422    -50.83768449    -76.25652673     -30
       31    -26.3948121    -52.78962416    -79.18443624     -31
       32    -27.3730747    -54.74614936    -82.11922404     -32
       33     -28.353317    -56.70663408    -85.05995112     -33
       34    -29.3352806    -58.67056124    -88.00584186     -34
       35      -30.31875         -60.6375       -90.95625    -35
       36    -31.3035443    -62.60708851    -93.91063276     -36
       37    -32.2895103    -64.57902062    -96.86853092     -37
       38    -33.2765178    -66.55303558    -99.82955337     -38
       39     -34.264455    -68.52890994    -102.7933649     -39
       40    -35.2532255    -70.50645107    -105.7596766     -40
       41     -36.242746    -72.48549208    -108.7282381     -41
       42    -37.2329438    -74.46588761    -111.6988314     -42
43   -38.2237553    -76.44751051    -114.6712658    -43
44   -39.2151245    -78.43024904    -117.6453736    -44
45   -40.2070023    -80.41400464     -120.621007    -45
46    -41.199345        -82.39869    -123.598035    -46
47   -42.1921138    -84.38422755    -126.5763413    -47
48    -43.185274    -86.37054809    -129.5558221    -48
49   -44.1787949    -88.35758973    -132.5363846    -49
50   -45.1726485    -90.34529692    -135.5179454    -50
51   -46.1668098    -92.33361969    -138.5004295    -51
52   -47.1612565    -94.32251293    -141.4837694    -52
53   -48.1559679    -96.31193585    -144.4679038    -53
54   -49.1509257    -98.30185144    -147.4527772    -54
55    -50.146113    -100.2922261    -150.4383391    -55
56   -51.1415145    -102.2830291    -153.4245436    -56
57   -52.1371163    -104.2742325    -156.4113488    -57
58   -53.1329054    -106.2658108    -159.3987162    -58
59   -54.1288702    -108.2577405    -162.3866107    -59
60        -55.125         -110.25        -165.375   -60
61   -56.1212848    -112.2425695    -168.3638543    -61
62   -57.1177154    -114.2354308    -171.3531463    -62
63   -58.1142835    -116.2285671    -174.3428506    -63
64   -59.1109813    -118.2219626    -177.3329439    -64
65   -60.1078015    -120.2156031    -180.3234046    -65
66   -61.1047376    -122.2094751    -183.3142127    -66
67   -62.1017831    -124.2035662    -186.3053494    -67
68   -63.0989325    -126.1978649    -189.2967974    -68
69   -64.0961802    -128.1923605    -192.2885407    -69
70   -65.0935214    -130.1870428    -195.2805643    -70
71   -66.0909513    -132.1819026     -198.272854    -71
72   -67.0884656    -134.1769312    -201.2653968    -72
73   -68.0860601    -136.1721203    -204.2581804    -73
74   -69.0837311    -138.1674622    -207.2511934    -74
75    -70.081475    -140.1629499    -210.2444249    -75
76   -71.0792883    -142.1585766     -213.237865    -76
77    -72.077168     -144.154336     -216.231504    -77
78    -73.075111    -146.1502221    -219.2253331    -78
79   -74.0731146    -148.1462293    -222.2193439    -79
80   -75.0711762    -150.1423523    -225.2135285    -80
81   -76.0692931    -152.1385863    -228.2078794    -81
82   -77.0674632    -154.1349264    -231.2023896    -82
83   -78.0656842    -156.1313683    -234.1970525    -83
84   -79.0639539    -158.1279078    -237.1918617    -84
85   -80.0622704    -160.1245409    -240.1868113    -85
86   -81.0606319    -162.1212639    -243.1818958    -86
87   -82.0590366    -164.1180731    -246.1771097    -87
88   -83.0574827    -166.1149654    -249.1724481    -88
89   -84.0559687    -168.1119374    -252.1679061    -89
90   -85.0544931    -170.1089861    -255.1634792    -90
91   -86.0530544    -172.1061087    -258.1591631    -91
92   -87.0516512    -174.1033024    -261.1549536    -92
93   -88.0502823    -176.1005646    -264.1508469    -93
94   -89.0489464    -178.0978928    -267.1468393    -94
 95   -90.0476424   -180.0952847   -270.1429271    -95
 96    -91.046369   -182.0927381   -273.1391071    -96
 97   -92.0451253   -184.0902507    -276.135376    -97
 98   -93.0439102   -186.0878205   -279.1317307    -98
 99   -94.0427228   -188.0854456   -282.1281684    -99
100   -95.0415621   -190.0831241   -285.1246862   -100
on cost of adoption                                                 10
ts of the program                                                  2.5
option curve. Higher = longer lag without CMA support               50
                                                                  0.05
 onal benefits:costs from subsidy or extension
ption due to extension
efit (excluding subsidy)
efit (excluding subsidy) that achieves BCR




R lines for Regulation


                                        0
                    -50                      0                    50             100




                                                                       BCR = 1
                                       -50



                                                             BCR = 2


                                                     BCR = 3


                                      -100
                           Private net benefit ($/ha/year)
Cl                    10            10              10Cl = learning/transition cost of adoption
Ct                   2.5           2.5             2.5Ct = transaction costs of the program
k                     50            50              50k = parameter on adoption curve. Higher = longer lag without CMA sup
r                  0.05          0.05             0.05r = discount rate
BCR                    2             2               2BCR = ratio of additional benefits:costs from subsidy or extension
Alpha                                2                Alpha = shift in adoption due to extension
Pi        Pu (subsidy) Pu (extension)                 Pi
                                         Pu (Neg incent) = private net benefit (excluding subsidy)
     -100           225                               Pu = public net benefit (excluding subsidy) that achieves A
      -99           223
      -98           221
      -97           219
      -96           217
      -95           215
      -94           213
      -93           211                  Note in the original published                                                                   incentives or
      -92           209                  version of this figure (in                                                                        tech change
      -91           207                  Land Economics), technology
      -90           205                  change was mistakenly
                                                                                                                     Technology
      -89           203                  omitted.




                                                                           Public net benefit ($/ha/year)
                                                                                                                     development
      -88           201                                                                                              (or no action)
      -87           199
      -86           197
      -85           195
      -84           193
      -83           191                                                                                     -100               -50
      -82           189
      -81           187
      -80           185
      -79           183                                                                                            No action
      -78           181                                                                                            (or extension or
      -77           179                                                                                            negative incentives)
      -76           177
      -75           175
      -74           173
      -73           171
      -72           169                                                                                                          Private net benefit ($/ha
      -71           167
      -70           165
      -69           163
      -68           161
      -67           159
      -66           157
      -65           155
      -64           153
      -63           151
      -62           149
      -61           147
      -60           145
      -59           143
      -58           141
      -57           139
-56   137
-55   135
-54   133
-53   131
-52   129
-51   127
-50   125
-49   123
-48   121
-47   119
-46   117
-45   115
-44   113
-43   111
-42   109
-41   107
-40   105
-39   103
-38   101
-37    99
-36    97
-35    95
-34    93
-33    91
-32    89
-31    87
-30    85
-29    83
-28    81
-27    79
-26    77
-25    75
-25    75
-24    73
-23    71
-22    69
-21    67
-20    65
-19    63
-18    61
-17    59
-16    57
-15    55
-14    53
-13    51
-12    49
-11    47
-10    45
 -9    43
 -8    41
 -7    39
 -6    37
       -5             35
       -4             33
       -3             31
       -2             29
       -1             27
        0             25
     0.67          24.33
     0.83          24.17
        1             24
        2             23
        3             22
        4             21
        5             20
        6             19
        7             18
        8             17                 -125.239293
        9             16                  -375.71788
       10             15                 -626.196466
       11   16.38836774                  -80.2717985
       12   23.47622865                  -30.4771945
       13   31.91962329                   -24.805482
       14   40.75463841                  -23.9226668
       15   49.75228748                  -24.4334194
       16   58.83252977                  -25.5285656
16.57799    64.10391844    64.10390201   -26.3076388
16.57799             100   64.10390201   -26.3076388
       17                  62.11913193   -26.9219019
       18                  58.17276139   -28.4873738
       19                  54.96824961   -30.1610297
       20                   52.2576372   -31.9070391
       21                  49.89212563   -33.7037915
       22                  47.77710592   -35.5374895
       23                  45.84959021   -37.3989146
       24                  44.06603975   -39.2816759
       25                  42.39540647   -41.1812041
       26                  40.81495912   -43.0941465
       27                   39.3076765   -45.0179874
       28                   37.8605623   -46.9508026
       29                  36.46352302   -48.8910955
       30                  35.10860107   -50.8376845
       31                  33.78943867   -52.7896242
       32                  32.50089533   -54.7461494
       33                  31.23877004   -56.7066341
       34                  29.99959617   -58.6705612
       35                   28.7804878       -60.6375
       36                  29.82851816   -62.6070885
       37                  30.87666426   -64.5790206
       38                  31.92491369   -66.5530356
       39                  32.97325578   -68.5289099
       40                  34.02168127   -70.5064511
       41                  35.07018208   -72.4854921
       42                  36.11875116   -74.4658876
43    37.1673823   -76.4475105
44   38.21607004    -78.430249
45   39.26480951   -80.4140046
46   40.31359642     -82.39869
47   41.36242691   -84.3842275
48   42.41129755   -86.3705481
49   43.46020525   -88.3575897
50   44.50914723   -90.3452969
51   45.55812098   -92.3336197
52   46.60712423   -94.3225129
53   47.65615493   -96.3119358
54    48.7052112   -98.3018514
55   49.75429135   -100.292226
56    50.8033938   -102.283029
57   51.85251715   -104.274233
58   52.90166008   -106.265811
59    53.9508214    -108.25774
60            55        -110.25
61   56.04919487    -112.24257
62   57.09840506   -114.235431
63   58.14762971   -116.228567
64   59.19686802   -118.221963
65   60.24611925   -120.215603
66   61.29538269   -122.209475
67   62.34465771   -124.203566
68   63.39394371   -126.197865
69   64.44324013    -128.19236
70   65.49254645   -130.187043
71   66.54186218   -132.181903
72   67.59118687   -134.176931
73   68.64052009    -136.17212
74   69.68986144   -138.167462
75   70.73921055    -140.16295
76   71.78856706   -142.158577
77   72.83793064   -144.154336
78   73.88730098   -146.150222
79   74.93667779   -148.146229
80   75.98606079   -150.142352
81   77.03544971   -152.138586
82   78.08484432   -154.134926
83   79.13424437   -156.131368
84   80.18364965   -158.127908
85   81.23305994   -160.124541
86   82.28247506   -162.121264
87    83.3318948   -164.118073
88     84.381319   -166.114965
89   85.43074748   -168.111937
90   86.48018009   -170.108986
91   87.52961667   -172.106109
92   88.57905707   -174.103302
93   89.62850116   -176.100565
94   90.67794881   -178.097893
 95   91.72739988   -180.095285
 96   92.77685427   -182.092738
 97   93.82631185   -184.090251
 98   94.87577252    -186.08782
 99   95.92523617   -188.085446
100   96.97470271   -190.083124
longer lag without CMA support

m subsidy or extension


that achieves A




              100
                 Positive
            incentives or
             tech change         Extension


                  50




                                 No action

                  0
                       0                 50                 100

                                        No action (or
                                        flexible negative
                                        incentives)
               -50




                           Negative
                           incentives
              -100
   Private net benefit ($/ha/year)
Cl                   10             10           10     Cl = learning/transition cost of adoption
Ct                  2.5            2.5          2.5     Ct = transaction costs of the program
k                    50             50           50     k = parameter on adoption curve. Higher = longer lag wi
r                  0.05          0.05         0.05      r = discount rate
BCR                   1              1            1     BCR = ratio of additional benefits:costs from subsidy or
Alpha                                2                  Alpha = shift in adoption due to extension
Pi        Pu (subsidy) Pu (extension) Pu (Neg incent)   Pi = private net benefit (excluding subsidy)
     -100        112.5                                  Pu = public net benefit (excluding subsidy) that achieves
      -99        111.5
      -98        110.5
      -97        109.5
      -96        108.5
      -95        107.5
      -94        106.5
      -93        105.5
      -92        104.5
      -91        103.5




                                                                       Public net benefit ($/ha/year)
      -90        102.5
      -89        101.5                                                                                         Technology
                                                                                                               development
      -88        100.5
                                                                                                               (or no action)
      -87          99.5
      -86          98.5
      -85          97.5
                                                                                                        -100
      -84          96.5
      -83          95.5
      -82          94.5
      -81          93.5
                                                                                                               No action
      -80          92.5
                                                                                                               (or extension or
      -79          91.5                                                                                        negative incentives)
      -78          90.5
      -77          89.5
      -76          88.5
      -75          87.5
      -74          86.5
      -73          85.5
      -72          84.5
      -71          83.5
      -70          82.5
      -69          81.5
      -68          80.5
      -67          79.5
      -66          78.5
      -65          77.5
      -64          76.5
      -63          75.5
      -62          74.5
      -61          73.5
      -60          72.5
      -59          71.5
      -58          70.5
      -57          69.5
  -56   68.5
  -55   67.5
  -54   66.5
  -53   65.5
  -52   64.5
  -51   63.5
  -50   62.5
  -49   61.5
  -48   60.5
  -47   59.5
  -46   58.5
  -45   57.5
  -44   56.5
  -43   55.5
  -42   54.5
  -41   53.5
  -40   52.5
  -39   51.5
  -38   50.5
-37.5     50
-37.5     50
  -37   49.5
  -36   48.5
  -35   47.5
  -34   46.5
  -33   45.5
  -32   44.5
  -31   43.5
  -30   42.5
  -29   41.5
  -28   40.5
  -27   39.5
  -26   38.5
  -25   37.5
  -25   37.5
  -24   36.5
  -23   35.5
  -22   34.5
  -21   33.5
  -20   32.5
  -19   31.5
  -18   30.5
  -17   29.5
  -16   28.5
  -15   27.5
  -14   26.5
  -13   25.5
  -12   24.5
  -11   23.5
  -10   22.5
   -9   21.5
   -8   20.5
       -7           19.5
       -6           18.5
       -5           17.5
       -4           16.5
       -3           15.5
       -2           14.5
       -1           13.5
        0           12.5
     0.67          11.83
     0.83          11.67
        1           11.5
        2           10.5
        3             9.5
        4             8.5
        5             7.5
        6             6.5
        7             5.5
        8             4.5
        9             3.5                  -187.85894
       10             2.5                 -313.098233
       11   2.694183871                   -40.1358993
       12   5.738114325                   -15.2385972
       13   9.459811644                    -12.402741
       14   13.37731921                   -11.9613334
       15   17.37614374                   -12.2167097
       16   21.41626488                   -12.7642828
       17   25.48017439                   -13.4609509
17.30979     26.7424311     26.74310849   -13.6961159
17.30979             100    26.74310849   -13.6961159
       18                   25.08638069   -14.2436869
       19                   22.98412481   -15.0805148
       20                    21.1288186   -15.9535195
       21                   19.44606281   -16.8518958
       22                   17.88855296   -17.7687447
       23                   16.42479511   -18.6994573
       24                   15.03301987   -19.6408379
       25                   13.69770323   -20.5906021
       26                   12.40747956   -21.5470732
       27                   11.15383825   -22.5089937
       28                   9.930281148   -23.4754013
       29                   8.731761508   -24.4455478
       30                   7.554300535   -25.4188422
       31                   6.394719335   -26.3948121
       32                   5.250447664   -27.3730747
       33                    4.11938502    -28.353317
       34                   2.999798085   -29.3352806
       35                   1.890243902     -30.31875
       36                   1.914259082   -31.3035443
       37                    1.93833213   -32.2895103
       38                   1.962456847   -33.2765178
       39                   1.986627892    -34.264455
       40                   2.010840634   -35.2532255
41    2.03509104      -36.242746
42    2.05937558     -37.2329438
43   2.083691152     -38.2237553
44   2.108035019     -39.2151245
45   2.132404757     -40.2070023
46    2.15679821      -41.199345
47   2.181213456     -42.1921138
48   2.205648775      -43.185274
49   2.230102624     -44.1787949
50   2.254573613     -45.1726485
51   2.279060488     -46.1668098
52   2.303562115     -47.1612565
53   2.328077464     -48.1559679
54   2.352605601     -49.1509257
55   2.377145673      -50.146113
56   2.401696902     -51.1415145
57   2.426258576     -52.1371163
58   2.450830042     -53.1329054
59      2.4754107    -54.1288702
60             2.5        -55.125
61   2.524597433     -56.1212848
62   2.549202529     -57.1177154
63   2.573814856     -58.1142835
64   2.598434011     -59.1109813
65   2.623059623     -60.1078015
66   2.647691344     -61.1047376
67   2.672328855     -62.1017831
68   2.696971854     -63.0989325
69   2.721620064     -64.0961802
70   2.746273224     -65.0935214
71    2.77093109     -66.0909513
72   2.795593435     -67.0884656
73   2.820260045     -68.0860601
74   2.844930721     -69.0837311
75   2.869605274      -70.081475
76    2.89428353     -71.0792883
77   2.918965321      -72.077168
78   2.943650492      -73.075111
79   2.968338896     -74.0731146
80   2.993030394     -75.0711762
81   3.017724856     -76.0692931
82   3.042422159     -77.0674632
83   3.067122184     -78.0656842
84   3.091824823     -79.0639539
85   3.116529971     -80.0622704
86   3.141237528     -81.0606319
87   3.165947401     -82.0590366
88      3.1906595    -83.0574827
89   3.215373741     -84.0559687
90   3.240090045     -85.0544931
91   3.264808333     -86.0530544
92   3.289528535     -87.0516512
 93    3.31425058   -88.0502823
 94   3.338974403   -89.0489464
 95    3.36369994   -90.0476424
 96   3.388427134    -91.046369
 97   3.413155925   -92.0451253
 98    3.43788626   -93.0439102
 99   3.462618086   -94.0427228
100   3.487351355   -95.0415621
on cost of adoption
ts of the program
option curve. Higher = longer lag without CMA support

 onal benefits:costs from subsidy or extension
ption due to extension
efit (excluding subsidy)
efit (excluding subsidy) that achieves A



                                  100


                         Positive
                         incentives

                                   50                Extension

      Technology
      development                                  No action
      (or no action)

                                      0
                  -50                     0              50                   100
                                                          No action (or
                                                          flexible negative
                                                          incentives)
      No action                   -50
      (or extension or
      negative incentives)
                                                Negative
                                                incentives

                                 -100
                       Private net benefit ($/ha/year)
                                         Default
Cl                    10            10               10   Cl = learning/transition cost of adoption
Ct                   2.5           2.5              2.5   Ct = transaction costs of the program
k                     50            50               50   k = parameter on adoption curve. Higher = longer lag without CMA supp
r                  0.05          0.05              0.05   r = discount rate
BCR                    2             2                2   BCR = ratio of additional benefits:costs from subsidy or extension
Alpha                              1.5                2   Alpha = shift in adoption due to extension
Pi        Pu (subsidy) Pu (extension)                     Pi = private net benefit (excluding subsidy)
     -100           225                                   Pu = public net benefit (excluding subsidy) that achieves A
      -99           223
      -98           221                                                                                                       100
      -97           219
                                                                                                                        Positive




                                                             Public net benefit ($/ha/year)
      -96           217
      -95           215                                                                                                 incentives
      -94           213
      -93           211
      -92           209
      -91           207                                                                              Technology                50
      -90           205                                                                              development
      -89           203                                                                              (or no action)
      -88           201
      -87           199
      -86           197
      -85           195
                                                                                                                                0
      -84           193
      -83           191                                                                       -100        -50                        0
      -82           189                                                                                           Private net benefit ($/ha/year)
      -81           187
      -80           185
      -79           183                                   Areas for incentives
      -78           181                                   Intersect with Pu = 100 line L                              -37.5
      -77           179                                   Intersect with Y axis                                          25
      -76           177                                   Sharp kink            X                                        10
      -75           175                                                         Y                                        15
      -74           173                                   Intersect with Pu = 100 line R
      -73           171                                                         X                                   20.5
      -72           169                                                         Y                                    100
      -71           167                                   Area                           1                       1406.25
      -70           165                                                                  2                           750
      -69           163                                                                  3                            50
      -68           161                                                                  4                        446.25
      -67           159                                   Total area                                              2652.5
      -66           157                                   % change from Fig 10                                       0%
      -65           155
      -64           153
      -63           151
      -62           149
      -61           147
      -60           145
      -59           143
      -58           141
      -57           139
-56   137
-55   135
-54   133
-53   131
-52   129
-51   127
-50   125
-49   123
-48   121
-47   119
-46   117
-45   115
-44   113
-43   111
-42   109
-41   107
-40   105
-39   103
-38   101
-37    99
-36    97
-35    95
-34    93
-33    91
-32    89
-31    87
-30    85
-29    83
-28    81
-27    79
-26    77
-25    75
-24    73
-23    71
-22    69
-21    67
-20    65
-19    63
-18    61
-17    59
-16    57
-15    55
-14    53
-13    51
-12    49
-11    47
-10    45
 -9    43
 -8    41
 -7    39
 -6    37
 -5    35
-4            33
-3            31
-2            29
-1            27
 0            25
 1            24   8256.041544
 2            23   8255.041544
 3            22   8254.041544
 4            21   8253.041544
 5            20   8252.041544
 6            19   8251.041544
 7            18   8250.041544
 8            17   8249.041544
 9            16   8248.041544
10            15   8247.041544
11   16.38836774   754.1313971
12   23.47622865   220.9923946
13   31.91962329    145.495249
14   40.75463841    117.178009
15   49.75228748   102.2631545
16   58.83252977   92.88605848
17   67.96034878   86.30602983
18   77.11804346   81.32863414
19    86.2957151   77.35269628
20   95.48739906   74.04348827
21   104.6892885   71.20014245
22   113.8988402   68.69494325
23   123.1142906   66.44286143
24   132.3343787    64.3851227
25   141.5581787   62.47981432
26   150.7849958    60.6962507
27   160.0142985   59.01145437
28   169.2456729   57.40788124
29   178.4787925   55.87190577
30   187.7133956   54.39278579
31   196.9492706    52.9619387
32   206.1862442   51.57242522
33   215.4241731   50.21857428
34   224.6629382   48.89570616
35    233.902439   47.59992508
36   243.1425908   46.32796173
37   252.3833213   45.07705228
38   261.6245685   43.84484438
39   270.8662789   42.62932336
40   280.1084063   41.42875374
41   289.3509104   40.24163257
42   298.5937558    39.0666517
43   307.8369115   37.90266725
44   317.0803502   38.21607004
45   326.3240476   39.26480951
46   335.5679821   40.31359642
47   344.8121346   41.36242691
48   354.0564878   42.41129755
49   363.3010262   43.46020525
50   372.5457361   44.50914723
51   381.7906049   45.55812098
52   391.0356211   46.60712423
53   400.2807746   47.65615493
54    409.526056    48.7052112
55   418.7714567   49.75429135
56    428.016969    50.8033938
57   437.2625858   51.85251715
58   446.5083004   52.90166008
59    455.754107    53.9508214
60           465            55
61   474.2459743   56.04919487
62   483.4920253   57.09840506
63   492.7381486   58.14762971
64   501.9843401   59.19686802
65   511.2305962   60.24611925
66   520.4769134   61.29538269
67   529.7232885   62.34465771
68   538.9697185   63.39394371
69   548.2162006   64.44324013
70   557.4627322   65.49254645
71   566.7093109   66.54186218
72   575.9559343   67.59118687
73   585.2026005   68.64052009
74   594.4493072   69.68986144
75   603.6960527   70.73921055
76   612.9428353   71.78856706
77   622.1896532   72.83793064
78   631.4365049   73.88730098
79    640.683389   74.93667779
80   649.9303039   75.98606079
81   659.1772486   77.03544971
82   668.4242216   78.08484432
83   677.6712218   79.13424437
84   686.9182482   80.18364965
85   696.1652997   81.23305994
86   705.4123753   82.28247506
87    714.659474    83.3318948
88    723.906595     84.381319
89   733.1537374   85.43074748
90   742.4009004   86.48018009
91   751.6480833   87.52961667
92   760.8952853   88.57905707
93   770.1425058   89.62850116
94    779.389744   90.67794881
95   788.6369994   91.72739988
96   797.8842713   92.77685427
97   807.1315592   93.82631185
98   816.3788626   94.87577252
99   825.6261809   95.92523617
100 834.8735135   96.97470271
                                                               The calculations are appropximate, based on areas of triangles, with t

longer lag without CMA support                                 Change k to 75
                                                               Areas for incentives
m subsidy or extension                                         Intersect with Pu = 100 line L        -37.5
                                                               Intersect with Y axis                    25
                                                               Sharp kink            X                  10
that achieves A                                                                      Y                  15
                                                               Intersect with Pu = 100 line R
                                                                                     X                26.7
                                                                                     Y                 100
                                                               Area                           1   1406.25
                                                                                              2        750
                            Extension
                                                                                              3         50
                                                                                              4    709.75
                                                               Total area                            2916
                                                               % change from Fig 10                  10%

                                                               Change r to 0.075
                                                               Areas for incentives
                                                               Intersect with Pu = 100 line L        -37.5
                                                               Intersect with Y axis                    25
                                                               Sharp kink            X                  10
                                                                                     Y                  15
         0                      50                   100       Intersect with Pu = 100 line R
e net benefit ($/ha/year)                                                            X               26.5
                                                                                     Y                100
                                                               Area                           1   1406.25
             Area for extension                                                               2       750
             Pu for Pi = 100                              97                                  3        50
             Corner point            X                    35                                  4    701.25
                                     Y                  28.8   Total area                          2907.5
             Intersection with Pu = 100 line L          14.6   % change from Fig 10                  10%

             Area                                1    726.24   Change Cl to 5
                                                 2       195   Areas for incentives
                                                 3    2216.5   Intersect with Pu = 100 line L        -42.5
                                                     3137.74   Intersect with Y axis                    15
                                                         0%    Sharp kink            X                   5
                                                                                     Y                  10
                                                               Intersect with Pu = 100 line R
                                                                                     X                 24
                                                                                     Y                100
                                                               Area                           1   1806.25
                                                                                              2       425
                                                                                              3      12.5
                                                                                              4       855
                                                               Total area                         3098.75
                                                               % change from Fig 10                  17%
Change Ct to 1.5
Areas for incentives
Intersect with Pu = 100 line L       -38.5
Intersect with Y axis                   23
Sharp kink            X                 10
                      Y                 13
Intersect with Pu = 100 line R
                      X               21.7
                      Y                100
Area                           1   1482.25
                               2       770
                               3        50
                               4    508.95
Total area                          2811.2
% change from Fig 10                   6%


Change Alpha to 1.5
Areas for incentives
Intersect with Pu = 100 line L       -37.5
Intersect with Y axis                   25
Sharp kink            X                 10
                      Y                 15
Intersect with Pu = 100 line R
                      X               20.5
                      Y                100
Area                           1   1406.25
                               2       750
                               3        50
                               4    446.25
Total area                          2652.5
% change from Fig 10                   0%
on areas of triangles, with the curves roughly linearised.


             Area for extension
             Pu for Pi = 100                             35.5
             Corner point             X                    48
                                      Y                  16.5
             Intersection with Pu = 100 line L           14.8

             Area                                1     1386.1
                                                 2       3354
                                                 3        494
                                                       5234.1
                                                         67%




             Area for extension
             Pu for Pi = 100                               37
             Corner point             X                    35
                                      Y                  12.1
             Intersection with Pu = 100 line L           13.1

             Area                                1    962.505
                                                 2       4095
                                                 3     809.25
                                                     5866.755
                                                         87%




             Area for extension
             Pu for Pi = 100                              100
             Corner point             X                     30
                                      Y                  28.8
             Intersection with Pu = 100 line L             8.3

             Area                                1     772.52
                                                 2          0
                                                 3       2492
                                                      3264.52
                                                          4%
Area for extension
Pu for Pi = 100                            22.2
Corner point             X                   35
                         Y                  7.3
Intersection with Pu = 100 line L            12

Area                                1   1066.05
                                    2      5057
                                    3    484.25
                                         6607.3
                                          111%




Area for extension
Pu for Pi = 100                              97
Corner point             X                   43
                         Y                   38
Intersection with Pu = 100 line L          15.2

Area                                1     861.8
                                    2       171
                                    3    1681.5
                                         2714.3
                                          -13%
Cl                                     5   Cl = learning/transition cost of adoption
Ct                                   2.5   Ct = transaction costs of the program
k                   50                     k = parameter on adoption curve. Higher = longer lag without CMA support
r                                   0.05   r = discount rate
BCR                                    2   BCR = ratio of additional benefits:costs from subsidy or extension
                                           Alpha = shift in adoption due to extension
Pi          Lamda         Pu (extension)   Pi = private net benefit (excluding subsidy)
        0                                  Pu = public net benefit (excluding subsidy) that achieves BCR
      0.5          100
        1            50                    ISO-BCR lines for Regulation
        2            25
        3   16.66667                                                                                     0
        4         12.5                                                         -100   -50                     0
        5            10    -626.1964659
        6   8.333333        -80.2717985       Public net benefit ($/ha/year)
        7   7.142857       -30.47719447
        8         6.25     -24.80548196
        9   5.555556       -23.92266676
       10             5     -24.4334194                                                                 -50
       11   4.545455       -25.52856562
       12   4.166667       -26.92190189
       13   3.846154       -28.48737378
       14   3.571429       -30.16102969
       15   3.333333       -31.90703906
       16       3.125      -33.70379154
       17   2.941176       -35.53748947
       18   2.777778       -37.39891458                                                                -100
       19   2.631579       -39.28167589                                                     Private net benefit ($/ha/year)
       20           2.5    -41.18120414
       21   2.380952       -43.09414649
       22   2.272727       -45.01798736    Areas for incentives
       23   2.173913       -46.95080261    Intersect with Pu = -100 line lo                     10.8
       24   2.083333       -48.89109554    Intersect with Pu = -100 line hi                       55
       25             2    -50.83768449    Peak
       26   1.923077       -52.78962416                           X                              14
       27   1.851852       -54.74614936                           Y                             -24
       28   1.785714       -56.70663408    Area                                               121.6
       29   1.724138       -58.67056124                                                        1558
       30   1.666667            -60.6375   Total area                                        1679.6
       31   1.612903       -62.60708851    % change from Fig 10                                 0%
       32      1.5625      -64.57902062
       33   1.515152       -66.55303558
       34   1.470588       -68.52890994
       35   1.428571       -70.50645107
       36   1.388889       -72.48549208
       37   1.351351       -74.46588761
       38   1.315789       -76.44751051
       39   1.282051       -78.43024904
       40         1.25     -80.41400464
       41   1.219512           -82.39869
       42   1.190476       -84.38422755
43   1.162791    -86.37054809
44   1.136364    -88.35758973
45   1.111111    -90.34529692
46   1.086957    -92.33361969
47    1.06383    -94.32251293
48   1.041667    -96.31193585
49   1.020408    -98.30185144
50           1   -100.2922261
51   0.980392    -102.2830291
52   0.961538    -104.2742325
53   0.943396    -106.2658108
54   0.925926    -108.2577405
55   0.909091          -110.25
56   0.892857    -112.2425695
57   0.877193    -114.2354308
58   0.862069    -116.2285671
59   0.847458    -118.2219626
60   0.833333    -120.2156031
61   0.819672    -122.2094751
62   0.806452    -124.2035662
63   0.793651    -126.1978649
64    0.78125    -128.1923605
65   0.769231    -130.1870428
66   0.757576    -132.1819026
67   0.746269    -134.1769312
68   0.735294    -136.1721203
69   0.724638    -138.1674622
70   0.714286    -140.1629499
71   0.704225    -142.1585766
72   0.694444     -144.154336
73   0.684932    -146.1502221
74   0.675676    -148.1462293
75   0.666667    -150.1423523
76   0.657895    -152.1385863
77   0.649351    -154.1349264
78   0.641026    -156.1313683
79   0.632911    -158.1279078
80       0.625   -160.1245409
81   0.617284    -162.1212639
82   0.609756    -164.1180731
83    0.60241    -166.1149654
84   0.595238    -168.1119374
85   0.588235    -170.1089861
86   0.581395    -172.1061087
87   0.574713    -174.1033024
88   0.568182    -176.1005646
89   0.561798    -178.0978928
90   0.555556    -180.0952847
91   0.549451    -182.0927381
92   0.543478    -184.0902507
93   0.537634    -186.0878205
94   0.531915    -188.0854456
 95   0.526316    -190.0831241
 96   0.520833    -192.0808543
 97   0.515464    -194.0786343
 98   0.510204    -196.0764627
 99   0.505051    -198.0743378
100         0.5   -200.0722582
                                   Change Ct to 1.5
                        10         Intersect with Pu = -100 line lo       10.6
                       2.5         Intersect with Pu = -100 line hi         56
without CMA support     50         Peak
                      0.05                                X                 14
                                                          Y              -20.2
                                   Area                                 135.66
                                                                        1675.8
                                   Total area                          1811.46
                                   % change from Fig 10                    8%

                                   Change k to 75
                                   Intersect with Pu = -100 line lo       11.8
                50           100   Intersect with Pu = -100 line hi       53.5
                                   Peak
                                                          X                 15
                                                          Y              -31.2
                                   Area                                 110.08
                                                                        1324.4
                                   Total area                          1434.48
                                   % change from Fig 10                  -15%

                                   Change r to 0.075
                                   Intersect with Pu = -100 line lo       11.8
                                   Intersect with Pu = -100 line hi       53.5
                                   Peak
                                                          X                 15
                                                          Y              -30.9
t ($/ha/year)                      Area                                 110.56
                                                                      1330.175
                                   Total area                         1440.735
                                   % change from Fig 10                  -14%

                                   Change Cl to 5
                                   Intersect with Pu = -100 line lo        5.9
                                   Intersect with Pu = -100 line hi       49.9
                                   Peak
                                                          X                  9
                                                          Y              -23.9
                                   Area                                117.955
                                                                      1556.245
                                   Total area                           1674.2
                                   % change from Fig 10                    0%

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Stats:
views:5
posted:7/12/2011
language:English
pages:77