ppt by wulinqing

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									Immigrants and Urbanization

Immigration from Europe,
Asia, Mexico, and the
Caribbean forces cities
to confront overcrowding.
Local and national political
corruption sparks calls
for reform.




                               City street.

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               Chapter 15
               Objectives


•   Analyze the economic, social, and
    political effects of immigration and to
    understand the immigrant experience.
Immigrants and Urbanization



  SECTION 1   The New Immigrants

  SECTION 2   The Challenges of Urbanization

  SECTION 3   Politics in the Gilded Age




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Section 1
The New Immigrants
Immigration from Europe, Asia, the Caribbean,
and Mexico reach a new high in the late 19th and
early 20th centuries.




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       Chapter 15 Section 1
           Objectives
• Identify immigrants‟ countries of
  origin.
• Describe the journey of immigrants
  endured and their experiences at the
  United States immigration stations.
• Examine the causes and effects of the
  nativists‟ anti-immigrant sentiments.
SECTION

  1       The New Immigrants

 Through the “Golden Door”
 Millions of Immigrants
 • Some immigrants seek better lives; others
   temporary jobs
 Europeans
 • 1870–1920, about 20 million Europeans arrive            Interactive
   in U.S. (Italy, Austria-Hungary, Russia)
 • Many flee religious persecution: Jews driven
   from Russia by pogroms
 • Population growth results in lack of farmland,
   industrial jobs
 • Reform movements, revolts influence young who
   seek independent lives

                                                Continued . . .
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SECTION

  1


 continued   Through the “Golden Door”
Chinese and Japanese
• About 300,000 Chinese arrive; earliest one     Interactive

  attracted by gold rush
  - work in railroads, farms, mines, domestic
  service, business
• Japanese work on Hawaiian plantations,
  then go to West Coast
  - by 1920, more than 200,000 on West Coast
The West Indies, Mexico, Jamaica, Cuba,
 and Puerto Rico
• About 260,000 immigrants from West Indies;
  most seek industrial jobs
• Mexicans flee political turmoil; after 1910,
  700,000 arrive
• National Reclamation Act creates farmland,
  draws Mexican farmers                                    NEXT
SECTION

  1


 Life in the New Land
 A Difficult Journey
 • Almost all immigrants travel by steamship,
   most in steerage
 Ellis Island
 • Ellis Island—chief U.S. immigration                       Image
   station, in New York Harbor
 • Immigrants given physical exam by doctor;
   seriously ill not admitted
 • Inspector checks documents to see if meets
   legal requirements
 • 1892–1924, about 17 million immigrants
   processed at Ellis Island


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SECTION

  1


 continued   Life in the New Land

 Angel Island
 • Angel Island—immigrant processing station in
   San Francisco Bay
 • Immigrants endure harsh questioning, long
   detention for admission
 Cooperation for Survival
 • Immigrants must create new life: find work, home,
   learn new ways
 • Many seek people who share cultural values,
   religion, language
   - ethnic communities form
 • Friction develops between ―hyphenated‖ Americans,
   native-born


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SECTION

  1


 Immigration Restrictions
 The Rise of Nativism
 • Melting pot—in U.S. people blend by
   abandoning native culture
   - immigrants don’t want to give up cultural
   identity
 • Nativism—overt favoritism toward native-born
   Americans
 • Nativists believe Anglo-Saxons superior to
   other ethnic groups
 • Some object to immigrants’ religion: many
   are Catholics, Jews
 • 1897, Congress passes literacy bill for
   immigrants; Cleveland vetoes
   - 1917, similar bill passes over Wilson’s veto
                                                    Continued . . .
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                Immigration
•   Restrictions on immigration were the result of ethnic prejudices and
    market forces.
•   Students should understand the term nativism, which predated the Civil
    War with prejudices against the Germans and the Irish.
•   After the Civil War, westerners resented the Chinese workers who had
    built the railroads and Chinese immigration was restricted as a result of
    such prejudices.
•   Unskilled workers objected to the practice of contracting laborers in
    Europe who would come to take jobs from “native” Americans and exert
    a downward pressure on wages.
•   The United States government passed a law which limited this practice.
•   Union members also resented the immigrants who were employed as
    “scabs” (strikebreakers) by management.
•   In the late 19th century, resentments focused on the immigrants from
    Southern and Eastern Europe as the numbers of these groups grew and
    the differences with previous immigrant groups, (such as the English, Irish
    and Germans) and „native‟ Americans were more obvious.
•   Although further restrictions on immigration were proposed in Congress in
    the 1890s, they did not pass until the 1920s.
•   Late 19th century nativism can be seen as another expression of Social
    Darwinism.
SECTION

  1


 continued   Immigration Restrictions

 Anti-Asian Sentiment
 • Nativism finds foothold in labor movement,
   especially in West
   - fear Chinese immigrants who work for less         Image
 • Labor groups exert political pressure to
   restrict Asian immigration
 • 1882, Chinese Exclusion Act bans entry to
   most Chinese
The Gentlemen’s Agreement
• Nativist fears extend to Japanese, most Asians in
  early 1900s
  - San Francisco segregates Japanese schoolchildren
• Gentlemen’s Agreement—Japan limits
  emigration
  - in return, U.S. repeals segregation
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Section 2
The Challenges of
Urbanization
The rapid growth of cities force people to contend
with problems of housing, transportation, water,
and sanitation.



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       Chapter 15 Section 2
           Objectives
• Describe the movement of immigrants
  to the cities and the opportunities they
  found there.
• Explain how cities dealt with housing,
  sanitation, and safety issues.
• Describe some of the organizations
  and people who offered help to urban
  immigrants.
SECTION

  2       The Challenges of Urbanization

 Urban Opportunities
 Immigrants Settle in Cities                                     Map
 • Industrialization leads to urbanization, or
   growth of cities
 • Most immigrants settle in cities; get cheap
   housing, factory jobs
 • Americanization movement—assimilate people
   into main culture
 • Schools, voluntary groups teach citizenship skills
   - English, American history, cooking, etiquette
 • Ethnic communities provide social support




                                                   Continued . . .
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SECTION

  2


 continued   Urban Opportunities

 Migration from Country to City
 • Farm technology decreases need for laborers;    Chart

   people move to cities
 • Many African Americans in South lose their
   livelihood
 • 1890–1910, move to cities in North, West to
   escape racial violence
 • Find segregation, discrimination in North too
 • Competition for jobs between blacks, white
   immigrants causes tension




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               Cities
• Students should be able to use maps to trace the
  reasons for the development of urban areas
  by reviewing the location of major cities of the
  colonial, early national, and pre-Civil War
  periods to see how urbanization mirrored the
  economic development of the regions.
• Then they can compare the location of cities in
  the post-Civil War period to see how the major
  cities in the United States shifted over time
  from to the east coast to the Midwest and
  finally the west coast.
• They should understand that cities grew as
  people immigrated from abroad (USHC 5.6)
  and migrated from the farm to the city
  (USHC 5.3).
African American Migration
 • Although most freedmen stayed in the South immediately after the
   Civil War, African-American migration from the South
   intensified as a result of poor cotton yields due to soil
   exhaustion and the boll weevil, as well as the discrimination of
   Jim Crow laws, intimidation and lynchings of African
   Americans in the South.
 • As farm prices fell, African Americans joined other farmers in
   the move to the cities for job opportunities.
 • This movement intensified during World War I as more jobs
   became available.
 • Farm technology played a role as farmers in all regions
   produced more and sold it for less, defaulted on loans, lost
   their land and moved to the cities to find work (USHC 5.3).
 • Others were attracted to the city because of its rich cultural life and
   excitement.
 • Despite the phenomenal growth of cities, the majority of the
   American people still lived outside of urban areas before 1920.
SECTION

  2


 Urban Problems
 Housing
 • Working-class families live in houses on
   outskirts or boardinghouses
 • Later, row houses built for single families
 • Immigrants take over row houses, 2–3 families
   per house
 • Tenements—multifamily urban dwellings, are
   overcrowded, unsanitary
 Transportation
 • Mass transit—move large numbers of people
   along fixed routes
 • New forms of transportation: cable cars,
   electric streetcars, and electric subway
 • By 20th century, transit systems link city to
   suburbs                                         Continued . . .
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SECTION

  2


 continued   Urban Problems

 Water
 • 1860s cities have inadequate or no piped water,
   indoor plumbing rare
 • Filtration introduced 1870s, chlorination in
   1908
Sanitation
• Streets: manure, open gutters, factory smoke,
  poor trash collection
• Contractors hired to sweep streets, collect
  garbage, clean outhouses
  - often do not do job properly
• By 1900, cities develop sewer lines, create
  sanitation departments

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SECTION

  2


 continued   Urban Problems

 Crime
 • As population grows, thieves flourish
 • Full time professional police departments
 • Early police forces too small to be effective
Fire
• Fire hazards: limited water, wood houses, candles,
  kerosene heaters
• Most firefighters volunteers, not always available    Image

• 1900, most cities have full-time, professional fire
  departments
• Fire sprinklers, non-flammable building
  materials make cities safer



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        Crowded Cities
• Crowded city conditions led to problems with
  housing, sanitation, transportation, water, crime and
  fire.
• Corrupt city bosses using the political power of their
  immigrant constituencies were unable to successfully
  address all of these problems because of
  corruption.
• The progressive movement developed as a result of
  the need to address urban problems and corruption
  (USHC 5.7).
• The resulting city planning included parks and
  majestic buildings designed to awe residents and
  influence their behavior.
• Progressive changes in city government made it
  more professional and more responsive to the needs
  of the people.
SECTION

  2


 Reformers Mobilize
 The Settlement House Movement
 • Social welfare reformers work to relieve urban
   poverty
 • Social Gospel movement—preaches salvation
   through service to poor
 • Settlement houses—community centers in slums,
   help immigrants
 • Run by college-educated women, they:
   - provide educational, cultural, social services
   - send visiting nurses to the sick
   - help with personal, job, financial problems
 • Jane Addams founds Hull House with Ellen Gates     Image

   Starr in 1889


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         Jane Addams
• Jane Addams should be associated with her
  introduction of the settlement house, the Hull
  House in Chicago, where her immigrant
  neighbors were able to take vocational classes
  and receive childcare.
• Addams and others advocated protection for
  child workers. State laws limited hours and
  conditions and a federal child labor act was
  passed.
• However, state laws were poorly enforced and
  the Supreme Court overturned state laws that
  established maximum hours for bakers and the
  minimum wage for women.
Section 3
Politics in the Gilded Age
Local and national political corruption in the
19th century leads to calls for reform.




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        Chapter 15 Section 3
            Objectives
•   Explain the role of the political machines
    and political bosses.
•   Describe how some politicians‟ greed and
    fraud cost taxpayers millions of dollars.
•   Describe measures taken by President
    Hayes, Garfield, and Arthur to reform the
    spoils system.
•   Explain the positions taken by presidents
    Cleveland, Harrison, and McKinley on the
    tariff issue.
SECTION

  3       Politics in the Gilded Age

 The Emergence of Political Machines
 The Political Machine
 • Political machine—organized group that controls
   city political party
 • Give services to voters, businesses for political,
   financial support
 • After Civil War, machines gain control of major
   cities
 • Machine organization: precinct captains, ward
   bosses, city boss




                                                Continued . . .
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Political Role of Immigrants

  • Since students have already been
    introduced to the importance of
    immigration to American society and
    the role of immigrant labor in the
    economy (USHC 5.2) and in the
    labor movement (USHC 5.5), focus
    should be on the social and political
    role of immigrants, particularly in
    the growth of cities and in the urban
    political machines.
SECTION

  3


 continued   The Emergence of Political Machines

 The Role of the Political Boss
 • Whether or not city boss serves as mayor, he:
   - controls access to city jobs, business licenses
   - influences courts, municipal agencies
   - arranges building projects, community services
 • Bosses paid by businesses, get voters’ loyalty,
   extend influence
 Immigrants and the Machine
 • Many captains, bosses 1st- or 2nd-generation
   Americans
 • Machines help immigrants with naturalization,
   jobs, housing



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    Ethnic Neighborhoods
•   It is important for students to understand that many immigrants were
    too poor to move beyond the port cities where they landed.
•   Thus ethnic neighborhoods grew as immigrants looked for the familiar
    in a strange new land.
•   Churches, schools, businesses and newspapers reflected the ethnicity of
    Little Italy, Greektown or Polonia.
•   Many established immigrants helped those who had newly arrived to
    find jobs and housing.
•   This had a powerful impact on city politics.
•   People voted for those who found them jobs and helped them through
    hard times.
•   It is important for students to understand that immigrants gave their
    votes to neighborhood and ward bosses in gratitude for the help they
    had received, not as a result of any direct bribery.
•   Although many political bosses were corrupt and routinely used graft
    and bribery in awarding city contracts, they also served an important
    role in helping new immigrants to adapt to their new country.
•   The power that immigrant groups gave to the urban political
    machine allowed the bosses to solve important urban problems
    despite the abuses that occurred under city bosses such as New
    York’s Boss Tweed.
SECTION

  3


 Municipal Graft and Scandal
 Election Fraud and Graft
 • Machines use electoral fraud to win elections
 • Graft—illegal use of political influence for
   personal gain
 • Machines take kickbacks, bribes to allow legal,
   illegal activities
 The Tweed Ring Scandal
 • 1868 William M. Tweed, or Boss Tweed, heads
   Tammany Hall in NYC
 • Leads Tweed Ring, defrauds city of millions of dollars
 • Cartoonist Thomas Nast helps arouse public outrage       Image
   - Tweed Ring broken in 1871



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SECTION

  3


 Civil Service Replaces Patronage
 Patronage Spurs Reform
 • Patronage—government jobs to those who help
   candidate get elected
 • Civil service (government administration) are all
   patronage jobs
 • Some appointees not qualified; some use position
   for personal gain
 • Reformers press for merit system of hiring for
   civil service




                                                  Continued . . .
                                                                    NEXT
SECTION

  3
continued   Civil Service Replaces Patronage
Reform Under Hayes, Garfield, and Arthur
• Republican Rutherford B. Hayes elected president
  1876
  - supported reform
  - names independents to cabinet
  - creates commission to investigate corruption
  - fires 2 NY customhouse officials; angers
  Stalwarts
                                                     Image
• 1880, Republican independent James A. Garfield
  wins election
• Stalwart Chester A. Arthur is vice-president
• Garfield gives patronage jobs to reformers; is
  shot and killed
• As president, Arthur supported reform. He urges
  Congress to pass civil service law
• Pendleton Civil Service Act—appointments
  on exam based score (merit system)
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SECTION

  3


 Business Buys Influence
 Harrison, Cleveland, and High Tariffs
 • Business wants high tariffs; Democrats want low
   tariffs
 • 1884, Democrat Grover Cleveland wins; cannot
   lower tariffs
 • 1888, Benjamin Harrison becomes president,
   supports higher tariffs
   - wins passage of McKinley Tariff Act (highest ever)
 • 1892, Cleveland reelected, supports bill that lowers
   McKinley Tariff
   - rejects bill that also creates income tax
   - Wilson-Gorman Tariff becomes law 1894
 • 1897, William McKinley becomes president, raises
   tariffs again

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