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Presentation Skills and Techniques

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					Presentation Skills



           Jim Tysinger, PhD
           Department of Family
              and Community
                 Medicine
          The UT Health Science
           Center at San Antonio
Objective

• Plan and present educational
 sessions using the principles
 discussed in the workshop.
    Key Elements of a Presentation

   Communication - information exchanged
    between two people



   Communication for Teachers and Learners:
       Goal: Achieve desired learning outcomes, not
        impress
       Shared Feedback: Is everyone “with it”?
    Thoughts about Presentations

   Many methods facilitate learning
   You should expertly use many methods
   Involve learners
   Approach teaching as scholarly work
   Obtain feedback to improve and
    document your teaching expertise
    Lectures--Uses

   Present info to groups
   Inspire, motivate, and
    stimulate thinking
   Explain difficult
    concepts
   Review/integrate
    knowledge
    Lectures--Misuses

   Transmit too many
    facts
   Teach skills or change
    attitudes
   Present pet interests to
    impress the audience
    Prepare for Your Presentation

Plan your session to address
the audience’s needs
(Bransford, et al, 2000)
   Expert –vs– novice levels
   Learning styles and preferences
   Background
   Degree of fatigue

                                 (Chap 3,
Prepare for Your Presentation

               Know and limit the
                topic
                 Research the topic
                 Focus on what

                  learners need to know
Organize Your Presentation

         Define goals/objectives
           Specify what learners must

            know
           Stress 3-4 major points/hour

             Hint: Reduce content!!!
    Organize Your Presentation

   Limit “teacher-talk” to
    15-20 minute blocks
    with meaningful
    learning activities
    between blocks
   Assess learning as
    you go
   Summarize your talk
 Organize Your Presentation

3 parts of a talk
  Opening/
   Introduction
  Body
        Spend most time
         here
    Conclusion
Opening/Introduction

   Get audience’s attention
     Emphasize importance of the topic
     Other techniques?

   State the talk’s intent/goal
   Set ground rules
     Audience participation
     Questions
Body

   Specify 3-4 main points
       Focus on what you want them to know
   Organize those main points to give
    the learners a mental framework
     Known to the unknown
     General to specific

     Other ways?
    Conclusion

   Briefly summarize main points
   Describe what will happen next
     What audience will do
     End the talk
    Prepare Materials

   Handouts
       Semi-filled outline works well (include contact info)
       Use paper of different colors to save time
       Visuals: Match visuals with handout
   Flip-charts
   Cases, simulations, videos
Prepare Materials

   Audiovisuals
     Schedule the equipment you need
     Practice with equipment

     Have a back-up plan for emergencies

     Prepare/review audiovisuals in

      advance
Prepare Audiovisuals

• Use PowerPoint (PP) when lecturing (1)
   Lectures with PP increased student
   performance on exams as compared to
   lectures with OH transparencies (Lowry, 1999)
     Limits distraction of changing transparencies
     Allows for animations
     Improves the quality of the presentation
 Prepare Audiovisuals

• Use PowerPoint (PP) when lecturing (2)
   Using PowerPoint in lectures makes the
   presenter appear more organized and makes
   it easier for learners to take notes (Frey &
   Birnbaum, 2002)
    Prepare Audiovisuals

   Use PowerPoint, but…
      Avoid too many slides
      Don’t distract with too many features
 Prepare Audiovisuals

• Integrate learning strategy instruction
  within a lecture
   Showing  learners how to organize and think
    about content aids learning (Svinicki, 1991)
     Learning strategies: Ways people use to
      learn concepts
     Here’s one such strategy...
 Prepare Audiovisuals

• Organizational Strategy: Arranging content
 to enhance retention, critical thinking, and
 application
   Consider a lecture on “Acute Abdominal Pain”
   Prepare a matrix that helps learners compare
    the causes
Prepare Audiovisuals

• Use graphics (diagrams, graphs, charts)
 to aid learning
   Graphics   contribute to learning (Vekiri,
    2002)
      Explain graphics verbally
      Make target information salient
  Prepare Audiovisuals
Percentage of Adults Who Reported Eating Fewer Than 5
 Servings of Fruits and Vegetables a Day, by Sex, 2002




Source: CDC, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System.
  Prepare Audiovisuals

• Use pictures to
 enhance learning
   But  remember pictures
    or drawings are open
    to interpretation (Vekiri,
    2002)                         Seborrheic Dermatitis
                                 involving the chest and
                                         armpits
Prepare Audiovisuals

   Visuals: Make text readable
     Use large type (24 pt or higher)
     Employ sans serif typefaces

     Use capitals and lower case

     Insure text/background contrast

     Limit words to 9 per line; lines to 8 or 9

   Avoid poor visuals
       What’s wrong with these?
BIOCHEM REVIEW FOR FPs

              THE KREB’S CYCLE
               –   Required for life
               –   Memorize the entire
                   cycle
               –   Wjat I really want you
                   to know!
Preparation and
Organization

            Know and limit your topic
                Read and research
                Identify what learners need to know
                ReseaRch topics you don’t know and
                 understand
                Include all the information you know
                Dazzle the learners with your
                 expertise
                Put in lots of statistics
                Throw in a few citations for credibility
                State some irrelevant research
                 findings
                Run a bew “zebRas” by the leaRneRs just
                 for fun!
                you can’t Read this, but….
Rehearse!

   Use an audience, if possible
   Pace yourself to fit content into time
   Practice with equipment
   Get accustomed to the room
Presentation Skills Seminar

Presenting your Lecture
Key Points

   Considerations for the lecturer
   Verbal and non-verbal skills
   Preparing/using audiovisuals
   Presentation pitfalls and how to
    deal with them
    Considerations

   Be yourself
   Dress appropriately
   Get audience support
   Respect the audience
   Obtain feedback for
    educator’s portfolio
       Learners, peers,
        supervisors, outcomes
Non-Verbal Techniques

   Smile to relax you & the audience
   Show enthusiasm
   Look at audience when speaking
   Move with a purpose
   Gesture naturally
   Treat audience with respect
Verbal Techniques

              Monitor volume: Avoid
               loudness
              Vary pace (watch
               audience)
              Repeat questions
              Avoid verbalized pauses
  Verbal Techniques

• Use spoken cues to identify important points
   Spoken   cues aid note-taking and increase test
    scores (Titsworth & Kiewra, 2004)
      State a brief overview at the beginning of a
       lecture (e.g., “Today’s lecture is about…”)
      Use spoken cues (e.g., “First, we will discuss
       the diagnosis of hypertension.”)
    Verbal Techniques

• Pause 5 seconds after asking a question
     Waiting  5 seconds to call on a learner after
      asking a question increases the quantity and
      quality of words in the response (Rowe, 1987)
        “Wait time” lets learners process the question,
         retrieve relevant information from memory,
         and frame a response
•   Repeat questions
  Verbal Techniques

• Speak at a slower rate when lecturing
   Speaking  slowly (i.e., 100 wpm) produces better
    comprehension than a moderate (150 wpm) or
    fast (200 wpm) rate (Robinson, et. al., 1997)
     Slow down when presenting complex material
     Speed up when learners stop writing notes
Presentation Pitfalls

   Lack of practice
   Anxiety
   Unanticipated challenges
   Blocking visuals
   Questions you can’t answer
      Manage “sharpshooters”
    Closure

   Be yourself
   Share experience
   Practice
   Get feedback
   Strengthen 1-2
    areas/presentation

				
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