Project Feasibility Reports of Internet Cafe Project Assessment Final Report ICT Capacity Development Project

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					                   Project Assessment Final Report



ICT Capacity Development Project of the Ministry of Communications of
        The Islamic Transitional Republic of Afghanistan and
            The United Nations Development Programme




                            January 2004



                      DRAFT (14 January)
                                     TABLE OF CONTENTS


EXECUTIVE SUMMARY……………………………………………………………………….                                          1

I.   INTRODUCTION……………………………………………………………………………                                         3

II. PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT………………………………………………………….                                      3

A. National ICT Policy Development…………………………………………………………… 3

1.   Development of ICT policy: Achievements……………………………………………………. 3
2.   Policy component: Strengths and weaknesses………………………………………………….. 5

B. ICT capacity building…………………………………………………………………………. 7

1.   Basic ICT training: Achievements……………………………………………………………… 7
2.   Specialist ICT training: Achievements…………………………………………………………. 8
3.   ―Dot-af‖: Achievements………………………………………………………………………… 9
4.   Technical and office management support to the MoC………………………………………… 9
5.   Capacity building component: Strengths and weaknesses…………………………………… 10

C. Public ICT access……………………………………………………………………………… 13

1.   Telekiosks: Achievements……………………………………………………………………… 13
2.   Telekiosks: Strengths and weaknesses………………………………………………………… 14

III. RECOMMENDATIONS……………………………………………………………………… 17


TABLES
1. Assessment of ICT Capacity Development Project: Policy Component………………………           6
2. Training Centers and Numbers of UNDP/MOC Graduates and Trainees……………………..           7
3. Assessment of ICT Capacity Development Project: Capacity Building Component………….   12
4. Assessment of ICT Capacity Development Project: ICT access component …..……………..    16


BOXES
1. Graduation Ceremony Speech, UNDP/Ministry of Women’s Affairs ICT Training Center… 8
2. Farjam Training Center: Profile of a Private Center with UNDP Support …………………... 9
3. A Snapshot of CNAP…………………………………………………………………………. 10
4. Women’s Participation in the Telekiosks: Introducing ICT Access to Afghan Women…….. 15


ANNEX
1. Interviews for Evaluation of UNDP/MOC ICT Capacity Development Project……………..      23
2. Document References…………………………………………………………………….                                     25




                                                                                            2
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY                                          experienced and for capacity building of public
                                                           administration and the civil service. It is raising public
    The global information revolution took place at a      awareness of and access to modern technology among
time when Afghanistan was isolated and mired in            population groups that are unlikely to be reached
conflict. War and neglect damaged or destroyed all         through the private market in the foreseeable future.
forms of infrastructure, and the Taliban regime            With adequate funding, this momentum could easily
prohibited the use of the Internet. As a result, the       translate into increasing public confidence in the
―digital divide‖—the inability of some societies to        Government and direct benefits to women, men, and
access information and communication technology            youth in areas throughout Afghanistan.
(ICT) relative to others—is nowhere more sharply
evident than in Afghanistan.                                    The following recommendations are offered for
                                                           future UNDP collaboration in the area of ICT for
     Since the establishment of a legitimate Afghan        development in Afghanistan:
Government in late 2001, the Government has strived
to promote the use of ICT for national recovery and             General:
development. To help the Government and people of
Afghanistan to realize the benefits of ICT, the Ministry   1.   Establish mechanisms for the coordination of
of Communications (MoC) and UNDP have                           actors involved in ICT capacity building and
collaborated in an ICT Capacity Development Project             access in Afghanistan.
since July 2002. The Project has three principal
components:                                                2.   Expand communication with donors and potential
                                                                donors.
1.   Support for national ICT policy development
2.   ICT capacity building for civil servants, women,           Support to the Ministry of Communication (soon
     youth, and the general public                              to be renamed the Ministry of Communication
3.   Support for the introduction of ICT access.                and Information Technology):

    Among its main contributions, the Project has          3.   Continue providing policy, technical, and
enabled the Government to achieve the following:                management support to the MoC, particularly in
                                                                the following areas: (a) implementing and
    A comprehensive National ICT Policy was                    updating the National ICT Policy; (b) human
     developed through a process of national                    resource management; (c) resource mobilization;
     consultation.                                              and (d) technical support for the new Government
    Nearly 2,000 civil servants, many of whom are              Intranet system.
     women, have completed or are enrolled in basic
     ICT training in Kabul and six regions.                     ICT Capacity Building:
    238 Afghans are preparing for careers in
     information technology and networking through         4.   To the extent funding allows, continue support for
     the Cisco Networking Academy Program.                      existing basic training centers and open new
    Afghan policy makers and ICT specialists have              centers in the provinces in coordination with other
     participated in ICT-related seminars and                   Government initiatives.
     conferences in Afghanistan and abroad.
    The ―.af‖ country domain is reserved for Afghan       5.   Link the basic training programme with
     e-mail addresses and websites, and the domain is           Afghanistan’s New Beginnings Programme
     under national management.                                 (ANBP) for the disarmament, demobilization, and
    Computer use and Internet access was introduced            reintegration (DDR) of former combatants.
     to the public, particularly school students and
     women, at post offices in Kabul.                      6.   Modify the basic training curriculum to suit
    A computerized standard system for Dari and                specific needs, and explore collaboration with
                                                                institutions that offer broader training.
     Pashtu characters is enabling Afghans to use
     computers in their own languages.
                                                           7.   Improve the mechanisms for, and documentation
                                                                of, the selection of trainees for all training
     Overall this evaluation finds that the Project is
                                                                programmes, including the training of trainers.
operating smoothly, staff morale and camaraderie are
strong, and Project management is enthusiastic and
                                                           8.   Assess the demand for and the feasibility of
responsive. All criteria for success set forth in the
                                                                establishing branches of the Cisco Networking
Project Document and the Terms of Reference for this
                                                                Academy Program (CNAP) in Herat and Mazar-e-
Evaluation have been achieved or partially achieved.
                                                                Sharif.
The Project is a step toward meeting the demand for an
end to the isolation that the Afghan people have


                                                                                                                   1
9.   Provide capacity building support for the
     establishment of a primary name server in Kabul,
     the development of ―.af‖ registration software, and
     the creation of a network of resellers of ―.af‖
     domain names.

10. Explore the possibility of initiating a project
    component to support a sustainable system of
    preparing and issuing national identification cards
    for the general population.

     Introducing ICT Access:

11. To the extent funding allows, expand the
    telekiosks to government facilities throughout
    Afghanistan and expand the range of services they
    offer.

12. Ensure that existing and new telekiosks make
    optimal use of capacity, especially by remaining
    open during hours of high demand.

These recommendations are elaborated in Section III
    of this report.




                                                           2
    I.   INTRODUCTION                                          ―telekiosks‖ at post offices; and six computer
                                                               training/Internet access points that are not
    The global information revolution took place at a          affiliated with MoC/UNDP. Security restrictions
time when Afghanistan was isolated and mired in                and the last-minute cancellation of a flight to
conflict. War and neglect damaged or destroyed all             Herat prevented site visits outside of Kabul.
forms of infrastructure, and the Taliban regime
prohibited the use of the Internet. As a result, the      (b) Interviews with project managers, telekiosk
―digital divide‖—the inability of some societies to           animators and visitors, trainers and trainees in
access information and communication technology               basic and specialist ICT training programmes, and
(ICT) relative to others—is nowhere more sharply              stakeholders in the Government, the international
evident than in Afghanistan.                                  community, and the private sector. (See Annex 1.)

     When used effectively, ICT can serve as a            (c) Review of documents on the Project’s design,
powerful tool for participation in global markets,            implementation, and related topics. (See Annex 2.)
political accountability, improved delivery of basic
services,    and     expanded     local    development        This report provides the findings of the assessment
opportunities. Since the establishment of a legitimate    and recommendations for future directions of UNDP
Afghan Government in late 2001, the Government has        cooperation in the field of ICT capacity development
strived to promote the use of ICT for national recovery   in Afghanistan.
and development. To help the Government and people
of Afghanistan to realize the benefits of ICT, the        II. PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT
Ministry of Communications (MoC) and UNDP have
collaborated in an ICT Capacity Development Project            The Project is clearly relevant to Afghanistan’s
since July 2002. The ICT Capacity Development             national priorities and to UNDP’s mandate. ICT
Project has three principal components:                   development holds the promise of accelerating the
                                                          achievement of national goals for improving
(b) Support for national ICT policy development           governance, social inclusiveness, and income
(c) ICT capacity building for civil servants, women,      generation. The National Development Framework
    youth, and the general public                         states that ―each ministry and district … should be
(d) Support for the introduction of ICT access.           equipped with means of communication to enable
                                                          speedy flow of information between levels of
     The Project’s intended beneficiaries are Afghan      government and to connect Kabul to the provinces.‖
policy makers, civil servants, and members of the         UNDP’s mandate includes helping countries to draw
general public, with a particular focus on women,         on expertise and best practices from around the world
youth, returnees, and private entrepreneurs. The          to develop strategies that expand access to ICT and
European Commission and the Government of France          harness it for development. ―Making ICTD work for
have been the principal donors to the Project. The        the poor‖ is among the service lines that UNDP has
Project office is located within the main MOC building    identified for progress toward the strategic goal of
in Kabul.                                                 ―achieving the Millennium Development Goals and
                                                          reducing human poverty.‖
     The MoC and UNDP called for a Project
Assessment to take place in December 2003 to identify         This section provides an assessment of the
the Project’s strengths and weaknesses and possible       Project’s performance through December 2003. It
future directions. In consultation with the MoC, UNDP     covers achievements first, then strengths and
established a Project Assessment Team consisting of       weaknesses, for each of the project’s three principal
an international Assessment Consultant, Karen Dunn,       components.
and the national UNDP Programme Officer
responsible for the Project, Faqir Kohistani. UNDP-       A. National ICT policy development
Afghanistan’s Programme for Democratic Governance
and State-building facilitated and guided the                  The policy development component of the Project
evaluation. During a two-week mission to Afghanistan      aims to help Afghan policy makers build the capacity
in December 2003, the Project Assessment Team             to design policy that enables the country to underpin its
conducted the following:                                  reconstruction process with speedy, cost-effective, and
                                                          accessible ICTs.
(a) Site visits to the MoC Advisory Board, the Project
    Office,      Project-supported   ICT      training    1.   Development of ICT Policy: Achievements
    programmes at the basic and specialist levels
    (Ministry of Women’s Affairs, Kabul University,           An MoC Advisory Board is in place, consisting of
    Telecommunication Training Center, and a private      four Afghans seconded from UNDP to the MoC and
    training      center),   five   Project-supported     one BearingPoint consultant. The four Project-



                                                                                                                 3
supported Advisory Board members include an ICT            associations), and international organizations. A final
policy expert, a capacity building expert, an IT           meeting of representatives from key ministries
specialist, and an administrative assistant who is         reviewed the policies for consistency with other
expected to become the MoC Project Coordinator for         policies and laws. The Cabinet of Ministers approved
the Government’s UNAMA-funded ―Afghanistan:                the Telecom and ICT Policy Documents, which
Rebuild, Reconnect, Reunite‖ project.                      include an ICT Action Plan and Strategy, in October
                                                           2003. The ICT Policy incorporates the three objectives
                                                           set forth at the APDIP seminar.

                                                                The Action Plan includes objectives in the
                                                           following main areas, many of which relate directly to
                                                           ongoing UNDP/MoC Project components:

                                                           1.   ICTs and government services: ICTs will be used
                                                                to provide government services in the areas of
                                                                health care, agriculture, and administrative and
                                                                social services.

                                                           2.   Infrastructure and convergence: Systems that
                                                                accommodate       convergence      of     various
                                                                technologies and networks will be promoted. Fifty
                                                                percent of Afghanistan’s post offices will be
                                                                equipped with Internet terminals and enhanced
                                                                communication capabilities by the end of 1382 (20
                                                                March 2004) and academic and technical research
                                                                and development will be undertaken in Afghan
                                                                universities.

                                                           3.   Recognition of ICTs as a priority sector: Policies
     In October 2002 an ICT Policy Development and              and legislation will be developed to attract foreign
Implementation Seminar in Malaysia, sponsored by                investment and private participation in the ICT
UNDP through its Asia Pacific Development                       sector, and a National ICT Council of Afghanistan
Information Programme (APDIP), set in motion                    (NICTCA) will be established to provide ICT
Afghanistan’s development of policy for information             advisory services to the Government as a whole.
technology.     (The     development      of    national        NICTCA will formulate a National ICT Agenda
telecommunications policy, addressing physical                  for the sector and conduct regular ―e-readiness
communications infrastructure, was already underway             assessments‖ and reviews of the ICT Policy.
with      support       from      the      International
Telecommunication Union.) The Minister of                  4.   ICT investment: A Technology Park will be
Communication and senior officials representing                 established in Kabul with ―virtual technology
eleven government bodies participated in the APDIP              parks‖ in the regions. The Technology Park will
seminar. They agreed upon three objectives for ICT              host ICT operators and companies engaged in the
policy: (a) universal access to ICT networks at                 sector, providing facilities, access to management
reasonable cost; (b) universal access to information            and operational expertise, and a conduit for
and knowledge-based resources; and (c) expanded                 venture capital funds.
government use of ICT. They also agreed on a process
for formulating policy to achieve these objectives.        5.   ICTs and government efficiency: A National Data
                                                                and IT Center (NDITC) will serve as both a data
    During the following year, the MoC led the policy           warehouse and a common IT team for government
development process. The policy expert on the MoC               networking, enabling the ministries’ IT teams to
Advisory Board and an international UNDP consultant             operate in a coordinated fashion and to benefit
prepared a first draft, circulated the draft among              from each other’s experiences. The NDITC will
ministries, and arranged a three-day roundtable in              provide the Government with networking and
Kabul in the summer of 2003. Representatives of most            Internet access, electronic data processing, file
ministries, embassies, and donor agencies participated          storage, Intranet hosting, website hosting,
in the roundtable. The Advisory Board then                      common government e-mail, and data/network
incorporated comments from the roundtable, ensured              security.
the complementarity of the draft telecommunication
and ICT policy documents, and circulated the drafts             A civil service ICT training center will also be
among the Government, private entities (including IT            established, possibly using a ―mobile unit‖



                                                                                                                  4
     concept whereby one or more large buses are           success in the Project Document and the Terms of
     equipped as training centers and circulate to train   Reference for this evaluation were either achieved or
     civil servants in Kabul and the provinces.            partially achieved. The Project-supported policy
                                                           formulation process and/or the resulting ICT Policy
6.   ICTs and education: ICT curricula will be             itself were strong in terms of relevance to national
     developed for the secondary and tertiary levels,      priorities and UNDP’s mandate, national involvement,
     teacher training, and training of trainers. Mobile    private sector promotion, employment promotion,
     Internet units (e.g., buses equipped with             extension beyond Kabul, partnership building, and
     computers and Internet access) will visit schools.    relevance to intended beneficiaries. The primary
     Networking academies will be established to           objective of developing a national ICT policy through
     provide national capability to design, build, and     a consultative process was achieved.
     maintain computer networks. Kiosks providing
     public ICT access will be established at public            Project implementers have been predominantly
     locations.                                            but not exclusively male. The ICT Policy addresses the
                                                           need for women’s involvement in government service
7.   ICTs in commerce and trade. These include the         delivery at the family and community level but does
     creation of a secure network for an electronic        not address women’s involvement in ICT in other
     inter-bank payments system, the adoption of e-        areas, such as education and entrepreneurship.
     commerce legislation, the creation of a legal
     framework for the protection of consumers,                 The policy component of the Project is not yet
     customers, and investors with regard to ICTs, the     fully sustainable. Continuing support will be needed
     promotion of localized software development, and      for the MoC’s efforts to keep the Policy updated, to
     the adoption of a national standard for               fully articulate the Action Plan (through development
     computerized character representation applicable      of the National ICT Agenda), to promote the Policy
     to the languages of Afghanistan.                      among stakeholders, and to ensure its implementation.
                                                           The ICT Policy envisions that a National ICT Council
2.   Policy component: Strengths and weaknesses            will be established in early 2004 to oversee most of
                                                           this follow-up.
     Table 1 provides a performance overview for the
policy component of the Project. All criteria for




                                                                                                               5
                                              Table 1. Assessment of ICT Capacity Development Project: Policy component

        Criteria for success           Achieved    Partially     Not                                                          Comments
                                                   achieved    achieved

Relevance to national priorities and                                      The National ICT Policy is a statement of national priorities, and support for its preparation is clearly within
                                          √
UNDP’s mandate                                                            UNDP’s mandate.

Substantial national involvement in                                       The MoC has led all aspects of ICT policy development; the national ICT Policy adopted in October 2003
project design, management, and           √                               emphasizes national ICT capacity building and promotion of the local ICT sector.
implementation

Gender balance among project                                              One of the four UNDP-supported MOC Advisory Board members is female; the policy makers who have
beneficiaries and implementers                                            attended the APDIP seminar and/or other international conferences were predominantly but not exclusively male;
                                                      √
                                                                          the ICT Policy mentions ensuring women’s ICT access only in the section on government services; future
                                                                          revisions could address the role of women in ICT entrepreneurship, ICT education, etc.

Private sector involvement and/or                                         The ICT Policy sets forth strategies for promoting the ICT sector and the use of ICTs for private sector
                                          √
expansion                                                                 development generally.

Employment and income generation                                          The ICT Policy sets forth strategies for promoting employment generally through the use of ICTs and specifically
                                          √
                                                                          within the ICT sector.

Benefits in areas outside of Kabul                                        The ICT Policy addresses the extension of ICT benefits beyond Kabul in many ways, including distance learning,
                                          √                               post office Internet terminals, virtual ICT technology parks in the regions, mobile training of public servants, and
                                                                          the development of an agriculture information system.

Establishment of effective                                                The policy formulation process involved a wide spectrum of actors from the government, private sector, and
partnerships                              √                               donors/international organizations; the ICT Policy promotes the involvement of a spectrum of government
                                                                          bodies, the private sector, and civil society, including academic institutions.

Sustainability                                                            The ICT Policy envisions that the National ICT Council will formulate a National ICT Agenda and will conduct
                                                      √                   regular ―e-readiness assessments,‖ including reviews of the Policy; the Minister of Communication expressed
                                                                          that the MoC needs continuing support for policy refinement and implementation.

Effectiveness in reaching the                                             A wide spectrum of policy makers was involved in policy formulation; the ICT Policy addresses the needs for
                                          √
intended beneficiaries                                                    ICT capacity building among civil servants, youth, and women.

Criteria specific to the policy
component

ICT Policy developed                      √                               The Council of Ministers adopted the Telecom and ICT Policy Documents in October 2003.

ICT action plan formulated and                                            An Action Plan is included in the ICT Policy and implementation is underway; action plan needs further
                                                      √
implementation initiated                                                  articulation.




                                                                                                                                                                                            6
B. ICT capacity building                                               locations and number of UNDP/MoC trainees and
                                                                       graduates for each training center are given in Table 2.
     The Project has pursued four avenues toward
helping Afghanistan build national ICT capacity: basic                      The training follows a curriculum developed by
training, specialist training, national ownership and                  the Project. The level, pace, and examples used in the
management of the ―.af‖ country code Top Level                         curriculum are tailored to suit Afghanistan, and the
Domain (ccTLD), and technical and office                               curriculum is printed in Dari, Pashtu, and English. It is
management support to the MoC.                                         based on preparation for certificates of the Microsoft
                                                                       Office Specialist and the International Computer
1.   Basic ICT training: Achievements                                  Driving License. The seven modules of the curriculum
                                                                       cover the following topics:
     The Project has established ten basic training
centers in Kabul and six other Afghan cities. It has                                 Introduction to computers
provided equipment and curriculum support to seven                                   Windows XP
private training centers and covered the tuition costs                               Microsoft Word
for their training of selected civil servants. The Project                           Microsoft Excel
also provided computer training at the Ministry of                                   Microsoft PowerPoint
Martyrs and Disabled (on a revenue-generating basis,                                 Introduction to Internet
whereby the Ministry/UNOPS paid the Project a
                                                                                     Paperless office
monthly fee) and for the Ministry of Labor and Social
Affairs (with ILO covering trainer salaries). The



                   Table 2. Training Centers and Numbers of UNDP/MOC Graduates and Trainees
                                              (Male, Female, and Total)

                                                                        TRAINEES
     LOCATION                        CENTER NAME                                              GRADUATES                 TOTAL
                                                                        ENROLLED
                                                                      M     F    T           M     F      T       M       F      T
     KANDAHAR          Sabawoon Computer Academy (Private)             0      0        0    145    21    166      145    21     166
                       Global Computer Training Academy (Private)      0      0        0    177    23    200      177    23     200
                       Kandahar Directorate training center (UNDP)    36      2       38     37    13    50       73     15     88
       KABUL           Pamir Computer Academy (Private)                0      0        0    285    52    337      285    52     337
                       Frough & Farjam Computer Institute (Private)   63     55       118    18    6     24       81     61     142
                       Ministry of Women Affairs (UNDP)               99      2       101    25    87    112      124    89     213
                       Telecommunication Training Center (UNDP)        0      0        0    102    13    115      102    13     115
                       Digitware Institute (NGO)                       0      0        0     25    1     26       25      1     26
                       Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs (UNDP)     0      0        0     75    18    93       75     18     93
                       Ministry of Martyrs and Disabled                0      0        0     17    3     20       17      3     20
       MAZAR           Dell Computer Academy (Private)                 0      0        0    170    46    216      170    46     216
                       Intel Computer Institute (Private)              0      0        0    155    32    187      155    32     187
                       Mazar Directorate training center (UNDP)       20     18       38     36    4     40       56     22     78
     JALALABAD         Directorate of Communications (UNDP)           36      0       36     39    1     40       75      1     76
                       Directorate of Women Affairs (UNDP)             0     36       36     10    40    50       10     76     86
       HERAT           Herat Women’s Council (UNDP)                    0     37       37     0     36    36        0     73     73
                       Directorate of Communications (UNDP)           30      4       34     31    5     36       61      9     70
      KUNDUZ           Directorate of Communications (UNDP)           27      9       36     27    9     36       54     18     72
     KHOST (NEX)       Directorate of Communications (UNDP)           50      0       50     50    0     50       100     0     100
       TOTAL                                 19                       361    163      524   1424   410   1834   1785     573    2358
      Percentage                                                      69     31       100    78    22    100      76     24     100




                                                                                                                                  7
                        Box 1                                    Women’s Council. Enrollment is similarly offered with
             Graduation Ceremony Speech                          first priority to DoC staff, second priority to DoWA
           UNDP/Ministry of Women’s Affairs                      staff, third priority to other civil servants, and fourth
                 ICT Training Center                             priority to NGOs and private citizens.
                   22 October 2003
                                                                      Recruitment of trainees takes place through letters
  My name is Sohilla Popal. I am working in                      of invitation sent to ministries and their directorates
  administration in the Ministry of Communication. Before
                                                                 and through advertisements placed in newspapers. The
  I joined the UNDP/ICT Computer Training Center, I
  faced a lot of problems in my office because just to write
                                                                 following qualifications are required for participation:
  a letter I would use two or three draft pages and I had to
  keep them filed in a cupboard, which was not safe, and                 Literacy in Dari or Pashtu
  when I needed a copy of that letter I had to write it                  Ability to read and understand options and
  again, which took too much time and effort.                             menus in English
                                                                         Basic mathematic skills
  Since I joined this course, I have learned how to use a
                                                                         Experience working with files and
  computer and I have requested a computer for my office,
  which the Ministry has provided. Now I am feeling very                  documents;
  comfortable in my job with computer. If I write a letter, I            Age 16-50
  don’t need to waste two or three pages and if I need a                 No previous computer training
  copy of that letter I don’t need to write it again; once I
  write it on the computer and save it, whenever I need               UNDP manages and implements all of the training
  copies I just open that file and print, or if I need to        centers through the direct execution (DEX) modality
  calculate a long list of items, I don’t need to spend a full   except for one. UN security rules prevent UN staff
  day calculating because the computer itself calculates it
                                                                 from traveling to Khost. Therefore, the Project is
  in seconds.
                                                                 nationally executed (NEX) in Khost—all staff of the
  Therefore I want to thank UNDP/ICT for providing us            training center in Khost are employees of the MoC.
  this opportunity to learn computer to save time and to
  work easily in our offices. And also I want to thank my        2.   Specialist ICT training: Achievements
  kind teachers who helped us and taught us computer.
                                                                      The Project has collaborated with CISCO
  Today I am very happy for achieving this certificate from      Systems—the worldwide leader in networking for the
  UNDP/ICT project.                                              Internet—in launching the Cisco Networking Academy
                                                                 Program (CNAP) in Afghanistan. The Project has also
     At the end of 2003, 1,834 Afghans had graduated             enabled a range of Afghan ICT specialists and policy
from the basic training courses, which now take about            makers to attend conferences and training programmes
six months to complete. Eighty percent of the                    abroad.
graduates were civil servants, representing more than
30 ministries and other government bodies, including                  CNAP is a four-semester program that prepares
universities, governors’ offices, and the Afghan                 students for networking and IT-related careers in the
National Army. Twenty-two percent of the graduates               public and private sectors and for higher education in
were women, and 31 percent of currently enrolled                 engineering, computer science, and related fields.
trainees are women. Sixty percent graduated from                 Upon successful completion of the program, students
centers outside of Kabul, and private centers accounted          qualify for the internationally recognized Cisco
for 63 percent of the graduates.                                 Certified Network Associate (CCNA) certification.
                                                                 CNAP is now offered in 151 countries; Cisco aims to
     The basic training centers established by                   help bridge the digital divide by establishing these
UNDP/MoC in Kabul are located in the Ministry of                 programs worldwide. If successful in Afghanistan, it
Women’s Affairs (MoWA) and the MoC’s                             will create a core of Afghan specialists who contribute
Telecommunications Training Center (TTC). At the                 to a modern workforce, moving the country into the
provincial level, where ministries are represented by            information age.
directorates, hosting directorates provide premises,
security, electricity, and cleaning services. The choice             The first CNAP opened at Kabul University in
of venue for the provincial training centers has                 October 2002, the second at the MoC’s
followed a system of first priority to the Directorates of       Telecommunications Training Center (TTC) in
Communications (DoCs), second priority to                        September 2003, and the third at the MoWA in
Directorates of Women’s Affairs (DoWAs), and third               December 2003. The total number of students enrolled
priority to NGOs, depending on which entities have               is 238. Seventy-three of the students are female (31
adequate facilities. The DoCs host training centers in           percent). Most CNAP students are Kabul University
all six of the cities where the Project is active. The           students or employees of international organizations
DoWA in Jalalabad also hosts a center, and in Herat              and NGOs. Eighteen of the enrolled students are civil
one center is located within an NGO, the Herat                   servants (7.5 percent). By the end of the year, CNAP


                                                                                                                        8
expects to graduate 207 students. The possibility of               The role of Cisco Systems in the partnership is to
opening branches in Herat and Mazar-e-Sharif is under         train Afghan CNAP teachers and provide the web-
consideration. CNAP tuition policies make the                 based curriculum and networking equipment for the
program sustainable already at Kabul University and           Academies. UNDP supports the training, provides
the TTC.                                                      computer hardware, and facilitates the partnerships
                                                              with the host institutions.
                           Box 2
                 Farjam Training Center:                           Entering CNAP students are required to have
   Profile of a Private Center with UNDP Support for          computer skills at least equivalent to those provided in
               the Training of Civil Servants                 the UNDP/MoC basic training course. CNAP recruits
                                                              students through radio advertisements and the
 Sayed Javed Andish opened his first training center in the
                                                              distribution of brochures among ministries and
 Microrayon district of Kabul in 1997. During the Taliban
 years, the center offered English and computer training,     women’s NGOs. Applicants are tested and interviewed
 including small classes for women. The Taliban               in the MoC.
 interrogated him for this and warned him against it. For a
 while after that, the center taught only males.                   The Project has supported the participation of
                                                              about 30 Afghan ICT specialists and policy makers in
 When the rent for the center in Microrayon rose sharply      conferences and training programmes abroad. Afghan
 in early 2003, Mr. Andish decided to close the center and    participation in conferences organized by the United
 open two others—Farjam and Frough—in lower-rent              Postal Union and the International Telecommunication
 areas. The centers offer basic computer training, training
                                                              Union, for example, is arranged on a regular basis.
 of trainers, computer hardware courses, and English
 courses. The basic computer training course includes         These opportunities enable selected experts to keep
 hour-long classes six days a week for three months.          abreast of changes in the industry and to share their
 Standard tuition is $10 per month, but many students pay     knowledge with others in the country by delivering
 only $8 per month. UNDP covers tuition for civil             follow-up presentations.
 servants at the rate of $45 per three-month programme.
                                                              3.   “Dot-af”: Achievements
 At the Farjam and Frough centers, males and females
 study together. At Farjam, the classroom is visible from          To secure Afghanistan’s national presence on the
 the street, ―like a shop,‖ discouraging some women from
                                                              worldwide web, the Project provided legal and
 enrolling. According to Mr. Andish, the center enrolls
 about 25 percent females, whereas Frough, which has an       technical support for the transfer of the country code
 interior classroom, enrolls about 40-45 percent females.     Top Level Domain (ccTLD) ―.af‖ to Afghanistan.
                                                              Since March 2003, the ".af" suffix has been reserved
 Eight students were present at the time of the Evaluation    for Afghan e-mail addresses and websites, and the
 Team’s site visit. Three were primary or secondary           Project has supported the national management of the
 school students, three were university students, one was a   ccTLD. A network information center—AFGNIC—
 civil servant, and one was a doctor.                         was established to register domain names. The first
                                                              websites registered under the new domain were the
 The one woman who was present is a third-year biology
                                                              sites of the MoC (www.moc.gov.af) and the UNDP
 student at Kabul University who has lived all her life in
 Kabul. She explained that she would like to become a         country office (www.undp.org.af). About 140 domain
 biology teacher and to use computers in her work. Her        names were registered by the end of 2003. Continuous
 family supports her wish to learn computers, and she         access to the ―.af‖ ccTLD is ensured through its
 sought out computer training even though she is busy         registration on six name servers in the U.S., France,
 with her schoolwork and responsibilities at home. She        and the Netherlands. The primary name server is a
 lives close to the center and arrives each day on foot.      UNDP machine in New York. Afghanistan does not
                                                              yet have its own name server. The registration process
 Mr. Andish has opened an Internet Café next door to the      is not yet computerized. It is paper-based and
 training center. The café is open from 8:00 a.m. until 8-
                                                              performed by hand.
 9:00 p.m. depending on demand. Its busiest time is after
 4:00 p.m. when people are off work. All six of the
 customers present at the time of the Evaluation Team’s       4.   Technical and office management support to
 visit were male, two of them children.                            the MoC

                                                                   The Project provides the MOC with advisory
    Kabul University has been closed during the               services and expertise in planning and office
winter due to lack of heat in classrooms and                  management. For most of the duration of the Project,
dormitories. Some CNAP courses continued                      an international UNDP expert advised the Minister on
nonetheless, but the graduation of the first cohort of        technical and policy matters on a day-to-day basis
students—eleven men and six women—has been                    while helping to coordinate all aspects of the Project.
delayed until May 2004.




                                                                                                                    9
5.   Capacity building component: Strengths and                  More than 30 government bodies and about 80 NGOs
     weaknesses                                                  have enrolled staff in the basic training program.

     Table 3 provides a performance overview for the                  Collaboration with other UN agencies and
capacity building component of the Project. All criteria         international organizations involved in computer
for success in the Project Document and the Terms of             training is minimal, however, and relations with donors
Reference for this evaluation were either achieved or
partially achieved. This component was strong in terms                                   Box 3
of relevance to national priorities and UNDP’s                                     A Snapshot of CNAP
mandate, national involvement, gender balance, private
sector involvement, relevance to intended beneficiaries           The Cisco Networking Academy Programme (CNAP)
including those outside of Kabul, and, most likely                has opened branches in three locations in Kabul—Kabul
though not measured, employment generation.                       University, the Telecommunications Training Center
                                                                  (TTC) of the MoC, and the Ministry of Women’s
                                                                  Affairs—to train Afghans for careers in information
     The support for the training of civil servants at
                                                                  technology (IT) and networking. The Evaluation Team
private ICT training centers has accounted for more               visited CNAP classes at Kabul University and the TTC.
than 60 percent of the program’s graduates. These
partnerships with the private sector allowed the Project          The TTC offers two sessions each day. The morning
to exercise control over the results of the training while        class, held during working hours, is for MoC employees
limiting the management required. Its effect on the               only. Ten men and ten women enrolled in the morning
local ICT sector, however, was probably minimal and               class, but six of the women found the material too
the extent of the Project’s control over the use of funds         difficult, especially the use of English, and subsequently
for the training of civil servants is unclear: at the             dropped out. Most of the students in the afternoon class
                                                                  are employees of NGOs and international organizations.
private center the Evaluation Team visited, a doctor
                                                                  The demand for the course is high; at least twice as many
and a Kabul University student both reported that their           applications were received for the TTC sessions as the
tuition was covered by UNDP.                                      number of spaces available.

     Lack of Internet access at many training centers in          The Evaluation Team visited the TTC’s morning class.
the provinces (and even at the Frough private center in           Only twelve students were present because roadblocks
Kabul) has prevented the centers from offering the                for the Constitutional Loya Jirga prevented many from
practical part of the Introduction to Internet module of          attending. Three of the students were women, one of
the curriculum. The center at the Kunduz DoC is the               whom is scheduled soon to attend CNAP teacher training
                                                                  in Islamabad. Four of the students work in the MoC’s IT
only one in the provinces with its own VSAT for
                                                                  department and two are teachers at the TTC, hoping to
Internet access.1                                                 form the Center’s first IT faculty. All students said they
                                                                  intend to continue working for the MoC after completing
     Another problem encountered was the tendency                 the course.
for civil servants to miss class because of work-related
demands on their time. The application materials make             Kabul University is officially closed during the winter
clear that students must have adequate time dedicated             because of lack of heat in classrooms and dormitories.
to the training, yet the problem persists.                        One session of CNAP has continued meeting, however,
                                                                  with students who are local Kabul residents. Sixteen
                                                                  students were present, four of whom were women and
     The Project has constructively utilized its capacity
                                                                  nine of whom were university students. Many of them
by arranging for the basic training center and CNAP to            were employed with international organizations or
share facilities at the MoWA. Offering more classes at            NGOs. They were attending the course on their own time
other facilities could increase the Project’s impact at           and paying their own tuition, though many said their
low cost; at present, the facilities are unused for large         employers supported their decisions to enroll. All the
portions of the day and evening.                                  students present were hopeful that studying at CNAP
                                                                  would help them to obtain good jobs or to move into
    The establishment of partnerships has been mixed.             better jobs than they now hold, either with their current
On the positive side, the Project has developed strong            employers or other organizations.
partnerships with the MoC, the MoWA, and other
                                                                       The international organizations and NGOs with
government bodies, Kabul University, Cisco Systems,               students in the class include the Afghan Football
numerous NGOs, the International Telecommunication                Association, the Afghan Red Crescent Society, the
Union (ITU), private training centers, and provincial             Afghan Women’s Education Center, the Asian
authorities in the provinces with basic training centers.         Development Bank, the International Human Rights Law
                                                                  Group, the International Organization for Migration,
                                                                  Malteser (German medical service), and the World Food
                                                                  Programme.
1
   A VSAT is a fixed satellite terminal used to provide
interactive or receive-only communications; literally, a "Very
Small Aperture Terminal."


                                                                                                                          10
are mixed. Representatives of the French Government        Interviews with government officials, training
are impressed with the Project on the basis of both site   providers, and trainees, however, suggest that the need
visits and their interaction with UNDP and Project         for ICT training at all levels in Afghanistan is so great
staff. Representatives of the European Commission,         that any provision of training is valuable to the
however, question the impact of the Project on Afghan      country. There appear to be some cases where CNAP
reconstruction and the selection process for trainees.     is offered to people who may not need such a technical
Many potential donors are simply unaware of the            level of instruction for their current jobs (e.g., the
Project.                                                   enrollment of four MoWA employees in the program),
                                                           but overall this Evaluation concludes that virtually no
     The Project’s positive impact on civil service        resources are wasted on training. The people being
productivity is substantial. According to the Minister     trained are people who can be expected to use their
of Communication, 40-45 percent of MoC personnel           skills to the benefit of the country. Nonetheless, better
now have basic computer skills. MoC has used the new       documentation of selection procedures and rationale
skills in its salary payment systems, billing systems      should be encouraged, as it would help with donor
(e.g., the printing of telephone bills), issuance of       relations and would help to strengthen accountability
employee identification cards, the telephone               practices in the country.
numbering plan, and satellite monitoring systems
(identifying where systems are up or down). Unlike              The French Minister of Industry recently signed
one year ago, MoC’s procurement and planning               an agreement with the MoC, stemming in part from the
departments are able to prepare, monitor, and ensure       successful     relationship   between      the    French
fulfillment of contracts. Other government bodies have     Government and the UNDP/MoC Project. In
applied the UNDP/MoC computer training in similar          accordance with this agreement, the French
ways.                                                      Government is sponsoring technical support for
                                                           improving the operation of the ―.af‖ domain. During a
    One highlight of the Project is the training center    mission to Kabul in December 2003, Stephane
in Khost. As discussed above, UN security rules            Bortzmeyer of the public institution responsible for the
prevent UN staff from traveling to Khost. Recognizing      French ccTLD ―.fr‖ expressed the opinion that ―.af‖ is
a demand for ICT training in Khost, the Project            one of the best managed ccTLDs in the developing
reached a creative solution by opening a center there      world. He cited a survey of ccTLDs in support of that
under national execution (NEX). This has provided an       view (http://www.credentia.cc/reserach/cctlds/report-
opportunity for the MoC to demonstrate its                 2003-Oct.html). The biggest problem of ―.af,‖ he
management and implementation capacity. The                concluded, is the lack of registration software;
Minister of Communication and Project management           registration on paper is cumbersome and susceptible to
confirmed that the center is receiving a strong positive   destruction. Other problems include the lack of a
response from the local population.                        network of resellers to facilitate the distribution of
                                                           ―.af,‖ configuration problems with subdomains (e.g.,
    During the evaluation, concerns were raised within     ―.com.af‖ or ―.gov.af‖), and the location of the primary
UNDP and by the European Commission about                  name server—which is a national resource—outside of
whether the selection criteria for trainees are            the country.
adequately articulated, enforced, and documented.




                                                                                                                11
                                         Table 3. Assessment of ICT Capacity Development Project: Capacity building component

        Criteria for success             Achieved   Partially     Not                                                          Comments
                                                    achieved    achieved

Relevance to national priorities and                                       ICT capacity building is in line with national priorities articulated in the National Development Framework and
                                             √
UNDP’s mandate                                                             the National ICT Policy, and support for ICT capacity building is clearly within UNDP’s mandate.

Substantial national involvement in                                        The basic training centers are fully operated by Afghan nationals, CNAP classes are taught by trained Afghan
project design, management, and              √                             teachers, and the ―.af‖ manager and staff are Afghan nationals.
implementation

Gender balance among project                                               22% of graduates from basic training are female, 31% of current trainees are female, and about 30% of Project-
                                             √
beneficiaries and implementers                                             supported trainers are female. More than 30% of CNAP enrollees and two of the four CNAP trainers are female.

Private sector involvement and/or                                          The Project has developed strong partnerships with Cisco Systems, and private computer training centers. Private
                                             √
expansion                                                                  entities benefit from the ability to register on the ―.af‖ ccTLD.

Employment and income generation                                           Subjective views of government officials suggest the impact of the basic training has been significant, and the
                                             √
                                                                           skills provided through both the basic training and CNAP are certainly in demand in the reconstruction process.

Benefits in areas outside of Kabul                                         The Project has established basic training centers in six regions outside of Kabul, accounting for 60 percent of all
                                             √
                                                                           graduates; options for establishing CNAP outside of Kabul are under consideration.

Establishment of effective                                                 The project has strong partnerships with MoC, MoWA, Kabul University, Cisco Systems, NGOs, private training
partnerships                                           √                   centers, ITU, and provincial authorities. Relations with donors are mixed. Greater collaboration with other UN
                                                                           agencies, the IARCSC, and ANBP would be useful.

Sustainability                                                             CNAP is sustainable through tuition revenues at Kabul University and TTC; further support will be needed to
                                                       √                   expand CNAP beyond Kabul. The basic training centers are not yet sustainable. The ―.af‖ ccTLD is under
                                                                           national management but will require expanded external support to meet its potential.

Effectiveness in reaching the                                              The Project is reaching Afghan civil servants, women, youth, and returnees. The establishment of more rigorous
intended beneficiaries                                                     criteria for the selection of trainees and private sector partners—incorporating the principles of equitable access,
                                             √
                                                                           sustainable impact, and gender balance—could enable the Project to better satisfy donors and fulfill the
                                                                           requirements of the Project Document.

Criteria specific to the capacity
component

Effective national administration of                                       The ccTLD ―.af‖ is nationally managed, and registration of e-mail addresses and websites is taking place; the
the ccTLD ―.af‖                                        √                   process is limited by the lack of a computerized system of registration, configuration problems with subdomains
                                                                           (e.g., ―.com.af‖ or ―.gov.af‖), and the absence of a name server within the country.

Increase in civil service productivity                                     About 1,500 civil servants have received UNDP/MoC training; training has enabled many ministries to improve
                                             √
                                                                           their systems of billing, salary payment, procurement, planning, etc.



                                                                                                                                                                                           12
C. Public ICT access                                             For each visitor, the animators record the visitor’s
                                                            name, demographic characteristics, times of arrival and
     To help introduce ICT access in Afghanistan, the       departure, activities undertaken in the telekiosk, and
Project has established public access points                fees paid. So far more than 12,000 Afghans have used
(―telekiosks‖) in eight post offices of Kabul and at the    the telekiosks, and people are often queued up to use
Kabul Airport. The telekiosks provide Internet, e-mail,     them.2
and e-learning services. The Project also supported the
development of a computerized standard system for                Training and software use are offered free of
Dari and Pashtu characters, which enables Afghans to        charge; Internet use is priced at about $1 per hour, and
use computers in their own languages. This section          printing is about $0.20 per page. The opportunity for
focuses on the telekiosks.                                  free training and software use is a strong attraction to
                                                            the telekiosks, though some visitors complain that half
                                                            an hour is not long enough, especially for those
                                                            without computers at home on which to practice. The
                                                            prices charged are low relative to those in the private
                                                            market. The private Internet cafés that the Evaluation
                                                            Team visited charged twice as much for Internet use
                                                            and printing. The UNESCO-sponsored Internet café in
                                                            a public library charges less for Internet use: about
                                                            $0.80 per hour. A French NGO—Aina—offers an
                                                            Internet café to Afghan journalists free of charge.

                                                                The telekiosks are open for approximately the
                                                            same hours as the post offices (Government working
                                                            hours), though they typically open half an hour later
                                                            and close half an hour earlier so the MoC animators
                                                            can get to and from the main MoC building within
                                                            working hours. Each telekiosk determines whether its
                                                            users would like separate hours for females-only and
                                                            males-only     and    schedules     these    sessions
                                                            independently.

                                                                 Usually one animator is male and one female, and
1.   Telekiosks: Achievements                               usually one is an MoC staff member and the other is
                                                            employed by UNDP. The UNDP animators were hired
     The establishment of telekiosks started in May         with ICT expertise, often obtained in Pakistan. The
2003 with funding from the French Trust Fund. The           Project provided them with two weeks of training in
telekiosks are booths in post offices, each with five       teaching techniques and public interface. In addition to
PCs connected to the Internet (wireless connection          the teacher training, the MoC animators, who were
from the main MoC building) and one printer, and            new to computers, received five weeks of training on
each staffed with two Afghan ―animators.‖ The               software packages and Internet use. They continue
telekiosks offer up to half an hour of computer training    learning on the job from the UNDP animators with
and/or software use per visitor each day and up to one      whom they are assigned. The Project currently has
hour of Internet access. The training is provided at the    seven UNDP animators and eleven MoC animators.
level needed by individual visitors and follows the         Many more MoC employees are currently receiving
curriculum of the UNDP/MoC basic training centers.          training to become animators.
Filters are installed to block access to culturally
offensive material on the Internet, such as                      With the UNDP and MoC animators working
pornography.                                                closely together, the disparity in their salaries has
                                                            inevitably created some tension. (The animators on
     Post offices were chosen as the venue for the          UNDP contracts are paid $400 per month, whereas the
telekiosks because Afghanistan has a large postal           MoC animators earn only $30-35 per month.) The
network, post offices generally have the basic facilities   President of the MoC Postal Department observed that
needed, and they are a key meeting place between the        morale and motivation of MoC animators at the
Government and the public. The telekiosks serve             telekiosks is compromised by their low salaries.
several purposes. They raise public awareness of the
opportunities ICT offers, and they help to meet the ICT
demands of communities. They increase public trust
and confidence in the Government and will ultimately        2
                                                              In mid-December, the telekiosks had served about 12,300
provide a mechanism for e-governance. Finally, they         unique visitors, where a ―unique visitor‖ is defined as one
provide a viable means for the MoC to raise revenue.        who has not visited the site in the previous 24 hours.


                                                                                                                   13
                                                               A national staff member developed a website for
                                                           the telekiosk project (telekiosk.moc.gov.af). The
                                                           website provides links to related websites, databases,
                                                           job postings, and other information. Designed in
                                                           English, Dari, and Pashtu, the website has had more
                                                           than 13,000 visitors. E-governance services are
                                                           expected to become available via the website.

                                                           2.   Telekiosks: Strengths and weaknesses

                                                                Table 4 provides a performance overview for the
                                                           ICT access component of the Project. All criteria for
                                                           success in the Project Document and the Terms of
                                                           Reference for this evaluation were either achieved or
     The Project has advertised the telekiosks through     partially achieved. This component was strong in terms
signs posted at the post offices and visits to primary     of relevance to national priorities and UNDP’s
schools, girls’ high schools, and women’s                  mandate, national involvement, gender balance, and
organizations in the vicinity of the telekiosks. In        relevance to intended beneficiaries. It is likely to have
addition, one animator represented the telekiosks at the   important future impacts on income and employment
Constitutional Loya Jirga, aiming to advocate the          generation for telekiosk visitors.
telekiosks and the services they offer among leaders
from all provinces. When the telekiosks expand                 The Project has incorporated lessons learned in a
nationwide, these people will be familiar with them        rapid and flexible manner in the brief period since its
already.                                                   inception in May 2003. In particular, as noted in Box
                                                           3, effective adjustments were made to encourage
    The post offices where telekiosks are located all      female participation. While private opportunities for
had adequate power during the summer, but four were        computer training and Internet access are popping up
closed for extended periods in the winter because of       rapidly in Kabul, the telekiosk initiative is unique in its
lack of city power. The Project has now installed          commitment to meeting the ICT learning needs of girls
generators for these four, so they now all have reliable   and women. The participation of women results in part
power supply.                                              from the trust people have in the Government, and at
                                                           the same time the cultural sensitivity of the Project
    The Evaluation Team visited five telekiosks in         serves to enhance that public trust.
post offices: the Central Post Office, the Pashtunistan
Post Office, the Jada-e-Maiwand Post Office, the First
Microrayon Post Office, and the Third Microrayon
Post Office. Interviews with the visitors and animators
suggest the following profile for telekiosk customers:

   the majority were school teachers or children who
    learned about the telekiosks from their schools
    (many of the children were drawing with
    Windows Paintbrush; some students were
    preparing school reports; and some teachers were
    preparing Excel spreadsheets for their classes or
    school administration);
   most were learning about computers for the first
    time, even though some had computers at home;               The telekiosk component was also flexible and
   most were learning and practicing computer skills      responsive in narrowing its target population. The
    rather than using the Internet;                        Project initially envisioned reaching small businesses
   many were repeat visitors (sometimes daily             as well as schools and community groups. Given the
    visitors);                                             limited capacity of the pilot telekiosks, however,
   about half were returnees from Pakistan;               Project management decided to concentrate primarily
   at least one-quarter were female, and their families   on advocacy within primary schools and girls’ high
    are comfortable with their use of the telekiosks;      schools. Reaching children and teachers holds promise
   some young men and women were hoping                   for the future and indirectly provides ICT exposure to
    computer skills would help them obtain                 parents and other family members. Unlike private
    employment or better jobs.                             training and Internet centers, the telekiosks are



                                                                                                                  14
reaching many people who were not previously                   after the start of the Government work day until shortly
introduced to computers.                                       before the close of the work day. Primary and
                                                               secondary school students are generally in school from
    Careful and regular monitoring of the telekiosk            8:00-12:00 a.m. or 1:00-5:00 p.m., so the telekiosk
component keeps the telekiosks in good working order           hours allow their participation, but for most working
and enables the responsive management that was                 people the telekiosks are unavailable.
observed. The Community Liaison and IT Trainer
conduct weekly evaluations of each telekiosk, noting
on a Telekiosk Observation Sheet the presence and
condition of all equipment and furniture, the
animators’ behaviour with customers, their method of
teaching, activities underway at the telekiosk, and any
problems or comments. The Telekiosk Coordinator
holds a weekly meeting to review the Telekiosk
Observation Sheets and to make a plan for responding
to the needs they identify for maintenance and
animator training. The Project has an IT specialist who
addresses IT problems identified at the telekiosks.

                        Box 4
        Women’s Participation in the Telekiosks:
       Introducing ICT Access to Afghan Women
                                                                    Partnerships with the Postal Department and local
 In Afghanistan almost all private computer courses are        schools     and    women’s      NGOs      are    strong.
 taught by men, most computer students are male, and           Representatives of the main donor—the Government
 private Internet cafés cater primarily to male customers.     of France—have visited telekiosks unannounced and
 Likewise, in July 2003 when the UNDP/MoC Project              are pleased with their observations and the speed with
 opened its first ―telekiosks‖—booths in post offices          which the Project was implemented. The less favorable
 offering computer training and Internet access to the         aspect of partnership building is the almost nonexistent
 public—less than five percent of visitors were female.        sharing of information among the telekiosk project and
                                                               other computer training and Internet access points in
 Since women are intended beneficiaries of the Project
                                                               Kabul.
 and gender balance is one of its objectives, Project staff
 considered ways to increase female participation. The
 Community Liaison for Telekiosks, Najlla Habibyar,
 began visiting women’s organizations and girls’ high
 schools in the vicinities of the telekiosks. She advocated
 the importance of information technology for all people
 in the national recovery process and explained what the
 telekiosks had to offer to girls and women. In addition,
 the telekiosk management ensured that female animators
 teach female visitors and that special hours are identified
 for women-only and men-only sessions in accordance
 with the demand at individual telekiosks and with signs
 posted accordingly on the telekiosk doors.

 As a result, families have become comfortable with the
 telekiosks as a vehicle for females and males to learn
 about computers and gain access to information
 technology. Female participation has increased to nearly
 one-third of all telekiosk visitors.

     The telekiosks have had difficulty with
interruptions of power and Internet access. The Project
management resolved the power problem by installing
generators at the telekiosks most affected. The problem
of Internet interruptions persists and is particularly
important for Project revenue since Internet use is
provided on a fee basis.

     The telekiosks’ current hours of operation leave
the facilities underutilized. They are open from shortly



                                                                                                                   15
                                       Table 4. Assessment of ICT Capacity Development Component: ICT access component

        Criteria for success           Achieved   Partially     Not                                                           Comments
                                                  achieved    achieved

Relevance to national priorities and      √                              Introducing ICT access is in line with national priorities articulated in the National Development Framework and
UNDP’s mandate                                                           the National ICT Policy, and the support provided for ICT access is clearly within UNDP’s mandate.

Substantial national involvement in       √                              The telekiosks are fully operated by Afghan staff.
project design, management, and
implementation

Gender balance among project              √                              Half of the telekiosk animators are women, and nearly one-third of telekiosk visitors are female. Female
beneficiaries and implementers                                           participation is a substantial achievement, making the telekiosks unique among the computer learning/access
                                                                         opportunities in Kabul.

Private sector involvement and/or                    √                   This Project component aims to build trust between the Government and the public. It could have a
expansion                                                                demonstration effect in the private sector; this has not been measured, though some project staff members
                                                                         indicate they have seen private activity emulating the telekiosks. The demonstration effect in the private sector
                                                                         may be more significant in the provinces; in Kabul many private computer training centers and Internet cafés are
                                                                         already active.

Employment and income generation          √                              The effect on employment and income generation is not measured, but the skills and information provided at the
                                                                         telekiosks are clearly relevant to the labor market.

Benefits in areas outside of Kabul       n.a.                            Not applicable: This component is a pilot initiative in Kabul only. Its results suggest it could be replicated
                                                                         successfully in areas throughout Afghanistan.

Establishment of effective                           √                   The telekiosks component of the Project has developed strong partnerships with the Postal Department of the
partnerships                                                             MoC, the Government of France (donor), primary schools, girls’ high schools, and women’s NGOs.
                                                                         Collaboration and information sharing on similar initiatives could usefully expand with other UN agencies, other
                                                                         international organizations/NGOs, and private entities.

Sustainability                                       √                   MoC has the capacity to take over the existing telekiosks; the telekiosk at the airport charges more than the others
                                                                         ($4/hour), generating revenue that can be used to make other telekiosks sustainable.

Effectiveness in reaching the             √                              The telekiosks are effective in reaching civil servants (MoC employees trained as animators), women, youth, and
intended beneficiaries                                                   returnees.




                                                                                                                                                                                         16
III. RECOMMENDATIONS
                                                                For the most part, these initiatives are taking place
     The Minister of Communication has requested that      in isolation from one another. Information-sharing and
UNDP develop an action plan for ICT development            coordination among them—and with officials of key
assistance in the country. This Evaluation is intended     ministries—could expand their impact among intended
to provide input to the formulation of the action plan.    beneficiaries, and donors are eager to see improved
Accordingly, this section provides recommendations         coordination. The newly hired National Project
for future UNDP cooperation in Afghanistan in the          Coordinator, Humayoon Rasaw, is prepared to initiate
area of ICT for development. The recommendations           a coordination mechanism, and ACBAR is also
are based on the findings of the assessment described      exploring this possibility. In collaboration with
in Section II, the expected needs and context for ICT      ACBAR, the Project could organize an initial
assistance in the future in Afghanistan, national          workshop followed by regular meetings of an ICT
development priorities as articulated in the National      Capacity and Access Theme Group.
Development Framework and the National ICT Policy,
UNDP’s mandate, and the objectives set forth in the             Within the Project—UNDP, Project staff, and the
UNDP-Afghanistan Country Programme Note for                MoC—relations are good. Action or attention in the
2004-2005. Information management—including ICT            following areas could help to maintain and strengthen
policy, capacity, and access—is one of the four            these relations:
principal areas of cooperation that the Government and
UNDP have agreed upon for the period 2004-2005.               An organization diagram for the Project would
                                                               facilitate communication and the allocation of
(1) Establish mechanisms for the coordination of               responsibility.
actors involved in ICT capacity building and access           Recruitment of senior staff for the Project should
in Afghanistan.                                                take place through a genuinely open and inclusive
                                                               process of collaboration between UNDP and the
     In addition to the UNDP/MoC Project, numerous             MoC.
large and small initiatives are underway to build ICT         Opportunities for attending conferences and
capacity and provide ICT access in Afghanistan. For            advanced training programmes in Afghanistan and
example—                                                       abroad should be offered to Project staff as
                                                               appropriate, balancing opportunities among
   Private companies offer computer training and              international and national staff in a rational and
    Internet access.                                           deliberate way.
   UNESCO has opened an Internet café in a public
    library in Kabul.                                      (2) Expand communication with donors and
   The French NGO Aina operates an Internet café          potential donors.
    free of charge for journalists.
   The German NGO AGEF offers computer training                Relations with donors are mixed. Some are
    (and other training) to Afghan returnees and staff     enthusiastic about the performance of the training
    of the Ministry of Refugees and Repatriation.          centers and telekiosks, while others are skeptical of the
   PAKTEC International provides Internet access          Project’s ability to reach intended beneficiaries and are
    for local/national NGOs.                               unaware of the Project’s strengths. Many potential
   The Agency Coordination Body for Afghan Relief         donors are simply unaware of the Project. Donors
    (ACBAR) offers Internet access in its regional         could be invited to visit project sites, and brochures
    offices free of charge for NGOs and staff of the       could be prepared, in addition to regular reports, for
    Ministry of Planning and offers basic IT training      distribution both to donors and to potential users of the
    for NGO staff in Mazar. ACBAR anticipates              services offered. Literature provided to donors should
    creating regional IT Resource Centers for NGOs         stress any new coordination mechanisms introduced,
    and Ministry of Planning staff with funding from       selection procedures for training, and the quality of
    the European Commission.                               training provided (including the rigor of exams taken
   NEDA Telecommunications and the Afghan                 for or following graduation).
    Wireless Communication Company (AWCC)
    provide computer training for civil servants.          (3) Continue providing policy, technical, and
   The Capacity Building Groups of the Independent        management support to the Ministry of
    Administration Reform and Civil Service                Communication (soon to be renamed the Ministry
    Commission (IARCSC), with funding from the             of Communication and Information Technology).
    European Commission, provide computer training
    to civil servants.                                          The evaluation process has identified the
   Support          from        the       International   following areas where the Project could usefully
    Telecommunication Union (ITU) is anticipated for       provide continuing and/or expanded policy, technical,
    a central ICT training center in Kabul.                and management support to the MoC.



                                                                                                                 17
                                                            processes. Mr. Rasaw, the National Project
    Implementing and updating the National ICT              Coordinator, has experience in this area and is
Policy: The ICT Policy calls for further elaboration        prepared to work with the MoC’s capacity building
and updating of its Action Plan with annual work            expert to prepare a plan for fulfilling this need.
plans, status reports, and the articulation of a National
ICT Agenda. UNDP is well placed to provide                       A particular area of concern is levels of
continuing support for this process, and the Minister of    compensation. Low salaries among civil servants
Communication has requested this support. MoC               create low morale. This problem is particularly acute in
Advisory Board members suggested that an additional         cases where Project and MoC staff work together and
four to five staff members are needed on the Advisory       earn vastly different salaries. The Presidential Decree
Board for this purpose; in collaboration with the           of June 2003 for the Programme of Reforming and
Advisory Board, Mr. Rasaw should make a careful             Restructuring (PRR) invited ministries to develop and
assessment of the human resources needed.                   submit internal reform/restructuring proposals to an
                                                            inter-ministerial committee. Upon approval of their
     Particular areas for policy attention are the          proposals, ministries are able to disconnect the salaries
following:                                                  of related ministry employees from the civil service
                                                            pay scale and pay them more. Some MoC departments
(a) Establishing the National ICT Council and making        are now included in the PRR process, and some
    it operational;                                         employees will eventually receive higher salaries as a
(b) Ensuring the conformity of the UNDP/MoC                 result. In addition, salaries will rise for employees
    Project’s telekiosk, basic training, and specialist     involved in MoC services that will be privatized
    training activities with the overall implementation     [corporatized?].
    of relevant sections of the Action Plan
    (infrastructure and convergence, ICTs and                    In the meantime, staff members are often
    government efficiency, and ICTs and education);         rewarded for strong performance with learning
(c) Linking the UNDP-supported Afghanistan                  opportunities, including participation in conferences
    Information Management Service (AIMS), the              and training programmes in Afghanistan and abroad. A
    upcoming census, and data from the Disarmament,         recent UNDP report on merit-based recruitment and
    Demobilization, and Reintegration (DDR) process         local-level administration reform suggests that special
    into the National Data and IT Center (as the MoC        post allowances—including provisions for housing and
    now envisions);                                         security—might be authorized for employees in
(d) Developing common systems for maintaining and           districts where these are issues. Ensuring favorable
    upgrading human resource databases across all           working environments is an incentive that the Project
    ministries and government bodies through the            should aim for in all cases. The MoC Advisory Board
    National Data and IT Center;                            should be adequately staffed to accelerate the PRR
(e) Promotion of ICTs in commerce and trade through         process within the MoC and to ensure that other
    the creation of a legal framework for protecting        alternatives for rewarding good performance are
    consumers, customers, and investors with regard         explored and implemented.
    to ICTs;
(f) Placing greater emphasis in revisions of the Policy          Resource mobilization support: Fulfillment of the
    on the need to engage women in the removal of           National ICT Policy will require substantial resource
    the digital divide through, for example, ICT-           mobilization, and the MoC is not currently equipped
    related      education     and      entrepreneurship    with the level of the proposal-preparation expertise that
    opportunities.                                          is needed. One donor who was interviewed during the
(g) Considering linkages between the UNDP Central           evaluation stressed the need for proposals with greater
    Bank project and the Policy’s call for a secure         technical detail and greater attention to needs for
    network for an electronic inter-bank payments           demand analysis, training, operations and maintenance,
    system;                                                 power supply, phasing of activities, peripheral
(h) Considering       linkages     between      UNDP’s      equipment required, salary and incentive structures for
    Meteorological Data Recording Project and the           the personnel involved, and coordination mechanisms
    National ICT Policy’s call for e-governance in          among actors involved. In addition, reaching districts
    agriculture.                                            in areas of high security risks will require coordination
                                                            with military and police officials well in advance.
      Human resource management: The MoC Advisory
Board currently includes a capacity building expert,             Technical support for the Government Intranet
who has coordinated a comprehensive and dynamic             system: With World Bank support, the Government
capacity building plan for the MoC. His services are        has finalized a nationwide Government Intranet
still needed, and the Minister has requested support for    project, including the Governors’ offices and ministries
human resource management on a broader scale to             in all provinces, which is on the web for bidding. The
strengthen staff motivation and MoC recruitment



                                                                                                                 18
Minister expressed an interest in UNDP support for its         has the additional potential benefit of stimulating the
implementation.                                                private ICT sector in areas throughout the country.

(4) To the extent funding allows, continue support             (5) Link the basic training programme with
for existing basic training centers and open new               Afghanistan’s New Beginnings Programme (ANBP)
centers in the provinces in coordination with other            for the disarmament, demobilization, and
Government initiatives.                                        reintegration (DDR) of former combatants.

     The basic training centers established by the                  Linking the basic training programme with the
Project are not yet sustainable. Some cost recovery is         reintegration component of Afghanistan’s New
possible from tuition and sale of the curriculum, but          Beginnings Programme (ANBP) for disarmament,
given the nature of the population groups targeted as          demobilization, and reintegration (DDR) of former
trainees, the centers will require continuing support for      combatants is the Minister of Communication’s top
the operation of existing centers and the opening of           priority for the UNDP/MoC Project. As the Deputy
new centers. Full use of the centers’ capacity—by              Chairman of the Government’s DDR Commission, the
making them available for training or Internet access          Minister envisions that ICT training centers in each
during the evenings—could enable them to reach more            province could train demobilized soldiers both to
people with existing equipment and facilities.                 promote the local ICT industry and to prepare them for
Budgeting adequately for regular monitoring and                positions as civil servants. This offers potential for the
evaluation of the training centers is essential.               use of Government and donor resources in a way that
                                                               is visible to the public, that accelerates the DDR
     The demand for ICT training in the provinces,             process in advance of the elections, and that has a rapid
where people have few if any private training                  impact on employment, poverty alleviation, and
opportunities or Internet access, is undoubtedly               stability.
tremendous. Coordination with other Government
initiatives is essential both to prevent parallel activities        ANBP is prepared to establish this linkage in
and to ensure a coherent sequencing of related                 Kunduz and Kabul immediately and in all the
actions—the provision of computers and software,               provinces where the training centers currently exist in
training to enable their use, and connectivity. The            the near future. At the demobilization stage, ANBP
centers’ capacity will continue to be limited if Internet      provides DDR participants a packet of information on
access—currently reliable only at the Kunduz center,           training and income generating opportunities.
which has its own VSAT—is not ensured. Other                   Information on the UNDP/ICT basic training
initiatives include the ―Afghanistan: Rebuild,                 programme could be included immediately, and
Reconnect, Reunite‖ project, which the Government              referrals to the training programme could begin. In the
and UNAMA will soon pilot in eight districts, and the          pilot phase of DDR, a number of officers have
nationwide Provincial and District Stabilization               expressed an interest in ICT training, and the relatively
Programme that the Government is currently                     high literacy rate among demobilized soldiers in
developing. ICT capacity building for public                   Kabul, where the pilot DDR process is now underway,
administration is likely to be an important component          suggests that a number of them will be good candidates
of these initiatives. Afghanistan’s New Beginnings             for ICT training.
Programme         (ANBP)       for   the    disarmament,
demobilization, and reintegration of former combatants              The component of DDR where success can make
(described below) and the establishment of a mobile            the most sustainable difference to the country—by
training unit, as envisioned in the National ICT Policy,       breaking the dependence and patronage system
are also related initiatives.                                  between commanders and their soldiers—is
                                                               reintegration. In an environment where many
     The national execution modality used for the basic        government officials and members of the public are
training center in Khost could provide a useful model          skeptical of DDR as more than a political tool, ICT
for establishing centers in areas of high security risk.       training could offer a leap in education for ex-
This modality helps to strengthen the MoC’s capacity           combatants that might be impossible otherwise.
and, consequently, public confidence in the                    Working together, ANBP and the UNDP/MoC Project
Government.                                                    could mobilize additional resources and set forth a
                                                               publicity campaign following the pilot phase that
     The Project’s partnerships with existing private          invigorates the full programme.
training centers for the training of civil servants proved
to be an effective mechanism for controlling training               Establishing this linkage will require mechanisms
results while limiting the management required. If             for    providing     well-defined     and    sustainable
viable private centers are available in areas selected for     employment options to demobilized soldiers who
training, monitoring of who receives the training and          successfully complete the programme. This could take
their test results is essential. Support for private centers   the form of priority recruitment by government bodies



                                                                                                                     19
and ministry commitments to hiring certain numbers of        of Communication expressed a desire for UNDP,
demobilized soldiers (e.g., as communications                UNESCO, UNICEF, and relevant ministries to
operators, IT specialists, or computer teachers); this       collaborate in preparing a simple, coherent ICT
would probably require a Presidential Decree. Also,          curriculum package for the education system at all
ANBP could offer small business loans to ICT                 levels.
graduates to set up private Internet cafes and training
centers.                                                         The Project should also prepare to participate in
                                                             the ―mobile training unit‖ envisioned in the National
     Finally, if the UNDP/MoC Project and ANBP               ICT Policy. This unit—set up in large buses—is
decide to work together, some modification may be            expected to circulate within Kabul and provincial
needed in the ICT training centers’ entrance criteria        capitals to provide ICT training to civil servants.
and testing. The instruction, curriculum, training
materials, and software packages may need to be              (7)    Improve   the   mechanisms       for,   and
provided in local languages. The Project could               documentation of, the selection of trainees for all
cooperate with the German NGO AGEF, which is an              training programmes, including the training of
implementing partner with ANBP in providing a wide           trainers.
range of vocational training, including computer
training. The Project could also expand cooperation               This Evaluation Team holds the view that the
with the Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs, which is      needs for ICT capacity in Afghanistan are so great
setting up employment service centers.                       among all population groups that a rigorous selection
                                                             process is not a critical factor for ensuring impact.
(6) Modify the basic training curriculum to suit             Nonetheless, demonstrating that care is taken in the
specific needs, and explore collaboration with               selection process and the screening of trainees for
institutions that offer broader training.                    higher levels of training is necessary to meet donor
                                                             expectations and to promote accountability and
     Now that the basic training curriculum has been         sustainability of the training process once the
fully developed and made available in Dari, Pashtu,          Government is fully responsible for its execution. Each
and English, the Project is in a position to introduce       organization nominating a staff member for training
flexibility in the curriculum. The Project could develop     should state clearly the nature of the candidate’s
training segments that target specific skills and groups     current       responsibilities,     expected       future
of personnel and are tailored to their knowledge levels.     responsibilities, and how the training will contribute to
For example, civil servants could receive ICT training       the candidate’s work and the organization’s overall
specific to their roles in procurement, personnel,           performance.
payroll, finance, planning, database management,
geographical information systems, assessment of fines             During the application process, Project staff
for traffic violations, the issuing of passports, driver’s   should stress as much as possible—among applicants
licenses, and license plates, etc. In many cases, rapid      and their employers—the need for enrolled students to
training followed by immediate practice and                  attend all classes. Candidates with workloads that
application in the workplace would be preferable to the      cannot accommodate the time required for success in
full basic training course.                                  the training programme should not be considered.

     Donors and the Minister of Communication                (8) Assess the demand for and the feasibility of
encourage the incorporation of ICT into overall              establishing branches of the Cisco Networking
training programmes and the system of education. A           Academy Program (CNAP) in Herat and Mazar-e-
public administration institute may be established in        Sharif.
the near future, and the ITU is expected to support a
large ICT training facility in Kabul. Lessons learned            Now that the Cisco Networking Academy
from the UNDP/MoC Project and the curriculum could           Program (CNAP) is essentially sustainable at two
contribute importantly to the design of training             branches—Kabul University and the MoC’s
programs within these large institutions. Expanded           Telecommunications Training Center—the Project
collaboration with the Independent Administrative            could consider opening one or more branches in the
Reform and Civil Service Commission (IARCSC)—                provinces. Herat and Mazar-e-Sharif are two areas
particularly its Capacity Building Groups supported by       where the Project might find the demand, skills levels,
the European Commission—would facilitate this                and connectivity options needed for successful new
process. Donors likely to be involved in these activities    CNAP branches. These possibilities should be
include the Governments of France and Germany and            investigated.
the European Commission.
                                                             (9) Provide capacity building support for the
    Recognizing that even those who do not attend            establishment of a primary name server in Kabul,
university can provide technical services, the Minister      the development of “.af” registration software, and



                                                                                                                  20
the creation of a network of resellers of “.af”              areas throughout Afghanistan, where private
domain names.                                                opportunities for computer training and Internet access
                                                             are fewer or nonexistent. This expansion would be
     Stephane Bortzmeyer, an expert from the French          fully consistent with the National ICT Policy, which
public institution responsible for managing the country      calls for the establishment of kiosks providing public
code Top Level Domain (ccTLD) ―.fr,‖ recently                ICT access at public locations and the equipping of 50
conducted a technical support mission to AFGNIC, the         percent of the country’s post offices with Internet
entity responsible for managing Afghanistan’s ccTLD          terminals and enhanced communication capabilities by
―.af.‖ Mr. Bortzmeyer identified several areas where         the end of 1382 (20 March 2004).
additional support is needed for ―.af‖ to function
properly and fulfill its potential:                               The telekiosk expansions should take place in full
                                                             collaboration with related initiatives that are now
    Establishing a primary name server in Kabul. (At        envisioned or underway. Of particular importance is
     present the primary name server is with UNDP in         the ―Afghanistan: Rebuild, Reconnect, Reunite‖
     New York.)                                              project, which four Afghan ministries have initiated
 Developing registration software to enable                 with funding from UNAMA, and the nationwide
     computer-based registration of domain names.            Provincial and District Stabilization Programme that
 Facilitating the creation of a network of resellers        the Government plans to initiate. These initiatives aim
     of ―.af‖ domain names within the local Internet         to create favorable conditions for civil service reform,
     community. This will require the MoC to explore         public service provision, and national security by
     options for negotiating and contracting with            providing emergency reconstruction of district-level
     resellers.                                              basic infrastructure throughout the country. They will
 Resolving configuration problems in the                    begin in eight pilot districts and are expected
     delegation of subdomains (e.g., ―.gov.af‖ and           eventually to cover all 355 districts. While they will
     ―.com.af‖).                                             initially focus on physical infrastructure, they aim to
     Mr. Bortzmeyer observed in his final report that        lead into capacity building.
―while the technical head is well identified, there is no
daily manager for non-technical tasks.‖ The .af                   The establishment of basic voice and data
manager currently has one assistant and two                  connectivity in the districts is an important component.
technicians. UNDP/MoC Project management could               Voice communication will use the Internet Protocol, so
explore the nature of the support and human resources        that the two forms of communication share the same
needed for continued and improved management of              technology. If sufficient funding is realized, the MoC
―.af‖ with Mr. Bortzmeyer during his follow-up visit to      envisions connectivity in all districts by August 2004.
Kabul in February 2004.                                      The Ministry plans to set up ―multi-purpose
                                                             community tele-centers‖ that are similar to the
(10) Explore the possibility of initiating a project         telekiosks but with access to voice communication
component to support a sustainable system of                 also. The national execution modality used for the
preparing and issuing national identification cards          basic training center in Khost could provide a useful
for the general population.                                  model for establishing these tele-centers—or expanded
                                                             telekiosks—in areas of high security risk.
     Officials of both the MoC and the Ministry of
Interior expressed an interest in support from the               The Project should make efforts to accelerate the
Project for the preparation of national identification       turnover of existing telekiosks to the MoC, enabling
cards. The Electoral Commission could also become            the UNDP animators to move on to new telekiosks and
involved since this process has immediate importance         provide on-the-job training for MoC animators there.
for the elections scheduled for June 2004.
Constituencies for the members of the new Parliament              The need for generators is an important lesson
cannot be identified until the number of people living       learned from the pilot stage. Generators will be
in each area is known. Ideally, national identification      especially important as the project expands to the
cards will be issued before the census to facilitate the     provinces, where power problems are more severe.
process of conducting it.
                                                                  To ensure regular connectivity at the existing
(11) To the extent funding allows, expand the                Kabul telekiosks, Project staff and management
telekiosks to government facilities throughout               suggest that a dedicated VSAT or a link to the UN’s
Afghanistan and expand the range of services they            VSAT is needed. For new telekiosks outside of Kabul,
offer.                                                       collaboration with the MoC’s process of establishing
                                                             connectivity in the provinces and districts is essential.
     The success of the UNDP/MoC telekiosk initiative
in post offices in Kabul suggests that similar initiatives       Expanded services could include (a) the addition
could accelerate reconstruction and development in           of voice communication services consistent with the



                                                                                                                  21
tele-centers envisioned by the MoC; (b) the sale of
blank CDs and other computer accessories (similar to
the current practices of selling mobile phones and
accessories in the Central Post Office of Kabul); and
(c) updates and upgrades to the telekiosk website,
accelerating its capacity to offer e-governance services.

 (12) Ensure that existing and new telekiosks make
optimal use of capacity, especially by remaining
open during hours of high demand.

     The telekiosks are currently open only during the
regular post office (Government) working hours. The
Evaluation Team’s interviews at private computer
training and Internet cafés revealed that the busiest
hours for these activities are in the late afternoons and
evenings when customers are off work. Some of them
continue receiving business until the small hours of the
morning. This indicates that the telekiosks have
considerable excess capacity: their facilities are unused
during the most popular time of use. The President of
the Postal Department and Project staff expressed the
view that, if funding allows, the MoC has the human
resources and the market for the expansion of existing
telekiosk facilities and the Project’s expansion to post
offices in the provinces. This evaluation suggests that
substantial expansion could take place even with the
existing facilities simply by expanding the hours of
operation. Mechanisms should be explored with the
MoC’s Postal Department for keeping the telekiosks
open for longer hours than the rest of the post office.

     In addition, the World Bank funded National
Solidarity Programme (NSP) anticipates establishing
website links in the provincial capitals for the transfer
of data to Kabul. Opportunities may arise for the
telekiosks and/or the basic training programme to share
facilities with NSP. For example, it might be possible
for the NSP to automate the transfer of data so that it
occurs at night, freeing up the facilities for other uses
during the day.




                                                            22
                                                ANNEX 1

                                Interviews for Evaluation of
                         UNDP/MOC ICT Capacity Development Project

                                              December 2003


1.   Mr. Khawaja Akbar, Telekiosk Animator                    Commission, Transitional Islamic State of
     (MOC), First Macrorayon Post Office, Kabul               Afghanistan

2.   Mr. Roman Alj, Aina Afghan Media and                 15. Mr. Abdul Fatah Hamkar, National Capacity
     Culture Center – Internet Cafe, Kabul                    Building Advisor, Ministry of
                                                              Communications
3.   Mr. Amanullah Aman, Cisco Networking
     Trainer, Telecommunications Training                 16. Mr. Fazel Hanif, Cisco Networking Academy
     Center, Ministry of Communications                       Programme Manager, Cisco Systems, Kabul

4.   Ms. Katarina Ammitzboell, Assistant                  17. Mr. Haris, Telekiosk Animator (UNDP),
     Country Director, UNDP, Kabul                            Pashtunistan Post Office, Kabul

5.   Mr. Sayed Javed Andish, Owner of Farjam              18. Mr. M. Haroon, Telekiosk Animator (MOC),
     and Frough Training Centers, Kabul                       Central Post Office, Kabul

6.   Mr. Muhammad Aslam, .af ccTLD Technical              19. Ms. Louise Haxthaven, Programme
     Manager, Afghanistan Network Information                 Specialist, United Nations Educational,
     Center (AFGNIC)                                          Scientific, and Cultural Organization
                                                              (UNESCO), Kabul
7.   Ms. Fatima Azizyar, Telekiosk Animator
     (MOC), Central Post Office, Kabul                    20. Mr. Ghulam M. Isaczai, Senior Programme
                                                              Advisor/Team Leader, Afghanistan’s New
8.   Ms. Anjade Beer, Executive Coordinator,                  Beginnings Programme (Disarmament,
     Agency Coordinating Body for Afghan                      Demobilization, and Reintegration), Kabul
     Relief (ACBAR)
                                                          21. Mr. Rafiqullah Kakar, Telekiosks
9.   Mr. Stephane Bortzmeyer, Network and                     Coordinator, UNDP, Kabul
     System Architect, French Network
     Information Center (AFNIC), and Consultant           22. Ms. Janet Lim, Technical Director, United
     to the Government of France                              Nations Assistance Mission to Afghanistan
                                                              (UNAMA)
10. Mr. Jean-Francois Cautain, Programme
    Coordinator, Representation Office of the             23. Mr. Muhammad Aimal Marjan, National IT
    European Commission to Afghanistan                        Advisor, Ministry of Communications
    (interview held in May 2003)
                                                          24. Mr. Shahmahmood Miakhel, Senior Adviser
11. Mr. Andre Giannechini, Advisor to the                     to the Minister of Interior, Kabul
    Ambassador of France, Embassy of France,
    Kabul                                                 25. Mr. Tariq Miran, Cisco Network Academy
                                                              Programme Teacher and Professor of the
12. Ms. Najlla Habibyar, Telekiosks Animator                  Faculty of Science, Kabul University
    and Liaison Officer, UNDP, Kabul
                                                          26. Mr. Ercan Murat, Country Director, UNDP,
13. Mr. M. Suliman Haikal, Telekiosk Animator                 Kabul
    (UNDP), Third Macrorayon Post Office,
    Kabul                                                 27. Mr. Abdul Hamid Nabizada, Deputy Director
                                                              of Char Rahi Malik Asghar Public Library,
14. Mr. Ahmad Eklil Hakimi, Advisor, Vice                     Kabul
    President’s Office and Independent
    Administrative Reform and Civil Service



                                                                                                          23
28. Ms. Geety Naikbeen, Telekiosk Animator             Programme, Association of Experts in the
    (UNDP), Jada-e-Maiwand Post Office and             Fields of Migration and Development
    First Macrorayon Post Office, Kabul                Cooperation (AGEF), Kabul

29. Mr. Nessar Ahmad Nazari, Aina Afghan           37. Mr. David Saunders, Project Manager,
    Media and Culture Center, Kabul                    Afghanistan Information Management
                                                       Service (AIMS/UNDP), Kabul
30. Mr. Abdul Rahman, Telekiosk IT Specialist,
    UNDP, Kabul                                    38. Ms. Sharifa, Telekiosk Animator (MOC),
                                                       Pashtunistan Post Office, Kabul
31. Mr. Humayoon Rasaw, National Project
    Coordinator, UNDP/MOC ICT Project,             39. Mr. Haroon Sidiqi, Telekiosk Animator
    Kabul                                              (MOC), Jada-e-Maiwand Post Office, Kabul

32. Ms. Elisabeth Rousset, Representation Office   40. Mr. Mohammad Masoom Stanikzai, Minister
    of the European Commission to Afghanistan,         of Communications, Kabul
    Kabul
                                                   41. Mr. Robert Wilson, Deputy Director,
33. Ms. Faiza Safi, Telekiosk Animator (UNDP),         USAID, Kabul
    Third Macrorayon Post Office, Kabul
                                                   42. Mr. Mohammad Yasin, President of Postal
34. Mr. Shakaib Salehi, Telekiosks IT Trainer          Department, Ministry of Communications

35. Mr. A. Sangin, Senior Advisor, Ministry of     43. Mr. Mahmood Zahir, Programme Assistant
    Communications                                     and ICT Learning Manager, UNDP

36. Mr. Nur Ahmad Sarwari, Employment              44. Ms. Sonia Ziaee, ICT Trainer, Ministry of
    Promotion Center Coordinator, Return to            Women’s Affairs, Kabul
    Employment in Afghanistan (REA) Training




                                                                                                   24
                                                   ANNEX 2

                                            Document References


1.   Stephane Bortzmeyer, The Afghan NIC and the         6.   Ministry of Communication, Transitional
     Help Provided by AFNIC (2003)                            Islamic State of Afghanistan, UNDP-
                                                              Afghanistan, and UNDP-Asia Pacific
2.   Islamic Transitional Government of                       Development Information Programme
     Afghanistan and UNDP-Afghanistan, ICT                    (APDIP), Information and Communications
     Capacity Development Project Document                    Technology Policy for Afghanistan:
     (2003)                                                   Development and Implementation Strategy
                                                              Paper (2002)
3.   Ministry of Communications, Transitional
     Islamic State of Afghanistan, Telecom and ICT       7.   UNAMA, Afghanistan: Rebuild, Reconnect,
     Policy Documents (2003)                                  Reunite (Emergency Reconstruction of District
                                                              Level Basic Infrastructure), Project
4.   Ministry of Communications (Abdul Fatah,                 Implementation Agreement and related
     Transitional Islamic State of Afghanistan, The           documents (2003)
     Capacity Building Activities of the Ministry of
     Communications During 1381 and 1382                 8.   UNDP-Afghanistan (Richard Flaman), Action-
     (2003)                                                   Oriented Discussion Paper on the Potential for
                                                              UNDP Technical Assistance to the
5.   Ministry of Communication, Transitional                  Government of Afghanistan in the areas of
     Islamic State of Afghanistan and UNDP-                   Merit-Based Recruitment (Key Posts) and
     Afghanistan, Memorandum of Understanding                 Local Level Administration Reform, Working
     Between the Ministry of Communications and               Draft (2003)
     the United Nations Development Programme
     Concerning Mutual Cooperation and                   9.   UNDP-Afghanistan, Capacity Building
     Collaboration on ICT Related Projects (2002)             Through the Establishment of Information and
                                                              Communications Technologies (ICT) Training
                                                              Centers (periodic reports) (2003)




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