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Immigrants and Urbanization Immigration from Europe, Asia, Mexico, and the Caribbean forces cities to confront overcrowding. Local and national political corruption sparks calls for reform. City street. NEXT Chapter 15 Objectives • Analyze the economic, social, and political effects of immigration and to understand the immigrant experience. Immigrants and Urbanization SECTION 1 The New Immigrants SECTION 2 The Challenges of Urbanization SECTION 3 Politics in the Gilded Age NEXT Section 1 The New Immigrants Immigration from Europe, Asia, the Caribbean, and Mexico reach a new high in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. NEXT Chapter 15 Section 1 Objectives • Identify immigrants‟ countries of origin. • Describe the journey of immigrants endured and their experiences at the United States immigration stations. • Examine the causes and effects of the nativists‟ anti-immigrant sentiments. SECTION 1 The New Immigrants Through the “Golden Door” Millions of Immigrants • Some immigrants seek better lives; others temporary jobs Europeans • 1870–1920, about 20 million Europeans arrive Interactive in U.S. (Italy, Austria-Hungary, Russia) • Many flee religious persecution: Jews driven from Russia by pogroms • Population growth results in lack of farmland, industrial jobs • Reform movements, revolts influence young who seek independent lives Continued . . . NEXT SECTION 1 continued Through the “Golden Door” Chinese and Japanese • About 300,000 Chinese arrive; earliest one Interactive attracted by gold rush - work in railroads, farms, mines, domestic service, business • Japanese work on Hawaiian plantations, then go to West Coast - by 1920, more than 200,000 on West Coast The West Indies, Mexico, Jamaica, Cuba, and Puerto Rico • About 260,000 immigrants from West Indies; most seek industrial jobs • Mexicans flee political turmoil; after 1910, 700,000 arrive • National Reclamation Act creates farmland, draws Mexican farmers NEXT SECTION 1 Life in the New Land A Difficult Journey • Almost all immigrants travel by steamship, most in steerage Ellis Island • Ellis Island—chief U.S. immigration Image station, in New York Harbor • Immigrants given physical exam by doctor; seriously ill not admitted • Inspector checks documents to see if meets legal requirements • 1892–1924, about 17 million immigrants processed at Ellis Island Continued . . . NEXT SECTION 1 continued Life in the New Land Angel Island • Angel Island—immigrant processing station in San Francisco Bay • Immigrants endure harsh questioning, long detention for admission Cooperation for Survival • Immigrants must create new life: find work, home, learn new ways • Many seek people who share cultural values, religion, language - ethnic communities form • Friction develops between ―hyphenated‖ Americans, native-born NEXT SECTION 1 Immigration Restrictions The Rise of Nativism • Melting pot—in U.S. people blend by abandoning native culture - immigrants don’t want to give up cultural identity • Nativism—overt favoritism toward native-born Americans • Nativists believe Anglo-Saxons superior to other ethnic groups • Some object to immigrants’ religion: many are Catholics, Jews • 1897, Congress passes literacy bill for immigrants; Cleveland vetoes - 1917, similar bill passes over Wilson’s veto Continued . . . NEXT Immigration • Restrictions on immigration were the result of ethnic prejudices and market forces. • Students should understand the term nativism, which predated the Civil War with prejudices against the Germans and the Irish. • After the Civil War, westerners resented the Chinese workers who had built the railroads and Chinese immigration was restricted as a result of such prejudices. • Unskilled workers objected to the practice of contracting laborers in Europe who would come to take jobs from “native” Americans and exert a downward pressure on wages. • The United States government passed a law which limited this practice. • Union members also resented the immigrants who were employed as “scabs” (strikebreakers) by management. • In the late 19th century, resentments focused on the immigrants from Southern and Eastern Europe as the numbers of these groups grew and the differences with previous immigrant groups, (such as the English, Irish and Germans) and „native‟ Americans were more obvious. • Although further restrictions on immigration were proposed in Congress in the 1890s, they did not pass until the 1920s. • Late 19th century nativism can be seen as another expression of Social Darwinism. SECTION 1 continued Immigration Restrictions Anti-Asian Sentiment • Nativism finds foothold in labor movement, especially in West - fear Chinese immigrants who work for less Image • Labor groups exert political pressure to restrict Asian immigration • 1882, Chinese Exclusion Act bans entry to most Chinese The Gentlemen’s Agreement • Nativist fears extend to Japanese, most Asians in early 1900s - San Francisco segregates Japanese schoolchildren • Gentlemen’s Agreement—Japan limits emigration - in return, U.S. repeals segregation NEXT Section 2 The Challenges of Urbanization The rapid growth of cities force people to contend with problems of housing, transportation, water, and sanitation. NEXT Chapter 15 Section 2 Objectives • Describe the movement of immigrants to the cities and the opportunities they found there. • Explain how cities dealt with housing, sanitation, and safety issues. • Describe some of the organizations and people who offered help to urban immigrants. SECTION 2 The Challenges of Urbanization Urban Opportunities Immigrants Settle in Cities Map • Industrialization leads to urbanization, or growth of cities • Most immigrants settle in cities; get cheap housing, factory jobs • Americanization movement—assimilate people into main culture • Schools, voluntary groups teach citizenship skills - English, American history, cooking, etiquette • Ethnic communities provide social support Continued . . . NEXT SECTION 2 continued Urban Opportunities Migration from Country to City • Farm technology decreases need for laborers; Chart people move to cities • Many African Americans in South lose their livelihood • 1890–1910, move to cities in North, West to escape racial violence • Find segregation, discrimination in North too • Competition for jobs between blacks, white immigrants causes tension NEXT Cities • Students should be able to use maps to trace the reasons for the development of urban areas by reviewing the location of major cities of the colonial, early national, and pre-Civil War periods to see how urbanization mirrored the economic development of the regions. • Then they can compare the location of cities in the post-Civil War period to see how the major cities in the United States shifted over time from to the east coast to the Midwest and finally the west coast. • They should understand that cities grew as people immigrated from abroad (USHC 5.6) and migrated from the farm to the city (USHC 5.3). African American Migration • Although most freedmen stayed in the South immediately after the Civil War, African-American migration from the South intensified as a result of poor cotton yields due to soil exhaustion and the boll weevil, as well as the discrimination of Jim Crow laws, intimidation and lynchings of African Americans in the South. • As farm prices fell, African Americans joined other farmers in the move to the cities for job opportunities. • This movement intensified during World War I as more jobs became available. • Farm technology played a role as farmers in all regions produced more and sold it for less, defaulted on loans, lost their land and moved to the cities to find work (USHC 5.3). • Others were attracted to the city because of its rich cultural life and excitement. • Despite the phenomenal growth of cities, the majority of the American people still lived outside of urban areas before 1920. SECTION 2 Urban Problems Housing • Working-class families live in houses on outskirts or boardinghouses • Later, row houses built for single families • Immigrants take over row houses, 2–3 families per house • Tenements—multifamily urban dwellings, are overcrowded, unsanitary Transportation • Mass transit—move large numbers of people along fixed routes • New forms of transportation: cable cars, electric streetcars, and electric subway • By 20th century, transit systems link city to suburbs Continued . . . NEXT SECTION 2 continued Urban Problems Water • 1860s cities have inadequate or no piped water, indoor plumbing rare • Filtration introduced 1870s, chlorination in 1908 Sanitation • Streets: manure, open gutters, factory smoke, poor trash collection • Contractors hired to sweep streets, collect garbage, clean outhouses - often do not do job properly • By 1900, cities develop sewer lines, create sanitation departments Continued . . . NEXT SECTION 2 continued Urban Problems Crime • As population grows, thieves flourish • Full time professional police departments • Early police forces too small to be effective Fire • Fire hazards: limited water, wood houses, candles, kerosene heaters • Most firefighters volunteers, not always available Image • 1900, most cities have full-time, professional fire departments • Fire sprinklers, non-flammable building materials make cities safer NEXT Crowded Cities • Crowded city conditions led to problems with housing, sanitation, transportation, water, crime and fire. • Corrupt city bosses using the political power of their immigrant constituencies were unable to successfully address all of these problems because of corruption. • The progressive movement developed as a result of the need to address urban problems and corruption (USHC 5.7). • The resulting city planning included parks and majestic buildings designed to awe residents and influence their behavior. • Progressive changes in city government made it more professional and more responsive to the needs of the people. SECTION 2 Reformers Mobilize The Settlement House Movement • Social welfare reformers work to relieve urban poverty • Social Gospel movement—preaches salvation through service to poor • Settlement houses—community centers in slums, help immigrants • Run by college-educated women, they: - provide educational, cultural, social services - send visiting nurses to the sick - help with personal, job, financial problems • Jane Addams founds Hull House with Ellen Gates Image Starr in 1889 NEXT Jane Addams • Jane Addams should be associated with her introduction of the settlement house, the Hull House in Chicago, where her immigrant neighbors were able to take vocational classes and receive childcare. • Addams and others advocated protection for child workers. State laws limited hours and conditions and a federal child labor act was passed. • However, state laws were poorly enforced and the Supreme Court overturned state laws that established maximum hours for bakers and the minimum wage for women. Section 3 Politics in the Gilded Age Local and national political corruption in the 19th century leads to calls for reform. NEXT Chapter 15 Section 3 Objectives • Explain the role of the political machines and political bosses. • Describe how some politicians‟ greed and fraud cost taxpayers millions of dollars. • Describe measures taken by President Hayes, Garfield, and Arthur to reform the spoils system. • Explain the positions taken by presidents Cleveland, Harrison, and McKinley on the tariff issue. SECTION 3 Politics in the Gilded Age The Emergence of Political Machines The Political Machine • Political machine—organized group that controls city political party • Give services to voters, businesses for political, financial support • After Civil War, machines gain control of major cities • Machine organization: precinct captains, ward bosses, city boss Continued . . . NEXT Political Role of Immigrants • Since students have already been introduced to the importance of immigration to American society and the role of immigrant labor in the economy (USHC 5.2) and in the labor movement (USHC 5.5), focus should be on the social and political role of immigrants, particularly in the growth of cities and in the urban political machines. SECTION 3 continued The Emergence of Political Machines The Role of the Political Boss • Whether or not city boss serves as mayor, he: - controls access to city jobs, business licenses - influences courts, municipal agencies - arranges building projects, community services • Bosses paid by businesses, get voters’ loyalty, extend influence Immigrants and the Machine • Many captains, bosses 1st- or 2nd-generation Americans • Machines help immigrants with naturalization, jobs, housing NEXT Ethnic Neighborhoods • It is important for students to understand that many immigrants were too poor to move beyond the port cities where they landed. • Thus ethnic neighborhoods grew as immigrants looked for the familiar in a strange new land. • Churches, schools, businesses and newspapers reflected the ethnicity of Little Italy, Greektown or Polonia. • Many established immigrants helped those who had newly arrived to find jobs and housing. • This had a powerful impact on city politics. • People voted for those who found them jobs and helped them through hard times. • It is important for students to understand that immigrants gave their votes to neighborhood and ward bosses in gratitude for the help they had received, not as a result of any direct bribery. • Although many political bosses were corrupt and routinely used graft and bribery in awarding city contracts, they also served an important role in helping new immigrants to adapt to their new country. • The power that immigrant groups gave to the urban political machine allowed the bosses to solve important urban problems despite the abuses that occurred under city bosses such as New York’s Boss Tweed. SECTION 3 Municipal Graft and Scandal Election Fraud and Graft • Machines use electoral fraud to win elections • Graft—illegal use of political influence for personal gain • Machines take kickbacks, bribes to allow legal, illegal activities The Tweed Ring Scandal • 1868 William M. Tweed, or Boss Tweed, heads Tammany Hall in NYC • Leads Tweed Ring, defrauds city of millions of dollars • Cartoonist Thomas Nast helps arouse public outrage Image - Tweed Ring broken in 1871 NEXT SECTION 3 Civil Service Replaces Patronage Patronage Spurs Reform • Patronage—government jobs to those who help candidate get elected • Civil service (government administration) are all patronage jobs • Some appointees not qualified; some use position for personal gain • Reformers press for merit system of hiring for civil service Continued . . . NEXT SECTION 3 continued Civil Service Replaces Patronage Reform Under Hayes, Garfield, and Arthur • Republican Rutherford B. Hayes elected president 1876 - supported reform - names independents to cabinet - creates commission to investigate corruption - fires 2 NY customhouse officials; angers Stalwarts Image • 1880, Republican independent James A. Garfield wins election • Stalwart Chester A. Arthur is vice-president • Garfield gives patronage jobs to reformers; is shot and killed • As president, Arthur supported reform. He urges Congress to pass civil service law • Pendleton Civil Service Act—appointments on exam based score (merit system) NEXT SECTION 3 Business Buys Influence Harrison, Cleveland, and High Tariffs • Business wants high tariffs; Democrats want low tariffs • 1884, Democrat Grover Cleveland wins; cannot lower tariffs • 1888, Benjamin Harrison becomes president, supports higher tariffs - wins passage of McKinley Tariff Act (highest ever) • 1892, Cleveland reelected, supports bill that lowers McKinley Tariff - rejects bill that also creates income tax - Wilson-Gorman Tariff becomes law 1894 • 1897, William McKinley becomes president, raises tariffs again NEXT This is the end of the chapter presentation of lecture notes. Click the HOME or EXIT button.
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