MINISTERIO DE ASUNTOS EXTERIORES Y DE COOPERACIÓN Workshop report and concept note Triangular cooperation in the context of aid effectiveness – Experiences and views of EU donors Final draft, 17 March 2010 This document includes a Workshop Report and Concept Note for the workshop “The European Union’s Triangular Cooperation in the context of aid effectiveness,” organised by the Spanish Agency for International Development Cooperation (AECID) in Madrid on 8 March 2010, within the framework of the Practitioners’ Network for European Development Cooperation. During the workshop, 40 representatives from Austria, the European Commission, France, Germany, Italy, Portugal, Slovak Republic, Spain, United Kingdom and UNDP engaged in a vivid dialogue and exchange on their perspectives and experiences on triangular cooperation in the context of aid effectiveness. The concept note was prepared as a background document for and has been enriched with the outcomes of this workshop. The workshop report summarizes the key conclusions of the discussions, including a table which presents some concrete experiences which were discussed. In this final version, AECID will disseminate the concept note widely, with a particular interest in feeding the debates at the High Level Event on South-South Cooperation and Capacity Development in Bogotá on 24-26 March 2010. This document was drafted by Nils-Sjard Schulz (FRIDE), with inputs from Guido Ashoff (DIE). The opinions in this note are the sole responsibility of the author and do not necessarily reflect the official position of AECID. Feedback on this document may be sent to: email@example.com Workshop report and concept note Triangular cooperation in the context of aid effectiveness – Experiences and views of EU donors The European Union’s Triangular Cooperation in the context of aid effectiveness Workshop report Following an invitation by Spanish Agency for International Development (AECID), 40 members of the EU Practitioners’ Network gathered on 8 March 2010 in Madrid for a workshop. The aim was to exchange and discuss experiences and perspectives of EU member states and the Commission in triangular cooperation in the context of aid effectiveness. For the first time ever, an intense debate brought together practices and approaches on triangular cooperation as an effective modality for European bilateral donors and the European Commission. Representatives from Austria, the European Commission, France, Germany, Italy, Portugal, Slovak Republic, Spain, United Kingdom and UNDP engaged in a lively debate around the three sessions (background, practices and next steps). The exchange served also as a preparatory exercise for the High-Level Event on South- South cooperation and capacity development in Bogota later this month. Its vivid character illustrated the momentum for both South-South and triangular cooperation resulting from the mandate of the Accra Agenda for Action to boost these modalities as a tool for achieving more inclusive and effective development partnerships. The following key conclusions can be highlighted: On what is triangular cooperation and what are its basic characteristics Terminology is often not clear and difficult to define, due to the increasingly complex and diverse partnerships that are appearing. However, a basic distinction needs to be made between triangular cooperation, on the one hand, and support to South-South cooperation, on the other. Different formulas at the start (initiative by donor & pivotal, initiative by pivotal & recipient country, or initiative by donor & recipient country) have distinct implications for the partnership, and for the use of aid effectiveness principles. Lessons learned in ongoing experiences show that triangular cooperation is still an incipient modality which however has the potential to grow considering the current political momentum, the need to invest in inclusive development partnerships and the increasing demand by Middle Income Countries (MIC) to become partners in the fight against global poverty. A great diversity of modalities are used, ranging from parallel funding (Italy) to joint (mixed) funds (Spain). Internally, the European Commission (EC) has initiated an in- depth review on how to use existing financing mechanisms for triangular cooperation, although it faces significant challenges. Workshop report and concept note Triangular cooperation in the context of aid effectiveness – Experiences and views of EU donors Interests and incentives behind triangular cooperation need to be addressed with partners in an open and trust-based dialogue. The EU has a specific interest in creating win-win-win situations, very much linked to engaging strongly the final recipient and clearly defining the EU interest in this modality. On how triangular cooperation relates to the aid effectiveness agenda and implementation challenges Triangular cooperation needs to be embedded into the aid effectiveness agenda. Particular attention needs to be paid to the ownership of the final recipient. Southern providers (i.e. the ―pivotal‖ donors) tend to overlook the national leadership of the third country. Also transparency and predictability are to be improved through better information systems. Setting up and implementation require time and continued commitment to evolving triangular partnerships, which some DAC donors are already willing to fully assume recognizing the value of triangular cooperation as an innovate development cooperation model. Relatively high transaction costs could be recovered through organizational learning and sustainable scaling-up. Triangular cooperation should be seen as a medium-term investment in partnerships and capacity development. Triangular cooperation, as shown in Slovak Aid, can also be disappointing from the perspective of the emerging donor, especially when administrative and political lines of communication are not working and staff capacities are limited. Emerging donors need to identify clearly the added value of triangular cooperation for developing their capacities. A specific entry door are experiences in transition of East European donors, which can provide efficient means and adapted cultural patterns for promoting social, economic and political change. An analysis of comparative advantages and an appropriate division of labour are key for success in triangular cooperation. EU practitioners seek to continue contributing expertise (not as a ―passive funder‖) and expect Southern providers to contribute financial means as well. Triangular cooperation should not be seen as ―filling gaps‖ in South-South cooperation, but entail a mutual learning process, in which all actors learn and contribute. Capacity development of provider agencies in emerging donor countries is a key issue for introducing aid effectiveness principles not only in triangular cooperation, but also South-South cooperation. There is a clear demand, which needs to be responded more systematically and strategically. In some cases, capacity development of agencies is even trickling down to others, such as in the case of Chile’s AGCI supporting Uruguay’s agency reform process. Workshop report and concept note Triangular cooperation in the context of aid effectiveness – Experiences and views of EU donors On triangular cooperation in the EU Triangular cooperation should be included in the ongoing process of reforming EC technical cooperation on the basis of the EC Backbone Strategy on Technical Cooperation Reform Evidence on triangular cooperation has been generated in the case story process led by the DAC Task Team on South-South cooperation (TT-SSC) and should be spread further. Agencies which shared their experiences at the workshop are encouraged to use the case story format and to submit it to the growing evidence base at the TT-SSC. Communication among EU donors should be improved in order to avoid overlapping, duplication and loss of knowledge and expertise, for example in the Brazilian case Criteria and principles on effective triangular cooperation need to be developed. While ―a la carte‖ approaches to triangular cooperation are here to stay, there is a need for an overall EU narrative on triangular cooperation and flexible guidelines for engaging and implementing this modality. The EU is still lacking visibility and a proper approach in triangular cooperation, which can have differences to the Japanese push for triangular cooperation at different levels EU Council conclusions on South-South Cooperation are underway and need to be linked to the practice-based dialogue. One way to do this is through a EU mapping exercise which the EC could carry out. This should be done in close coordination with other international efforts such as the one undertaken by the TT-SSC (see above). Towards the HLF 2011 and beyond, it is necessary to invest in strategic triangular partnerships, which probably will have to attend dimensions beyond development cooperation, for example, security and peace, and investment. Further reading Agenda, presentations and list of participants available on: http://www.dev-practitioners.eu/ See the coverage of the event on: http://capacity4dev.ec.europa.eu/europe-towards-effective-triangular-cooperation-videos http://ec.europa.eu/development/icenter/featured_20100309_en.cfm Case stories on triangular cooperation can be explored on: http://www.impactalliance.org/ev_en.php?ID=49087_201&ID2=DO_TOPIC Workshop report and concept note Triangular cooperation in the context of aid effectiveness – Experiences and views of EU donors The European Union’s Triangular Cooperation in the context of aid effectiveness Concept note 1. Triangular cooperation: Accra and beyond Taking stock of the implementation of the aid effectiveness principles enshrined in the 2005 Paris Declaration, the 2008 High-Level Forum (HLF) in Accra was taken as an opportunity to deepen and refine the commitments between donors and partner countries. While strengthening the standards and procedures for a more effective development cooperation, the Accra Agenda for Action (AAA) also reflects a strong bid for more inclusiveness in the evolving global development partnerships, regarding both ―new‖ actors (such as middle-income countries (MIC), global funds and private foundations) and ―emerging‖ modalities, such as South-South and triangular cooperation. Building effective and inclusive development partnerships in order to, as stated in the AAA, ―harness the energy, skills and experience of all development actors‖, is very closely linked to capacity development. One of the underlying assumptions is that making good use of the technical expertise and practices of Southern providers might open an enhanced view on the adaptability, efficiency and context responsiveness of technical cooperation (TC) in general. In other words, Southern-led TC might complement conventional TC with its own comparative advantages. One of the most attractive yet challenging implications of paragraph 19 of the AAA is the mandate to frame these modalities within the aid effectiveness agenda (see box). Indeed, while South-South cooperation in the context of aid Triangular cooperation in the AAA effectiveness is being addressed vividly by a DAC- hosted task team (Schulz 2009), the interaction of Para. 19b) “We recognise the triangular cooperation with the Paris and Accra importance and particularities of commitments remains still to be explored. South‐South cooperation and acknowledge that we can learn from the In general, triangular cooperation can be defined as experience of developing countries. We the collaboration between a Southern (sometimes encourage further development of called pivotal) provider and a Northern donor in triangular co‐operation.” benefit of a third recipient country. It can achieve multiple expressions (trilateral, regional, multilateral, Para. 19e) “South-South cooperation […] plays an important role in etc.). Different driving forces can be behind launching international development cooperation triangular cooperation (for example, it may be led by and is a valuable complement to North- the pivotal country and the Northern donor, or the South co-operation. pivotal country and the final recipient), which has distinct implications for the ownership of the process. But a common feature is that know-how, skills, experiences and resources from North and South are combined. Often, the Southern provider contributes adapted expertise, more direct knowledge of development challenges and/or low-cost, good-fit technical cooperation, while the traditional donor shares broader development cooperation experiences, funding and more sophisticated technical resources. Workshop report and concept note Triangular cooperation in the context of aid effectiveness – Experiences and views of EU donors This division of labour is not written in stone, but constantly evolving. For example, some pivotal countries are already investing considerable amounts of funds in triangular cooperation. Triangular cooperation should however be distinguished from direct support to South-South cooperation, such as the strictly financial support to funding mechanisms such as South-South Experience Exchange Facility at the World Bank Institute or the regional platforms such as Ibero-American General Secretariat (SEGIB) in Latin America and the Caribbean or the Capacity Development for Development Effectiveness Facility (CDDE) in Asia-Pacific. Indeed, most conventional donors consider that their contribution in triangular cooperation should not be limited to funding only (Sanin and Schulz, 2009) and they also expect Southern providers to contribute financial means as well. In line with the AAA mandate, triangular cooperation enshrines a clear potential to boost new forms of development partnerships, often more adapted to development challenges and more responsive to the increasingly multi-polar developing world. While all partners involved in the triangle are learning, the relation between the Northern and the Southern provider tends to become more horizontal, especially if it entails an implicit or explicit strengthening of the latter in its capacities as a development cooperation provider. Despite these positive prospects, triangular cooperation has both opportunities and risks (Ashoff 2009). Indeed, a deeper look into triangular cooperation in the context of aid effectiveness shows the trade-offs to be considered if the modality is to become effective. Balances need to be forged in the following opportunities and challenges. Opportunities Challenges On the one hand… …but on the other hand More inclusive and horizontal development MIC have played a relatively marginal role in partnerships can be explored and fostered by the global development agenda. engaging in triangular cooperation, especially with MIC as both providers and recipients. Triangular cooperation could create an attractive Most of the new development actors are way for aid effectiveness principles to be trickled rather reluctant to engage in an agenda into the capacity development process at the often labelled donor-driven. Southern provider side. Mutual learning can take place among all Triangular cooperation may merely serve partners, potentially reshaping partnership and national policy interests, especially at the their contents. Southern provider side, rather than being focused on development results at the final recipient end. Relations among Southern and Northern The ownership and leadership of the final providers tend to be strengthened and are often recipient may not receive sufficient embedded in broader geopolitical considerations. attention, especially if the focus is on strengthening the provider’s capacities. In most cases, conventional donors are exploring The modality faces important challenges to triangular cooperation as an attractive niche for be scaled up and actual experiences innovative partnerships. continue to be relatively dispersed. Globally, triangular cooperation should be seen Fostering more complex modalities and as a primary tool for conventional donors to strengthening new actors entails the risks of engage in inclusive and innovative partnerships. further fragmentation and increased transaction costs. Workshop report and concept note Triangular cooperation in the context of aid effectiveness – Experiences and views of EU donors 2. Situating triangular cooperation in the context of aid effectiveness The manifold challenges of implementing effective triangular cooperation become even clearer in the aid effectiveness agenda, which represents a policy context still to be more thoroughly explored by countries and organisations involved in triangular initiatives. According the Accra mandate, the ―further development of triangular cooperation‖ should ideally correspond to the commitments of the Paris Declaration and the AAA while also helping to identify synergies of and contributions by this type of partnerships to the evolving agenda. Situating triangular cooperation, and in particular triangular TC, in the context of aid effectiveness could thus follow two dynamics: Applying Triangular Aid effectiveness cooperation principles Enriching Applying the Paris and Accra commitments to triangular cooperation would require paying particular attention to the following dimensions: Ownership - Triangular projects and programmes should be coordinated by the final recipient country and directly support national and sector development plans and efforts Alignment - Country systems are to be used for delivering triangular cooperation - Triangular TC should be coordinated under country-led capacity development programs, while using and strengthening available national capacity Harmonisation - Transaction costs of setting up triangular cooperation (adaptation and harmonisation of procedures) should be recovered by scaling-up and medium-term commitments - Missions, analysis and lessons learned need to be shared with the development partner community in the final recipient country - Comparative advantages of triangular cooperation, as a modality, and of each provider should be identified by the final recipient Managing for development results - Transparent, regular, detailed and timely information on triangular initiatives should be available for all partners and the public - Results management and an evaluation culture generating operational options for better impact should be enshrined in triangular cooperation Workshop report and concept note Triangular cooperation in the context of aid effectiveness – Experiences and views of EU donors Mutual accountability - Information on commitments, including financial contributions, should be shared among the partners, especially among the providers, while being accounted for in the whole operational cycle - Interests and incentives behind triangular cooperation need to be addressed in an open and trust-based dialogue - Procedures, incentives and country presence (including decentralised decision-making, involvement in the existing aid coordination and dialogue fora) of both providers is to be strengthened Enriching the aid effectiveness agenda with the experience and practices of triangular cooperation could be achieved through the following aspects: Boosting capacities of providing countries - Institutional and professional investments in providing agencies in the South can create new incentives and insights on how to address systemic shortcomings of aid delivery Exploring ―good-fit‖ TC - The inclusion of a Southern provider’s expertise may boost learning processes on the reform of the North-South TC agenda, for example, in terms of cost effectiveness, adaptability and sustainability Moving ahead division of labour - Comparative advantages of Southern and Northern providers could be identified more openly through a trust-based dialogue among equal partners, showing new ways to advance in the division of labor - Triangular cooperation could be further developed as a modality for gradually phasing- out (and parallel phasing-in) with countries (especially middle-income countries) graduating from conventional aid Learning and feedback - The specific features of triangular cooperation create valuable spaces for mutual learning and feedback within a more open and trust-based exchange - Peer-to-peer learning among developing countries tend to generate new opportunities to address policy and institutional challenges in the recipient countries Deepening development partnerships - The values underlying triangular cooperation (such as horizontality, equity, win-win situations, etc.) contribute a new energy to development partnerships between donors, ―in-betweens‖ and the developing world - Regional and cross-regional perspectives can be further fostered as a necessary dimension of fostering aid effectiveness and more equal development partnerships Workshop report and concept note Triangular cooperation in the context of aid effectiveness – Experiences and views of EU donors 3. Practices of EU donors: Experiences thus far The evolving development policies in the European Union address triangular cooperation rather incidentally. Key policy documents, such as the 2005 EU Consensus on Development, do not mention triangular cooperation as an operational or policy option. Despite its potential high relevance as a tool for promoting regional cooperation, still few steps have been taken to include this modality effectively in regional partnerships, for example in the 2009 EC Communication taking a look at the European Union and Latin America as ―Global Players in Partnership‖. The European Commission (EC) is considering triangular models with greater interest as a result of the Accra HLF, especially with a view to the benefits of embedding them into the overall aid effectiveness agenda. Currently, the EC has initiated an internal exploration of possible operational options for engaging in and financing triangular cooperation, which still faces significant challenges. In the near future, mutual linkages between triangular cooperation and the reform of the EC technical cooperation are to become stronger and more strategic. The 2008 backbone strategy, aiming to guide TC towards capacity development, does not embrace triangular cooperation as a possible driver for reform, but related studies suggest that national actors in partner countries often prefer South-South resources over North-South TC (Scott 2009). On the other hand, the backbone strategy offers a clear guidance on country ownership, a better organizational set-up at the EC and the relevance of capacity development, which might feed into further development of triangular cooperation. A number of member states have already invested conceptual and operational efforts. For example, Germany’s commitments to triangular cooperation are embedded in the cooperation policy with the so-called 15 anchor countries, mostly emerging countries which are seen as critical partners in the global and regional governance. Spain recently backed its bid for triangular cooperation by including the modality in its Master Plan 2009–2012, while exploring the opportunities to use triangular cooperation more broadly in the partnership frameworks with several MIC. Mixed Funds for triangular cooperation with Argentina and Chile are currently being negotiated. Both MS are working on strategic and operational guidelines to frame triangular cooperation as a consolidated modality of their respective cooperation models (Freres 2009, Wehnert 2009). Also Austria, France, Italy and Portugal –among those present at the workshop— have conducted some experiences, a number of which involve collaboration with Brazil in African countries such as Mozambique (for more detail on cases discussed, see annex 1). On the other hand, new member states can draw on experience as past recipients of triangular cooperation and since they have recently undergone profound political, economic and institutional transitions, they may easily join up with emerging donors in trilateral schemes aimed at building capacities in third countries. In this regard, Poland is working with Russia in Central Asia. The Slovak Republic has engaged in different formula of cooperation with other traditional donors (such as Canada and Austria) benefitting the Balkans. Furthermore, MS involved in the G8 have been also promoted actively triangular cooperation in the realm of the Heiligendamm process highlighting the positive effects on peace, security and development efforts (G8 2008). Workshop report and concept note Triangular cooperation in the context of aid effectiveness – Experiences and views of EU donors However, it remains clear that the visibility and leverage of the EU in triangular cooperation is still underexplored, particularly when compared with Japan’s strong positioning in the South- South and triangular agenda. A key problem of assessing triangular cooperation in the EU context is the lack of available data and limited exchange among MS. Dedicated funds are usually not reported separately and even in agencies with larger triangular programs, information and knowledge management, including monitoring and evaluation, remains a structural problem. Currently, only incomplete third-source and ad hoc information is currently available (such as UN-DCF 2008 and Fordelone 2009), while the EU itself has not yet invested in a proper mapping exercise and focal points for triangular cooperation in each MS are still difficult to identify. Therefore, transparency and predictability are to be improved by better information systems and reporting modalities. Another challenge is the broad knowledge gap regarding operational implications of triangular cooperation within the aid effectiveness agenda. While some European academics (mainly Ashoff) have explored feasible ways of linking both agendas consistently, little has resulted in clear orientations at the technical level. While triangular cooperation often follows an ―a la carte‖ approach, there is a clear need for an overall EU narrative on this modality and flexible, yet clear-cut guidance of how to embed triangular cooperation in the context of aid effectiveness. Finally, communication and coordination among EU donors remains to be enhanced in the near future in order to avoid overlapping and duplication efforts. The fact that several member states are working simultaneously with Brazil in Mozambique illustrates that information, knowledge and experiences need to be shared more smoothly. 4. The way ahead In the midst of the road from Accra to the next HLF in Seoul, South-South and triangular cooperation are now at the center of the debates around aid effectiveness. In late March 2010, 600 delegates will meet in Bogota, Colombia, at a High-Level Event to discuss South-South cooperation and capacity development. A roundtable, facilitated by South Africa and Spain and supported by Germany and Japan, will address triangular cooperation as an opportunity to ―team up‖ for development results (more info on http://www.bogotahle.info/). It is thus high time to invest in concrete operational and policy options to fully exploit the partnership potential enshrined in this modality. Additional energy will come from the conclusions on South-South cooperation of the EU council, to be shared in mid-March. Triangular cooperation is often rather part of the bilateral programs of the MS, but much can be done to foster the availability and exchange of information, ideally in the context of the EU Practitioners’ Network. In the short term, efforts could be directed towards: - Mapping EU activities and the underlying policies (anchor countries, MIC, etc.) - Mapping existing operational guidelines, in particular in the light of the aid effectiveness agenda (see section 2 of this concept note) - Mapping the demand for support by Southern provider (pivotal countries) - Initiating the mapping exercises at the recipient level (third country demand) Workshop report and concept note Triangular cooperation in the context of aid effectiveness – Experiences and views of EU donors Also in the short run, networking and communication with other platforms and processes should be fostered by: - Linking up with TC reform agenda, especially through capacity4dev, and informing the implementation of the EC backbone strategy - Engaging in a dialogue with WP-EFF task team on SSC, including the development of case stories and studies for the HLF 2011 in Korea - Establishing a working group at the EU Practitioners’ Network In the medium term and with a view to the Seoul HLF, the EU should invest in breaking the ground for triangular cooperation from a strategic perspective, through the following activities: - Identification of ―EU criteria‖ for triangular cooperation in the context of aid effectiveness (see section 2 of this concept note) - Review of operational options and challenges, especially for the European Commission - Analysis of new partnership models and strategic approaches, especially within regional partnerships and relations with emerging economies and MIC - Capacity development programs for Southern providers as part of engaging in aid effectiveness and inclusive development partnerships - Identification of financing models for triangular cooperation Key questions for the debate: 1. How can the EU (or a coalition of willing EU donors) promote a better understanding, share more information and share certain policy and operational approaches on what is being done in triangular cooperation? 2. How can triangular cooperation be embedded with EU’s bid for aid effectiveness, for example with a view to the 2011 HLF in Seoul? 5. Further reading Ashoff, Guido (2009): Cooperación triangular de Alemania en América Latina - Contexto, enfoque, perfil y experiencias, Contribution to a FRIDE-Enlaza seminar, Bonn/Bogota Fordelone, Talita Yamashiro (2009): Triangular Co-operation and Aid Effectiveness, OECD- DAC, Paris Freres, Christian (2009): AECID’s Approach and Experience in Triangular Cooperation in Latin America and the Caribbean, Presentation at the Policy Dialogue on Development Co-operation in Mexico City, Madrid Group of 8 (2008): Concluding Report of the Heiligendamm Process, L’Aquila Schulz, Nils-Sjard (2009): Implementing Accra - South-South cooperation in the context of aid effectiveness, Concept Note for the Task Team on South-South cooperation, Bogota Workshop report and concept note Triangular cooperation in the context of aid effectiveness – Experiences and views of EU donors Sanín Betancout, María Clara; and Schulz, Nils-Sjard (2009): South-South cooperation in Latin America and the Caribbean: ways ahead following Accra, FRIDE comment, Madrid/Bogotá Scott, Zoë (2009): Southern perspectives on technical cooperation – Analytical review and annotated bibliography, GSDRC, Birmingham UN-DCF (2008): Trends in South-South and triangular development cooperation, Background Study for the UN ECOSOC Development Cooperation Forum, New York Wehnert, Ulrich (2009): Triangular Cooperation from a German Perspective – Opportunities and Challenges, Presentation at the Policy Dialogue on Development Co-operation in Mexico City, Bonn Some useful websites http://capacity4dev.ec.europa.eu/ – EC’s program on reforming TC, with insights into triangular and South-South cooperation http://www.southsouth.info – Community of institutions and individuals working in South-South cooperation and main website of the TT-SSC http://www.southsouthcases.info – Case stories published for the TT-SSC www.oecd.org/dac/mexicodialogue – Summaries of the OECD Policy Dialogue on triangular cooperation in Mexico City, with an updated library on triangular cooperation (workshop reports, latest studies, etc.) Annex 1. Selection of cases discussed at the workshop Cases: Triangular cooperation practical experiences of European donors Southern Donor provider Recipient Title Summary (pivotal) Austria The training of teachers from Burkina Faso in the French (ADA) Training of teachers for language and in aspects of teacher training in Senegal and Senegal/ Burkina Faso professoinal training Morocco is financed with the goal of strengthening teacher Morroco schools training programmes in this country. Some 100 teachers have been trained in 18 subject areas. The project aims to create a satellite station for the reception France Brazil Gabon Satellite Monitoring of of images monitoring the Central African forest, transferring (AFD) the Central African technology and knowledge between France, Brazil and Rainforest Gabon Germany Mexico Guatemala GIRESOL-Guatemala The project aims to boost a network of environmental promoters (GTZ) as part of sustainable solid waste management. The first generation of environmental promoters trained 136 department delegates of MARN, 122 environmental inspectors, 543 municipal employees and more than 900 inhabitants of diverse communities in the country. The second generation was trained without foreign support due to the training of instructors from Guatemala in Mexico in the second phase of cooperation in 2008, thus achieving sustainability of the cooperation project. Germany Brazil Mozambique Metrology Strengthening Mozambique’s National Institute for Standards (GTZ) and Quality, the collaboration was based on metrology- related exchanges, seminars and training among Mozambican, Brazilian and German professionals Germany India China CO2 Balance Supporting the reduction of CO2 emissions of German (GTZ) enterprises in China, Indian expertise on Clean Development Mechanism is being transferred and replicated. Brazil Bolivia Protección Selva The project intends to prevent and control forest fires in the Italy Amazónica de Bolivia Bolivian Amazonas, as well as to identify and disseminate alternative agricultural practices. Workshop report and concept note Triangular cooperation in the context of aid effectiveness – Experiences and views of EU donors Donor Southern Recipient Title Summary provider (pivotal) Portugal, - Angola Modernización de la Modernizing the Angolan justice sector, the Portuguese United Administración de Ministry of Justice, in coordination with the United Stated States Justicia en Angola Department of Commerce, promotes the adaptation of ICT management tools, training, seminars and improved meritocracy East Timor The project improves the capacities of Timor teachers in Portugal Brazil order to consolidate Portuguese language Auto-producción de Promoting a healthier diet, the project improves the Spain Argentina Haiti alimentos frescos: production of fresh vegetables in truck farms and other (AECID) ―Pro-Huerta‖ exploitations led by families, schools, communities and institutions Haiti and Operación de Ayuda Following hurricanes Ike and Gustav, The operation aimed to Spain Brazil Honduras Humanitaria conjunta deliver Brazilian and Spanish humanitarian aid to Haiti and (AECID) entre España y Brasil a Honduras. países afectados por los huracanes Ike y Gustav Chile Paraguay Reforma de la Función Improving the capacities of public servants of the Secretary of Spain Pública Public Function in Paraguay, Chile and Spain have engaged (AECID) in a programme supporting the national reform process United DFID proposed supporting the systematization of this Kingdom Brazilian social programme for conditional cash transfers in Ghana, Bolsa Familia (DFID) Brazil other countries in Africa. It financed the missions of several Kenya, etc. Programme Brazilian experts in various African countries as well as working visits of African public administrators to Brazil.