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                  Workshop report and concept note

     Triangular cooperation in the context of aid
                   effectiveness –
         Experiences and views of EU donors
                                   Final draft, 17 March 2010

This document includes a Workshop Report and Concept Note for the workshop “The European
Union’s Triangular Cooperation in the context of aid effectiveness,” organised by the Spanish
Agency for International Development Cooperation (AECID) in Madrid on 8 March 2010, within
the framework of the Practitioners’ Network for European Development Cooperation. During the
workshop, 40 representatives from Austria, the European Commission, France, Germany, Italy,
Portugal, Slovak Republic, Spain, United Kingdom and UNDP engaged in a vivid dialogue and
exchange on their perspectives and experiences on triangular cooperation in the context of aid

The concept note was prepared as a background document for and has been enriched with the
outcomes of this workshop. The workshop report summarizes the key conclusions of the
discussions, including a table which presents some concrete experiences which were

In this final version, AECID will disseminate the concept note widely, with a particular interest in
feeding the debates at the High Level Event on South-South Cooperation and Capacity
Development in Bogotá on 24-26 March 2010.

This document was drafted by Nils-Sjard Schulz (FRIDE), with inputs from Guido Ashoff (DIE).
The opinions in this note are the sole responsibility of the author and do not necessarily reflect
the official position of AECID.

                           Feedback on this document may be sent to:
                               Workshop report and concept note
Triangular cooperation in the context of aid effectiveness – Experiences and views of EU donors

  The European Union’s Triangular Cooperation in the
             context of aid effectiveness

                                 Workshop report

Following an invitation by Spanish Agency for International Development (AECID), 40 members
of the EU Practitioners’ Network gathered on 8 March 2010 in Madrid for a workshop. The aim
was to exchange and discuss experiences and perspectives of EU member states and the
Commission in triangular cooperation in the context of aid effectiveness.

For the first time ever, an intense debate brought together practices and approaches on
triangular cooperation as an effective modality for European bilateral donors and the European
Commission. Representatives from Austria, the European Commission, France, Germany, Italy,
Portugal, Slovak Republic, Spain, United Kingdom and UNDP engaged in a lively debate
around the three sessions (background, practices and next steps).

The exchange served also as a preparatory exercise for the High-Level Event on South-
South cooperation and capacity development in Bogota later this month. Its vivid character
illustrated the momentum for both South-South and triangular cooperation resulting from the
mandate of the Accra Agenda for Action to boost these modalities as a tool for achieving
more inclusive and effective development partnerships.

The following key conclusions can be highlighted:

On what is triangular cooperation and what are its basic characteristics

      Terminology is often not clear and difficult to define, due to the increasingly complex
       and diverse partnerships that are appearing. However, a basic distinction needs to be
       made between triangular cooperation, on the one hand, and support to South-South
       cooperation, on the other. Different formulas at the start (initiative by donor & pivotal,
       initiative by pivotal & recipient country, or initiative by donor & recipient country) have
       distinct implications for the partnership, and for the use of aid effectiveness principles.

      Lessons learned in ongoing experiences show that triangular cooperation is still an
       incipient modality which however has the potential to grow considering the current
       political momentum, the need to invest in inclusive development partnerships and the
       increasing demand by Middle Income Countries (MIC) to become partners in the fight
       against global poverty.

      A great diversity of modalities are used, ranging from parallel funding (Italy) to joint
       (mixed) funds (Spain). Internally, the European Commission (EC) has initiated an in-
       depth review on how to use existing financing mechanisms for triangular cooperation,
       although it faces significant challenges.
                               Workshop report and concept note
Triangular cooperation in the context of aid effectiveness – Experiences and views of EU donors

      Interests and incentives behind triangular cooperation need to be addressed with
       partners in an open and trust-based dialogue. The EU has a specific interest in creating
       win-win-win situations, very much linked to engaging strongly the final recipient and
       clearly defining the EU interest in this modality.

On how triangular cooperation relates to the aid effectiveness agenda and implementation

      Triangular cooperation needs to be embedded into the aid effectiveness agenda.
       Particular attention needs to be paid to the ownership of the final recipient. Southern
       providers (i.e. the ―pivotal‖ donors) tend to overlook the national leadership of the third
       country. Also transparency and predictability are to be improved through better
       information systems.

      Setting up and implementation require time and continued commitment to evolving
       triangular partnerships, which some DAC donors are already willing to fully assume
       recognizing the value of triangular cooperation as an innovate development cooperation

      Relatively high transaction costs could be recovered through organizational learning
       and sustainable scaling-up. Triangular cooperation should be seen as a medium-term
       investment in partnerships and capacity development.

      Triangular cooperation, as shown in Slovak Aid, can also be disappointing from the
       perspective of the emerging donor, especially when administrative and political lines
       of communication are not working and staff capacities are limited. Emerging donors
       need to identify clearly the added value of triangular cooperation for developing their
       capacities. A specific entry door are experiences in transition of East European donors,
       which can provide efficient means and adapted cultural patterns for promoting social,
       economic and political change.

      An analysis of comparative advantages and an appropriate division of labour are key
       for success in triangular cooperation. EU practitioners seek to continue contributing
       expertise (not as a ―passive funder‖) and expect Southern providers to contribute
       financial means as well. Triangular cooperation should not be seen as ―filling gaps‖ in
       South-South cooperation, but entail a mutual learning process, in which all actors learn
       and contribute.

      Capacity development of provider agencies in emerging donor countries is a key
       issue for introducing aid effectiveness principles not only in triangular cooperation, but
       also South-South cooperation. There is a clear demand, which needs to be responded
       more systematically and strategically. In some cases, capacity development of agencies
       is even trickling down to others, such as in the case of Chile’s AGCI supporting
       Uruguay’s agency reform process.
                               Workshop report and concept note
Triangular cooperation in the context of aid effectiveness – Experiences and views of EU donors

On triangular cooperation in the EU

      Triangular cooperation should be included in the ongoing process of reforming EC
       technical cooperation on the basis of the EC Backbone Strategy on Technical
       Cooperation Reform

      Evidence on triangular cooperation has been generated in the case story process led by
       the DAC Task Team on South-South cooperation (TT-SSC) and should be spread
       further. Agencies which shared their experiences at the workshop are encouraged to use
       the case story format and to submit it to the growing evidence base at the TT-SSC.

      Communication among EU donors should be improved in order to avoid overlapping,
       duplication and loss of knowledge and expertise, for example in the Brazilian case

      Criteria and principles on effective triangular cooperation need to be developed.
       While ―a la carte‖ approaches to triangular cooperation are here to stay, there is a need
       for an overall EU narrative on triangular cooperation and flexible guidelines for engaging
       and implementing this modality.

      The EU is still lacking visibility and a proper approach in triangular cooperation,
       which can have differences to the Japanese push for triangular cooperation at different

      EU Council conclusions on South-South Cooperation are underway and need to be
       linked to the practice-based dialogue. One way to do this is through a EU mapping
       exercise which the EC could carry out. This should be done in close coordination with
       other international efforts such as the one undertaken by the TT-SSC (see above).

      Towards the HLF 2011 and beyond, it is necessary to invest in strategic triangular
       partnerships, which probably will have to attend dimensions beyond development
       cooperation, for example, security and peace, and investment.

Further reading

Agenda, presentations and list of participants available on:

See the coverage of the event on:

Case stories on triangular cooperation can be explored on:
                               Workshop report and concept note
Triangular cooperation in the context of aid effectiveness – Experiences and views of EU donors

  The European Union’s Triangular Cooperation in the
             context of aid effectiveness

                                    Concept note

   1. Triangular cooperation: Accra and beyond
Taking stock of the implementation of the aid effectiveness principles enshrined in the 2005
Paris Declaration, the 2008 High-Level Forum (HLF) in Accra was taken as an opportunity to
deepen and refine the commitments between donors and partner countries. While strengthening
the standards and procedures for a more effective development cooperation, the Accra Agenda
for Action (AAA) also reflects a strong bid for more inclusiveness in the evolving global
development partnerships, regarding both ―new‖ actors (such as middle-income countries (MIC),
global funds and private foundations) and ―emerging‖ modalities, such as South-South and
triangular cooperation. Building effective and inclusive development partnerships in order to, as
stated in the AAA, ―harness the energy, skills and experience of all development actors‖, is very
closely linked to capacity development. One of the underlying assumptions is that making good
use of the technical expertise and practices of Southern providers might open an enhanced
view on the adaptability, efficiency and context responsiveness of technical cooperation (TC) in
general. In other words, Southern-led TC might complement conventional TC with its own
comparative advantages.

One of the most attractive yet challenging implications of paragraph 19 of the AAA is the
mandate to frame these modalities within the aid effectiveness agenda (see box). Indeed, while
South-South cooperation in the context of aid
                                                          Triangular cooperation in the AAA
effectiveness is being addressed vividly by a DAC-
hosted task team (Schulz 2009), the interaction of        Para. 19b) “We recognise the
triangular cooperation with the Paris and Accra           importance and particularities of
commitments remains still to be explored.                 South‐South cooperation and
                                                          acknowledge that we can learn from the
In general, triangular cooperation can be defined as      experience of developing countries. We
the collaboration between a Southern (sometimes           encourage further development of
called pivotal) provider and a Northern donor in          triangular co‐operation.”
benefit of a third recipient country. It can achieve
multiple expressions (trilateral, regional, multilateral, Para. 19e) “South-South cooperation
                                                          […] plays an important role in
etc.). Different driving forces can be behind launching
                                                          international development cooperation
triangular cooperation (for example, it may be led by     and is a valuable complement to North-
the pivotal country and the Northern donor, or the        South co-operation.
pivotal country and the final recipient), which has
distinct implications for the ownership of the process. But a common feature is that know-how,
skills, experiences and resources from North and South are combined. Often, the Southern
provider contributes adapted expertise, more direct knowledge of development challenges
and/or low-cost, good-fit technical cooperation, while the traditional donor shares broader
development cooperation experiences, funding and more sophisticated technical resources.
                               Workshop report and concept note
Triangular cooperation in the context of aid effectiveness – Experiences and views of EU donors

This division of labour is not written in stone, but constantly evolving. For example, some pivotal
countries are already investing considerable amounts of funds in triangular cooperation.

Triangular cooperation should however be distinguished from direct support to South-South
cooperation, such as the strictly financial support to funding mechanisms such as South-South
Experience Exchange Facility at the World Bank Institute or the regional platforms such as
Ibero-American General Secretariat (SEGIB) in Latin America and the Caribbean or the
Capacity Development for Development Effectiveness Facility (CDDE) in Asia-Pacific. Indeed,
most conventional donors consider that their contribution in triangular cooperation should not be
limited to funding only (Sanin and Schulz, 2009) and they also expect Southern providers to
contribute financial means as well.

In line with the AAA mandate, triangular cooperation enshrines a clear potential to boost new
forms of development partnerships, often more adapted to development challenges and more
responsive to the increasingly multi-polar developing world. While all partners involved in the
triangle are learning, the relation between the Northern and the Southern provider tends to
become more horizontal, especially if it entails an implicit or explicit strengthening of the latter in
its capacities as a development cooperation provider.

Despite these positive prospects, triangular cooperation has both opportunities and risks (Ashoff
2009). Indeed, a deeper look into triangular cooperation in the context of aid effectiveness
shows the trade-offs to be considered if the modality is to become effective. Balances need to
be forged in the following opportunities and challenges.

                 Opportunities                                       Challenges
               On the one hand…                                 …but on the other hand
More inclusive and horizontal development             MIC have played a relatively marginal role in
partnerships can be explored and fostered by          the global development agenda.
engaging in triangular cooperation, especially
with MIC as both providers and recipients.
Triangular cooperation could create an attractive     Most of the new development actors are
way for aid effectiveness principles to be trickled   rather reluctant to engage in an agenda
into the capacity development process at the          often labelled donor-driven.
Southern provider side.
Mutual learning can take place among all              Triangular cooperation may merely serve
partners, potentially reshaping partnership and       national policy interests, especially at the
their contents.                                       Southern provider side, rather than being
                                                      focused on development results at the final
                                                      recipient end.
Relations among Southern and Northern                 The ownership and leadership of the final
providers tend to be strengthened and are often       recipient may not receive sufficient
embedded in broader geopolitical considerations.      attention, especially if the focus is on
                                                      strengthening the provider’s capacities.
In most cases, conventional donors are exploring      The modality faces important challenges to
triangular cooperation as an attractive niche for     be scaled up and actual experiences
innovative partnerships.                              continue to be relatively dispersed.
Globally, triangular cooperation should be seen       Fostering more complex modalities and
as a primary tool for conventional donors to          strengthening new actors entails the risks of
engage in inclusive and innovative partnerships.      further    fragmentation     and     increased
                                                      transaction costs.
                               Workshop report and concept note
Triangular cooperation in the context of aid effectiveness – Experiences and views of EU donors

   2. Situating triangular cooperation in the context of aid effectiveness
The manifold challenges of implementing effective triangular cooperation become even clearer
in the aid effectiveness agenda, which represents a policy context still to be more thoroughly
explored by countries and organisations involved in triangular initiatives. According the Accra
mandate, the ―further development of triangular cooperation‖ should ideally correspond to the
commitments of the Paris Declaration and the AAA while also helping to identify synergies of
and contributions by this type of partnerships to the evolving agenda.

Situating triangular cooperation, and in particular triangular TC, in the context of aid
effectiveness could thus follow two dynamics:

         Triangular                                               Aid effectiveness
        cooperation                                                   principles

Applying the Paris and Accra commitments to triangular cooperation would require paying
particular attention to the following dimensions:

  - Triangular projects and programmes should be coordinated by the final recipient country
      and directly support national and sector development plans and efforts

    - Country systems are to be used for delivering triangular cooperation
    - Triangular TC should be coordinated under country-led capacity development programs,
      while using and strengthening available national capacity

   - Transaction costs of setting up triangular cooperation (adaptation and harmonisation of
     procedures) should be recovered by scaling-up and medium-term commitments
   - Missions, analysis and lessons learned need to be shared with the development partner
     community in the final recipient country
   - Comparative advantages of triangular cooperation, as a modality, and of each provider
     should be identified by the final recipient

Managing for development results
  - Transparent, regular, detailed and timely information on triangular initiatives should be
      available for all partners and the public
  - Results management and an evaluation culture generating operational options for better
      impact should be enshrined in triangular cooperation
                               Workshop report and concept note
Triangular cooperation in the context of aid effectiveness – Experiences and views of EU donors

Mutual accountability
   - Information on commitments, including financial contributions, should be shared among
       the partners, especially among the providers, while being accounted for in the whole
       operational cycle
   - Interests and incentives behind triangular cooperation need to be addressed in an open
       and trust-based dialogue
   - Procedures, incentives and country presence (including decentralised decision-making,
       involvement in the existing aid coordination and dialogue fora) of both providers is to be

Enriching the aid effectiveness agenda with the experience and practices of triangular
cooperation could be achieved through the following aspects:

Boosting capacities of providing countries
   - Institutional and professional investments in providing agencies in the South can create
       new incentives and insights on how to address systemic shortcomings of aid delivery

Exploring ―good-fit‖ TC
   - The inclusion of a Southern provider’s expertise may boost learning processes on the
       reform of the North-South TC agenda, for example, in terms of cost effectiveness,
       adaptability and sustainability

Moving ahead division of labour
   - Comparative advantages of Southern and Northern providers could be identified more
      openly through a trust-based dialogue among equal partners, showing new ways to
      advance in the division of labor
   - Triangular cooperation could be further developed as a modality for gradually phasing-
      out (and parallel phasing-in) with countries (especially middle-income countries)
      graduating from conventional aid

Learning and feedback
   - The specific features of triangular cooperation create valuable spaces for mutual
       learning and feedback within a more open and trust-based exchange
   - Peer-to-peer learning among developing countries tend to generate new opportunities to
       address policy and institutional challenges in the recipient countries

Deepening development partnerships
   - The values underlying triangular cooperation (such as horizontality, equity, win-win
      situations, etc.) contribute a new energy to development partnerships between donors,
      ―in-betweens‖ and the developing world
   - Regional and cross-regional perspectives can be further fostered as a necessary
      dimension of fostering aid effectiveness and more equal development partnerships
                               Workshop report and concept note
Triangular cooperation in the context of aid effectiveness – Experiences and views of EU donors

   3. Practices of EU donors: Experiences thus far
The evolving development policies in the European Union address triangular cooperation rather
incidentally. Key policy documents, such as the 2005 EU Consensus on Development, do not
mention triangular cooperation as an operational or policy option. Despite its potential high
relevance as a tool for promoting regional cooperation, still few steps have been taken to
include this modality effectively in regional partnerships, for example in the 2009 EC
Communication taking a look at the European Union and Latin America as ―Global Players in
Partnership‖. The European Commission (EC) is considering triangular models with greater
interest as a result of the Accra HLF, especially with a view to the benefits of embedding them
into the overall aid effectiveness agenda. Currently, the EC has initiated an internal exploration
of possible operational options for engaging in and financing triangular cooperation, which still
faces significant challenges.

In the near future, mutual linkages between triangular cooperation and the reform of the EC
technical cooperation are to become stronger and more strategic. The 2008 backbone strategy,
aiming to guide TC towards capacity development, does not embrace triangular cooperation as
a possible driver for reform, but related studies suggest that national actors in partner countries
often prefer South-South resources over North-South TC (Scott 2009). On the other hand, the
backbone strategy offers a clear guidance on country ownership, a better organizational set-up
at the EC and the relevance of capacity development, which might feed into further
development of triangular cooperation.

A number of member states have already invested conceptual and operational efforts. For
example, Germany’s commitments to triangular cooperation are embedded in the cooperation
policy with the so-called 15 anchor countries, mostly emerging countries which are seen as
critical partners in the global and regional governance. Spain recently backed its bid for
triangular cooperation by including the modality in its Master Plan 2009–2012, while exploring
the opportunities to use triangular cooperation more broadly in the partnership frameworks with
several MIC. Mixed Funds for triangular cooperation with Argentina and Chile are currently
being negotiated. Both MS are working on strategic and operational guidelines to frame
triangular cooperation as a consolidated modality of their respective cooperation models (Freres
2009, Wehnert 2009). Also Austria, France, Italy and Portugal –among those present at the
workshop— have conducted some experiences, a number of which involve collaboration with
Brazil in African countries such as Mozambique (for more detail on cases discussed, see annex

On the other hand, new member states can draw on experience as past recipients of triangular
cooperation and since they have recently undergone profound political, economic and
institutional transitions, they may easily join up with emerging donors in trilateral schemes aimed
at building capacities in third countries. In this regard, Poland is working with Russia in Central
Asia. The Slovak Republic has engaged in different formula of cooperation with other traditional
donors (such as Canada and Austria) benefitting the Balkans.

Furthermore, MS involved in the G8 have been also promoted actively triangular cooperation in
the realm of the Heiligendamm process highlighting the positive effects on peace, security and
development efforts (G8 2008).
                               Workshop report and concept note
Triangular cooperation in the context of aid effectiveness – Experiences and views of EU donors

However, it remains clear that the visibility and leverage of the EU in triangular cooperation is
still underexplored, particularly when compared with Japan’s strong positioning in the South-
South and triangular agenda.

A key problem of assessing triangular cooperation in the EU context is the lack of available data
and limited exchange among MS. Dedicated funds are usually not reported separately and even
in agencies with larger triangular programs, information and knowledge management, including
monitoring and evaluation, remains a structural problem. Currently, only incomplete third-source
and ad hoc information is currently available (such as UN-DCF 2008 and Fordelone 2009),
while the EU itself has not yet invested in a proper mapping exercise and focal points for
triangular cooperation in each MS are still difficult to identify. Therefore, transparency and
predictability are to be improved by better information systems and reporting modalities.

Another challenge is the broad knowledge gap regarding operational implications of triangular
cooperation within the aid effectiveness agenda. While some European academics (mainly
Ashoff) have explored feasible ways of linking both agendas consistently, little has resulted in
clear orientations at the technical level. While triangular cooperation often follows an ―a la carte‖
approach, there is a clear need for an overall EU narrative on this modality and flexible, yet
clear-cut guidance of how to embed triangular cooperation in the context of aid effectiveness.

Finally, communication and coordination among EU donors remains to be enhanced in the near
future in order to avoid overlapping and duplication efforts. The fact that several member states
are working simultaneously with Brazil in Mozambique illustrates that information, knowledge
and experiences need to be shared more smoothly.

   4. The way ahead
In the midst of the road from Accra to the next HLF in Seoul, South-South and triangular
cooperation are now at the center of the debates around aid effectiveness. In late March 2010,
600 delegates will meet in Bogota, Colombia, at a High-Level Event to discuss South-South
cooperation and capacity development. A roundtable, facilitated by South Africa and Spain and
supported by Germany and Japan, will address triangular cooperation as an opportunity to
―team up‖ for development results (more info on It is thus high time
to invest in concrete operational and policy options to fully exploit the partnership potential
enshrined in this modality. Additional energy will come from the conclusions on South-South
cooperation of the EU council, to be shared in mid-March.

Triangular cooperation is often rather part of the bilateral programs of the MS, but much can be
done to foster the availability and exchange of information, ideally in the context of the EU
Practitioners’ Network. In the short term, efforts could be directed towards:

   -   Mapping EU activities and the underlying policies (anchor countries, MIC, etc.)
   -   Mapping existing operational guidelines, in particular in the light of the aid effectiveness
       agenda (see section 2 of this concept note)
   -   Mapping the demand for support by Southern provider (pivotal countries)
   -   Initiating the mapping exercises at the recipient level (third country demand)
                               Workshop report and concept note
Triangular cooperation in the context of aid effectiveness – Experiences and views of EU donors

Also in the short run, networking and communication with other platforms and processes
should be fostered by:

   -   Linking up with TC reform agenda, especially through capacity4dev, and informing the
       implementation of the EC backbone strategy
   -   Engaging in a dialogue with WP-EFF task team on SSC, including the development of
       case stories and studies for the HLF 2011 in Korea
   -   Establishing a working group at the EU Practitioners’ Network

In the medium term and with a view to the Seoul HLF, the EU should invest in breaking the
ground for triangular cooperation from a strategic perspective, through the following
    - Identification of ―EU criteria‖ for triangular cooperation in the context of aid effectiveness
         (see section 2 of this concept note)
    - Review of operational options and challenges, especially for the European Commission
    - Analysis of new partnership models and strategic approaches, especially within regional
         partnerships and relations with emerging economies and MIC
    - Capacity development programs for Southern providers as part of engaging in aid
         effectiveness and inclusive development partnerships
    - Identification of financing models for triangular cooperation

Key questions for the debate:

   1. How can the EU (or a coalition of willing EU donors) promote a better understanding,
      share more information and share certain policy and operational approaches on what is
      being done in triangular cooperation?
   2. How can triangular cooperation be embedded with EU’s bid for aid effectiveness, for
      example with a view to the 2011 HLF in Seoul?

   5. Further reading

Ashoff, Guido (2009): Cooperación triangular de Alemania en América Latina - Contexto,
enfoque, perfil y experiencias, Contribution to a FRIDE-Enlaza seminar, Bonn/Bogota

Fordelone, Talita Yamashiro (2009): Triangular Co-operation and Aid Effectiveness, OECD-
DAC, Paris

Freres, Christian (2009): AECID’s Approach and Experience in Triangular Cooperation in Latin
America and the Caribbean, Presentation at the Policy Dialogue on Development Co-operation
in Mexico City, Madrid

Group of 8 (2008): Concluding Report of the Heiligendamm Process, L’Aquila

Schulz, Nils-Sjard (2009): Implementing Accra - South-South cooperation in the context of aid
effectiveness, Concept Note for the Task Team on South-South cooperation, Bogota
                               Workshop report and concept note
Triangular cooperation in the context of aid effectiveness – Experiences and views of EU donors

Sanín Betancout, María Clara; and Schulz, Nils-Sjard (2009): South-South cooperation in Latin
America and the Caribbean: ways ahead following Accra, FRIDE comment, Madrid/Bogotá

Scott, Zoë (2009): Southern perspectives on technical cooperation – Analytical review and
annotated bibliography, GSDRC, Birmingham

UN-DCF (2008): Trends in South-South and triangular development cooperation, Background
Study for the UN ECOSOC Development Cooperation Forum, New York

Wehnert, Ulrich (2009): Triangular Cooperation from a German Perspective – Opportunities and
Challenges, Presentation at the Policy Dialogue on Development Co-operation in Mexico City,

Some useful websites – EC’s program on reforming TC, with insights into triangular
and South-South cooperation – Community of institutions and individuals working in South-South
cooperation and main website of the TT-SSC – Case stories published for the TT-SSC – Summaries of the OECD Policy Dialogue on triangular
cooperation in Mexico City, with an updated library on triangular cooperation (workshop reports,
latest studies, etc.)
                          Annex 1. Selection of cases discussed at the workshop

          Cases: Triangular cooperation practical experiences of European donors
 Donor    provider     Recipient              Title                                         Summary
Austria                                                         The training of teachers from Burkina Faso in the French
(ADA)                                Training of teachers for   language and in aspects of teacher training in Senegal and
                      Burkina Faso    professoinal training     Morocco is financed with the goal of strengthening teacher
                                             schools            training programmes in this country. Some 100 teachers have
                                                                been trained in 18 subject areas.
                                                                The project aims to create a satellite station for the reception
France     Brazil       Gabon        Satellite Monitoring of    of images monitoring the Central African forest, transferring
(AFD)                                 the Central African       technology and knowledge between France, Brazil and
                                           Rainforest           Gabon
Germany   Mexico       Guatemala     GIRESOL-Guatemala          The project aims to boost a network of environmental promoters
 (GTZ)                                                          as part of sustainable solid waste management. The first generation
                                                                of environmental promoters trained 136 department delegates of
                                                                MARN, 122 environmental inspectors, 543 municipal employees
                                                                and more than 900 inhabitants of diverse communities in the
                                                                country. The second generation was trained without foreign support
                                                                due to the training of instructors from Guatemala in Mexico in the
                                                                second phase of cooperation in 2008, thus achieving sustainability
                                                                of the cooperation project.
Germany    Brazil     Mozambique           Metrology            Strengthening Mozambique’s National Institute for Standards
 (GTZ)                                                          and Quality, the collaboration was based on metrology-
                                                                related exchanges, seminars and training among
                                                                Mozambican, Brazilian and German professionals
Germany     India        China            CO2 Balance           Supporting the reduction of CO2 emissions of German
 (GTZ)                                                          enterprises in China, Indian expertise on Clean Development
                                                                Mechanism is being transferred and replicated.

           Brazil       Bolivia       Protección Selva          The project intends to prevent and control forest fires in the
 Italy                               Amazónica de Bolivia       Bolivian Amazonas, as well as to identify and disseminate
                                                                alternative agricultural practices.
                                             Workshop report and concept note
              Triangular cooperation in the context of aid effectiveness – Experiences and views of EU donors

 Donor      Southern      Recipient               Title                                     Summary
Portugal,       -           Angola        Modernización de la     Modernizing the Angolan justice sector, the Portuguese
 United                                    Administración de      Ministry of Justice, in coordination with the United Stated
 States                                    Justicia en Angola     Department of Commerce, promotes the adaptation of ICT
                                                                  management tools, training, seminars and improved
                          East Timor                              The project improves the capacities of Timor teachers in
Portugal     Brazil                                               order to consolidate Portuguese language

                                          Auto-producción de      Promoting a healthier diet, the project improves the
 Spain      Argentina        Haiti        alimentos frescos:      production of fresh vegetables in truck farms and other
(AECID)                                      ―Pro-Huerta‖         exploitations led by families, schools, communities and
                          Haiti and      Operación de Ayuda       Following hurricanes Ike and Gustav, The operation aimed to
 Spain       Brazil       Honduras       Humanitaria conjunta     deliver Brazilian and Spanish humanitarian aid to Haiti and
(AECID)                                 entre España y Brasil a   Honduras.
                                         países afectados por
                                          los huracanes Ike y
              Chile       Paraguay      Reforma de la Función     Improving the capacities of public servants of the Secretary of
 Spain                                          Pública           Public Function in Paraguay, Chile and Spain have engaged
(AECID)                                                           in a programme supporting the national reform process

 United                                                           DFID proposed supporting the systematization of this
Kingdom                                                           Brazilian social programme for conditional cash transfers in
                          Ghana,             Bolsa Familia
 (DFID)      Brazil                                               other countries in Africa. It financed the missions of several
                         Kenya, etc.          Programme
                                                                  Brazilian experts in various African countries as well as
                                                                  working visits of African public administrators to Brazil.