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FISHMEAL AND FISH OIL FACTORIES

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					Consultancy on Guidelines and Regulations Under the EIA Act 2005



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EHES (Pty) Ltd
Consultancy on Guidelines and Regulations Under the EIA Act 2005




Folio Number 10: Guidelines for Conducting EIA Studies
      for the Food Industry Under the EIA Act 2005




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EHES (Pty) Ltd
Consultancy on Guidelines and Regulations Under the EIA Act 2005



                                         Table of Contents
Section 1: General ................................................................ 6
  1.1 Scope ............................................................................................................ 6
  1.2 Institutional and Legal Framework ............................................................ 6

Section 2: Manufacture of Vegetable and Animal Oils
and Fats.................................................................................. 8
  2.1. Background ................................................................................................. 8
  2.2 Current practice in Botswana ................................................................... 8
  2.3: Environmental Issues related to the manufacture of vegetable oil
  and soap. .......................................................................................................... 14
  2.4 Environmental Management Measures ................................................ 15

Section 3: Packing and Canning of Animal and
Vegetable Products ............................................................ 18
  3.1 Background ................................................................................................ 18
  3.2 Current practice in Botswana ................................................................. 19
  3.3 Environmental issues related to the Packing and Canning of Animal
  and Vegetable Products ................................................................................ 21
  3.4 Environmental Management Measures ................................................ 23

Section 4: Manufacture of Dairy Products ...................... 25
  4.1 Background ................................................................................................ 25
  4.2 Current Practice in Botswana .................................................................. 26
  4.3 Environmental Issues related to the Manufacture of Dairy Products 29
  4.4 Environmental Management Measures/Indicators ............................. 34

Section 5: Brewing/Malting and Beverage
Manufacturing...................................................................... 39
  5.1 Background ................................................................................................ 39
  5.2 Current Practice in Botswana .................................................................. 42
  5.3 Environmental Issues related to Brewing/Malting and Soft Drink
  Production ........................................................................................................ 44
  5.4 Environmental Management Measures ................................................ 46

Section 6: Confectionery and Syrup Manufacture......... 47
  6.1 Background ................................................................................................ 47
  6.2 Environmental Issues related to the manufacture of confectionery
  and syrup products ......................................................................................... 48

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  6.3 Environmental Management Measures ................................................ 50

Section 7: Installations for Slaughter of Animals ............. 51
  7.1 Background ................................................................................................ 51
  7.2 Environmental Problems in Abattoirs or Slaughterhouses ................... 52
  7.3 Environmental Management Measures ................................................ 56

Section 8: Industrial Starch Manufacturing Installations 67
  8.1 Background ................................................................................................ 67
  8.2 Environmental issues related to Industrial Starch Manufacturing
  Installations ........................................................................................................ 71
  8.3 Environmental Management Issues........................................................ 72

Section 9: Fishmeal And Fish Oil Manufacturing ............ 75
  9.1 Background ................................................................................................ 75
  9.2 Fish Industry in Botswana .......................................................................... 79
  9.3 Environmental Issues Associated with the Processing of Fish meal and
  Fish oil ................................................................................................................. 80
  9.4 Environmental Management Measures ................................................ 82

Section 10: Sugar Factories ................................................ 85
  10.1 Background .............................................................................................. 85
  10.2 The Sugar Refining Process..................................................................... 86
  10.3 Environmental Issues related to the Refining of Sugar ....................... 87
  10.4 Environmental Management Measures to be considered in the
  setting up of a sugar refining or processing plant ...................................... 89

Section 11: Manufacture Of Animal Feed ....................... 94
  11.1 Background .............................................................................................. 94
  11.2 Current Practice in Botswana ................................................................ 95
  11.3 Environmental Management Issues ..................................................... 95

Section 12: Sample Terms of Reference: Food
Processing/Manufacturing Industry .................................. 97

Section 13: Thresholds and Criteria for the Food Industry
.............................................................................................. 105




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List of Tables
Table 2.1: Vegetable oil production in Botswana (MT) .......................... 8
Table 41: Benefits of the Multiple Use CIP System……………………………………28
Table 4.2: Areas of water consumption at dairy processing plants ........ 29
Table 4.3: Sources of milk losses to the effluent stream ......................... 31
Table 4.4: Energy consumption of different dairy products…………………….33
Table 7.1: Compliance limits (based on background sound levels) for
existing sources or places noise to protect existing or proposed dwellings
and other noise-sensitive places or commercial areas ........................ 65
Table 7.2: Compliance noise limits, based on background sound levels, for
proposed sources or places to protect established dwellings and other
noise-sensitive places or commercial places………………………………………….66
Table 8.1 Uses of Starch - Industrial, Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics……………68
Table 8.2: Estimated energy consumption for proves in corn wet milling
operations, based on a 100,000-bushel/day facility……………………………….72
Table 8.3: Cross cutting (utilities) energy efficiency measures for the corn
wet milling industry....................................................................... 73
Table 8.4 Process related energy efficiency measures for the corn wet
milling industry………………………………………………………………………………………..74
Table 10.1: Sugar supply (tonnes) in Botswana ................................... 85
Table 10.2: Effluent Characteristics Of Various Cane Sugar and Refining
Waste Streams In Different Countries ............................................... 87
Table 10. 3: Sources of By-Products and Waste Generation……………………88
Table 10. 4: Effluents from Sugar Manufacturing (milligrams per liter, except
for Ph and temperature) ……………………………………………………………………….91




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Section 1: General

1.1 Scope

The scope of these guidelines covers the following:

                    Manufacture of vegetable and animal oils and fats

                    Packing and canning of animal and vegetable
                     products

                    Manufacture of dairy products

                    Brewing and malting

                    Confectionery and syrup manufacture

                    Installations for slaughter of animals

                    Industrial starch manufacture installations

                    Fish meal and fish oil factories

                    Sugar factories

                    Manufacture of animal feeds/fodder etc


1.2 Institutional and Legal Framework

Institutional responsibility for the food industry falls mainly within the
purview of the Ministry of Trade and Industry. The legal framework
governing the food industry in Botswana is provided by the following
legislation:
   The Factories Act

   Air Pollution (Control) Act

   Water Act

   Waste Management Act

   Standards Act

   Livestock and Meat Industries Act

   Public Health Act


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   Food Control Act

   Fish Protection Act

   Consumer Protection Act

   The Industrial Property Act.

   The Companies Act.




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Section 2: Manufacture of Vegetable and Animal Oils
and Fats

This section covers the manufacture of vegetable oil in Botswana has
there is currently no production activity related to the manufacture of
animal oils and fats. Also included in this section is the production of soap.

2.1. Background
Botswana generally produces minimal amounts of edible oils with the bulk
of its requirements being imported (Table 2.1). Vegetable oil is refined in
Botswana by a number of companies including Tshipidi Pure Refined
Sunflower Oil, Refined Oil Products (Pty) Ltd. The former company
depends on local farmers within the country for their raw material,
sunflower while the latter obtain their raw material from Argentina or Brazil
through agents in South Africa. The vegetable oil processing industry in
Botswana involves the processing of crude oils from vegetable sources
especially soybean. Vegetable oil produced in Botswana is principally for
human consumption.


Table 2.1: Vegetable oil production in Botswana (MT)
                    1999                2000                 2001
Vegetable oil       0                   0                    0
Production          1,641               1,640                610
Imports             16,896              22,782               14,982
Exports             984                 2,376                666
Domestic supply     17,583              16,046               13,925
Source: White House and Associates, 2003


2.2 Current practice in Botswana
Kgalagadi Soap Industries and Refined Oil Industries are subsidiaries of H.J.
H Heinz, the American Food Giant. The major products manufactured
include dishwashing liquid, laundry, and toilet soap including Marang and
Oodi. They are also manufacturers of Olivine cooking oil. The current
production capacity of the plant is 60 tonnes of soap and 20 tonnes of oil
(refined).




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Manufacture of Soap
Soaps are water-soluble sodium or potassium salts of fatty acids. Soaps
are made from fats and oils, or their fatty acids, by treating them
chemically with a strong alkali. Soap manufacturing consists of a broad
range of processing and packaging operations. The size and complexity
of these operations vary from small plants employing a few people to
those with several hundred workers. Products range from large-volume
types like laundry detergents that are used on a regular basis to lower-
volume specialties for less frequent cleaning needs.

Cleaning products come in three principal forms: bars, powders and
liquids. Some liquid products are so viscous that they are gels. The first step
in manufacturing all three forms is the selection of raw materials. Raw
materials are chosen according to many criteria, including their human
and environmental safety, cost, compatibility with other ingredients, and
the form and performance characteristics of the finished product. While
actual production processes may vary from manufacturer to
manufacturer, there are steps, which are common to all products of a
similar form.

The major raw materials for soap manufacture in Botswana include tallow,
which is obtained from the Botswana meat Commission. Tallow is beef fat
which makes a wonderful, hard, close lathering bar of soap when used as
a proportion of the basic oils and fats. Other materials used in the
production of soap include caustic soda, brine solution, heat/steam,
perfume, moisturizers and colorants. Most of the raw materials with the
exception of tallow are imported from South Africa.

There are three main stages to the production of soap, which can either
involve batch or continuous process. A major component of the soap
production process is that it involves heat. The initial source of water for
the soap production process is obtained from Water Utilities. This is used in
the mixing of tallow. Most of the water that is then used in the production
process is obtained from steam generated from the boilers. The water
from this facility is stored in a tank, which is recycled for both soap making
and cleaning purposes. On a full production day, the plant uses 70 metric
tonnes of water.




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1. Saponification:

Saponification of fats and oils is the most widely used soap making
process. This method involves heating fats and oils and reacting them with
a liquid alkali to produce soap and water (neat soap) plus glycerin. The
other major soap making process is the neutralization of fatty acids with
an alkali. Fats and oils are hydrolyzed (split) with a high-pressure steam to
yield crude fatty acids and glycerin. The fatty acids are then purified by
distillation and neutralized with an alkali to produce soap and water (neat
soap). When the alkali is sodium hydroxide, sodium soap is formed.
Sodium soaps are "hard" soaps. When the alkali is potassium hydroxide,
potassium soap is formed. Potassium soaps are softer and are found in
some liquid hand soaps and shaving creams.

The Batch Method -
Semi Boiled Saponification for the production of medium quality soap is
made by a simple mixing and heating process in a Crutcher (soap mixer)
and is used for making small (1 to 5 tonnes) batches of laundry or
household soap. Any impurities in the raw materials will be present in the
finished soap and there is no wasted discharge to drain.

Fully Boiled Saponification for production of good to high quality soaps is
made in kettles. This is the commonest form of soap making. It can be
used for laundry soap or toilet soap. The Fully Boiled Soap is washed during
the process to remove any impurities or glycerin. Batch size is typically 25
to 50 tonnes and 3 to 5 kettles are used. Typical plant outputs are 1 to 5
tonnes per hour. The fully boiled and washed soap (called neat soap)
produces soap to international quality standards. Some wastes may need
to be discharged to drain if glycerin is not recovered from these wastes
(called lye).

The Continuous Process -
Continuous Saponification is suitable for the production of all grades of
soap up to the highest quality levels. This system is not suitable for
production rates of less than 50 tonnes of soap per day. The system can
be sized up to soap production rates in excess of 200 tonnes per day.

In the process, raw materials are accurately metered via a special pump
to the saponification reactor. Following reaction, the neat soap is
separated from the glycerin rich by-product of the reaction. The
separation takes place in two main stages, firstly in the rotating disk
column, secondly via centrifuge separation. The neat soap is pumped to
storage, or directly to vacuum spray drying section.
Since glycerin is valuable, the plant will often include a glycerin recovery
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section to purify the recovered glycerin.

Continuous Neutralisation is also a continuous process, but it is significantly
simpler than the saponification process. The fatty raw materials in this
process are fatty acids rather than palm oil (blends) or tallow.
Once again raw materials are accurately metered to a neutralisation
reactor. There is no by-product to the neutralisation process, therefore
there is no separation stage. The neat soap is pumped to storage, or
directly to vacuum spray drying section.

2. Drying Stage:

Chilling Roll Method
This process uses chilled rolls to dry the liquid neat soap into soap ribbons.
The liquid soap is pumped onto chilled cooling rolls, and immediately
solidifies. The solid soap is continuously scraped off the chilling roller as a
ribbon or flake and drops into a wooden or plastic tray. When all the trays
are full they are placed in racks or trolleys and moved into a Drying Room
where they are left for a period to dry or cool.

The liquid neat soap is pumped through the heat exchanger and then it is
sprayed into the vacuum chamber. The water vapour is extracted by a
vacuum system and adjusting the heat exchanger temperature and the
level of vacuum controls the final water content of the soap. Typical final
moisture levels are 22 % moisture for laundry soap and 13 % for toilet soap.

The soap dries as it passes across the vacuum chamber and sticks to the
internal surfaces. It is scraped off by a set of slowly rotating knives and falls
into a plodder on which the vacuum spray chamber is mounted. The
plodder continuously extrudes soap whilst maintaining the vacuum seal
and can deliver noodles for toilet soap or a continuous extrusion for
laundry bars.


3.Packaging

The final step in the manufacture of soaps and detergents is packaging.
Bar soaps are either wrapped or cartoned in single packs or multipacks.
Detergents, including household cleaners, are packaged in cartons,
bottles, pouches, bags or cans. The selection of packaging materials and
containers involves considerations of product compatibility and stability,
cost, package safety, solid waste impact, shelf appeal and ease of use.

Bar soaps are made from fats and oils or their fatty acids, which are

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reacted with inorganic water-soluble bases. The main sources of fats are
beef and mutton tallow, while palm, coconut and palm kernel oils are the
principal oils used in soap making. The raw materials may be pretreated
to remove impurities and to achieve the color, odor and performance
features desired in the finished bar.

The next processing step after saponification or neutralization is drying.
Vacuum spray drying is used to convert the neat soap into dry soap
pellets. The moisture content of the pellets will vary depending on the
desired properties of the soap bar.

In the final processing step, the dry soap pellets pass through a bar soap
finishing line. The first unit in the line is a mixer, called an amalgamator, in
which the soap pellets are blended together with fragrance, colorants
and all other ingredients. The mixture is then homogenized and refined
through rolling mills and refining plodders to achieve thorough blending
and a uniform texture. Finally, the mixture is continuously extruded from
the plodder, cut into bar-size units and stamped into its final shape in a
soap press.


Both continuous and batch processes produce soap in liquid form, called
neat soap, and a valuable by-product, glycerin. The glycerin is recovered
by chemical treatment, followed by evaporation and refining. Refined
glycerin is an important industrial material used in foods, cosmetics, drugs
and many other products. Both batch and continuous blending processes
are used to manufacture liquid cleaning products. Stabilizers may be
added during manufacturing to ensure the uniformity and stability of the
finished product. In a typical continuous process, dry and liquid
ingredients are added and blended to a uniform mixture using in-line or
static mixers.

Manufacture of Vegetable oils
Crude oils obtained by rendering contain substances and trace
components including seed particles, impurities, phosphatides,
carbohydrates, waxes, which are undesirable for taste, stability,
appearance or further processing. The purpose of refining oils and fats for
edible purposes is to remove these undesirable substances and
components while maintaining the nutritional value and the stability of the
end product.

In the production of fully refined oil from crude vegetable oil, three major
processes are followed which essentially are used to remove impurities
such as free fatty acids, metal (ions), colour (pigment) and solvent from
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the crude oil. These are neutralization, bleaching and deodorizing.

Neutralisation: alkali refining is found to be one of the most effective ways
to remove impurities from oil. The alkali most commonly used is caustic
soda. 0.2% of phosphoric acid is added to eliminate the phosphatides
and gums. The caustic soda saponifies the free fatty acid and soap is
washed out by centrifuge along with the phosphatides and colour bodies.
The soap stuck generated is then pumped to the soap factory for further
use.

Bleaching: this is the process for removing pigments from fats and oils.
Here the dried and neutralized oil is mixed with about 1% of either natural
or acid activated bleaching earth or clay material under vacuum at
about 107 degrees Celsius, agitating, and then filtering to remove the
clay. High temperature drives moisture from the clay so that it will absorb
the pigments, colour bodies, residual soaps and other impurities and to
decompose hydroperoxides. The bleaching process also absorbs various
compounds, which contribute to the oxidation of the oil. This enhances
the oil stability and resistances to deterioration. The oil is then filtered and
sent to the deodoriser.

Deodorizing: this is the final process in the production of fully refined
cooking oil. Deodorisation is essentially a steam distillation process carried
out at low pressures (2-6 mbar) and elevated temperatures (180-220°C).
Under vacuum, the oil is superheated and the temperature removes the
substances, which gives undesirable taste and odours and these include
volatile components, mainly aldehydes and ketones, with low threshold
values for detection by taste or smell. The resulting product is bland in
flavour and odour. It is later cooled, filtered and packed in the containers.

The alkaline neutralisation process has major drawbacks, the yield is
relatively low and oil losses occur due to emulsification and saponification
of neutral oil. Also, a considerable amount of liquid effluent is generated.
The soaps are generally split with sulphuric acid to recover free fatty acids
along with sodium sulphate and some fat-containing acid water steam.

Bleaching clay is composed mainly of smectite, an aluminosilicate
mineral. It is well known that bentonites in their natural state have limited
absorbing capacity. This ability is greatly enhanced by treatment with
strong acids. When bentonites are acid-activated as a result of treatment
with hot mineral acid solutions, hydrogen ions attack the aluminosilicate
layers via the interlayer region. This attack alters the structure, chemical
composition and physical properties of the clay while increasing the
adsorption capacity. At a dosage of 0.5-1.0% clay, the current world
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production of more than 60 million tons of oils is accompanied by the
production of solid spent clay, containing 30-40% oil, estimated at 600,000
tons worldwide. This solid waste clay is currently disposed directly in
landfills without treatment, causing severe water and air pollution
problems. However, recently dumping of spent clay in landfills or public
disposal sites has been prohibited in most countries. Recovery of oil and
the reuse of spent bleaching clay are the areas where great opportunity
exists for cost saving in the oil processing industry.

In the case of Refined Oil Products, very little is generated in the form of
boiler ash. What is produced is either collected by PPC cement for use in
cement production or disposed off at the landfill by Skip Hire.


2.3: Environmental Issues related to the manufacture of
vegetable oil and soap.

Water supply
The processing of manufacturing vegetable oil involves large volumes of
water, which is needed for sanitary, cooling and production purposes.

Wastewater
Vegetable oils and fats are extracted from a range of different fruits,
seeds and nuts and they are generally non-toxic and biodegradable
without requiring any further treatment. However they pollute the
environment as they degrade due to their oxygen demand and their
capacity to break down into water emulsions.

Compared to the physical method of neutralizing oil wherein the
treatment of wastewaters is easier and the quantity of waster generated is
lower, the chemical method depends on the use of large quantities of
water and as a result, high volumes of waste water is generated which in
most cases are discharged into municipal sewage systems where the
industry is located in urban areas. However when compared with the
chemical distillation process, the physical process consumes a far higher
quantity of active bleaching clay.

Storage of oil, gases and chemicals
The manufacturing and refining of vegetable oil utilizes considerable
quantities of oils, gases and chemicals. Typical storage includes:
       Underground storage tanks
       Below ground phosphoric acid tanks
       Bulk storage oil tanks

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          Fuel oil tanks
          Drums of assorted additives, caustics, disinfectants, detergents

Potential environmental issues associated with this risk are the
contamination of soil and groundwater from leaking storage tanks. Both
major and minor spillage of oil, gases and chemicals can arise due to
overfilling of tanks, incorrect draining of filling lines, operator error or
vandalism

Odour and noise
The process of refining oil generally produces unpleasant odours and
noise, which may reach or exceed safety levels.


2.4 Environmental Management Measures

   Optimize the use of water and cleaning chemicals.

   Where appropriate preference should be given to the use of physical
    methods of refining rather than chemical refining due to its low
    wastewater generation and the fact that though its use of active clay
    is high, it has a lower environmental impact than the chemicals
    generally used.

   Consideration should be given to the use of citric acid instead of
    phosphoric acid where feasible in the degumming operations.

   There should be regular testing and monitoring of the final effluent to
    ensure that they comply with acceptable discharge limits into council
    operated sewers. This can be carried out at least weekly or more
    frequently depending on flow levels.

   Monitoring data should be analyzed and reviewed at regular intervals
    and compared with existing operating standards so that all necessary
    corrective actions can be taken.

   Processing plants should not be sited close to populated areas to
    reduce the impact of dust and odours on residents.

   Provide dust extractors to maintain a clean workplace, recover
    product, and control air emissions.

   Prevent odour problems through good hygiene and storage practices.


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   There should be continuous sampling and measuring of key production
    parameters in order to identify and reduce production losses thereby
    reducing waste load.

   Due to odour nuisance, plants should not be cited in the immediate
    vicinity of residential areas.

   Where such plants are already cited in close proximity to residential
    areas, there should be regular checks on air compliance records in
    accordance with existing air pollution emission standards.

   Plants of plant complex should not be cited near ecologically sensitive
    areas.

   Fabric filters should be used to control dust from production units to
    below 50 milligrams per normal cubic meter (mg/Nm3).

   All oil mill wastewater should be fed through oil separators before
    discharge into the sewer.

   There should be constant supervision of normal plant operation to
    ensure that limit values related to pollution removal are met.

   Noise reduction or mitigation measures such as hearing protection (ear
    muffs) or silencing devices on machines should be provided.

   Where feasible all waste products should be collected for use in by-
    products such as animal feed.

   Consideration should be given to secondary containment of tanks
    (e.g. bunds) to prevent spills reaching the wide environment. The
    bunding should:
       Completely surround the storage tanks
       Be impervious and resistant to the liquids in storage; and
       Be capable of holding 110% of the capacity of the largest tank
       Adequate provision should be made for accidents/fire
          prevention and emergency procedures.

   Fit all storage tanks with high level alarms or volume indicators to warn
    of overfilling.

   Storage, transport and packaging of oils. Oils and fats must be
    protected against oxidative deterioration, contamination with water,
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   dirt, or other fats, absorption of foreign odours and tastes, thermal
   deterioration, and entry of foreign substances from packaging and
   lining materials. Temperature, oxygen pressure, oxidation products,
   trace metals, oxidative and lipolytic enzymes, reduction in natural
   antioxidants and visible and ultraviolet light are all factors in such
   deterioration. The use of low storage temperatures, nitrogen or
   vacuum packaging; the avoidance of copper, copper alloys and iron
   as construction material of storage vessels; and the use of synthetic or
   natural antioxidants and metal sequestrants as additives, work to
   prevent deterioration of oil during storage.




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Section 3: Packing and Canning of Animal and
Vegetable Products

This section covers activities related to the packing and canning of animal
products and covers the process of food preparation (cleaning, trimming,
peeling and cooking). At present there are no existing manufacturing
activities related to the packing and canning of vegetable products in
Botswana.

3.1 Background
Packaging is defined as all the products made of any materials of any
nature to be used for the containment, protection, handling, delivery and
preservation of goods from the producer to the user or consumer. The
main packaging materials include paper/fiberboard, plastic, glass, steel
and aluminum. Packaging products plays a number of important
functions: It reduces spoiling of raw materials and waste generation in the
kitchen. It makes transportation and storage much easier. Packaging also
ensures the goods we consume are safe, are the right amount and
provide us with important information about the product.

Food canning is a long established and well-understood technique, which
has served consumers well for nearly 200 years. Canning is the
commercial sterilization of shelf stable products that can be stored at
ambient temperature for human and animal consumption includes cans,
pouches, bottles and aseptic processing. Canning is primarily a method
for the preservation of foodstuffs. The canning process involves two
essential operations: (1) heating the product at a sufficiently high
temperature long enough to make it fully or commercially sterile (2)
sealing the heated product in a hermetic container, to prevent spoilage
by recontamination of the product with micro-organisms.

Essentially food that has been washed and prepared is sealed in a tin
coated steel can. The can is then subjected to heat to raise the
temperature to a predetermined level for a set period to kill food spoilage
organisms and, if present in the food, those pathogens which cause food
poisoning. Chemical preservatives are not needed in the food canning
process. Thus is because since foods stay sealed in the steel can, outside
contamination is prevented and the food remains sterile until the can is
opened. Smaller size containers are more suitable for meat canning
because heat penetration of the meat is by conduction, so if larger
containers are used extremely severe heat treatments will be necessary
for sterilization. Such severe heat treatment will result in a much lower

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quality of canned product, which will be extremely overcooked. The
canned meat and the cans themselves must both be sterilized before the
cans are sealed and passed through a retort. The retort heats and
pressurizes the meat inside the can, cooking it and creating a vacuum
that inhibits microbe growth.

Although tinplate cans are the most commonly used containers for storing
meat products, more attention is increasingly being given to aluminum for
manufacturing cans and other containers for canned meat products,
where special opening features are desired. Important advantages of
aluminium cans are that they are lead-free and do not rust. Most often
two-piece aluminium cans are used in meat canning. Aluminium for can
ends and bodies is, without exception, coated with enamel on both sides.
It is widely used in flexible and semi-rigid containers as a protective
packaging for a large number of meat products. As a result of extensive
development, the use of flexible, laminated pouches and formed
aluminium containers for shelf-stable sterilized products is a commercial
reality.



3.2 Current practice in Botswana
The packing and canning of animal products in Botswana is carried out
mainly by the Botswana Meat Commission, which is an establishment
primarily, engaged in the slaughtering of cattle for meat to be sold and/or
used on the same premises for packing and canning for both human and
animal consumption. The packing of animal products especially meat is
usually for export purposes to the European market. Canned products
produced at the BMC include Ecco Corned Beef, Ecco Corned Meat,
Ecco Ox Tongue, Stewed Steak with Vegetables, Stewed Steak with Gravy
and Pet Food.


At present, the current production capacity of the cannery in Lobatse is
45 tons a week. The beef used in the production of these products are
based sourced from Botswana Meat Commission, Francistown and
Lobatse abattoirs. On a daily basis, the meat commission uses 3637m 3 of
water obtained from Water Utilities and the borehole within the plant for
production purposes including house cleaning. In an effort to reduce the
amount of water used in the production process, the cannery has
installed water savers on the hoses used within the plant.


The main effluent generated by the plant is fat and water. Before the
effluent is discharged into the Lobatse Town Council sewer, it is sent to

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anaerobic ponds where the fat is dislodged using big filters after which it is
transferred to a holding pond where it is kept for a few days before it is
discharged into the sewers. The quality of the effluent generated is
checked on a monthly basis. The cannery is currently working on the
feasibility of recovering fat produced during the canning process. The
recovered fat is to be sent to the By-products plant for processing into
tallow. Fat and meat pieces make up the composition of the solid waste
generated. These are however sent to the By-product plant for processing
into tallow and carcass meal.


Electricity and coal are the main sources of energy used in the cannery.
On a monthly basis, the plant consumes 400 tons of coal and 1,052,000
kWh of power.



Fruit and Vegetable Canning

Though the canning of fruits and vegetables is not an activity currently
undertaken in Botswana, it is a growing, competitive industry, especially in
terms of international exports. Typical vegetable products that are
canned include beans (cut and whole), carrots, corn, peas, spinach,
tomatoes, apples, pears, pineapple and apricots. Although the process of
canning vegetables follows basic steps, diversity exists in the inclusion of
certain operations for some vegetables, the sequence of the process
steps used in the operations, and the cooking or blanching steps.

A typical commercial canning operation involves the following:

   1. Washing and sorting: here vegetables are washed thoroughly by
      high-pressure sprays or by strong flowing streams of water while
      being passed along a moving belt or on agitating or revolving
      screens. The raw produce may be sorted for size and maturity.
      Sorting is accomplished by passing the raw materials through a
      series of moving screens with different mesh sizes or over differently
      spaced rollers. Separation into groups according to degree of
      ripeness or perfection of shape is done by hand.

   2. Peeling and coring: the vegetables are peeled using either steam
      or lye peeling. With steam peeling, the tomatoes are treated with
      steam to loosen the skin, which is then removed by mechanical
      means. In lye peeling, fruits are immersed in a hot lye bath or
      sprayed with a boiling solution of 10 to 20 percent lye. Excess lye is
      then drained and any lye that adheres to the fruit is then removed

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      with the peel by thorough washing. Coring is done by a water
      powered device with a small turbine wheel

   3. Container filling: after peeling and coring, the can or glass
      containers are cleaned by hot water, steam, or air blast. Most of the
      filling is done by machine. The containers are filled with the solid
      product and then topped with a light puree of the fruit or
      vegetable

   4. Exhausting: the objective of this process is to remove air so that
      pressure inside the container following heat treatment and cooling
      can be less than atmospheric. The reduced internal pressure helps
      to extend the shelf life of the food products and prevents bulging of
      the container at high altitudes. Vacuum is created either by the use
      of heat or by mechanical means.

   5. Sealing: In sealing lids on metal cans, a double seam is created by
      interlocking the curl of the lid and flange of the can

   6. Heat sterilization: microorganisms that can cause spoilage are
      destroyed by heat. The processing time and temperature vary with
      the nature of the product and the size of the container.

   7. Cooking: after heat sterilization, the containers are quickly cooled
      to prevent overcooking. This can be done by adding water to the
      cooker under air pressure or by conveying the containers from the
      cooker to a rotary cooler equipped with a cold water spray.

   8. Labeling and casing: once the containers are cooled and dried,
      they are ready for labeling. Labeling machines apply glue and
      labels in one high-speed operation.


3.3 Environmental issues related to the Packing and Canning of
Animal and Vegetable Products
Water supply

Canning involves a high volume of water-use for washing of raw and
processed produce, peeling and pitting practices, blanching, fluming,
sorting and conveying and food processing purposes. As a result water
quality is a critical issue as any contamination in the water source has the
potential to be passed into the canned product. The high volume of
water used is likely to lead to high wastewater treatment requirements,
unless water recycling is undertaken.


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Waste water generation

Wastewater from the canning of meat-based foods will contain oil and
grease, high level of biological oxygen demand, suspended solids,
cleansing agents, salt and bacteria.

Reducing fruit and vegetable size, coring, slicing, dicing, pureeing and
juicing process steps, as well as filling and sanitizing activities after
processing also contribute to the waste stream.

However where canning facilities are automated, canning lines will
discharge less water and wastes.

Energy consumption

In the food processing industry, canning is the process that consumes the
most energy and leads to the creation of greenhouse gases. Commercial
sterility is obtained in meat products, which belong to low acid foods (pH
higher than 4.6) if the process applied is severe enough to inactivate the
spores. This is mainly because to ensure food safety, the contents of a
can must be heated to a very high temperature (between 116 and 121
degrees C) for a minimum of three minutes. This process is needed to
prevent the growth of Clostridium botulinum bacteria, and is how the
food is made and kept safe for consumption, but that sterilisation requires
vast amounts of energy, and the production of that energy creates a
significant volume of greenhouse gases.

Odours
Odours can originate from the spoilage of discarded food and the poor
management of solid wastes and effluents, as well as cooking and the
preparation of aromatic foods. Combustion gases such as CO2, CO, Nox
and possibly SO2 and particulate emissions may also be generated by on
site boilers and fuelled cookers.


Air Emissions
These may arise from a variety of sources in the canning of fruits and
vegetables. Particulate matter emissions result mainly from solids handling,
solids size reduction, drying. Volatile organic compounds emissions may
occur at almost any stage of processing, but most usually they are
associated with thermal processing steps such as cooking and
evaporative concentration.



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Noise
Equipment used in the canning process such as conveyor belts can
produce excessive noise.


Waste management
The greatest volume of sold waste generated will be spoiled food raw
materials and product as well as residues generated during the cleaning
of cooking and canning machinery.


3.4 Environmental Management Measures

Water Use
  Automatic shut off valves should be installed on water hoses
  High-pressure sprays should be used for cleaning up purposes.
  Excessive overflow from washing and soaking tanks should be
     eliminated during fruit and vegetable processing activities.

Wastewater minimization
   Recycle and reuse water, subject to quality constraints during
      canning of animal and fruit and vegetable products
   Use proper management methods, which reduce the need for the
      in-process washing
     Install scrapers to dry clean enameling equipment, thereby
      eliminating the need for solvent baths
     Filter enamel and reuse where possible
     Process modifications should include installation of a flow meter
      and elimination of scrap fluming
     Air flotation units should be used to remove suspended debris from
      raw materials during the processing of fruits and vegetables
     The use of mechanical conveyors should be substituted for flumes.
     Can cooling water used during fruit and vegetable processing
      should be recirculated. When it is not recirculated, it should be
      reused in caustic soda or in water peeling baths, in removal of
      caustic soda after peeling, in primary wash of the raw material, in
      canning belt lubrication, and in plant cleanup operations

Hygiene and Safety
       All meat should be handled carefully to avoid contamination from
        the time of slaughtering until the products are canned.
       Animals should be correctly slaughtered, canned promptly or kept

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        under refrigeration until processed.
       Keep meat as cool as possible during preparation for canning,
        handle rapidly, and process meat as soon as it is packed.
       Use lean meat for canning; remove most of the fat. Cut off gristle
        and remove large bones. Cut into pieces convenient for canning.
       Before filling, containers should be rinsed or otherwise cleaned
        from dust or other impurities.


Emission Controls
A number of emission control approaches are potentially available to the
canning industry. These include wet scrubbers, dry sorbants and cyclones.




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Section 4: Manufacture of Dairy Products
This section applies to dairy processing operations that include milk and
diary plants or factories. The guide does not cover the upstream
production of milk on diary farms and the downstream activities of
distribution and retail of dairy products. It is intended as a guide for use by
diary processing industry, consultants, regulators, planning authorities and
the broader community.

4.1 Background
Dairying is defined as the production of milk and milk products (DSM,
2001). There are more than 30 main products made from milk with a
number of sub-products in each category. Dairy products include:
      Milk
      Milk powder
      Cheese
      Yogurt
      Ice cream

The diary industry is divided into two main production areas:
      The primary production of milk on farms- the keeping of cows and
          other animals for the production of milk for human consumption;
          and
      The processing of milk- with the objective of extending its saleable
          life. This objective is achieved by:
          a. Heat treatment to ensure that milk is safe for human
                consumption and has an extended keeping quality; and
          b. Preparing a variety if dairy products in a semi-dehydrated or
                dehydrated form (butter, hard cheese and milk powders)
                which can be stored.

Diary farming in Botswana dates back to colonial period when cream was
produced and sold to South African creameries and a creamery in
Francistown. It is estimated that Botswana is 26% self sufficient in milk
production. The country imports 74% of its fresh milk from South Africa and
Zimbabwe. Diary products imported from these countries include butter,
cheese and milk powders. Typical processes involved in the manufacture
of these products include refrigerated storage, pasteurization/sterilization,
separation and packaging. There are seven processing plants
concentrated on the eastern side of Botswana. In Lobatse there is one
processing plant, while in Gaborone and Selebi-Phikwe there are two
processing plants each and one batch pasteuriser in Francistown. Most of
the dairy processing activities in the country focuses mainly on the

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production of fresh milk, madilla (sour milk), yogurt, cheese and juice. In
Gaborone there are two main diary-processing plants - Clover Botswana
and Sally Dairy.


4.2 Current Practice in Botswana

Sally Dairy Botswana

This dairy processing plant is locate in Tlokweng. Dairy products
manufactured include milk, juice and madilla (sour milk). The plant
produces 25,000 litres of milk, juice and madilla a month. The plant uses
the continous HTST method of pasteurising milk. HTST (High Temperature /
Short-Time) pasteurisation of milk is a process used in the sterilization and
pasteurisation of liquids by heating them to extreme temperatures for a
very short period. The heat treatment is accomplished using a plate heat
exchanger. This piece of equipment consists of a stack of corrugated
stainless steel plates clamped together in a frame. According to the
production manager, the continuous HTST process is used as it saves time
and energy. About 99% of the raw materials used in the processing of
diary products and juices including milk, caustic acid and acid are
obtained from South Africa.

The plant relies on municipal water for its production activities. On a daily
basis, the production process including house cleaning consumes 8 m3 of
water which comes to about P5, 787 per month. The main source of
energy for the production process is from BPC.

All the liquid effluent generated during production and processing is
channelled into a three-compartment stainless steel fat trap tank before
onward disposal into the municipal sewer.

Solid waste generated from the plant consists of by-products of
packaging including cardboards, plastic bags, papers, and juice and
acid containers. These are stored outside the production area and
disposed off by the Tlokweng Sub District Council waste disposal unit.




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Clover Botswana

This is a subsidiary of Clover (South Africa). Clover Botswana is a dairy
manufacturing, distribution and sales. Like their competitor, Sally Dairy,
Clover Botswana produces a wide range of products including Clover
fresh milk, Prime fresh milk, and diary mixes, nectars, yogurt, madilla and
tropica fruit drinks. The plant produces on average 200,000 litres of milk
and about 60,000 litres of other dairy products in a month. Between 50-
60% of the milk used in the production process comes from local dairy
farms in Botswana with the rest imported from South Africa which is also
the source of all other raw materials including sugar, colorants and
caustic acid used in the production of diary related products. The main
process used in the production of these products especially milk is the
High Temperature Short time process (HTST).


Depending on the quantity of milk and products produced, the plant uses
between 15,000 and 20,000 liters of water, obtained from Water Utilities,
on a daily basis for production and house cleaning purposes.

Presently, the plant does not treat the effluent it discharges directly into
the municipal sewer facility. The main solid waste generated at the plant
is that generated from the packaging of the milk and other dairy related
products. Skip Hire (Botswana) is charged with the responsibility of
disposing these materials. However the plant has a policy of sorting out
waste material for recycling purposes.

One of the measures that Clover Botswana has put in place to reduce the
amount of water that is presently consumed is the installation of Cleaning-
in-Place system (CIP). With Sally Dairy in the process of expanding their
plant, this system will also be installed. The Cleaning-in-Place system
consists of the following components:

Programmable Wash Units - These form the heart of a Cleaning In Place
(CIP) system, handling all filtering, preheating, mixing, and pumping of
water, detergents, and demineralized water. They provide continuous
monitoring and control of cleaning parameters, including flow rates,
detergent concentrations, temperatures, and wash times, for full process
validation.

Retractable Tank Cleaners - An effective tank cleaner has a well-defined
spray pattern for effective cleaning of tank, filter housing, and inlet air
plenum. It is fully retractable and protected from product contact during
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normal processing.

Through-the-Wall Construction - Ancillary equipment is housed outside the
process room, simplifying cleaning.

Control Systems - A full range of control options are available, including a
graphical operator interface, online monitoring and trending, recipe
handling, and batch management with bar coding. Continuous
monitoring allows the user to document all cleaning parameters,
maintaining a record of performance when required. The system can
monitor and record flow rates, chemical concentrations, volumes, and
temperatures.

The multi-use CIP system efficiently cleans and sanitises all of the milk lines
and associated pasteurised milk vats whilst minimising wastage (Table 4.1).
The process of cleaning in place is based on taking the cleaning and
sanitising chemicals to the equipment rather than taking the equipment
to the chemicals. The effectiveness of the procedure is determined by
factors of time, temperature, concentration and the physical action
involved. The advent of automatic multi-use CIP systems has made it
economically and physically feasible to install sensitive, complex
measuring and control equipment for further process automation. By
utilising Acid Sanitiser and Sodium Hydroxide within the system, the
following direct benefits have also be attained:
          1. Reduction in the clean-up labour costs;

          2. Improved sanitation of the complete system through
             the ability to use higher temperatures and stronger
             chemicals; and

          3. Elimination of contamination when assembling
             dismantled equipment.


Table 41: Benefits of the Multiple Use CIP System
Savings made per annum by using the CIP   Benefits
System
Economic                                   Reduced chemical usage Reduced water
                                          usage Improved cleaning effectiveness
                                          Enhanced product quality
Environmental                             Reduced chemical waste Reduced water
                                          waste
Health & Safety                           Reduced direct handling of chemicals
Source:(http://www.deh.gov.au/settlements/industry/corporate/eecp/case-
studies/pauls1.html)

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4.3 Environmental Issues related to the Manufacture of Dairy
Products
As in many food-processing industries, the key environmental issues
associated with dairy processing are the high or significant consumption
of water for processing and cleaning, the generation of high strength
effluent streams, unpleasant odours, the consumption of energy and the
generation of by-products.

Water Supply
In the dairy processing industry, fresh water is used principally for cleaning
equipment, cooling and production purposes and work areas to maintain
hygienic conditions, and accounts for a large proportion of total water
use. Rates of water consumption varies depending on the scale of the
plant, age and type of processing, whether batch or continuous
processes are used and the ease with which equipment can be cleaned
as well as operator practices. Table 4.2 shows areas of water consumption
within the dairy processing plant and the contribution of each area to
overall water use.

Table 4.2: Areas of water consumption at dairy processing plants
 Area of use                  Consumption (L/kg     Percentage of total
                              product)
 Locker room                  0.01-1.45             2
 Staff use                    0.02-0.44             2
 Boiler                       0.03-0.78             2
 Cold storage                 0.03-0.78             2
 Receipt area                 0.11-0.92             3
 Filling room                 0.11-0.41             3
 Crate washer                 0.18-0.75             4
 Cooling tower                0.20-1.8              5
 Cleaning                     0.32-1.76             8
 Cheese room                  0.06-20.89            8
 Utilities                    0.56-4.39             16
 Incorporated into products   1.52-9.44             40
 Total                        2.21-9.44             100
Source: www.fao.org

Effluent treatment and discharge
Milk is a complex biological fluid consisting of milk fat, protein, lactose and
lactic acid, as well as sodium, potassium, calcium and chloride. Diary
products contain all or some of the milk constituents and, depending on
the nature and type of product, may also contain sugar, slats, flavours,
emulsifiers and stabilizers. Diary processing wastewater contains
predominantly milk and milk products, such as whey, which have been
lost from the process, as well as detergents, sanitizers, acidic and caustic

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cleaning agents, nutrients, dissolved solids including sodium chloride and
small amounts of lubricants

Effluent discharge is considered one of the environmental problems
associated with the manufacture of dairy products as most processes
within this industry rely on water. Wastewater from dairy industry may
originate from the following sources:

Milk receiving
Wastewater results from tank, truck and storage tank washing, pipeline
washing and sanitizing. It contains milk solids, detergents, sanitizers and
milk wastes.

Whole milk products
Wastewater is mainly produced during cleaning operations. Especially
when different types of product are produced in a specific production
unit, clean-up operations between product changes are necessary. In
developing countries, the main problem is pollution through spoilage of
milk.

Cheese/Whey/Curd
Waste results mainly from the production of whey, wash water, curd
particles etc. Cottage cheese curd for example is more fragile than
rennet curd, which is used for other types of cheese. Thus the whey and
wash water from cottage cheese may contain appreciably more fine
curd particles than that from other cheeses. The amount of fine particles
in the wash water increases if mechanical washing processes are used.

Butter/Ghee
Butter washing steps produce wash water containing buttermilk. Skim milk
and buttermilk can be used to produce skim milk powder in the factory
itself or itself or these materials may be shipped to another dairy food
plant by tank truck. The continuous butter production process materially
reduces the potential waste load by eliminating the buttermilk production
and the washing steps (Harper et. al., 1971).

Milk powder
Environmental problems are caused by high-energy consumption (=
emission of CO2, CO etc.), by cleaning and by emission of fine dust during
the drying process.

The dominant environmental problem caused by dairy processing is the
discharge of large quantities of liquid effluent. Dairy processing effluents
generally exhibit the following properties:
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   High organic load due to the presence of milk components

   Fluctuations in pH due to the presence of caustic and acidic cleaning
   agents and other chemicals

   High levels of nitrogen and phosphorus

   Fluctuations in temperature

 The strength and composition of pollutants in the wastewater generated
depends on the nature of the processes involved. Approximately 65% of
dairy factory losses enter wastewater discharge streams and the dairy
processing effluent contains predominantly milk and milk products, which
have been lost from the process, as well as detergents and acidic and
caustic cleaning agents. Source of milk losses to effluent are highlighted in
Table 4 3.


Table 4.3: Sources of milk losses to the effluent stream
Dairy Processes                 Source of milk loss
Preparation stages
Milk receipt area                  Spills and leaks from hoses and pipes
                                   Spills from storage tanks/silos
                                   Poor drainage of tankers
                                   Foaming
                                   Cleaning operations
Pasteurization and ultra heat      Leaks
treatment                          Cleaning operations
                                   Deposits on surfaces of pasteurization and
                                    heating equipment
                                   Foaming
                                   Recovery of downgraded product
Homogenization                     Leaks
                                   Cleaning operations
Separation and clarification       Foaming
                                   Cleaning operations
                                   Pipe leaks
Product processing stages
Market milk production             Leaks and forming
                                   Product washing
                                   Cleaning operations including filling machinery
                                   Poor drainage
                                   Sludge removal from separators/clarifiers
                                   Damaged milk packages
                                   Overfilling
Cheese making                      Spills and leaks
                                   Incomplete separation of whey from curds
                                   Use of salt in cheese making
                                   Cleaning operations

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Butter making                     Vacreation and use of salt
                                  Cleaning operations
Milk powder production            Spills during powder handling
                                  Start-up and shut down processes
                                  Plant malfunction
                                  Stack losses
                                  Cleaning of evaporators and driers
                                  Bagging losses
Source: www.agrifood-forum.net, EPA, Victoria (1997)

The main parameters of concern for effluent permits at dairy plants are
Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) and Suspended Solids (SS). The BOD is
one of the parameters that give an indication of the concentration of
organic compounds in wastewater. It is the amount of oxygen required by
microorganisms to oxidize the organic material in the wastewater. The
concentration of suspended solids represents the amount of insoluble
organic and inorganic particles in the wastewater. Discharge of SS
increases the turbidity of water and causes a long-term demand for
oxygen because of the slow hydrolysis rate of the organic fraction of the
material.

The organic load discharged in the effluent stream varies depending on
cleaning practices and whether batch or continuous processes are used.
The most significant by-product from the dairy processing industry is whey,
generated from the cheese making process. The disposal of this by-
product is a major problem in the dairy industry. Whey is the liquid
remaining after the recovery of the curds formed by the action of
enzymes on milk. It comprises 80%-90% of the total volume of milk used in
the cheese making process and contains more than half the solids from
the original whole milk, including 20% of the protein and most of the
lactose. If whey is not used as a by-product and discharged along with
other wastewaters, the organic load of the resulting effluent is further
increased, and this can lead to the pollution of rivers and streams and
also creates bad odours.

Solid waste
Solid waste within the dairy processing plant is the easiest to see, quantify
and correct.

Solid waste is generally:
   Off-spec product for example milk powders and heavy consistency
      product
   Defective product packaging for example paperboard cartoons,
      plastic containers
   Solid and semi-solid intermediate or finished product spills

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Energy consumption
Energy used in the dairy processing plants is primarily for running electric
motors on the process equipment, for heating, evaporating and drying,
for cooling and refrigeration and for the generation of compressed air.
Approximately 80% of a plant‟s energy needs is met by the combustion of
fossil fuel (gas, oil etc) to generate steam and hot water for evaporative
and heating processes. The remaining 20% is met by electricity for running
electric motors, refrigeration and lighting. Energy consumed however
depends on the range of products being produced. Table 4.4 provides
indicative figures of specific energy consumption of different dairy
products.


Table 4.4: Energy consumption of different dairy products
Product                 Electricity consumption Fuel consumption
                        (GJ/tonne product)          (GJ/tonne product)
Market milk             0.20                        0.46
Cheese                  0.76                        4.34
Milk powder             1.43                        20.60
Butter                  0.71                        3.53
(Source: www.agrifood-forum.net)

Energy consumption depends on the age and scale of a plant, the level
of automation and the range of products being produced. The most
energy-intensive processing stage in the dairy and cheese melting
industry is the extraction of water through evaporation and drying. Chilling
and cleaning processes also require large amounts of energy, as does
pretreatment of milk (heating) as a raw material for other products, due
to the high volume (www.senternovem.nl -dairy industry). Market milk,
which requires only some heat treatment and packaging, requires
considerably less energy.

Hygiene and product contamination
As a result of the contamination of the vegetative matter from radioactive
isotopes, dioxins, DDT and other fact soluble pesticides consumed by
livestock, dairy products are likely to be contaminated through bio-
accumulation and also during processing and transport (microbiological
contamination such as listeria).


Air Quality
The main emissions from dairy manufacturing processes are odours and
particles

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Odour
Odours in and around milk processing plants come from the biological
decomposition of milk derived organic matter, generally found in
wastewater. Odour control can be a significant nuisance, depending on
the location of the facility, for neighbouring land uses such as residential
areas. Odour problems are mainly due to poor housekeeping and
inadequately operated wastewater treatment and disposal facilities and
prolonged storage of strong wastes such as whey.

Particles
Particle emissions are caused either by combustion of solid or liquid fuel or,
more often, spray drying of milk and whey

Refrigerants
Ammonia and chlorofluorocarbons (CFC) systems are used for
refrigeration in many dairy facilities and these are gases contributing
significantly to the depletion of the ozone. In addition the toxicity of
ammonia to humans, animals and plants is also well known.

Noise
Noisy operations at dairy plants include milk drying, which requires high
airflows and the movement of transport vehicles to and from the site. The
principal causes of continuous noise include:
   Heater fans
   Air supply fans
   Ventilation
   Refrigeration units
   Pumps


4.4 Environmental Management Measures/Indicators
The objectives of any dairy processing plants and its activities should be
designed, built and operated to achieve:
   Maximum recovery of products such as milk, fat and solids
   Minimization of losses or emissions to the environment
   Recycling and/or reuse of wastes
   Prevention of further environmental degradation
   Restoration of the environment

The following measures can be undertaking to ensure cleaner and
environmentally friendly production.



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Site Selection and Siting
     Siting has a significant impact on the intensity and cost of
       wastewater treatment and the management effort required to
       protect water quality. Where possible the site should be located
       away from sensitive environments such as drinking water source
       catchments, locations near a waterway, e.g. Near the banks of
       streams, rivers and estuaries, areas subject to flooding or where the
       water table is within 2m of the ground surface.
     The construction, replacement or expansion of a diary plant should
       take into consideration nearby land uses, possible future
       developments, volumes and nature of wastes produced and the
       proposed nature of waste recycling, reuse or disposal. Other factors
       to be taken into consideration include the proximity and availability
       of services and amenities including water supply and waste disposal
       and appropriate siting of any wastewater treatment and disposal
       areas
     Diary processing plants should be located outside a minimum buffer
       distance to designated residential areas, water resources and other
       sensitive environments in order to provide a basic level of protection
       from impacts such as contaminated runoff, odour and noise.

Water Consumption/Minimisation
   Most of the dairy productions in Botswana use the batch process,
      which requires large amounts of water. Consideration should
      therefore be given to switching to using continuous processes in
      production activities in order to reduce the frequency of cleaning
   Install fixtures that restrict or control the flow of water for manual
      cleaning processes such as the automated cleaning -in-place (CIP)
      systems.
   Reuse relatively clean wastewaters (such as those from final rinses)
      for other cleaning steps
   Recirculate water use in non-critical applications
   Pre soak floors and equipment to loosen dirt before final clean
   Manually sweep up spills rather than washing with water hoses
   Use high pressure, low volume water cleaning systems
   Use compressed air instead of water where appropriate
   Regularly inspect facilities, in particular pumps and report and fix
      leaks promptly
   Milk delivery trucks should be washed once per day with a
      combination of hot and cold water. Process equipment, storage
      tanks, and process and milk delivery areas are also washed once
      per shift with hot and cold water.
   High-pressure washers connected directly to water supply lines
      should be used for cleaning of trucks, production area, and
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      equipment. Open-ended rubber hoses should also be equipped
      with shut-off spray nozzles.

Effluent Discharge/Waste water quality
Milk loss to wastewater stream can amount to 2 to 3 percent of the
incoming milk. Stopping pollution at its source is less expensive and more
practical than end of pipe waste treatment. Small solid particles enter the
wastewater drainage system during normal production, daily wash down
and the CIP process. These particles represent a loss of product and add
unnecessary load to the wastewater treatment facility.
     Reduce water use (less than 0.5 litres of water per litre of milk
       represents best practice)
     Use starch plugs or pigs to recover product from pipes before
       internally cleaning tanks
     Replacing all operations dependent on CFC based systems with
       non-or reduced CFC systems
     Fat, milk solids and minerals should be recovered from processing
       and recycled or reused for animal feed or fertilizer
     Systems in which equipment malfunction or accidental spillage of
       wastewater or products could occur should have effective alarms
       or interlock systems and the areas should be located over concrete
       pads or hard stands with adequate perimeter bunding draining to
       wastewater containment areas
     Clean up spills before washing
     Install suitably sized and well maintained screens or properly
       trapped and covered floor drains with removable covers at points
       where large solid losses can occur and enter the wastewater
     Install grease traps for processes in which fat and protein losses are
       high
     Install settling tanks to capture solids in the process rinse water.


Air Quality
     Carry out continuous routine monitoring of emission points using
      audible, visible alarms
     Use filters or scrubbers to eliminate or reduce particles
     Trees should be planted around the dairy production plant to
      provide a barrier against the spread of foul smell
     Odour controls such as absorbents/biofilters should be installed
      where necessary to achieve acceptable odour quality for nearby
      residents.
Noise
     Depending on the distance to sensitive receptors such as residential
      areas, noise suppression measures such as noise silencers on
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       equipment, concrete housing for mechanical plant, mufflers on
       transport vehicles may be required.
      There should be careful siting of plants to maximize the shielding
       effect of other on-site structures
      Install sound silencers on air intake fans and air discharges.
      Where possible, trees should be planted around the plant premises
       to block noise emitted from it.

Solid waste
    Train staff to minimise spills
    Collect spills of solid waste materials for reprocessing or use as stock
       feed instead of washing them down the drain
    Use dry sweeping to collect spills
    Fit drains with screens and/or traps to prevent solid materials
       entering the effluent system. These devices must be maintained
       regularly, preferably daily.

One of the major issues related to this sub sector is waste generation in
form of milk containers used in packaging the milk. One way of minimizing
or preventing such waste, which is generated by the consumers, is to
recycle the milk containers. Though this is not currently practiced in
Botswana, it could potentially be a source of employment and income
generating business and on the other hand reduce the amount of plastic
containers dumped at the landfill.

The containers used for storing the milk are made from high-density
polyethylene plastic (HDPE) which is one of the most versatile plastic resins
and most valuable plastics for recycling. The scrap used milk containers
can be converted into usable plastic. The used jugs are baled and sent to
the recycling facility where they are chipped and washed. The clean
chipped plastic is then melted at high temperature and formed into
pellets. The pellets are sold to plastic forming plants, which use the
material to make non-food containers, plastic formed products, furniture
and toys.



This plastic is used in the manufacture of such items as:

      plastic pipe

      drainage tile

      flower pots


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      plastic dimensional lumber used to build picnic tables, patio
       furniture or decks
      non-food packaging such as plastic detergent bottles and
       lubricating oil pails

Polycoated Milk Cartons
Milk cartons are made from „polycoat‟ – lightweight, high-grade
paperboard sandwiched between two thin layers of polyethylene film.
The result is a strong, rigid container that effectively maintains the integrity
of the product inside. Polycoat is a high-value material that can be
converted into new material using a process known as hydrapulping. A
hydrapulper is like an enormous blender, where a combination of heat,
water and agitation break down the material to produce raw fibre, or
pulp. The pulp is then used to make new paper products such as
corrugated medium (the inner layer of corrugated cardboard),
linerboard, household tissue products and even fine writing papers. The
small amount of residual polyethylene can be screened off for use in other
plastic and composite materials.

The dairy processing companies in the country with support from the
Government can support such a recycling programme or initiative. This
initiative can involve the voluntary collection and recycling of the plastics
used and the development of a container recovery fund.




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Section   5:            Brewing/Malting             and        Beverage
Manufacturing
This section covers the brewing, malting and beverage production
industry.


5.1 Background

Brewing/Malting
Beer is a fermented beverage with low alcohol content made from
malted barley, hops, yeast and water.

Malt
Malted barley is barley grain that has been carefully soaked in water until
it sprouts and then dried. This malting process develops the necessary
sugars and soluble starches needed for fermentation. The malt is then
taken through a process called mashing which extracts the sugars and
starches from the grain. Although advanced homebrewers can
accomplish this step at home, most will buy the malted barley already
mashed in a product called malt extract.

Hops
Hops are green flowers that grow on a vine and look similar to pine cones.
They perform several roles in the beer making process. Most notably are
the taste and aroma they impart on a beer. Since not all of the sugars will
ferment, the malt will cause the beer to be really sweet. Hops will balance
out the sweetness by adding a degree of bitterness. Hops will also add a
distinctive aroma to the finished brew.

Yeast
Yeast is the catalyst that makes it all happen. In short, yeast is a living
organism that feeds off of the sugars in the malt. The yeast will convert the
sugars to alcohol and carbon dioxide in a process called fermentation.
There are many strains of yeasts (even in the air we breathe). In order to
get the results needed for making beer, especially cultured beer yeast is
required. The yeast will also impart taste and mouthfeel qualities to the
beer.

The beer production process involves:
 Malt production and handling: this process involves the malting of
   barley to allow for controlled germination
 Wort production: this involves the grinding of malt to grist and mixing
   this with water to produce a mash, boiling the wort with hops followed

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    by clarification and cooling
   Beer production: addition of yeast to cooled wort, fermentation and
    maturation of residual sugars, separation of spent yeast by filtration,
    centrifugation or settling, bottling or kegging.

Soft drinks/Beverages
Included in this sub sector is the beverage industry. Nearly 200 nations
enjoy the sweet, sparkling soda with an annual consumption of more than
34 billion gallons. Soft drinks are the most popular beverages consisting
mainly of carbonated water, which constitutes up to 94% of the product,
sugars and/sweeteners, which makes up 7-12% of a soft drink. Sugar adds
sweetness and body to the beverage and also enhances flavours and
acids. Used in either dry or liquid form, sugar adds sweetness and body to
the beverage, enhancing the “mouth feel”, an important component for
consumer enjoyment of a soft drink. Other ingredients used include
colourings, preservatives, flavourings, small proportions of acids and
carbon dioxide, which adds the sparkle and bite to the beverage and
also acts as a mild preservative. This gas is used because it is inert, non-
toxic and relatively inexpensive and easy to liquefy.

Soft drink production volumes are about a quarter the size of clear beer,
consisting mainly of fruit juices, flavoured waters and carbonated
beverages such as Coca-Cola. Production processes are less resource
intensive. Less heat is required, for example, resulting in lower CO2
emissions.

The process of manufacturing soft drinks involves the following steps:

1.     Clarification of water to remove impurities, such as suspended
particles, organic matter, and bacteria, which may degrade taste and
color. These are generally removed through the traditional process of a
series of coagulation, filtration, and chlorination. Coagulation involves
mixing a gelatinous precipitate, or floc (ferric sulphate or aluminium
sulphate), into the water. The floc absorbs suspended particles, making
them larger and more easily trapped by filters. During the clarification
process, alkalinity must be adjusted with an addition of lime to reach the
desired pH level.

2.    Filtering, sterilizing, and dechlorinating the water. Here the clarified
water is poured through a sand filter to remove fine particles of floc. The
water passes through a layer of sand and courser beds of gravel to
capture the particles. Sterilization is necessary to destroy bacteria and
organic compounds that might spoil the water's taste or colour. The water
is pumped into a storage tank and is dosed with a small amount of free
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chlorine. The chlorinated water remains in the storage tank for about two
hours until the reaction is complete. Next, an activated carbon filter
dechlorinates the water and removes residual organic matter, much like
the sand filter. A vacuum pump de-aerates the water before it passes into
a dosing station.

3.    Mixing the ingredients - The dissolved sugar and flavour
concentrates are pumped into the dosing station in a predetermined
sequence according to their compatibility. The ingredients are conveyed
into batch tanks where they are carefully mixed; too much agitation can
cause unwanted aeration. The syrup may be sterilized while in the tanks,
using ultraviolet radiation or flash pasteurisation, which involves quickly
heating and cooling the mixture. Fruit based syrups generally must be
pasteurised. The water and syrup are carefully combined by sophisticated
machines, called proportioners, which regulate the flow rates and ratios
of the liquids. The vessels are pressurized with carbon dioxide to prevent
aeration of the mixture.

4.      Carbonation -this is generally added to the finished product,
though it may be mixed into the water at an earlier stage. The
temperature of the liquid must be carefully controlled since carbon
dioxide solubility increases as the liquid temperature decreases. Many
carbonators are equipped with their own cooling systems. The amount of
carbon dioxide pressure used depends on the type of soft drink. For
instance, fruit drinks require far less carbonation than mixer drinks, such as
tonics, which are meant to be diluted with other liquids. The beverage is
slightly over-pressured with carbon dioxide to facilitate the movement into
storage tanks and ultimately to the filler machine.

5.    Filling and packaging - The finished product is transferred into
bottles or cans at extremely high flow rates. The containers are
immediately sealed with pressure-resistant closures, either tinplate or steel
crowns with corrugated edges, twist offs, or pull tabs. Because soft drinks
are generally cooled during the manufacturing process, they must be
brought to room temperature before labelling to prevent condensation
from ruining the labels. This is usually achieved by spraying the containers
with warm water and drying them. Labels are then affixed to bottles to
provide information about the brand, ingredients, shelf life, and safe use
of the product. Most labels are made of paper though some are made of
a plastic film. Cans are generally pre-printed with product information
before the filling stage. Finally, containers are packed into cartons or trays,
which are then shipped in larger pallets or crates to distributors.



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5.2 Current Practice in Botswana

All beer production activities in Botswana are water based as this resource
is used both in the production and cleaning process of the
brewing/malting and beverage manufacturing.

Botswana Breweries Limited
Botswana Breweries (Pty) Ltd produce African traditional sorghum malt
beer called Chibuku. The company has four production plants in
Gaborone, Francistown, Lobatse and Palapye. Combined these plants
have a production capacity of 11 x 106l of beer a year. All four breweries
use water supplied by Water Utilities for their process water. The plants
depend on water from beer. On a daily basis, each plant uses
200,000litres of water for both production and cleaning and 30% of this is
returned as effluent.

Most of the raw materials used in the production of the opaque beer are
imported from South Africa including the malted sorghum, maize meal,
yeast and enzymes. Maize, which is added to the product, is obtained
locally from Bolux Milling in Ramotswa. For heating purposes, all four
breweries depend on coal from Morupule Coal Mine and they consume
310 tonnes on a monthly basis. For housekeeping purposes, the plants
depend on electricity supplied by Botswana Power Corporation, which
amounts to about 3.3 X 106 kW/h/per annum.

The process of making Chibuku involves the simple step of cooking the
maize to obtain a gelled starch to which is added fermentable sugar,
malt and yeast to produce alcohol and CO2. This is then put in cartons,
which are plastic laminated with a vent to aid the fermentation process.
The main treatment given to the effluent generated from the production
of Chibuku is screening to remove undissolved solids and this process only
started about 3 years ago. Through the screening process, the spent
grain collected is then removed and sold to cattle farmers who use them
to feed their livestock.

Due to the dependence on coal, which is used to heat water, ash is
produced and this is normally disposed off either by selling to brick making
companies or taking to the landfill when there is no demand for the bi-
product. Another source of solid waste generated is from damaged or
destroyed cartons, which are not used in packaging the product.

Though the plant does not have a fully developed plan to minimise the
amount of water and effluent generated, staffs at the plants are being

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trained on good house keeping practices including recycling water for
gardening purposes.

Kgalagadi Breweries Limited
This plant produces a variety of beer products including Castle Larger,
Lion Larger, Hansa Pilsner, Black Label and St.Lious, all for consumption
with Botswana. The raw materials used in the brewing process include
malt, hops, maize grits, caustic soda, dextrose, yeast kieslghur and coal.
Packaging materials used include cans, bottles, shrink film, can ends,
trays, glass bottles, crates, crowns and closures. Annually, the plant
produces 444906 hectolitres of beer.

The process of beer brewing goes through a process called brewing till
filtration. Here the malt is grinded into water and heated up after which
maize grits is added to the mixture. After this the solute is separated from
the spent grain. Hops are then added to the solute and brought to the
boil to extract the bitterness. Some sugar is added to increase the
concentration to a required point for alcohol content required and
flavour. The solute is later pumped to a separating tank to take off the
spent hop trub. From this tank, the solute is transferred into a fermenter
and mixed with yeast.

The spent hops trub is pumped to the spent grain tank. The beer is
fermented for 4 days after which the yeast is removed from the bottom of
the fermenter and put into other fresh fermenters. Other extra yeast is also
removed into a separate tank for disposal. This continues for the next
fourteen days. Beer is then filtered through diatomaceous earth to
remove any residual yeast. Beer is carbonated and is now ready for
packaging.

The clear filtered beer is then packaged into cans or bottles, which would
have been previously rinsed with caustic soda. The cans are pasteurised,
plastic shrink-wrapped, tray packed in cardboard trays and palletized on
wooded pallets. The bottles are also pasteurised, then dressed with labels,
packed in crates and palletized.

In the production process, the plant annually consumes 2, 148, 770
hectolitres of water, 3, 133, 190 kg of coal and 6, 925, 800 kWh of
electricity.

The solid waste generated from the production process is mainly spent
yeasts, grains and hops and kieslghur slurries. The spent grain is discarded
into a bin for collection by a stock feed company. The spent yeasts, hops
and kieslghur slurries are disposed of at the City Council dumpsite.
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Liquid waste from the plant is disposed off without treatment into the
council sewers. However, periodic monitoring of effluent quality is usually
undertaken by the City Council

Kgalagadi Beverages
This plant is mainly involved in the production of soft drinks including Coke,
Fanta orange, Tab, Coke light, Cream soda, Pine-nut, Iron-brew,
Granadilla, Soda water, Tonic water, Bibo, Fanta grape, Sprite and Fanta
pine-apple mainly for consumption within Botswana. For the 2005/2006-
production year, the plant produced 377, 599 hectolitres of beverages.
The raw materials used in the manufacture of the soft drinks are sugar,
water, concentrates caustic soda, coal and carbon dioxide. The
concentrates are imported from Swaziland and sugar from SABEX. Water
accounts for most of the percentage contents of soft drinks, the
production of which requires high quality water.

The process of making these soft drinks involves the dissolution of required
amount of sugar as per brand specification in treated water from the
treatment plant on site to make a product namely “simple syrup” for non-
diets products. Concentrates are then added to the simple syrup for the
brand to make final syrup, depending on the type of drink to be
produced. The final syrup is then diluted further as per brand specifications
in the paramix. The mixture is then filtered to remove any impurities and
then packaged in either cans or bottles and ready to be shipped to the
consumer. Packaging materials used include cans, bottles, shrink film, pet
bottles, can ends, trays, glass bottles, crates, crowns and closures. Apart
from the concentrates used in the manufacture of the soft drinks, no other
chemicals are used. As part of measures to reduce the amount of water
used and the quantity of effluent generated, the plant captures water
used in washing and recycles it in the rinsing process.

Solid waste generated from the production of the beverages includes
cans, product, cullet, pet bottles, crowns, trays, plastic and ash.

5.3 Environmental Issues related to Brewing/Malting and Soft
Drink Production

Water Consumption
From a brief description of the processes involved in producing beer, it
can be said that brewing is a highly water dependent industry as the
quality of water used in the production process is very important. Brewing,
packaging, plant cleaning, pasteurisation and equipment operation

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consume large amounts of water. Water represents the single largest input
into the beer production process in Botswana all of which is sourced from
Water Utilities. The key performance indicator (KPI) for the brewing industry
is the water to beer ratio - that is the total amount of water required for all
purposes including ancillary functions to produce one unit of beer. UNEP
has found that figures of between five and six hectolitres of water per
hectolitre of clear beer represent good international practice.

Wastewater/effluents
With the relatively long number of steps involved in the manufacture of
alcoholic and none alcoholic beverages such as beer and soft drinks, it is
not surprising that the industry is amongst one of the generators of high
volumes of wastewater and other waste. The brewing process produces
significant volumes of liquid effluents, typically containing high COD and
BOD (chemical oxygen demand and biological oxygen demand). The
more water is used and the higher the concentration of organic matters
contained in products, the more is the amount of effleunt and pollution
load.

In manufacuring soft drinks, about one-third of used water is cooling
water, water for scouring floors and rinsing bottles. Though about 80% of
the soft drinks prouced is water, most of its is discharged as effleunt. The
main pollution source is due to rinsing.

If released untreated, the high organic content would reduce the oxygen
concentration of the receiving water body. The discharge of poor quality
effluents by these industries has the effect of reducing the performance of
treatment facilities over time due to hydraulic overloading and corrosion
of the sewer pipe system.

A study carried out by Emongor et al (2005) to determine pollution
indicators in and around Gaborone industrial effluent and to determine
the major sources of industrial pollution from the eight major industries
classified as breweries, food and beverage, pharmaceutical and
chemical and paint industry in Gaborone revealed that although effluent
discharge from the brewery was more acidic compared to the food and
beverage industries whose effluents were neutral, the pH of the effluent
discharged into the public sewer from the brewery was within the
maximum permissible limits of pH 6.0-9.5. The brewery had significantly
high COD and BOD, which were significantly above maximum permissible
limits. The COD values from brewery were about 2 and 5 times higher than
effluent from food and beverage industries. This suggests that brewery
industries are discharging organic pollutants into the Council sewers
and/or releasing chemical toxicants leading to the death of organisms in
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the wastewater resulting in the high level of oxygen demanding wastes in
the effluent.

Solid waste
Solid waste generated during the brewing process is primarily organic,
consisting of grit, weed seed,   spent grains and yeast cells from
fermentation, spent hops and broken bottles or bottles that cannot be
recycled to the process and cardbord and other solid wasts associzted
with the process such as keiselguhr(diatomaceous earth used for
clarifying).

From an environmental point of view, the major issue with the production
or manufacture of soft drinks is the amount of one-off disposable
packaging created for them - packaging whose function is as much to
promote the brand as to deliver the drink itself.

5.4 Environmental Management Measures
   Breweries should install gas recovery systems to capture, purify and
    reuse the gas, and this saves purchasing gas needed for carbonation
    and tank pressure control
   Effluent should either be treated on site, where practical, or safely
    discharged, mainly to third parties for treatment such as municipal
    sewerage systems.the quality of the effluent discharged should comply
    with the requirements of the Botswana Bureau of Standards BOS ISO
    5667-1 (refer to Annex 1)
   For cleaning of production areas, high pressure low volume hoses
    should be used.
   To minimise water consumption and effluent generation, recycling and
    reuse of process streams should be encouraged within the production
    plant.
   In order to lessen the load on waste water treatment works, breweries
    should pretreat the effluent that they generate.
   Provision should be made for recycling liquors and reusing wash waters
    so as to reduce the amount of liquid waste that is generated.
   For odour emissions, exhaust vapours should be condensed before
    they are released to the atmosphere.
   Monitoring of final effluent should be done at least twice a month or
    refequently depending on the variations in flow levels.
   Monitoring data generated should be analysed and reviewed
    regularly and compared with the operating standards so that
    necessary corrective measures can be taken.
   All results should be reported to the City Council/town Coucils and the
    Department of Atmpospheric Pollution and Wastewater Managment.

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Section 6: Confectionery and Syrup Manufacture

This section mainly covers the manufacture of confectionery and syrup
products. Presently, there is only one confectionery factory in Botswana,
Dan Products, who manufactures chewing gums. As a result, the
guidelines hereby provided are based on best practices from other
countries.


6.1 Background
There are two types of confectionery manufacturing activities - chocolate
and non-chocolate confectionery manufacturing. Confectionery
manufacturing comprises a wide range of sweet products including
chocolate, toffee and sweets. This industry includes establishments who
process cacao beans and make chocolate cacao products and
chocolate confectioneries. Chocolate type confectionery products
contain as an ingredient either real chocolate or a chocolate compound
containing substitute raw material ingredients such as cocoa butter
extenders.

The Non-Chocolate Confectionery Manufacturing industry makes a range
of sugar and non-sugar candies as well as chewing gum from ingredients
such as starch, fruit, preservatives, emulsifiers, flavorings etc., which are
purchased from manufacturers. These products do not contain either real
chocolate or chocolate compound as an ingredient.

The manufacturing process will vary depending on the nature of the
product but the main elements of the process include:

      Shelling, grinding and roasting of cocoa beans

      Processing of cocoa granules or taking delivery of pre-processed
       liquid chocolate

      Mixing with other raw materials including milk powder, sugar, cocoa
       butter, gelatine, glucose, gum Arabic and fat, and mixed nuts

      Cooking the ingredients by heating and extruding, pressing or
       cutting mixture into shape prior to drying on racks to reduce water
       content

      Packaging by hand or automatically

      Storage, often in cold storage facilities and distribution

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The primary activities of firms in this industry are:

       Cocoa drinking powders.

       Chocolate candy bars.

       Other cocoa-based candies.

       Chocolate spreads.

The major products and services in this industry are:
       Candy bars

       Industrial chocolate

       Block chocolate

       Box chocolates

       Cocoa drinking powders

       Other cocoa based candies

       Chocolate spreads



6.2 Environmental Issues related to the manufacture of
confectionery and syrup products
   Water supply

       The confectionery manufacturing process uses large volume of
        water for production, cooling and cleaning process

   Effluent treatment and discharge

       Wastewater from chocolate production produces

       Liquid raw material and effluent produced during the confectionery
        manufacturing process usually have high sugar content. With the
        type of processing involved in this sector, there is a potential for
        water pollution through spillage of raw materials or product or
        insufficient treatment of the effluent

       Odour

       Odour emissions from process operations can be a significant issue
        or local nuisance especially where a factory is located near a

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         residential area

        Noise

        Noise levels, both internal and external can constitute a nuisance



Hygiene and Product Standards

        Factory hygiene standards should be addressed both in sourcing
         and handling of raw materials and at all stages of the production
         process.



Atmospheric emissions

        Chlorofluorocarbons are used as refrigerants in cooling compressors
         and steamboilers. Cold storage warehousing may require the use of
         CFC based chiller units. These gases are however now subject to
         control under international protocol due to their ozone depletion
         abilities.

        Dust and gaseous emissions are usually released from the use of on-
         site boilers



Handling and storage of materials

   Pollution risks to watercourses and soil may arise from spillage of:

          Chemicals used for water treatment or cleaning such as
            hydrochloric acid, caustic soda and ethylene glycol

          Raw materials including sugar, colours and flavourings

          Products

          Oils and fuels

   There is a potential for dust emissions from handling materials in
    powder or granular form

   Powder based raw materials especially sugar represent a fore or
    explosion risk if inadequately stored and handled.




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6.3 Environmental Management Measures
1.   Recycle wastewater to reduce consumption of water and save on
     energy costs

2. Storage areas should be fitted with explosion and fireproof equipment

3. There should be proper and adequate monitoring of all materials held
   on site including clear procedures for their handling and treatment in
   the event of spillage

4. Improve the integrity of drainage systems by for example either sealing
   or removing abandoned drains to avoid undetected leakages




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Section 7: Installations for Slaughter of Animals

7.1 Background

Abattoir or slaughterhouse refers to a building for butchering. Abattoir
houses facilities to slaughter animals, dress, cut and inspect meats and
refrigerate, cure and manufacture by products.

The major activities involved in the operation of an abattoir are:
 receiving and holding area of live animals prior to slaughter livestock
 slaughter and carcass dressing of animals
 chilling of carcass product
 carcass boning and packaging
 freezing of finished carcass and cartoned product
 rendering processes
 drying of skins
 treatment of wastewater
 transport of processed material

There are four categories of domestic animal slaughter in Botswana,
namely abattoirs, slaughterhouses, slaughter slabs. There are three main
abattoirs in Botswana located in Lobatse, Francistown and Gaborone. The
headquarters of the Botswana Meat Commission are in Lobatse, 75kms
south of the capital Gaborone. The facilities at Lobatse have been
designed and constructed as a complete and integrated complex of
abattoir, canning, by-products and tanning plant to handle a throughput
of 800 cattle and 500 smallstock per day.

The main source of energy at the BMC sites in Lobatse and Francistown is
electricity, which is used to power the highly mechanized equipment for
various operations of the plants and is used in all sections of the abattoir.
Coal and oil are used for firing boilers to produce steam for cooking in the
cannery, processing hides at the tannery and to produce hot water for
sterilizing equipment. The boilers are used to provide energy for bone
meal and blood mal manufacturing and for canning and tanning
processes.

BMC operations use a lot of water mainly for washing of lairages,
carcasses, and equipment and working floors. The total amount of
wastewater generated by all sectors of BMC operations averages 1700m3
per day. The raw wastewater is of high strength (organic waste) with an
average chemical oxygen demand of 5000 mg/l. the wastewater is
transported via a sewer line to the treatment plant. The wastewater

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passes through a series of course and fine screens and strainers that
remove large quantities of paunch material together with other solids.
After removal of course solids, the wastewater is transferred to an existing
treatment plant, which comprises the following process units:
 three anaerobic ponds
 two trickling filters
 four final clarifiers
 one maturation pond

In Lobatse, the existing wastewater plant and equipment is in need of
major refurbishment to improve the quality of the effluent generated.

In addition to liquid waste, the Lobatse abattoir handles large quantities
of raw materials with the aim of optimizing the recovery of edible portions
for human consumption. Large quantities of secondary materials, by-
products and waste materials not suitable for this purpose are also
generated. The disposal of these materials is a significant problem for the
industry and impacts directly on its water and effluent management,
since water is used to wash excessive quantities of solids to drain. The
highest percentage of solid waste generated by the industrial activities of
the abattoir comes from paunch material and other solids separated from
the wastewater flow. Currently, waste is piled, sun dried and the set on
fire, a process that produces smoke, smell and atmospheric pollution and
cause fires. This practice contributes to GHG emissions into the
environment.

7.2 Environmental Problems in Abattoirs or Slaughterhouses

There are a number of environmental issues associated with the
operations of abattoirs or slaughterhouses. These include:


The need for a mass disposal area
A mass animal disposal area must be identified in case there is an
outbreak of exotic disease. This area should be away from watercourses
and groundwater. The soil should be suitably friable for digging but also as
impermeable as possible.

Liquid wastes
Like many other food processing activities, the necessity for hygiene and
quality control in meat processing results in high water usage and
consequently high wastewater generation. Volumes of wastewater from
meat processing are generally 80-95 percent of the total freshwater

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consumption. This produces large amounts of wastewater that must be
treated.


Effluent salinity
Skin preservation by dry salting is a common procedure at small abattoirs
that are remote from tanning operations and often export their hides and
skins for tanning. After salting, often in converted cement truck mixers, the
hides are hung to dry for a minimum of 5 days. During this period, the salt
draws the moisture out of the hide, together with the protein-filled fluids
contained in the attached flesh.

The effluent from drying sheds is therefore highly saline and has a very high
biochemical oxygen demand (BOD). It contains high levels of fluoride.
(The salt used contains up to 1 per cent sodium fluoride as a bactericide.)
This may lead to salinity problems if the effluent is irrigated, and also to
fluorosis problems with vegetation, including tree death. This waste stream
should be segregated and diverted to an evaporation pond for
conversion to a solid waste for potential recycling.


Wastewater
Freshwater consumption has a major impact on the volume and pollutant
load of the resulting wastewater. Wastewaters generally have high
organic loads and are also high in oils and grease, salt, nitrogen and
phosphorous. At red meat abattoirs, water is used primarily for washing
carcasses during the various process stages and for cleaning at the end
of each shift. Eighty to 95 percent of water used in abattoirs is discharged
as effluent.

The meat industry has the potential for generating large quantities of solid
wastes and wastewater with typically high BOD of 600milligrams per litre.
BOD can be as high as 8,000 mg/l, or 10-20 kilograms per metric ton of
slaughtered animal. It is also very saline and has high levels of nutrients,
suspended solids which can be 800mg/l or higher and bacterial
contamination. The amounts of wastewater generated and the pollutant
load depends on the kind of meat being processed. Wastewater from the
slaughterhouse can contain blood, manure, hair, fat, feathers and bones.
The wastewater may also have pathogens, including Salmonella and
Shigella bacteria, parasite eggs and amoebic cysts. Pesticide residues
may be present from treatment of animals or their feed. Chloride levels
may be very high (up to 77,000 mg/L) from curing and pickling processes.
Cooking activities also greatly increase the fat and grease concentration
in the effluent.
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Energy Consumption
Energy consumption depends upon the age and scale of the plant, level
of automation, and range of products manufactured. Approximately 80-
85% of total energy consumed by abattoirs is provided by thermal energy
from the combustion of fuels in on-site boilers. Thermal energy is used to
heat water for cleaning, pig scalding, rendering, blood coagulation and
blood drying. The remaining 15-20% of the energy is provided by
electricity, which is used for the operation of machinery and for
refrigeration, ventilation, lighting and the production of compressed air.

Like water consumption, the use of energy for refrigeration and sterilization
is important for ensuring good quality meat. Storage temperatures are
often specified by regulation. As well as depleting fossil fuel resources, the
consumption of energy causes air pollution and greenhouse gas
emissions, which have been linked to global warming.

Fuel burning emissions
Fuel burning gives rise to atmospheric emissions. Materials burned at an
abattoir include:
 coal or gas fuel for boilers and steam production
 diseased animals
 sludge
 packaging
 unusable skins

Stormwater
Stormwater can become contaminated when it comes into contact with
animal holding pens, sludge stockpiles and treated wastewater irrigation
areas. This contaminated stormwater can have detrimental
environmental effects on surrounding ecosystems.

Solid wastes
For many food-processing plants, a large fraction of the solid waste
produced by the plant comes from the separation of the desired food
constituents from undesired ones in the early stages of processing. In some
cases, the materials are composted
Sources of solid wastes generated at abattoirs include:
 animal holding areas
 slaughterhouse and processing areas
 waste treatment plant
 unwanted hide or skins and pieces, and unwanted carcasses and
    carcass parts


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Manure is generated in animal holding areas. Materials not suitable for
rendering, such as unwanted carcasses, come from the processing areas,
along with paper, cardboard and plastics.

Non-process wastes
Non-process wastes originate from kitchens and offices, dispersed or
uneaten feed and from general maintenance of gardens. Waste
prevention and reduction, and separation of wastes for recycling or
composting apply equally to these non-process wastes.

Airborne emissions
Abattoirs release large amounts of substances into the atmosphere
including odour as well as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). These CFCs are
used in refrigeration or freezer plants


Odours

Potential sources of odours in abattoir operations are:
 the cooking and rendering process
 waste effluent treatment plants
 slaughterhouses
 product storage and handling areas
 material drying areas
 waste disposal techniques such as burning dead stock
 animal holding pens
 livestock transport vehicles
 holding of carcasses before disposal
 odours from skin handling
 odours from skin sheds

Sources of odours in the rendering plant include stale materials and
fugitive emissions from cookers. Odours in animal holding pens are
produced by manure and urine. Slaughterhouse odours come from solid
wastes such as paunch contents and blood residues.

Anaerobic waste treatment ponds may produce gases such as methane,
ammonia and hydrogen sulphide, which give rise to objectionable
odours. Livestock transport vehicles entering the abattoir through
residential areas may cause odour problems.




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Dust
Potential sources of dust emissions at an abattoir are:
 unsealed roads
 paddocks, saleyards and holding pens
 stockpiled products and materials
 construction activities

Diseases
In abattoirs there is a large potential for the transmission of zoogenic
diseases such as Q-fever and anthrax to humans.

Noise
Noise level, both internal and external are considered a local nuisance. In
abattoirs noise can be generated by several sources, including:
 animals, especially when in concentrated groups
 processing activities within the slaughterhouse
 plant machinery
 plant and service vehicles

Noise from the slaughterhouse and by-products area is generated by
mechanical plant (such as conveyors), ventilation plant, air conditioning,
stunning boxes, compressed air equipment, pumps and rendering plant.
Some of this equipment may need to operate 24 hours a day. An abattoir
is serviced by a variety of vehicles including trucks and forklifts.

7.3 Environmental Management Measures

1. Siting/location
Site selection is the critical environmental issue for abattoirs. Careful site
selection can greatly reduce the environmental nuisance. Relevant site
information should include:
 the closeness to existing and future housing developments, and to
     land zoned to permit housing or other land uses not compatible with
     the proposed development
 the site hydrology: flood liability, site drainage and closeness to
     watercourses and groundwater resources used for domestic,
     agricultural or town water supply
 the prevailing wind conditions
 the landform and the likely direction of drift of odour or effects of noise
 the adequacy of the land area to house all projected activities
 the erosion hazard
 the local road network

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 corridors for power and other services
 suitability of the site for possible land disposal
In areas likely to be disturbed by construction of the proposed
development, the site description should include data on plants and
animals, such as:
 major plant communities
 the status and conservation significance of vegetation
 the occurrence of any rare or threatened species
 the presence of any introduced species
 the heritage or cultural significance
Check heritage and sacred sites listings before making a decision on the
proposed development.

2. Buffer zones
Buffer zones are particularly important as measures to separate conflicting
land uses and to minimise any harmful effects of new developments in
environmentally sensitive areas. Even if other control measures are used,
odour, dust and noise emissions may still occur. Adequate buffer distances
from nearby land users are the best way of avoiding nuisance from air
and noise pollution. Occupiers should include buffers in management
strategies, and local councils should include them in town planning
approvals. New buffer zones should be created as part of the proposed
development. Buffer distances are cheap control options if additional
land does not have to be bought.

A minimum buffer distance to the nearest residence or residential area of
500 m is recommended downwind of an abattoir (1000 m for a rendering
plant). This depends on the prevailing winds and may need to be
increased if effective and reliable odour control equipment is not
installed.

3. Water Consumption/conservation
 Undertake dry cleaning of trucks prior to washing with water
 Utilize dry dumping techniques for the processing of cattle paunches
    that avoid or minimise the use of water, instead of wet dumping
    techniques
 Where possible, reuse relatively clean wastewaters from cooling
    systems, vacuum pumps etc for washing livestock if possible
 Use automatic control systems to operate the flow of water in hand
    wash stations and knife sterilizers
 Use dry cleaning techniques to pre-clean process areas and floors
    before washing with water
 Use high pressure water hoses to minimise the amount and therefore
    the cost of water used. Operators should be trained in water
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    conservation and water monitoring.

   Equip hoses with shutoff nozzles to reduce excessive water use and
    high operating costs.
   Ensure timely repair of leaking nozzles and replacement of missing
    nozzles
   Provide roofing or isolate unloading areas, stockyards and processing
    plant so that the amount of contaminated stormwater, wastewaters
    and washwaters can be minimised.
   Contaminated stormwater, wastewaters and washwaters should be
    collected in lagoons and aerated and irrigated without any off-site
    runoff.
   Clean stormwater must be kept away from the contaminated areas
    and directed to the stormwater drainage system.
   All process areas must have concrete floors graded to wash down
    drains.
   All chemical storage areas and chemical-based odour control
    equipment must be located on impermeable concrete floors with
    bunding capable of containing 110 per cent of any spillage.


4. Effluent Discharge
Strategies for reducing the pollutant load of abattoir effluent focuses
mainly on excluding blood, fat, manure and scraps of meat from the
effluent stream. Strategies for achieving this include:
 Sweeping up solid materials for use as by=products, instead of
     washing them down the drain
 Fat interceptors should be installed on all drains so as to reduce the
     concentration of coarse materials. These should be inspected and
     cleaned regularly and the collected materials should be disposed off
     in a recommended landfill site or it should be buried
 Use water sprays with a pressure of less than 10 bar for carcass
     washing to a avoid removing fat from the surface.
 Use dry cleaning techniques to pre-clean process areas and floors
     before washing with water
 Segregate high strength effluent streams, such as rendering effluent
     and wastewaters from paunch washing, and treating them separately
 Use offal transport systems that avoid or minimse the use of water
 Waste discharges into the sewer should comply with the existing
     standards on water quality.
 Effective primary treatment before secondary treatment will increase
     the overall effectiveness and efficiency of wastewater treatment
     systems, as it is cheaper to remove physically the fat and solids than to
     treat later in secondary and tertiary treatment facilities.
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   Animal parking area should be paved and have a liquid collection
    system
   Preventing contamination: Once streams, process operations, raw
    materials, fuel supplies and product ranges have been identified, the
    methods of storing and handling materials and ways of segregating,
    treating and disposing of wastes must be addressed to minimise the
    potential for land contamination and air and water pollution.
    Underground tanks can leak into soils for long periods before being
    detected, leading to high clean-up costs.
   Install a pump to divert and recover the "glue water" for use by farmers
    as feed.


5. Treated wastewater re-use and disposal

Options for the disposal of treated wastewater are as follows.
 Irrigation to land. This is a preferred re-use strategy.
 Disposal to local sewer. This will require nutrient removal and organic
   loading reduction.
 Licensed disposal to a watercourse. It would normally be difficult to
   treat abattoir effluent to a level suitable for discharge to sewer.

For existing abattoirs in areas where there are significant land constraints,
discharge to sewer will be more appropriate.

Suitably treated wastewater can be used for crop production, to irrigate
farmland, gardens and parks or for washing down stock holding yards. The
area of land required for irrigation disposal depends on the volume and
constituents of effluent discharged, the landform soil type, the rainfall and
the frequency of flooding in the area. Irrigation disposal should meet the
following requirements:
 Effluent must not leave the site.
 There must be no irrigation in times of high rainfall; this could lead to
     contaminated stormwater runoff.
 A sampling point should be maintained on the pipe transporting to the
     effluent irrigation system.
 The effluent irrigation rate should be metered.

Monitoring programs are needed to ensure that long-term irrigation
disposal does not affect soil and ground water quality. Irrigation sites
should be chosen and/or designed so that the crop/soil system can
assimilate the wastes and maintain the hydraulic balance so that surface
runoff does not occur. Vegetated buffer zones help protect watercourses
from potentially contaminated runoff.
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6. Stormwater runoff

Stormwater should be controlled using the following techniques.
 Stormwater should be diverted away from intensively used holding
    areas, bulk chemical storage and liquid waste collection areas and
    treatment and disposal areas. This can be done by roofing or isolating
    unloading areas, stockyards and processing plant, as well as by
    building diversion drains and bunding.
 Contaminated stormwater should be collected in lagoons, aerated
    and irrigated without any off-site runoff.
 Clean stormwater must be kept away from contaminated areas and
    directed to the stormwater drainage system. It may be collected for
    stock watering or washing down.

7. Solid waste management

Recycling
Composting of solid waste such as turned windrows and aerated static
pile are most suited to the treatment of meat plant waste. Disposing of
industrial solid waste is arranged in several ways, including disposal to the
local council's landfills.

Below are suggested appropriate techniques for disposing of solid waste
generated by abattoirs.
 Manure can be spread directly on land for assimilation of wastes into
    soil. There is a balance between effective waste disposal and creation
    of pollution problems using this disposal technique. Manure needs to
    be mixed with surface soil to prevent fly breeding, reduce odour and
    avoid water pollution from surface runoff.
 Manure can also be stockpiled and dried before spreading on land.
    This technique needs to be managed to prevent fly strike and odours
    developing and to prevent seepage of the liquid phase into soil and
    groundwater.
 Sludge removed from treatment ponds should be allowed to dry and
    spread as for manure. It is best to dry out sludge in summer to quickly
    develop a sealing crust and prevent odour emissions.
 Paunch contents can be efficiently and economically disposed of by
    composting as long as offensive odours are not generated.
 Waste should be properly stored inside the premises, preferably in an
    aerated area to minimze biodegradation and foul smell
 The waste storage area and other adjacent areas should be sprinkled
    regularly with crushed limestone for disinfection purposes or sprayed to
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    avoid any spread of disease

8. Energy consumption
Energy is an area where substantial savings can be made almost
immediately with no capital investment, through simple house keeping
efforts. Additional savings could be made through the use of more energy
efficient equipment.

   Implement switch off programs and install sensors to turn off of power
    down lights and equipment when not in use
   Recover evaporative energy in the rendering process using multi-
    effect evaporators

9. Air emission control – Odour

Rendering plants
 The building housing the rendering works must be vented to the
   atmosphere via a discrete stack to allow retrofitting of odour control
   equipment. The stack should be at least 3 m above the building roof
   ridge, have an efflux velocity not less than 15 m/s, and be fitted with
   emission sampling provisions. Retrofitting would only be permitted with
   existing installations. New or upgraded installations must have full
   odour controls installed.
 The most common odour abatement method in the cooking process
   is condensation and condensate subcooling, followed by incineration
   or afterburning of the non-condensibles.
 Alternative odour abatement methods include the use of biofilters,
   chemical scrubbers using hypochlorite, multi-stage acid and alkali
   scrubbing followed by chlorination and incineration in boilers.
 Odour control equipment should be fitted with monitoring equipment
   with recorders for the monitoring of key parameters.
 Good housekeeping is essential to stop odours developing. Dropped
   material or spilt tallow should not be left to develop odours.
 Quick processing of materials to minimise odour generated from
   bacterial degradation is essential.
 Rendering material should be stored in an enclosed receptacle, and
   any material not removed for rendering within 24 hours of production
   should be refrigerated below 30C until it is removed from the site or
   processed.
 Equipment and machinery are to be kept clean of raw materials and
   residues.
 Effective and reliable operation of burners and chemical scrubbers is
   essential.
 Using continuous cookers over batch cookers can reduce odours.
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   Bins for holding raw material and rendering products need to be
    shrouded or covered, and grinding, processing and conveying
    equipment must be completely enclosed.
   Receival and storage bins can be designed to prevent the
    accumulation of any liquid or solid wastes; the wastes should be
    drained or pumped from a sump on a continuous basis.
   Receival and storage bins can be designed to prevent the
    accumulation of any liquid or solid wastes; the wastes should be
    drained or pumped from a sump on a continuous basis.
   Receival and storage bins may need to be designed so that they can
    be cleaned with high pressure hot and/or cold water at least once a
    day.
   A procedure for monitoring odour as well as investigating and
    resolving complaints should be implemented.
   All processed fish, seafoods and poultry that have become tainted or
    putrid must be stored in enclosed containers and refrigerated until
    they are removed from the premises.
   All boilers, steam raising plant and afterburners must use clean fuels
    free of heavy metals and toxic wastes.
   All conveyors and pipe runs for waste animal matter transfer
    operations are capable of being dismantled for effective cleaning.
    Offal and waste animal matter must be received in a fully enclosed
    building.

Slaughter houses
 Good housekeeping should be maintained at all times in retention
    areas as well as in the slaughterhouse. The adoption of good cleaning
    and working practices as a routine will reduce odour emissions and
    improve hygiene standards
 Animal matter should be processed as a soon as possible so as to
    reduce offensive odour and noise impacts
 Trees should be planted around the slaughter house to provide a
    barrier against the spread of foul smell or noise originating from the
    facility
 The amount of fuel used should be minimised by heat conservation
    and re-use strategies to limit the emission of greenhouse gases. In
    existing abattoirs, a strategy needs to be adopted to replace ozone-
    depleting gases.

Animal holding pens and saleyards
 Odours produced from manure and urine in animal holding areas can
   be greatly reduced by scraping up and removing the manures in
   sealed holding yards, then washing down using low volume high
   pressure sprays.
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    Manure should be collected daily and stored in vermin-proof
     containers.
    Lime should be added to the soil in unsealed holding areas.
    Effluent treatment plants
    During commissioning, odours produced by anaerobic waste
     treatment ponds can be reduced by:
     allowing some grease and manure solids to pass through the
        primary treatment system, establishing a crust of 100 mm thick on
        the surface
     layering straw or hay on the surface of the anaerobic pond
        - using an artificial cover (such as plastic) that breaks down over
        time and mixes with the fat on the surface.
    During the operational phase, all detergents and chemicals used in
     the abattoir should be suitable for the biological treatment process.
    An appropriate starter culture or enzyme must be used to re-establish
     pond equilibrium in the event of a pond failure.
    Continuous desludging of ponds by siphon prevents disturbance of
     the pond crust.
    Effluent treatment plants need to be adequately designed, operated
     and maintained to minimise emission of odours.

Skin drying areas
These areas should be vented through an odour control system. Fly strike
of skins should be prevented. The normal open skillion roof sheds are well
ventilated, and fly strike is usually not a major problem in them.

Dust
Below are techniques that reduce dust emissions from various abattoir
operations.
 Fabric filter type dust collectors should be used for dust control.
 Surfaces of saleyards, holding pens, unsealed roads and parking areas
   should be sealed.
 Windbreaks (incorporating lines of trees) should be used near large
   coal stockpiles.
 Stockpiles should be dampened with water sprays and have their axes
   parallel to the direction of the strongest winds.
 Dusty process operations should be serviced by filtered ventilation
   hoods.
 Warehouses should use good housekeeping to alleviate dust
   generation.
 Dry materials, such as meat meal, must be handled in such a manner
   as not to give rise to dust emissions to the atmosphere.



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Fuel burning activities

Some abattoirs may wish to dispose of sludge and other wastes by
incineration. Coal fired boilers may also be used in the rendering process.
All fuel burning equipment will release greenhouse gases.
Practical control measures needed to minimise the effects of fuel burning
equipment on surrounding land users are as follows.
 All boilers, steam raising plant and after burners should use clean fuels
    free of heavy metals and toxic wastes.
 Combustion equipment and air pollution control equipment should be
    designed and operated to minimise the production and emission of air
    pollutants.
 Stacks should be high enough to prevent ground level concentrations
    of pollutants from reaching undesirable levels.


10. Noise control

Operating hours

Some industries operate outside normal working hours. Noise complaints
may result from early or late operations and from weekend activities.

Existing premises

The following noise control measures should be considered.
 Erect noise barriers such as screens around noisy equipment and
   operations.
 Use visual signals and portable telephones instead of hooters and
   telephone bells in operational areas.
 All ventilation and extractor fans should be noise efficient or fitted with
   silencers, and all ducts should be lined with sound-absorbent material.
 Restrict external workshop activities and vehicle access to 7 am to 6
   pm, Monday to Friday and 7 am to 1 pm on Saturdays. Generally, only
   work conducted inside noise-insulated workshops should be permitted
   during the evening (6 pm to 10 pm) and night-time (10 pm to 7 am).
 Limit vehicle movement (especially trucks) to and from the site to
   normal working hours only.
 Fit efficient exhaust mufflers to diesel forklift engines, other noisy
   vehicles and air-powered tools.
 Keep equipment in good repair and attend promptly to loose or
   rattling covers, worn bearings and broken equipment.
 Locate mechanical equipment on mounts designed to isolate
   structure-borne vibration and noise.
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Noise from existing abattoir operations should not exceed the levels in the
Table 7.1below.

Table 7.1: Compliance limits (based on background sound levels) for
existing sources or places noise to protect existing or proposed dwellings
and other noise-sensitive places or commercial areas
Time period                Dwelling or other noise Commercial place
                          sensitive place
Daytime (7 am to 6 pm) Background + 5 dB(A)         Background + 10 dB(A)
Evening (6 pm to 10 pm) Background + 5 dB(A)        Background + 10 dB(A)
Night-time (10 pm to 7 Background + 5 dB(A)         Background + 10 dB(A)
am)

Compliance limit levels are measured as the average of the maximum A-
weighted sound levels adjusted for noise character measured over a 15
minute time interval.

Proposed premises

The noise control measures mentioned above for existing premises can be
incorporated more cheaply and efficiently into the proposed
development during the design stage. Other measures worth considering
are:
 installing noisy equipment into one or more plant rooms or specially
   designed acoustic enclosures
 positioning noisy operations as far away as possible from current or
   future noise-sensitive areas
 locating vehicle parking and noisy equipment away from noise-
   sensitive areas
 using the layout and orientation of the buildings to advantage, using
   buildings as noise barriers and using the natural topography as an
   acoustic barrier where possible.

Below are specific techniques that minimise noise from abattoir
operations.
 Animal holding areas and noisy mechanical plant equipment should
   be located as far away as possible from the local community and
   employ the local topography as a noise barrier.
 Cattle being processed at abattoirs should be processed on the same
   day and not kept overnight in the stockyards.
 Mechanical plant noise is best controlled by good initial design and
   choice of equipment.

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   Equipment should be maintained regularly and noisy operations should
    be enclosed.
   Noisy operations such as stock handling should be done during the
    noise tolerant periods of the day (that is, when background noise levels
    are highest).
   Buildings should be located so as to attenuate on-site vehicle noise.
   Heavy vehicle routes should be chosen to avoid intrusion on the local
    community, and if needed, restricted from operating during the noise-
    sensitive hours.

Noise from proposed abattoir operations should not exceed the levels in
Table 7.2 below when measured at any residential premises:


Table 7.2: Compliance noise limits, based on background sound levels, for
proposed sources or places to protect established dwellings and other
noise-sensitive places or commercial places
Time period                Dwelling or other noise- Commercial place
                          sensitive place
Daytime (7 am to 6 pm) Background + 5 dB(A)         Background + 10 dB(A)
Evening (6 pm to 10 pm) Background + 5 dB(A)        Background + 10 dB(A)
Night-time (10 pm to 7 Background + 5 dB(A)         Background + 10 dB(A)
am)

Compliance limit levels are measured as the average of the maximum A-
weighted sound levels adjusted for noise character measured over a 15-
minute time interval.




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Section 8: Industrial Starch Manufacturing Installations

8.1 Background
Starch is one of nature's major renewable resources and a mainstay of our
food and industrial economy. Starch is a natural nutrient carbohydrate
that is derived from a variety of plants (e.g. corn, potatoes, rice, and
wheat). It is usually prepared as a powder and is chiefly used in food
production. Although Botswana is currently not involved in the production
and use of industrial starch, most of the world's starch supplies are derived
from grains (corn, sorghum, wheat, rice), the major root crops (potato,
sweet potato, cassava, arrowroot) or the pith of the sago palm. While
starches from these various plant sources vary slightly in their physical and
chemical properties, they can be substituted for each other across a wide
spectrum of end uses. Cassava starch must compete with other starches
and relative prices, quality and dependability of supplies are basic
considerations in the determination of market shares (Goering, 1979).

 There are different technologies for each raw material for recovery of
starch. Starch is mostly used for industrial purposes. Starch is tailor made to
meet the requirements of the end users by changing reaction condition
(Temp, pH, additives) and strict process control. These specialty products
are called modified starches. Modified starch has improved qualities in
the starch and used for different industrial uses.

Generally, starches are used for their viscosifying (ability to thicken
solutions), binding, tackifying, and film-forming properties. Being a pure
renewable natural polymer starch has many applications. Its significance
as a polysacloride being able to breakdown into their monomeric and or
oligomeric components leads to production of Dextrose, glucose,
fructose, maltose & sorbitol. In fact starch has become an important
material for the sugar industry, which was otherwise relying upon sugar
cane and beet sugar.

There are many food, drug, cosmetic, and industrial uses for corn starch
(Table 8.1). The starch can also be converted into dextrose and corn
syrup, both of which have multiple consumer and industrial uses.




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Table 8.1 Uses of Starch - Industrial, Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics
Industrial
 Adhesives              Batteries                Bookbinding
 Cleaners, Detergents Coatings on Wood,          Color Carrier in Paper
                        Metal and Paper          and Textile Printing
 Dyes                   Fireworks                Crayons and Chalk
 Cardboard              Lubricants               Paints
 Industrial Water       Paper & Paper            Wallboard and
 Recovery               Products                 Wallpaper
 Molded Plastics        Rubber Tires             Oil Refining
 Ore Refining           Surgical Dressing        Textiles

Food
Baby Food               Baking Products         Beer & Ale
Canned Vegetables       Chewing Gum             Confectionery
Powdered Sugar          Pancake & Waffle        Flours
                        Mixes
Mustard                 Puddings and            Salad Dressing
                        Custards
Soups                   Pet Foods               Sauces & Gravies

Drugs and Cosmetics
Antibiotics         Aspirin                     Body Lotion
Drug Coatings       Lipstick                    Facial Makeup
Facial Masks and    Pharmaceuticals             Soaps and Cleansers
Cleansers

Other key uses of starch are as flocculating agents, anticaking agents,
mold-release agents, dusting powder and thickening agents.

Literally thousands of supermarket staples are produced using both
regular and specially modified starches. Many of today's instant and
ready-to-eat foods are produced using starches, which enable them to
maintain the proper textural characteristics during freezing, thawing and
heating.

Starch can be classified into two types: native and modified.

Native starches
These are produced through the separation of naturally occurring starch
from either grain or root crops, such as cassava, maize, and sweetpotato,
and can be used directly in producing certain foods, such as noodles. The
raw starches produced still retain the original structure and characteristics
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and are called “native starches”. Native starch is the basic starch product
that is marketed in the dry powder form under different grades for food,
and as pharmaceutical, human, and industrial raw material. Native starch
has different functional properties depending on the crop source, and
specific types of starch are preferred for certain applications. Native
starch can be considered a primary resource that can be processed into
a range of starch products.

Native starches have limited usage, mainly in the food industry, because
they lack certain desired functional properties. The native starch granules
hydrate easily when heated in water, they swell and gelatinize; the
viscosity increases to a peak value, followed by a rapid decrease, yielding
weak-boiled, stringy, and cohesive pastes of poor stability and poor
tolerance to acidity, with low resistance to shear pressure, as commonly
employed in modern food processing. However, food, metallurgic,
mining, fermentation, construction, cosmetics, pharmaceutical, paper
and cardboard, and textiles industries among others use native starch in
its traditional form.


Modified Starches
For those characteristics, which are unattainable with native starch,
modified starch can be used for other industrial applications through a
series of techniques, chemical, physical, and enzymatic modification.
Thus, modified starch is native starch that has been changed in its
physical and/or chemical properties. Modifications may involve altering
the form of the granule or changing the shape and composition of the
constituent amylose and amylopectin molecules. Modifications are
therefore carried out on the native starch to confer it with properties
needed for specific uses. Some of these modified starches, their methods
of modification and desirable properties are shown in Table 6. When a
starch is modified chemically or physically, the properties of the native
starch is altered. Various modifications give the starch properties that
make it useful in many industries such as food, pharmaceutical, textile,
petroleum, and paper pulp industries.

The different ways of modifying native starch consist in altering one or
more of the following properties: paste temperature, solids/viscosity ratio,
starch paste resistance to reduction of viscosity by acids, heat and or
mechanical agitation (shear), retrogradation tendencies, ionic and
hydrophilic nature. Modifying starch is important to provide the following
properties: thickening, gelatinization, adhesiveness and/or film-formation,
to improve water retention, enhance palatability and sheen and to
remove or add opacity.
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Corn remains the most important source of starch used in a number of
industrial processing activities.

Cornstarch, or cornflour, is the starch of the maize grain, commonly known
as corn. It is the primary product of the large-scale industrial wet-milling
process. It has a distinctive appearance and feel when mixed raw with
water or milk, giving easily to gentle pressure but resisting sudden pressure.

Sorghum starch is manufactured by a wet-milling process similar to that
used for corn starch, then made into dextrose for use in foods. Starch from
waxy sorghums is used in adhesives and for sizing paper and fabrics, and
is an ingredient in oil drilling "mud."

Industrial starch processing involves a process called wet milling which is
more sophisticated than dry milling in that it involves both physical and
chemical methods to separate the components of the corn kernel. Wet
milling is the process of separating the corn kernel into starch, protein
(gluten), germ, and fibre in an aqueous medium. The wet milling involves
the following processes:

   1. The wet milling process begins with soaking corn grain in water and
      dilute sulphurous acid (0.1%) for 24 to 48 hours in a stainless steel
      steep tank. The addition of the acid to water prevents excessive
      bacterial growth in the warm environment. This „steeping‟ process
      facilitates the separation of the whole grain into many parts. As the
      corn swells and softens, the mild acidity of the steepwater begins to
      loosen the gluten bonds within the corn and release the starch. The
      ground corn, in a wet slurry, flows to the germ separators.
   2. Germ separation: here the corn slurry is passed through cyclone
      separators to separate the corn germ from corn oil. The corn germs
      are pumped onto screens and washed repeatedly to remove any
      starch left in the mixture. The corn oil extracted through a
      combination of mechanical and solvent processes is then refined
      and filtered into finished corn oil.
   3. Fine grinding and screening: following germ separation, the
      remaining slurry undergoes a second more intense grinding to
      further loosen the starch and gluten from the remaining fibre. A
      series of fixed concave screens separates the fibre from the mill
      starch, the starch-gluten suspension. The fibre is then collected,
      slurried and screened again to reclaim any residual starch or
      protein.
   4. Starch separation: gluten is lighter than starch allowing separation
      by centrifuge. By passing the mill starch through a centrifuge, the
      gluten is readily spun out for use in animal feed. The starch fraction
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      from the primary centrifuge is washed 8 to 14 times, rediluted and
      washed again in hydroclones to remove the last trace of protein
      and produce high quality starch that is typically more than 99.5%
      pure.
   5. Refining: After washing, the starch may be further refined into
      various modified food starches, processed for paper or other
      industrial uses, hydrolysed into high fructose corn syrup, or
      fermented into ethanol.


8.2 Environmental issues              related     to   Industrial     Starch
Manufacturing Installations

Water Supply
The wet milling process is a water intensive activity. It requires the soaking
of corn in water to loosen the corn‟s component materials – protein,
gluten and fiber. Throughout this process, water is used as medium not
only for germ and starch washing but also for separating the corn‟s
components.

Energy
Corn wet milling is an energy intensive industry because it is a wet process
that produces dry products. It uses 15% of the total energy consumed. For
many of the products, dewatering, evaporating and drying are required
and these often entail the use of large amounts of energy. In addition
significant amounts of energy are required to power the large motors for
grinding after degermination. The main sources of energy used are
electricity for pumping, grinding, separating and drying corn products,
fuel to make either steam or for direct drying. Steam is used for
evaporation, drying and maintaining process temperatures as well as
fermentation, extraction, ethanol recovery and for jetting. Table 8.1
summarises the electricity, steam and fuel used in corn wet milling for
each process step.




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Table 8.2: Estimated energy consumption for proves in corn wet milling
operations, based on a 100,000-bushel/day facility
Process                   Electricity (kWh)         Steam (GJ/kg)   Fuel


Corn receiving             12443                     1308
Steeping                   6266                      8105
Steep               water 15397
evaporation
Germ       recovery   (1st 19963
grind)
Germ      recovery   (2nd 10205
grind)
Germ recovery (germ 716
washing)
Germ dewatering and 12891                            1423           1394
drying
Fibre recovery             63201
Fibre dewatering           11100
Protein recovery           29273
Gluten thickening and 15039                                         1477
drying
Starch washing             14055
Starch dewatering and 78330                                         1121
drying
Gluten feed dryer          28557                                    9311
Total                      317,438                   2812.5         13,303
Source: Adapted from Galitsky, Worrell and Ruth (2003)



Wastewater
The main waterborne waste from the wet milling process is the
condensate resulting from the evaporation of steepwater. This wastewater
contains volatiles formed during the steeping process. In addition the
waste stream might contain filtrates from the preparation of modified
starches, with dissolved chemicals used for modification and some soluble
carbohydrates formed during the process.

8.3 Environmental Management Issues

Water Use
 Report all leaks of water (both process water and dripping taps), steam
  and compressed air and ensure they are repaired quickly.
 Regular maintenance of water consuming equipment should be
  undertaken periodically.




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Energy
There are a variety of opportunities available to reduce energy
consumption both in utilities and in the process. Tables‟ 8.3 and 8.4
summarise energy efficiency measures for general utility or cross cutting
measures, characterized by the system to which they apply and those
that are process specific characterized by the process to which they
apply.

Table 8.3: Cross cutting (utilities) energy efficiency measures for the corn
wet milling industry
                             General Equipment/Utility Approaches
Energy management systems and programs                   Combined heat and power systems
Alternative fuel use                                      Anaerobic wastewater treatment
                                           Motors
Sizing                                                              Adjustable speed drivers
Higher efficiency motors                                            Variable voltage controls
Switched reluctance drives
                                           Pumps
Operation and maintenance                                            Adjustable speed drives
Monitoring                                                           Avoid throttling valves
Reduced speed                                                          Correct sizing of pipes
Efficient pumps                                                          Replace belt drives
Correct sizing of pump(s) sealing
                                       Compressed air
Maintenance                                                                   Heat recovery
System improvements                                Pressure due point maximization (air intake)
Monitoring
Leak detection
Pipe diameter sizing
                                          Lighting
Controls                           Replace mercury with metal halide or high pressure sodium
Daylighting                                                           System improvements
Reflectors                                      Replace incandescent with fluorescent or CFL
                                 Heat and steam distribution
Improve process control                                                  Boiler maintenance
Reduce flue gas                                              Recover steam from blowdown
Reduce excess air                          Replace obsolete burners by new optimized boilers
Correct sizing in design
Source: Adapted from Galitsky, Worrell and Ruth (2003)




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Table 8.4 Process related energy efficiency measures for the corn wet
milling industry
                                      Feed stream
Corn hybrids
                                         Steeping
Intermittent milling and dynamic steeping
Use of gaseous sulfur dioxide
Alkali steeping
Use enzymes during steeping to reduce time
                           Fermentation and Ethanol production
Improving yeast fermentation
Bacterial fermentation enzymes used for hydrolysis
                                 Mechanical dewatering
Germ dewatering
Fibre dewatering
Starch dewatering filters
                                    Drying technology
Process integration                                          Multiple effect evaporators
Reuse waste heat                                  Replacing dryer with more efficient one
Operations and maintenance                                   Reduction in air supply rate
Thermal and mechanical vapour recompression
                                       Membranes
Reverse osmosis for steepwater concentration
Membrane filtration to recycle starch was water or reduce water in steeping

Source: Adapted from Galitsky, Worrell and Ruth (2003)




In addition to technology changes in equipment, there should also be
corresponding changes in staff behaviour. Staff should be trained in both
skills and general approach to energy efficiency in their day-to-day
practices.

Wastewater
In order to reduce the amount of liquid effluent generated during the
milling process, membrane processes (selective barriers that allow the
passage of certain species in a fluid, based on the size of the molecules)
should be used to recycle starch wash water and to reduce water used in
steeping.

Solid waste
The main feed stream to a wt milling plant is corn. In order to reduce the
amount of waste generated, attention should be paid to the type of corn
received. Selecting a specific type of corn hybrid is one possibility of
reducing waste.


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Section 9: Fishmeal And Fish Oil Manufacturing

This section provides a general guideline covering the processing of fish
into fishmeal and fish oil for both human and animal consumption. These
sector-specific guidelines are aimed at providing practical measures to
keep businesses compliant with the law, together with 'good practice'
advice on measures to reduce the risk of harm to the environment

At present in Botswana, there are no existing fishmeal and fish oil industry.
This guideline therefore serves to provide baseline information to
companies willing to set up industry in this area in order that their efforts
meet with the minimum requirements as spelt out in the Environmental
Impact Assessment Act, 2005. This guideline is intended as a generic guide
on issues related to the impact of these activities on the environment
especially those related to water.

However before the guidelines are presented, brief description of the
processes involved in the production of fishmeal and fish oil based on
experience of other countries is highlighted.

9.1 Background

Fishmeal is the clean, dried, ground tissue of un-decomposed whole fish or
fish cuttings, either or both, with or without the extraction of part of the oil
(FAO, 1986). Fishmeal is a thick powder obtained from cooking, drying,
and grinding raw fish (Austral, n.d). Fish meal can be classified as two
basic types; 1) fishery waste associated with the processing of fish for
human consumption and 2) fish that are only used for the production of
fish meal. The composition of fishmeal can vary considerable depending
upon the composition (whole fish, fish scraps, etc.) of the substrate that is
used to prepare the fish meal.

Fishmeal is a rich protein source, and is used as an ingredient in feedstuffs
in the aquaculture, dairy, and poultry industries. It must contain not more
than 10% moisture. If it contains more than 3% salt (NaCl), the amount of
salt must constitute a part of the brand name, provided that in no case
must the salt content of this product exceed 7% (AAFCO, 2000).

For convenience fishmeal can be defined as a solid product obtained by
removing most of the water and some or all of the oil from fish or fish
waste. Fishmeal is generally sold as a powder, and is used mostly in
compound foods for poultry, pigs and farmed fish which need higher
quality protein than other farm stock including sheep and cattle; it is far

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too valuable to be used as a fertilizer. It increases productivity and
improves the efficiency with which feed is converted to animal produce
(feed conversion). It is of special value in diets for young animals, for
example in broiler starter diets, diets for early weaned pigs, and for farmed
fish and fur producing animals. (FAO, 1986). Fishmeal also provides a
valuable outlet to recycle trimmings from the food fish processing sector,
which would otherwise be dumped at extra cost to the environment and
the consumer (www.fisheries.is). About 90% of world fishmeal and fish oil
production is from oily fish species such as mackerel, pilchard, herring,
capelin and menhaden and they provide over 95% of the value of meal
and oil products. Less than 10% is from white fish offal such as from cod
and haddock. Only 1% is produced from other sources such as shellfish
and whales. The majority of fish meal is "whole", that is, only water and
some oil are extracted from the fish.

Fish oil is oil made from processing whole fish (usually small oily and bony
fish such as menhaden or anchovy) and its byproducts. Fish oil is used as
an ingredient in animal feed and is sold for consumer and commercial
purposes including for direct human consumption in products such as
margarine and industrial uses in leather tanning and in the production of
soap and glycerol and other non-food products. Their nutritional and
physical properties have made hardened fish oils attractive constituents in
diets for man. Hardened fish oil is used almost entirely in margarines and
shortenings. Margarines prepared from hardened vegetable oil
sometimes recrystallize on storage. This makes the margarine crumbly and
hard. Because fish oils have a widely varied chain length. margarines
prepared from them have an excellent plastic consistency. Shortening
and bakery margarines have properties different from those of table
margarines. The value of hardened fish oillies in its creaming power,
particularly in cake making.

Refined fish oils are rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids of the linolenic acid
family. Current medical research suggests that these fatty acids might
have a unique role to play in prevention of coronary artery disease and
the growth of different types of cancers. More clinical studies will have to
be undertaken before positive health claims can be made.

The oils contain mainly triglycerides of fatty acids (glycerol combined with
three similar or different acid molecules) with variable amounts of
phospholipids, glycerol ethers and wax esters. It is characteristic of the oils
that they contain a wide range of long-chain fatty acids with the number
of carbon atoms ranging mainly from 14 to 22, and high degree of
reactivity (unsaturation) ranging up to six double bonds per molecule. The
highly unsaturated properties make the oils (and particularly their highly
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unsaturated fractions) suitable for a number of technical applications,
particularly as drying oils and varnishes. The saturated fatty acid fraction is
a disadvantage for these purposes and must be reduced. Several
specialized processes for this reduction are available.

Fish oils are a significant source for the production of fatty acids with a
wide spectrum of chain lengths. From these acids are produced several
types of metallic soaps, some of which are used in lubricating greases
while others are used as waterproofing agents. Small quantities of fatty;
acids are used pharmaceutically and medicinally, and for scientific
research purposes.

The complex nature of fish oil depends upon a number of factors. The
fatty acid patterns of the oils vary widely with fish species and, to some
extent, with the composition of the plankton and the time of year. These
influence the properties of oils both in regard to edible as well as
technical applications. The oils contain variable, but small amounts of
unsaponifiable components, such as hydrocarbons, fatty alcohols, waxes
and ethers, and these also influence the properties of the oils to some
extent.

The condition of the fish at the time of processing affects the oil physically,
chemically and nutritionally. Fish of poor quality yield malodorous oil with
high contents of free fatty acids (FFA) and sulphur. These latter
undesirable properties affect both the economic value and the
application of the oil. Some sulphur compounds have an inactivating
effect on the nickel catalyst used for hydrogenation (called "poisoning of
the catalyst"). Thus the catalyst has to be replaced frequently.

There is a growing international market for fishmeal and oil due to the
increase in aquaculture world-wide and new markets, such as the
petfood market, that are emerging (www.fisheries.is)

Fish used for fishmeal and fish oil may be divided into three categories:

   Fish caught for the sole purpose of fish meal production

   By-catches from another fishery

   Fish off-cuts and offal from the consumption industry

Most of the world‟s fishmeal is made from whole fish especially the pelagic
species. Although any fish could virtually be used to make fish meal, there
are unexploited species, which could produce poisonous meals. There is a

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demand for high quality fish meal and oil and production can be highly
remunerative if suitable raw material is available

A fish meal industry requires a regular supply of raw material. In
establishing such an establishment, it would be pertinent to take into
account:
          1. The type of species available
          2. Length of the fishing season
          3. Location of the fish
          4. Catchability of the fish by different fishing gear
          5. Attainable catches over year for a continuous period

The bulk of the world‟s fish meal and oil is today manufactured by the wet
pressing method. The main steps of the process are:
   1. Intake - Raw fish is sampled and analysed on intake to check for
       freshness
   2. Cooking - in a steam cooker, between 90°C-95°C to liberate the oil
       from the fat depots of fish and to condition the material for the
       subsequent treatment in the various processing units of the plant.
       This process also sterilizes the fish, coagulates the proteins and
       disrupts the cell membranes to facilitate the separation of the
       solubles and the oil from the dry matter.
   3. Pre-straining to remove the oil and water from the solids. The
       principle here is that the cooked material is conveyed to a strainer
       which is kept vibrating by an electric motor. The liquid phase passes
       through the strainer holes whereas the solid phase is vibrated along
       the surface of the strainer to an outlet.
   4. Pressing to squeeze out as much liquid as possible from the solid
       phase. This is important not only to improve the oil yield and the
       quality of the meal, but also to reduce the moisture content of the
       press cake as afar as possible thereby reducing the fuel
       consumption of the dryers and increasing their capacity
   5. Separation of liquor from the press. The press liquid contains, apart
       from water, most of the oil from the fish, and also dissolved proteins,
       salts and fine particles. The latter are removed in a decanter and
       transported to the drier to be mixed in with the presscake. The liquid
       from the decanter is fed to separators where the oil is removed and
       subsequently stored for export.
   6. Oil polishing, this is the final refining step done at the factory before
       the oil is pumped into storage. This process is facilitated by using hot
       water, which extracts impurities from the oil, enabling stability during
       storage.
   7. Evaporation of stick water to recover soluble dry matter from the
       stickwater. To recover the stick watersolids, large quantities of water
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      is removed by evaporation and subsequent drying
   8. Drying, the purpose of which is to convert the wet and unstable
      mixture of presscake, decanter sludge and concentration into a dry
      and stable fish meal. The two main principle used for drying are
      direct heat drying and indirect steam drying

9.2 Fish Industry in Botswana
Botswana is home to over eighty species of fish and this is a great
contribution to the faunal diversity of the country. Species exploited for
their commercial value include a group of fish loosely called the Tilapias,
Catfishes, Cyprinids and Characins.

Although Botswana currently does not have any fishmeal and fish oil
industry, her natural surface waters offers significant fishery potential that
are limited to rivers forming her natural boundaries with neighbouring
states. These comprise the Okavango and Chobe/Linyati systems in the
northwest and north and the Limpopo system on the east. Due to the
allocation of freehold farms on the riparian part of the Limpopo, wide
scale fishing is only practiced at the northern part of the river. The
Okavango Delta in northwest Botswana is the largest water body, and
sustains the biggest freshwater fishery in the country. Other waterbodies
that sustain some fisheries include several medium-sized reservoirs in
southeastern Botswana. Some of the major water bodies that formerly
sustained good-sized fisheries, including Lakes Ngami and Liambezi
(Chobe/Linyati system), Boteti River and Mopipi Reservoir, have since
dried up.

Sporadic fishing also takes place in the major dams of Shashe, Gaborone,
Bokaa and Letsibogo, which are used for municipal water supply and
belong to Water Utilities. As such, fishing permits are issued in collaboration
with the corporation. Currently only gillnet catches are monitored in the
fishing areas, while catches from traditional artisanal fisheries are
estimated based on frame surveys.

Fishing is a vocation that has supported the livelihoods of the poor
segments of rural fishing communities for many years. It has continued to
provide employment, income and a high quality protein food source.

Despite the relative abundance of this resource especially in the northern
part of the country, the variety of fish available in Botswana are not
considered suitable for the production of fish meal and fish oil.



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9.3 Environmental Issues Associated with the Processing of Fish
meal and Fish oil

Water supply
The manufacturing of fish meal and oil depends to a very large extent on
the wet pressing method which involves the process of heating/cooking
for the coagulation of the protein to liberate bound water and oil,
separation by pressing of the coagulate to form a press cake containing
60%-80% of the oil free dry matter and oil and press liquor containing
water and the rest of the solids (oil, dissolved and suspended protein,
vitamins and minerals). The press liquor is removed by centrifugation in a
decanter and the oil removed by centrifuge. The stick water from the
separator is fed to the evaporators and the concentrate thoroughly
mixed with the press cake during the two-stage drying stage. The dried
material consisting of press cake, sludge and concentrate is milled and
stored in bags. The oil is then stored in tanks (www.fisheries.is,
www.fao.org).

The fish meal and oil processing is a water intensive industry requiring large
amounts of high quality water for washing fish, cleaning of the processing
areas, cooling and production and can therefore represent considerable
costs to the facility. Most seafood processors have a high baseline water
use for cleaning plant and equipment. Therefore, water use per unit
product decreases rapidly as production volume increases. Major sources
of wastewater include: fish storage and transport; cleaning, freezing and
thawing; preparation of brines; equipment sprays; offal transport; cooling
water; steam generation; and equipment and floor cleaning.

Water consumption in fish processing operations has traditionally been
high to achieve effective sanitation. This however varies depending on
the level of fish processing involved usually, from one to four gallons per
pound of product. Several factors affect water use, including: the type of
product processed, the scale of the operation, the process used, and the
level of water minimization in place (Environment Canada, 1994a).
General cleaning contributes significantly to total water demand so
smaller-scale sites tend to have significantly higher water use per unit of
production. Reducing wastewater volumes tends to have a significant
impact on reducing organic loads, as these strategies are typically
associated with reduced product contact and better segregation of
high-strength streams.




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Waste water discharge and Treatment of Effluent
Large quantities of wastewater from the processing of fish meal and fish oil
are generated from the process of:
   1. Fish unloading
   2. Equipment spray
   3. Offal transportation
   4. Facility cleaning

Effluent streams generated from fish processing contain high loads of
organic matter due to the presence of oils, proteins and suspended solids.
They also contain high levels of phosphates and nitrates. Effluent quality is
highly dependent upon the type of fish being processed. Pollution loads
generated from the processing of oil fish species are much higher than
from white fish species due to the high oil content and the fact that
species are usually not gutted or cleaned on the fishing vessel. Effluent
quality also depends on the type of processing undertaken. For example
additional pollution loads arise from the pickling of fish. Brine is used in this
process and the wastewater contains salts and acids, making them
difficult to treat.

If these effluent streams are discharged untreated into water bodies or
sewage treatment facilities, the pollutants can cause eutrophication and
oxygen depletion.

Solid and liquid waste management
Fish waste or material resulting from fish processing operations consists of
particles of flesh, skin, bones entrails, shells or liquid stick water. Generally
solid wastes make up 30%-40% of total production, depending on the
species processed.

Hygiene, Health and Safety
The process of handling and processing during the production of fishmeal
and fish oil brings with it possibilities of contamination either at source or
during processing which has serious implications on the health of animals
as well as humans. Health and safety aspects relate mainly to those of
workers at the production plant.

Noise
The processes involved in the preparation of fishmeal and fish oil products
increases the average noise level in and around the working area.

Pollution from emissions of malodours
Emissions from the fishmeal and fish oil process that constitute a source of
pollution are those that may lead to offensive odour beyond the process
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boundary and also emissions of particulate matter. The odourous
emissions consist of a complex mix of chemical species and may contain
ammonia, amines, organic sulphur compounds and volatile organic
compounds. The main causes of odour generation are the storage and
handling of putrescible waste materials, and odorous emissions during
cooking and drying processes used in the production of fish.

The potential sources for odour release are:
    Raw material reception, storage and handling
    Fugitive emissions from the process operations due to lack of
      containment in plant
    From cooking and drying process
    From storage, handling and transport of the meal
    From the storage and discharge of liquid waste and effluent from
      the process and odour arrestment plant
    From the odour arrestment plant discharge

Energy Consumption
The production of fish mean and fish oil requires significant amounts of
energy for cooking, drying and evaporation. This energy is usually
generated by the combustion of fuels on site.


9.4 Environmental Management Measures
Environmental indictors are important for assessing cleaner production
opportunities and for comparing the environmental performance of fish
meal and fish oil processing industries. The consumption of resources and
the generation of waste will vary from plant to plant, and will also depend
on the type of fish been processed, type of equipment used and extent of
processing.
    Though practically all fish species in principle may be converted
      into fish meal, when planning a fishmeal factory, due consideration
      needs to be given to the type of fish species available, length of
      fishing season, location of the fish, catchability of the fish by
      different fishing gear and if possible, attainable catches per yea for
      a continuous period.
    The efficient use of water. This could take into account minimal use
      of water through recycling.
    The consumption of water during periods of water shortage
    Consideration should be given to the pre-treatment of
      contaminated process to remove solids water before discharging
      into a receiving body of water. The solids removal facility should
      produce an effluent similar in quality to that produced by 25 mesh
      screening of the contaminated process water.

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      If storm water storm does not come into contact with raw fish or
       offal, it should be discharged directly into receiving water.
      Where the storm water is in contact with raw fish or offal, it should
       be considered as contaminated process water and treated as
       outlined in 1 above.
      Stick water and press liquor should not be discharged to the
       receiving water
      Blood water should not be discharged to the receiving water
      At each outfall, the sewer and drainage systems should be
       designed to permit sampling of the liquid effluent
      A suitable method of metering the flow of contaminated process
       water should be made available on site.
      All outfalls should have the approval of the appropriate regulatory
       agency
      Domestic sewage should be treated and disposed off in a manner
       satisfactory to the relevant regulatory agency. The treatment of
       these effluents should cover the following areas:
            Level of total suspended solids (TTS)
            High organic load leading to elevated biochemical Oxygen
               Demand
            Oil and greases
            Ammonia
            Cleaning agents
            Coliforms
      Due consideration should be given to the possibility of recycling
       and reclaiming materials where possible.
      Where opportunities exists for waste prevention at the source of the
       fish processing operation site, the developer is expected to
       formulate and implement waste prevention strategy in
       collaboration with the relevant authorizing agency
      Potential fishmeal and fish oil processors should contact local or
       regional health officials to comply with existing health regulations
       related to food safety and also to obtain a health permit
      Hygiene standards within the process or production area must be
       maintained at high levels in accordance with the hygienic rules and
       conditions of the food safety Act in order to prevent product
       contamination
      Holding tanks that would be used to store live fish prior to processing
       should be kept free of algae growth, and proper levels of dissolved
       oxygen should be maintained. High quality water should be used.
      Every effort should be made to keep bacteria counts low. Routine
       monitoring of product and equipment is encouraged
      All surfaces in contact with the fish should be sanitary and not have
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       contact with the floor.

      Fish dropped on floor should be handled in a proper manner using
       correct washing methods.

      Confined spaces such as tanks, sumps, sewers, excavators within
       the production plants must be well ventilated especially during
       occupancy and workers should be provided with air-supplied
       respirators.

      Confined spaces should be tested for toxic, flammable or explosive
       gases and vapours as well as lack of oxygen.

      Emergency assistance should be made available to persons
       working in confined spaces through assistants and observers.
      Provide sound insulated equipment and control rooms to reduce
       average noise level in work areas
      Ensure regular maintenance of plant equipment to minimise
       ambient noise levels
      Provide hearing protection to workers where noise levels exceed
       85dBA




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Section 10: Sugar Factories
This section covers the refining of sugar. Though this is not presently carried
out in Botswana, the processes outlined are included for possible future
introduction of this activity.

10.1 Background
Sugar is produced from sugarcane and sugar beet and the production
process can be broken down into three phases - growing, processing and
refining.

The processing of sugar is generally located as close as possible to the
growing areas. Processed sugar is then usually sent to refineries for further
refining. The processing of sugar from sugar cane takes place in two
stages - milling and refining. Seasonal sugar milling activities include the
manufacturing of raw sugar (crystal and syrup) from sugar cane.

Sugar refining activities include the manufacture of white granulated
sugar, brown sugar, liquid sugar and syrups from raw sugar.

In Botswana, there are no sugar manufacturing or processing industries.
Botswana produces no sugar with all domestic requirements being
imported, principally from South Africa. Table 10.1 below shows the sugar
supply situation of Botswana between 1999 and 2001.

Table 10.1: Sugar supply (tonnes) in Botswana
                       1999                2000               2001
Production             0                   0                  0
Imports                47,155              43,787             32,645
Exports                1,069               208                1,008
Domestic supply        41,086              41,579             38,637
Source: White House and Associates, 2003


Sugar industries located in Lobatse focuses mainly on the repackaging of
an already refined product. The main environmental issue related to this
activity however is that of waste management especially with respect to
the use of materials, waste generation, resource conservation and
disposal to the landfill.




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10.2 The Sugar Refining Process
The sugar industry processes sugar cane and sugar beet to manufacture
edible sugar. More than 60% of the world‟s sugar production is from sugar
cane; the balance is from sugar beet. Sugar manufacturing is a highly
seasonal industry, with season lengths of about 6 to 18 weeks for beets
and 20 to 32 weeks for cane. Sugar cane contains 70% water; 14% fiber;
13.3% saccharose (about 10 to 15% sucrose), and 2.7% soluble impurities.

In sugar refining, raw sugar is further purified. First, the raw sugar is mixed
with heavy syrup and then centrifuged clean. This process is called
affination; its purpose is to wash away the outer coating of the raw sugar
crystals (Molasses film), which is less pure than the crystal interior. The
remaining sugar is then dissolved to make a syrup, about 70% by weight
solids.

The washed raw sugar is then sent to a pre-melter and a melter where it is
mixed with high-purity sweetwaters. Two calrification methods are
commonly used: pressure filtration and chemical treatment. The chemical
tretment involves two methods: phosphation and carbonation and both
processes require the addition of lime. The sugar solution is clarified by the
addition of       phosphoric acid, lime (to increase solubility) and
ployacrylamide flocculent which combine to precipitate calcium
phosphate The calcium phosphate particles entrap some impurities and
adsorb others, and then float to the top of the tank where they can be
skimmed off. An alternative to this phosphatation technique is
carbonation, which is similar, but uses carbondioxide and calcium
hydroxide to produce a calcium carbonate precipitate. The source of the
CO2 is boiler flue gas which contains about 12 percent CO2 by volume

After any remaining solids are filtered out, the clarified syrup is decolorized
using two common absorbers- granular activated carbon and bone char
(this was traditionally used in this role, but its use is no longer common).
Decloerization removes soluble impurities by absorption. Some remaining
color-forming impurities adsorb to the carbon bed. The purified syrup is
then concentrated to supersaturation and repeatedly crystallized under
vacuum, to produce white refined sugar. As in a sugar mill, the sugar
crystals are separated from the molasses by centrifugation. Additional
sugar is recovered by blending the remaining syrup with the washings
from affination and again crystallizing to produce broen sugar. When no
more sugar can be economically recovered, the final molasses still
contains 20-30% sucrose, as well as 15-25% glucose and fructose.

To produce refined granulated sugar in which the individual sugar grains

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   do not clump together, sugar must be dried. The most sommon sugar
   dryer is the granulator, which consists of two drums in series. One drum
   dries tye sugar and the other cools the dried sugar crystals. This is then
   followed by conditioning where cool air is blown through the sugar for
   several days.

   In addition to granulated sugar, other common refined suagr products
   include confectioners (powered sugar), brown sugar, liquid sugar and
   edible molasses.

   10.3 Environmental Issues related to the Refining of Sugar
   The sugar industry is considered a large water consumer and polluter.
   However, the situation varies from country to country as shown in the
   Table 10.2.

   Table 10.2: Effluent Characteristics Of Various Cane Sugar and Refining
   Waste Streams In Different Countries
Parameter      Puerto Rico   Hawaii      Philippines Louisiana   India      Pakistan*
pH             5.3-8.8       -           5.3-7.9     -           6.8-8.4    4.7-6.5
BOD5(mg/l)     112-225       115-699     130-1220 81-562         267-660    600-4853
COD(mg/l)      385-978       942-2340    50-1880     720-1430    890-2236   1037-19234
SS (mg/l)      100-700       915-3590    240-5440 150-8120       504-936    -
TSS (mg/l)     500-1400      3040-4500   -           409         792-2043   185-526
Temperature    31-49         -           34-48       -           -          -
(C)
   Sources: UNIDO, 1997; ETPI, 1998


   One of the main environmental problems associated with sugar
   processing is the management of effluent. The environmental concerns
   associated with sugar production include water and air pollution and the
   disposal of solid wastes. All stages in sugar processing and refining
   produce wastes that are collectively rich in organic content, high in
   suspended solids and may also be coloured. The release of untreated
   wastewaters to surface waters will cause extensive enrichment, stripping
   oxygen from the water and killing aquatic life. The main sources of water
   pollution are from sugar manufacturing process is summarized in Table 10.
   3 below.




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Table 10. 3: Sources of By-Products and Waste Generation
Main Input       Process Step         Wastes/By-Product
Sugar cane       Mill House            Wastewater from bearing house of the mills,
                                         contains SS and oil contents. Also includes
                                         washing water used for floor cleaning, which
                                         contains sugar contents.
                                       Bagasse (Solid waste)
Sugar Juice      Process House         Filter Cake (Solid waste)
                                       Washing of different components such as,
                                         Evaporator, Juice heater, Vacuum pan,
                                         classifiers, etc, generate aggresive effluents
                                         having high BOD5, COD and TDS
                                         concentrations.
Bagasse,         Boiler House          Fly ash
Furnace oil                            Smoke
                                       Flue gasses
                                       Wastewater of wet scrubbers
Water and        Cooling Pond           Wastewater
Chemicals
Molasses         Distillery               Wastewater (Stillage)
Source:ETPI, 1998

Waste disposal
Typical wastes from sugar processing include: stones from reception and
cleaning, waste raw materials, beet and cane remnants (bagasse),
empty containers, waste oils, solid wastes (drums, cartoons, packaging,
domestic), sugar dust and waste tops. Typical wastes from refining of
sugar cane are more restricted to lime based filter cake, sugar dust and
chemical and physical impurities in the sugar. The bulk of the solid waste
can be re-used as fertilizer, animal feed or for biogas production.

Explosion/fire hazard
Fine dusts emitted during the production process can ignite resulting in explosions or
fires.


Emissions to air
Air emissions may be categorized as:


Point source emissions - these are emissions exhausted into a vent or stack
and emitted through a single point source into the atmosphere.. Some of
the common air emissions from sugar manufacturing include particulate
matter, combustion products (ethanol, oxides of nitrogen, carbon
monoxide, carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide) and volatile organic

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compounds. Potential sources of particulate matter emissions include
granular carbon and char generation kilns, sugar granulators, granulated
sugar transport systems and sugar packaging operations. Potential
emission sources for combustion products include among others the sugar
granulators, sugar conveying and packaging equipment, bulk loadout
operations, boilers, lime kilns. Potential sources of volatile organic
compounds include multi-effect evaporators and vacuum boiling pans.

 Fugitive emissions - these are emissions that are not released through a
vent or stack. These include dust from stockpiles, volatisation of vapour
from tanks, open vessels, or spills and materials handling.

Emissions to water
Emissions of substances to water can be categorized as discharges to:
   Surface waters
   Coastal or marine waters; and,
   Stormwater

10.4 Environmental Management Measures to be considered in
the setting up of a sugar refining or processing plant

The main environmental management issues pertaining to the sugar
refining relate to pollution prevention and control. The management
measures provided below are based on Pollution Prevention and
Abatement Handbook of the World Bank.

The main air emissions from sugar refining result primarily from the
combustion of fuel oil or coal. Other air emission sources include juice
fermentation units, evaporators, and sulfitation units.

Pollution Prevention and Control
Good pollution prevention practices in sugar manufacturing focus on the
following main areas:
• Reduce product losses to less than 10% by better production control.
This can be enhanced by undertaking regular sugar processing audits.
• Discourage spraying of molasses on the ground for disposal.
• Minimize storage time for juice and other intermediate
products to reduce product losses and discharge of product into the
wastewater stream.
• Give preference to less polluting clarification processes such as those
using bentonite instead of sulfite for the manufacture of white sugar.

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• Collect waste product for use in other industries -for example, bagasse
for use in paper mills and as fuel. Cogeneration systems for large sugar
mills generate electricity for sale. Beet chips can be used as animal feed.
• Optimize the use of water and cleaning chemicals. Procure cane
washed in the field. Prefer the use of dry cleaning methods.
• Recirculate cooling waters.
 Segregate waste to enable dry handling of fly ash
 Recycle bagasse for use in absorbing grease and oil spills;

Continuous sampling and measurement of key production parameters
allow production losses to be identified and reduced, thus reducing the
waste load. Fermentation processes and juice handling are the main
sources of leakage. Odor problems can usually be prevented with good
hygiene and storage practices.

Target Pollution Loads
Since the pollutants generated by the industry are largely losses in
production, improvements in production efficiency are recommended to
reduce pollutant loads. Approximately 90% of the saccharose should be
accounted for, and 85% of the sucrose can be recovered. Recirculation
of water should be maximized. Wastewater loads can be reduced to at
least 1.3 m3/t of cane processed, and plant operators should aim at rates
of 0.9 m3/t or less through recirculation of wastewater. Wastewater loads
from beet processing should be less than 4m 3/t of sugar produced or 0.75
m3/t of beet processed, with a target of 0.3 to 0.6 m 3/t of beet processed.

Treatment Technologies
Pretreatment of effluents consists of screening and aeration, normally
followed by biological treatment. If space is available, land treatment or
pond systems are potential treatment methods.

Other possible biological treatment systems include activated sludge and
anaerobic systems which can achieve a reduction in the BOD level of
over 95%. Odor control by ventilation and sanitation may be required for
fermentation and juice-processing areas. Biofilters may be used for
controlling odor. Cyclones, scrubbers, and electrostatic precipitators are
used for dust control.


Emissions Guidelines
Emissions levels for the design and operation of each project must be
established through the environmental assessment (EA) process on the
basis of country legislation and the Pollution Prevention and Abatement

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Handbook, as applied to local conditions. The emissions levels selected
must be justified in the EA.

The emissions levels given here can be consistently achieved by well-
designed, well-operated, and well-maintained pollution control systems.
The guidelines are expressed as concentrations to facilitate monitoring.

Air emissions
Particulate matter and sulfur oxide emissions should be less than 100
milligrams per normal cubic meter (mg/Nm3). In some cases, emissions of
particulate matter may be up to 150 mg/Nm 3 for small mills with less than
8.7 megawatts (MW) heat input to the boiler, and emissions of sulfur oxides
may be up to 2,000 mg/Nm3. Nitrogen oxide emissions should be less than
260 nanograms per joule (ng/J), or 750mg/Nm 3, for solid fuels and 130
ng/J (460 mg/Nm3) for liquid fuels.

Odor controls should be implemented where necessary to achieve
acceptable odor quality for nearby residents.

Liquid Effluents
The effluent levels presented in Table 10.4 should be achieved. Biocides
should not be present above detection levels or should be less than 0.05
mg/l. in addition clarified water should be recycled from ash settling pond
and condensation tank overflow for cleaning purposes.

Table 10. 4: Effluents from Sugar Manufacturing (milligrams per liter, except
for Ph and temperature)
Parameter                                             Maximum Value
pH                                                    6-9
BOD                                                   50
COD                                                   250
TSS                                                   50
Oil and grease                                        10
Total nitrogen (nh4-N)                                10
Total phosphorus                                      2
Temperature increase                                  ≤3o Ca
Effluent requirements are for direct discharge to surface waters
a. the effluent should result in a temperature increase of no more than 3 o C at the edge of the zone where
initial mixing and dilution take place. Where the zone is not defined, use 100 meters from the point of
discharge.
Source:World Bank, 1998




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Ambient Noise
Noise abatement measures should achieve either the levels given below
or a maximum increase in background levels of 3 decibels (measured on
the A scale) [dB(A)]. Measurements are to be taken at noise receptors
located outside the project property boundary.

Monitoring and Reporting
Monitoring of air emissions should be on an annual basis, with continuous
monitoring of the fuel used. Only fuels with acceptable levels of ash and
sulfur should be used. Monitoring of the final effluent for the parameters
listed in this document should be carried out at least daily, or more
frequently if the flows vary significantly. Effluents should be sampled
annually to ensure that biocides are not present at significant levels.

Monitoring data should be analyzed and reviewed at regular intervals
and compared with the operating standards so that any necessary
corrective actions can be taken. Records of monitoring results should be
kept in an acceptable format. The results should be reported to the
responsible authorities and relevant parties, as required.

Other key issues to be considered in the production and control practices
for ensuring compliance with emission guidelines include:

   Installing air emission control equipment to reduce the concentration
    of particulates before stack emission

   Give preference to less polluting clarification processes such as those
    using bentonite instead of sulfite for the manufacture of white sugar.

   Collect waste product for use in other industries -for example, bagasse
    for use in paper mills and as fuel. Cogeneration systems for large sugar
    mills generate electricity for sale.

   Recirculate cooling waters. Continuous sampling and measurement of
    key production parameters allow production losses to be identified
    and reduced, thus reducing the waste load. Fermentation processes
    and juice handling are the main sources of leakage. Odor problems
    can usually be prevented with good hygiene and storage practices.

   Optimize the use of water and cleaning chemicals

   Housekeeping measures such as monitoring oil spills, repair of leaking
    pumps,

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   Removing debris from canals from be undertaken periodically

   Install ultrasonic flowmeter to enable the monitoring of sudden surges
    in the volume of wastewater generated in order to immediately
    identify the cause of the rise in volume, and implement remedial
    measures.




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Section 11: Manufacture Of Animal Feed

11.1 Background
There are currently only two manufacturing companies involved in
production of animal feed in Botswana- Tholo Holdings

The designs of feed production plants and their individual process
operations are complex, requiring the appropriate engineering know-
how. The following process operations are needed to transform grain into
balanced animal feeds.

Cleaning: Before grinding and pelleting, the impurities contained in the
raw materials such as pebbles, earth lumps, metal parts, etc. must be
carefully removed.

Proportioning / weighing Volumetric and gravimetric proportioning
equipment feeds the materials to the batch scale to ensure high-precision
blending of the specified feed formula ingredients.

Conveying: Equipment for horizontal and vertical conveying of medium-
to fine-grained and mealy bulk materials

Grinding: The material is prepared by hammer mills and roller mills for
further processing.

Mixing: The materials weighed and ground exactly according to the feed
formulation are mixed homogeneously

Hygienizing / compacting The mixed material is hygienized by the
addition of steam and thereby conditioned for the compacting process.
The compacting process transforms the feed into feed pellets.

Thermal meal: Feeds that are to be fed to animals in the form of meals are
subjected to a thermal treatment.

Bagging / palleting The finished products are prepared for shipment to
consumers.

Aspiration: Airjet dust collection filters, small dust collection filters,
cyclones, and fans for ventilation and dedusting of feed production
plants.

Quality assurance: Samplers, sieving machines, magnetic separators, and
other equipment for assuring high formulated feed quality

Control & automation: Process visualization and control systems for feed

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production plants.


11.2 Current Practice in Botswana
Tholo Holdings

Situated in Gabane to the right of the Gaborone-Kanye road, Tholo
Holdings produces on average 400 tons of animal feed. The processing
plant site, which is about 600m2, has been in operation for 4years. They
specialize in the production of cattle feed. The main processing activities
at the plant involves the grinding and mixing of products, a process called
compounding, including maize bran, wheat bran, sorghum bran, slat,
molasses, liquat, DCP 18, Urea, Molasse powder, Lucern, Wheat straw and
feed lime.

The raw materials used in processing the feed are obtained from Bolux
Miling in Ramotswa and NWK in Zeerust in South Africa.

On a daily basis, the plant uses 1000 litres of water obtained form a
borehole on site for its production processes including house cleaning. The
main source of energy for the operation of the plant is electricity and they
do not experience any odour problems in the production process.


11.3 Environmental Management Issues
Site selection

      Land used for the production animal feed and feed ingredients
       should not be located in close proximity to industrial operations
       where industrial pollutants from air, ground water or runoff from
       adjacent land would be expected to result in the production of
       foods of animal origin that may present a food safety risk

Premises

      Buildings and equipment used to process feed and feed ingredients
       should be constructed in a manner that permits ease of operation,
       maintenance and cleaning and minimizes feed contamination.
       Process flow within the manufacturing facility should also be
       designed to minimize feed contamination. Building facility and
       equipment should adhere to the applicable statutory requirements

      Water used in feed manufacture should meet hygienic standards
       and be of suitable quality for animals. Tanks, pipes and other
       equipment used to store and convey water should be of

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       appropriate materials which do not produce unsafe levels of
       contamination

      Sewage, waste and rain water should be disposed of in a manner
       which avoids contamination of equipment, feed and feed
       ingredients

Receiving, storage and transportation

      Processed feed and feed ingredients should be stored separately
       from unprocessed feed ingredients and appropriate packaging
       materials should be used. Feed and feed ingredients should be
       received, stored and transported in such a way so as to minimize
       the potential for any cross contamination to occur at a level likely
       to have a negative impact on food safety

      Care should be taken to minimize deterioration and spoilage at all
       stages of handling, storage and transport of feed and feed
       ingredients. Special precautions should be taken to limit fungal and
       bacterial growth in moist and semi moist feed. Dry feed and feed
       ingredients should be kept dry in order to limit fungal and bacterial
       growth

Sanitation and pest control

      Feed and feed ingredients, processing plants, storage facilities and
       their immediate surroundings should be kept clean and effective
       pest control programmes should be implemented

      Containers and equipment used for manufacturing, processing,
       transporting, storing, conveying, handling and weighing should be
       kept clean. Cleaning programmes should be effective and
       minimise residues of detergents and disinfectants

      Machinery coming into contact with dry feed or feed ingredients
       should be dried following any wet cleaning process

      Special precaution should be taken when cleaning machinery used
       for moist and semi-moist feed and feed ingredients to avoid fungal
       and bacterial growth.




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Section 12: Sample Terms of                          Reference:    Food
Processing/Manufacturing Industry
Task 1
General Information
      o   Project Name
      o   Project Proponent (Department or Organization)
      o   Address
      o   Telephone
      o   Fax
      o   E-mail
      o   Representatives of the Proponent
      o   Designation
      o   Name of the person who conducted this assessment
      o   Designation
      o   Qualification


Task 2
Project Information/Characteristics of the Project
      o Project location
      o   Cost of the project
      o   Area of the proposed land for the processing plant
      o   Name of product (s)
      o   Plan of the proposed project site detailing the location of key
          structures, access, utilities etc
      o   Description of main processes including size, capacity,
          throughput, input, output
      o   Resources used in the operations of the plant (raw material,
          water and energy source, etc)
      o   Expected water requirement for the project
      o   Proposed source of water
      o   Wastewater disposal outlet (s)
      o   Planned treatment system for the wastewater, if any
      o   Nature of the solid waste expected during operation of the plant
      o   Processing details of all operations to be undertaken by the
          plant
      o   Labeling and packaging of the intended product including the
          shelf life of the product
      o   Description of in-plant quality control programme, which would
          ensure quality and safety of the product

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Task 3
Location of the project
       o Maps and photographs detailing the location of the project
         relative to surrounding physical, natural and man-made features
       o Existing land uses on and adjacent to the site and any future
         planned land uses
       o Zoning or land use policies
       o Protected areas or features
       o Sensitive areas
       o Details of alternative locations, which have been considered

Task 4
Characteristics of Potential Impact
Provide a brief description of the likely impacts of the proposed project
considering the following factors:
      o Impacts on people, human health, fauna and flora, soils, land
         use, material assets, water quality, noise and vibration, historic
         and cultural heritage, hydrology, air quality etc
      o Nature of the impact
      o Extent of the impact
      o Magnitude and complexity of the impact
      o Probability of the impact
      o Duration, frequency and reversibility of the impact
      o Mitigation measures for impact
      o Transfrontier nature of the impact

Task 5
Legislative and Regulatory Provisions
See Section 1.3, and TOR in the General Guidelines (Folio Number 1).


Task 6
Public consultation
See Section 1.3, and TOR in the General Guidelines (Folio Number 1).


Task 7
The description and analysis of potential impacts from food
processing/manufacturing projects should include but not limited to the
following:



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a)   Economic impacts resulting from the opening of the production plant.
b)   Multiplier effects (if any) especially related to commercial fishing
     activities
c)   Effects of project on existing infrastructure
d)   Impacts related to the discharge of wastewater on the receiving
     environment.
e)   Solid and hazard wastes impacts.
f)   Land contamination impacts.
g)   Air pollution effluents and their potential impacts.
h)   Occupational health and safety impacts especially impacts related to
     exposure to hazardous substances and wastes.

Task 8
Analysis of Alternatives to the Proposed Project
See Section 1.3, and TOR in the General Guidelines (Folio Number 1).

Task 9
Presentation of Mitigation Measures
See Section 1.3, and TOR in the General Guidelines (Folio Number 1).

Task 10
Development of an Environmental Management Plan
See Section 1.3, and TOR in the General Guidelines (Folio Number 1).


Task 11
Archaeological Impact Assessment
See Section 1.3, and TOR in the General Guidelines (Folio Number 1).


Report
See Section 1.3, and TOR in the General Guidelines (Folio Number 1).


Consulting Team
Members of the Consulting should include people with the following
specializations
   EIA specialist
   Occupational Health Specialist
   Public Health Specialist
   Environmental Health Officer
   Environmental Management Specialist
   Chemist
   Economist or Socio-Economist
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Schedule
See Section 1.3, and TOR in the General Guidelines (Folio Number 1).


Sources of Information

Sources of Information include:
    National Development Plans.
    District Development Plans
    Central Statistical Office.
    Department of Waste Management and Pollution Prevention.
    Ministry of Agriculture
    Department of Industrial Affairs
    The Department of Trade and consumer Affairs
    Department of Water Affairs.
    Department of Wildlife and National Parks.
    Department of Water Affairs.
    Water Utilities Corporation




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    Sample Checklist for the Food Processing/Manufacturing Industry
Aspects of the EIA Checklist questions        Yes/No?        Is this likely to
                                              Briefly        result in a
                                              describe       significant
                                                             effect?
                                                             Yes/No? Why?
Site location        Will the construction,
                     operation or
                     decommissioning of
                     the project involve
                     actions which will
                     cause physical
                     changes in the locality
                     (topography, land use,
                     changes in water
                     bodies
                     Will the project be
                     located to or within
                     populated area
                     Will the project induce
                     unplanned
                     development through
                     the construction of
                     access or feeder roads
                     Are there any areas on
                     or around the location,
                     which are protected
                     under international or
                     national or local
                     legislation for their
                     ecological, landscape,
                     cultural or other value,
                     which could be
                     affected by the
                     project?




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                 Are there any areas on
                 or around the location
                 which are occupied by
                 sensitive land uses e.g.
                 hospitals, schools,
                 places if worship,
                 community facilities,
                 which could be
                 affected by the
                 project?
                 Are there any areas on
                 or around the location,
                 which are important or
                 sensitive for reasons of
                 their ecology, e.g.
                 wetlands,
                 watercourses, or other
                 water bodies or forests,
                 which could be
                 affected by the
                 project?
                 Are there any transport
                 routes on or around the
                 location, which are
                 used by the public for
                 access to other
                 facilities, which could
                 be affected by the
                 project?
                 Are there any transport
                 routes on or around the
                 location, which are
                 susceptible to
                 congestion or cause
                 environmental
                 problems, which could
                 be affected by the
                 project?




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                   Are there any areas or
                   features of historic or
                   cultural importance on
                   or around the location,
                   which could be
                   affected by the
                   project?
                   Is the project in a
                   location where it is
                   likely to be highly visible
                   to many people?
                   Are there existing land
                   uses on or around the
                   location which could
                   be affected by the
                   project
                   Are there any plans for
                   future land uses on or
                   around the location,
                   which could be
                   affected by the
                   project?
Health, hygiene    Will the project involve
and safety         use, storage, transport,
                   handling or production
                   of substances or
                   materials, which could
                   be harmful to human
                   health or the
                   environment or raise
                   concerns about actual
                   or perceived risks to
                   human health?
                   Will the project cause
                   public health risks due
                   to contamination of
                   the product during
                   primary production or
                   inadequate storage
                   facilities




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                 Will the project cause
                 public health risks from
                 discharge of wastes,
                 noise and foul odour
                 Will the project result in
                 disease transmission
                 due to lack of hygienic
                 standards?
Land             Will the project present
Contamination    a risk of contamination
                 of land due to
                 improper disposal of
                 wastes?
Water            Will the project be
contamination    located near or next to
                 water bodies?
                 Will the project lead to
                 risks of contamination
                 of water form releases
                 of pollutants onto the
                 ground or into surface
                 or ground water?
Noise            Will the project lead to
                 a significant increase in
                 traffic congestion and
                 noise that would
                 adversely affect local
                 inhabitants
Comments or Summary of features of project and of its location indicating
the need for EIA




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Section 13: Thresholds and Criteria for the Food Industry
List A: Mandatory List
1. All new projects in which any of the manufacturing activities noted in
section 1 is to be undertaken.

2. Where these activities fall in the following category, they should be
subjected to a full environmental impact assessment.
      • Activities leading to encroachments on wetlands or other
      vulnerable areas
      • Activities changing natural vegetation and/or the habitats of
      wildlife species, or in areas inhabited by endangered species
      • Activities in legally declared protected areas
      • Ecologically fragile areas
      • Ecotourism activities
      • Areas of unique conservation, historical, cultural, archaeological
      or aesthetic interest
      • Areas of particular social significance (habitats for indigenous
      populations)
      • Areas where pre-established pollution limits have been exceeded
      or where activities would lead to air, water, soil, radioactive or noise
      pollution



List B: DEA Discretionary List
   Any change to or expansion/extension of existing food
   manufacturing/processing activities and infrastructure for which
   development is already authorised and where such change or
   extension is likely to have significant adverse impacts on the
   environment. The significance of any effect should be considered with
   respect to the existing development.




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