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									Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya




SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ
Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya




Document history and status
 Revision           Date issued                  Reviewed by        Approved by        Date approved      Revision type
                           th                    Mal Horner         Lyndsay                    th         DRAFT – FOR
 DRAFT FINAL        August 8 2006                                                      August 8 2006
                                                 (Team Leader)      Chapple (SKM)                         COMMENT
                                st               Mal Horner         Lyndsay                         st
 FINAL              August 31 2006                                                     August 31 2006     FINAL
                                                 (Team Leader)      Chapple (SKM)




Distribution of copies
 Revision                            Copies           Issued to
 FINAL                               2                ADB                 Axel Hebel
 FINAL                               3                ADB-EMS             Pieter M. Smidt
 FINAL                               2                BAPPENAS            Ir. Medrilzam & Uke Mohammad Hussein
 FINAL                               2                BRR                 Dr. Erwin Fahmi
 FINAL                               2                BAPPEDA NAD         Prof. Abdul Rahman Lubis
 FINAL                               2                BAPEDALDA NAD       Ir. T. H. Said Mustafa
                                                      Public Works
 FINAL                               1
                                                      NAD
                                                      BAPPEDA             For distribution to: BAPPEDA (1), Bupati (1), Camat of
 FINAL                               4
                                                      Kota Sabang         Sukakarya (2)
                                                      World Bank/
 FINAL                               1                                    J. Victor Bottini
                                                      IREP
                                                      Sea Defence
 FINAL                               1                                    Bram van der Boon
                                                      Project




 Printed:                                4 September 2006

 Last saved:                             4 September 2006 12:41 PM

 File name:                              COCS_60_059-RPT-0051 (FINAL) KAP Sukakarya

 Author:                                 Douglas Martin

 Project manager:                        Lyndsay Chapple

 Name of organisation:                   Asian Development Bank

 Name of project:                        ETESP Package 6 Extension

 Name of document:                       Kecamatan Action Plan – Sukakarya

 Document version:                       Final

 Project number:                         COCS-60-059




SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ
Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya




SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ
Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya




Contents
1.     Introduction                                                       1
       1.1     Report Summary and Purpose                                 1
       1.1.1    Overview                                                  1
       1.1.2    The Kecamatan Planning Process                            1
       1.1.3    The Kecamatan Action Plan                                 4
       1.2     Plan Implementation                                        5
       1.2.1    Legal Basis                                               5
       1.2.2    Planning Process Assumptions                              5
       1.2.3    How Can We Use the KAP?                                   6
       1.2.4    Who Can Use the KAP?                                      6
       1.2.5    Linkage to Village Planning Structure                     6
       1.3     Economics and Finance                                      7

2.     Regional Considerations                                            9
       2.1     The Need for a Regional Perspective                       9
       2.2     Physical Characteristics                                  9
       2.3     The Environment                                          11
       2.4     The Livelihoods Dimension                                11
       2.5     The Need for Cross Sectoral and Integrated Programming   13

3.     Infrastructure Rehabilitation                                    15
       3.1     General Policy                                           15
       3.1.1    Issues                                                   15
       3.1.2    Policy/Approach                                          17
       3.1.3    Priority Program                                         18
       3.2     Options Program                                          19
       3.2.1    Program Summary                                          19
       3.2.2    Program Description                                      20
       3.2.3    Project Proposals                                        27

4.     Livelihoods Rehabilitation                                       39
       4.1     Introduction                                             39
       4.2     General Policy                                           39
       4.2.1    Issues                                                   39
       4.2.2    Rationale                                                39
       4.3     Options Program                                          42
       4.3.1    Program Summary                                          42
       4.3.2    Program Description                                      44
       4.3.3    Project Proposals                                        46


SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ                                                    PAGE i
Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya




5.     Environmental Management                                           49
       5.1     Introduction                                               49
       5.2     Site Observations and Analysis                             49
       5.3     Issues                                                     50
       5.3.1    Policy / Approach                                            51
       5.3.2    Rationale                                                    52
       5.3.3    Priority Program                                             53
       5.3.4    Program Summary                                              53
       5.3.5    Program Description                                          54
       5.3.6    Project Proposals                                            56

6.     Summary and Conclusions                                            59



Appendices

Appendix A Solid Waste Management Guidelines for Urban Areas
       A.1     Introduction
       A.2     Objectives
       A.3     SWM Approach
       A.4     Staging of Composting

Appendix B Projects Identified and Costed by BRR Region (outline
summary)

Appendix C TOR
       C.1 TOR 28 – Community Based Proposal For Micro-Financing to Assist
       Business Development
       C.2 TOR 29 – Community Based Tambak Rehabilitation Study
       C.3 ToR 60 – Pulau Sabang – Repair existing water main at Iboih

Appendix D Draft ToR – Coral Replanting Pilot Project
       D.1     Background
       D.2     Scope of Work
       D.3     Estimated Project Cost
       D.4     Estimated Cost For Community Proposal

Appendix E Draft TOR - Pollution Control & Catchment Management
       E.1     Objective
       E.2     Background
       E.3     Indicative Budget

SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ                                                     PAGE ii
Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya




Appendix F Draft TOR - Preparation of a Water and Sanitation Action Plan
       F.1    Background
       F.2    Objectives
       F.3    Scope of Work
       F.4    Budget

Appendix G             Draft Tor - Agricultural Rehabilitation through Capacity
Building
       G.1    Introduction
       G.2    Background
       G.3    Capacity building:
       G.4    Scope of Work

Appendix H Maps
(Maps are inserted at back of report)




Rencana Aksi Kecamatan Sukakarya
Lihat setelah laporan bahasa Inggris
(Indonesian version)




SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ                                                              PAGE iii
Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya




List of Abbreviations
ADB                    Asian Development Bank
AMDAL                  Analisis dampak Lingkungan (Environmental Impact Analysis)
ARRIS                  JICA established Aceh Reconstruction and Rehabilitation Information System
AUSAID                 Australian Agency for International Development
BAKOSURTANAL           Badan Koordinasi Survei dan Pemetaan (National Coordinating Agency for Surveys and Mapping)
BANGDES                Directorat Jenderal Pembanguanan Village Planning Unit (Ministry of Home Affairs)
BAPEDAL                Badan Pengendali dampak Lingkungan (Agency for Environmental Impact Management)
BAPEDALDA              Badan Pengenddalian Dampak Lingkungan Daerah (Provincial Agency for Environmental Impact
                       Management)
BAPPEDA                Badan Perencanaan dan Pembangunan Daerah (Provincial Planning Agency)
BAPPENAS               Badan Perencanaan dan Pembangunan Nasional (National Planning Agency)
BGR                    Germany Board of Geological Survey
BPN                    Badan Pertanahan Nasional (National Land Agency)
BPS                    Badan Pusat Statistik (Central Bureau of Statistics)
BRR                    Badan Rehabilitasi dan Rekonstruksi (Rehabilitation and Reconstruction Agency)
BRR/ RO                BRR Regional Office
CAP                    Community Action Plan
CIDA                   Canadian International Development Agency
CIFOR                  Center for International Forestry Research
COFISH                 Coastal Community Development and Fisheries Resources Management (ADB) Project
COREMAP                Coral Reef Rehabilitation and Management (ADB & WB) Project
DANIDA                 Danish Bilateral Aid Agency
DEPDAGRI               Ministry for Home Affairs
DKP                    Departemen Kelautan dan Perikanan (Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries)
DPR                    Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat (Parliament)
DPRD                   Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat Daerah (Local Parliament)
EIA                    Environmental Impact Assessment
EIS                    Environmental Impact Statement
EMP                    Environmental Management Plan
EPM                    Environmental Protection Measures
ERM                    Environmental Risk Management
ESRI                   The manufacturer of ArcInfo and ArcView GIS software
ETESP                  Earthquake and Tsunami Emergency Support (ADB) Project
EU                     European Union
FAO                    Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
FAR                    Field Assessment Report
FFI                    Flora and Fauna Indonesia
GAM                    Gerakan Aceh Merdeka (Free Aceh Movement)
GFI                    Government Financial Institution
GIS                    Geographic Information System
GOI or GoI             Government of Indonesia
GTZ                    German International Development Agency
HHW                    Household Hazardous Waste
IA                     Implementing Agency
ICZM                   Integrated Coastal Zone Management
IEE                    Initial Environmental Examination
INGO                   International NGO
IUCN                   International Union for the Conservation of Nature
JICA                   Japan International Cooperation Agency
KAP                    Kecamatan Action Plan




SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ                                                                                                 PAGE iv
Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya




KDP                    Kecamatan Development Program
KLH                    Ministry of State for Environment
LAPAN                  Lembaga Antarilesa dan Penerbangan Nasional (National Aerospace and Aviation Association)
LGU                    Local Government Unit
LREP                   Land Resource Evaluation and Planning (ADB) Project
MAPFRAME               A spreadsheet form of the latest statistics from BPS
MCRMP                  Marine and Coastal Resources Management (ADB) Project
MREP                   Marine Resources Evaluation (ADB) Project
MRF                    Materials Recovery Facility
MSWMB                  Municipal Solid Waste Management Board
NAD                    Province of Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam
NGO                    Non-Government Organization
PDAM                   Perusahaan Daerah Air Minum (Local Government Water Company)
PLN                    Perusahaan Listrik Negara (Power Company)
PMO                    Project Management Office
POKJA                  Government Working Group
PPIU                   Project Planning and Implementation Units
PU                     Pekerjaan Umum(Ministry of Public Works)
RALAS                  Reconstruction of Aceh Land Administration System
RRP                    ADB Report and Recommendations to the President
RTRW                   Rencana Tata Ruang Wilayah (Regional Spatial Plan)
SCTTRSPAN 2005         Steering Committee & Technical Team for the Review of Spatial Planning for NAD & Nias 2005
SERD                   South East Asia Regional Department
SKM                    Sinclair Knight Merz
SPAR                   Sub Project Appraisal Report
SPEM                   Spatial Planning and Environmental Management component of ETESP
SWM                    Solid Waste Management
SWMB                   Solid Waste Management Board
SWMP                   Solid Waste Management Plan
TOR                    Terms of Reference
TS                     Waste Transfer Station
UKL                    Upaya Pengelolaan Lingkungan Hidup (Environmental Management Efforts)
UNDP                   United Nations Development Program
UNEP                   United Nations Environment Program
UN-HIC                 United Nations Humanitarian Information Center (same as UN-IMS)
UNICEF                 United Nations Children Fund
UN-IMS                 United Nations Information Management Service
UN-OPS                 United Nations Office for Project Services
UNOSAT                 United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs
UPL                    Upaya Pemantauan Lingkungan Hidup (Environmental Monitoring Efforts)
USAID                  United States Agency for International Development
WRI                    World Resource Institute
WWF                    World Wildlife Fund
YIPD                   Yayasan Inovasi Pereriintahan Daerah (Centre for Local Governance Innovation)
YLI or LIF             Yayasan Leuser International




SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ                                                                                                PAGE v
Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya




SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ
Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya




1.        Introduction
1.1       Report Summary and Purpose
1.1.1     Overview
The Kecamatan Action Plan [KAP] identifies priority projects and programs that will focus on the
improvement of infrastructure in the post-tsunami rehabilitation and reconstruction in NAD and
Nias. The KAP has been prepared with the communities and stakeholders of the Kecamatan and
with the agencies of the Kabupaten and the Regional Offices of BRR [BRR/RO] to address the
BRR commitment to initiate planning at the Kecamatan level of local government.

In this project the improvement of infrastructure provides the basis for the rehabilitation and
reconstruction of Kecamatans as the first phase of a two-phase program. Phase I will fast track the
rehabilitation of the immediate infrastructure needs of the Kecamatan while identifying the wider
employment and environmental considerations. Some of the projects and programs identified in
Phase I can proceed to detail design and implementation immediately through the programs
administered by the BRR Regional Office responsible for the Kabupaten, whereas others will need
additional study before they can proceed to implementation.

Phase II of the program will promote a regional planning framework for the programs initiated in
Phase I where the more inclusive planning for livelihoods and environment programs will be
developed. Over time, the combined Phase I and II projects and programs will be continually
updated as the basis for enhancing future planning policy for the Kecamatan in the context of
village and district level decision making.

This document gives an outline of the planning process and current institutional arrangements
[Section 1] and describes the regional context for current and future planning [Section 2]. The
following sections and tables discuss and describe the projects identified in the three areas of
infrastructure, livelihoods and environment. This has come about as a result of a comprehensive
and fairly detailed process of analysis, field survey and consultation. The projects identified in
Sections 3, 4 and 5 relate directly to the problem analysis contained in a separate document
“Kecamatan Sukakarya – Field Assessment Report” [FAR]. That report includes a range of
background materials that support the proposals in this Action Plan. Section 6 summarises the
proposed program. See also Map SK Bas/1 at back of report.


1.1.2     The Kecamatan Planning Process
The following diagram (see Figure 1) provides a guideline to field consultation that was to carry
out the process. It leads to the drafting of project options in cooperation with the concerned
participants and the development of a Kecamatan Action Plan.



SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ                                                                          PAGE 1
Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya




     Figure 1 - Kecamatan Planning Process



SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ                         PAGE 2
Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya




The process used in identifying the issues and problems was multi faceted. Using pre- and post-
tsunami mapping, missing infrastructure was identified and key environmental features were
located. Available secondary data was examined. Interviews and discussions were held with
Kecamatan and Kabupaten staff and with NGOs. The process intentionally avoids village level
issues by focusing on the functional and behavioural linkages between the villages.

Community consultations involved the Camat and Kepala Desas [Village Heads] of the affected
villages and other key community leaders. Simple questionnaires about key issues and problems
were distributed [recorded in the FAR] and the issues discussed in community consultation. The
consultations served to identify key factors and to set priorities. Findings were further discussed
with the Camat, staff and key leaders, Kabupaten and the BRR/RO. A working group of local
government officials [POKJA] was set up to provide local information to the Field Team and to
consult on key issues.

The environmental vulnerability of coastal areas to construction of settlements, infrastructure, etc.
has been a continuing consideration of the SP/EM program and the environmental sensitivity of
areas has been identified in a sensitivity map for each Kabupaten. These maps have been produced
in the form of an atlas (“Environmental Sensitivity Mapping”) as an additional tool to assist
decision-making and planning.

More critical in the present situation is the coastal environment’s exposure to future tsunami related
activity. The SP/EM consultation process has revealed that it is difficult to introduce measures that
could reduce community exposure to potential extreme wave action. There is collective political
conviction that affected local populations should not be exposed to the additional trauma of being
re-settled in new areas away from their traditional communities in tsunami affected locations. Land
tenure is a major reason for this decision and BAPPENAS has recommended in their Master Plan
document under Presidential Decree the application of buffer zones. In response to the critical
local conditions, however, BRR determined that people be allowed to return to private and
traditionally owned land in order to rebuild and houses are being built close to the coastline or
positioned where they are affected by high tides. While the SP/EM program approach has been to
endorse the application, where possible, of some form of buffer zone between the coast and any
settlement, current planning is principally short term and in response to the BRR request for
infrastructure rollout in the present development areas.

There are several factors to consider under the issue:

     No settlement in any part of the world has taken into account the potential impact of a 13 m
     tsunami wave – or even the more likely smaller tsunamis, and in the case of Aceh nearly all
     areas along the coast are vulnerable to wave action;




SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ                                                                           PAGE 3
Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya




     Well-grounded planning addressing this issue would most likely rule out any development at
     all in the urban locations in Banda Aceh, Baitussalam and Pekan Bada as all these areas lie in
     the flood plain of the Krueng Aceh River.
     Settlements of greatest density in Aceh are located in what could be termed a hazard zone and
     where there is a shortage of alternative land.
The combined impacts of tsunami effects are relative to the relationship between topography and
distance from the coastline and epicentre of an earthquake. An appropriate buffer zone in such
circumstances would be a combination of distance from the coast and also elevation; in the flatter
topography of coastal areas the setback distance is considered to be more critical. A land system
analysis is a necessary first step in determining a regionally relevant buffer, but even then the
amount of land dedicated would be highly subjective.
The coastline, most particularly the west coast, is still in a high state of flux; a recent aerial survey
has identified extreme accretion and erosion processes at work. Expert geomorphological advice
varies regarding the time period required for these dynamics to reach equilibrium, but all are in
agreement that the coastline will be an area of high activity for some time to come. A Dutch Sea
Defence Study, intended to provide further understanding of this issue is being carried out for the
Aceh coastline and will produce flood risk maps related to earthquake generated tsunamis. These
maps will become available in October 2006. It is therefore essentially difficult to be making
decisions affecting the location of infrastructure. People, however, need to rebuild their lives and in
a situation where decisions have been taken to re-house people locally few resettlement programs
have been proposed outside of affected tsunami areas.

Development requirements may change in the future when there is a greater emphasis on longer
term planning rather than on current immediate term reconstruction imperatives. BAPPENAS has
the longer term planning responsibilities and may in the future require formal verification of some
danger zones and setbacks. Such longer term spatial planning can commence a more
comprehensive planning process that will promote future settlement in less vulnerable locations.
The work of the SP/EM KAP program has carried out a gap analysis that has addressed immediate
rehabilitation and reconstruction needs of the displaced communities and did not involve a formal
spatial planning exercise. In light of future initiatives the KAP can, however, become a basis for a
spatial planning approach in the context of action oriented regional planning. This issue is
considered in Section 2.


1.1.3      The Kecamatan Action Plan
The Kecamatan Action Plan [KAP] is a planning document to set priority targets for rebuilding
infrastructure within the Kecamatan. It includes selected projects/sub-programs proposed by the
community and assessed by the consultant in coordination with local expertise within the context of
stated livelihoods requirements and environmental considerations. The KAP directly reflects the
concerns, desires and priorities expressed by the represented communities.



SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ                                                                             PAGE 4
Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya




The recommendations are coordinated with the BRR and with the Kabupatan, principal donors and
NGOs operating in the Kecamatan, and with components of the ADB Earthquake and Tsunami
Emergency Support Project [ETESP].

It recommends possible sources for funding the selected programs and should be considered a
living document to coordinate current and future activities at the Kecamatan level. Other programs
and projects planned over time by the Kecamatan, Kabupatan and the BRR/RO will be included as
additions to the KAP. The KAP will be updated and maintained and will be coordinated with all
operating donors and NGOs to build a comprehensive program for the rebuilding of the
Kecamatan. Over time, KAPs should, be used to establish planning policy developed under an
expanded regional spatial planning program, integrating the infrastructure programs with
comprehensive livelihoods and environmental agendas.




1.2       Plan Implementation
1.2.1     Legal Basis
In the present Indonesian government structure, the Kecamatan is located between the Kabupaten
and the Desa, and plays a purely administrative role. It has no planning or implementation
functions. Due to the nature of the tsunami, the resulting damage has occurred in areas that are
mainly coincident with the coastal Kecamatans of the local government areas along the entire
western and eastern coast of NAD. Consequently, in conjunction with the new BRR structure the
Kecamatan level presents an opportunity to carry out a strategic planning role in order to support
the many administrative tasks required resulting from the tsunami. An interim Memorandum of
Understanding has been jointly discussed with BRR, Kabupaten and the Camat in order to give the
planning process a defacto legal basis.


1.2.2    Planning Process Assumptions
    The KAP will be used in conjunction with the Kabupaten Development Program.
    The Kecamatan level of government will be strengthened with capacity building according to a
    new BRR structure which allows BRR to implement projects as well as be an executing
    agency.
    In the immediate term, all funding will flow from Central Government, donors and NGOs to
    BRR to Kecamatan based Project Planning so that all stakeholders are subject to the same
    planning process.
    Such funding procedure will allow a more balanced emphasis on larger infrastructure which is
    not normally addressed at the Desa level.
    The KAP will combine a top down approach with the bottom up approach where the focus is
    on the Kecamatan Forum to allocate funding based on the proposals from each Desa. This will
    address the weakness of the bottom up approach in operation and maintenance, and in its lack
    of consideration of larger infrastructure issues.


SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ                                                                        PAGE 5
Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya




1.2.3     How Can We Use the KAP?
    To provide the basis for BRR to make investment decisions which include more than one
    village area.
    To make decisions about how much budget each infrastructure sector will receive each year.
    To decide which part of the Kecamatan requires more resources to boost different sectors.
    To stimulate private sector participation in the Kecamatan.
    To decide if a Development, Location or Building Permit should be given to a developer or an
    individual.
    To decide how to balance long term goals with short term objectives.
    To protect special areas.
    To decide if the environmental and social impacts of development are too severe.
    By the Village Forum to allocate funding for larger “public and collective goods” and support
    proposals for attracting more private sector participation. The Forum will need to agree on
    what will be the mix between resources going to larger infrastructure rather than proposals
    from each village.
    To add value by developing objective criteria on which to evaluate proposals using the KDP
    approach.
1.2.4     Who Can Use the KAP?
    BRR - to allocate financial and human resources
    DPR - to make decisions on the Kabupaten Budget
    BUPATI - to give planning and resource allocation advice to the DPR
    BAPPEDA - to make decisions about development and giving out permits
    BAPEDALDA - to make decisions about environmental and social impacts of development
    CAMAT - to provide administrative data and support to the BUPATI
    VILLAGE HEAD - to coordinate infrastructure involving more than one village
    VILLAGE FORUM - to provide a basis for deciding on funding of specific projects between
    villages.
1.2.5      Linkage to Village Planning Structure
Implementation of the rehabilitation program also depends on other supporting programs being in
place at the village level. They include the successful re-establishment of property rights, necessary
for the reconstruction of houses and communities, and protection of the people’s ownership and
land rights in the affected areas. These programs are being established under the RALAS project
and developed under the village mapping program.

An intensive village planning program is being carried out by key donors and NGOs for affected
villages under an extensive BRR program that addresses most housing and Level 1 infrastructure
issues specific to the village.




SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ                                                                           PAGE 6
Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya




Outside the village areas the KAP will provide for the relocation of communities by a process of
resettlement and future mechanisms to assist in improving local preparedness and means of escape
during future earthquakes, tsunamis and other natural disaster.

The Sea Defence Project is undertaking the design for escape from villages.


1.3       Economics and Finance
The original assumption was that all projects identified in tsunami-affected areas would be funded
by BRR. Those which were not the direct result of the tsunami could be covered by build back
better. This assumption was held by the consultants and by affected regional governments.

At the start of the ETESP extension to Package 6, it became apparent that projects would have to
be packaged to enable them to enter the BRR budgeting system. This was carried out and a package
of projects in three Aceh Besar Kecamatans, covering infrastructure, livelihoods and environment
was presented to BRR.

The discussion that followed demonstrated that the original funding assumption was not correct.
There were several reasons for this. First BRR did not have sufficient funds to pay for all identified
projects. Second, the funding gaps which BRR has identified are in sectors which are traditionally
the responsibility of regional government, e.g. roads, flood control and local environment. Third,
there had always been the assumption that regional governments would have to fund some share of
the works. Fourth, the realisation was growing in BRR and the World Bank that regional
governments’ ability to fund had increased significantly, as a result of increases in world oil prices
and changes in central government revenue sharing. Fifth, it was seen that the regional
governments had not as yet fully realised their responsibilities. Finally, BRR was learning that its
abilities lay mainly in the direction of strategic funding and that it could not have staff on the
ground able to make the decisions required for detailed Kecamatan level planning.

To deal with these problems, BRR has initiated Joint Secretariats so that they and regional
governments can discuss funding needs and capabilities. Since these are not yet decided,
allocations to funding source given in the KAP tables do not yet include the results of those
discussions.

BRR has also asked to continue packaging projects at Kabupaten level. The packages compiled
under the KAP program are presented by BRR region in the document “Cost Estimates for
Identified Projects”. The packages will be used immediately to assist BRR in allocating its 2007
budget to regional offices. For a summary of cost estimates for identified projects see Appendix B.
Since the project was told to concentrate on infrastructure, not all identified projects in the
livelihood and environmental sectors have been budgeted.




SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ                                                                            PAGE 7
Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya




SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ                PAGE 8
Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya




2.        Regional Considerations
2.1       The Need for a Regional Perspective
The kecamatan-focused consultation process has been valuable in that it has identified a broad
range of local issues. At the same time it was instructive in that many of the so-called ‘local’ issues
were in fact being repeated from one kecamatan to another. What this points to is there may be
merit in taking a broader regional view of many of these activities. A purely kecamatan approach
may actually be misleading, and may not make much sense from a ‘marketing’ point of view. Thus
it is important to look at the regional aspects of the physical geography, the environment and
livelihoods activities.

 “Building back better” will benefit from an integrated approach that incorporates the local as well
as regional and provincial perspectives. In order to generate ‘best-fit’ solutions, there needs to be
integration of kecamatan, kabupaten and provincial elements.

It is also important to recognise that unless communities are urged to adopt long term structural
changes they will revert to what they know now, and thus will revert back to previous subsistence
and low level economic practices - a situation which, for many, will mean perpetual poverty.

Livelihoods programs should look at alternate modes of production, comparative advantage,
economies of scale and rationalisation in the market place to promote a mix of district and sub-
district and even provincial initiatives that would benefit all levels of producers, processors and
consumers. Infrastructure programs should implement national and provincial physical and
environmental standards that address area-wide needs, sustainability criteria and energy efficiency
objectives. From an environmental perspective, integrated regional programs should include
coastal and watershed management and regional drainage and irrigation plans. Such initiatives
would benefit from a regional, ecological and land systems based approach.


2.2        Physical Characteristics
Understanding the physical characteristics of the coastal lowland plains and hills ecological
systems will enhance the planning for rehabilitation. The west coast of Aceh belongs to the so
called Western Coastal Plains and Hills Region of Sumatra. In general the western coastal
lowlands can be classified into four different coastline types, each with its specific parent material,
age, elevation and slope, soil characteristics and layout of alluvial systems, deltas and modified
estuaries.

Figure 2 below identifies the position of the four coastline types. This KAP belongs to the first
category, the northernmost outliers of the Barisan Range, which includes Sabang and Pulo Aceh.
These islands feature fringing coral reefs and consist mainly of moderately steep (16-25%) and



SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ                                                                            PAGE 9
Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya




steep (> 25%) sloping hills, hilly and mountainous areas. The soils vary widely, from rocky and
gravely lahar sediments in the north-eastern parts of Sabang to richer soils from volcanic rocks and
intermediate and mafic tuffs and lava’s in Nasi, Bireuh and Aceh, while the southern parts of Aceh
has calcareous rock parent material.




     Figure 2 - Simplified Geological Map
Due to the steep slopes and inaccessibility, all these islands have a low potential for agriculture
production and fishing is far more important. However, the environmental significance of this
collective zone should not be underestimated and the potential for greater protection and
management, possibly generated from an eco-tourism perspective, is documented. For example,
Sabang has some extraordinary coral reefs and beaches (Pulo Rubiah, beaches of Cot Gapang) and
Pulo Aceh has some exclusive beaches where sea turtles lay eggs. All forested areas on these


SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ                                                                        PAGE 10
Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya




islands will benefit from the designation of a natural conservation zoning. The strategic and
economical position of Sabang has extensive history and the island, from this point of view, is far
more important than the others.
2.3       The Environment
Environmental sensitivity mapping and field assessment of both the marine and terrestrial
environments have revealed that few areas are in an undisturbed or pristine state. Although there
has been massive destruction as a result of the tsunami, it is well documented that the physical
environment had been degrading before the tsunami. In brief, the study area is a highly modified
system and some present land use (see Map SK EnC/2 at back of report) and resource exploitation
practices are clearly unsustainable. Policies, institutional commitment, and community
understanding of the issues and alternatives all need to be developed to achieve improved standards
in environmental management. The present situation could also be enhanced by facilitating a full
application of the very good existing polices and enforcement of pertinent laws.

Environmental planning in highly modified landscapes is a challenge, most particularly when the
scale of destruction is all inclusive. There are:

          Negligible or highly compromised ecological and spatial planning benchmarks.
          Difficulties in gaining agreement on indicators and monitoring processes;
          Pressures to reinstate basic livelihood opportunities, thus usurping the good intentions
          behind long-term planning initiatives;
          Shortfalls in capacity, resources and political commitment;
          Numerous examples where solving one problem leads to the emergence of another; and
          Clear gaps in understanding all of the above at institutional and community levels.
It is clear that in the existing situation there is a need for long term environmental education,
combined with capacity building of institutions and allocation of resources. Communities and local
government must clearly see the benefits of environmental management and protection.


2.4       The Livelihoods Dimension
During the KAP development process considerable consultation was undertaken with a variety of
stakeholders – from the village level to the kecamatan level to the kabupaten level, and with a
variety of government and non-government stakeholders. The consultations served a number of
purposes, from pure information gathering to consensus building and also served to give legitimacy
to the planning outcomes.

In spite of all the immediate needs such as housing and water and the repair of key pieces of
damaged or destroyed infrastructure, it became clear in all the surveyed Kecamatans that the
underlying concern was livelihoods. There was a general realization that many of the basic needs


SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ                                                                            PAGE 11
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had been, or were about to be, met and that the present preoccupation with repair and rehabilitation
activities by NGOs and other agencies would eventually come to an end. At that point the people
would have to resume their previous forms of livelihood activities, or preferably embark on new
and improved ones.

While there are some minor variations from kecamatan to kecamatan, overwhelmingly the priority
needs, as identified by the people, are rehabilitation of paddy fields, followed closely by
rehabilitation of the fishing industry, and in some cases rejuvenation of the faltering rubber
industry.

Field observations continually revealed that a high level of former paddy fields remain idle. In
some areas effort has been made to drain and clear the fields of tsunami debris and sediment
deposits but extensive areas remain where drainage and land clearance need to be undertaken
before crops can be sown. Rehabilitation of these areas is seen as both vital and urgent and
initiatives to remove debris and sediment from paddy fields, repair drainage channels and restore
access roads are addressed in the KAPs.

Fishing, both offshore and onshore, has been a supplementary form of income for many villagers
and in some coastal villages it was the primary source of income. Many lives and much equipment
and facilities were lost in the tsunami. Reinstatement of the industry has been made difficult by the
environmental upheavals that prevent many rivers from being able to enter the sea at their former
estuaries. Full rehabilitation of the industry may take a long time, given the uncertainties about the
way the natural environment will settle in the years ahead. However, supplementary incomes could
be enhanced in the short term by the provision of fishing boats, nets, landing places and marketing
facilities, and the dredging of estuaries.

Similarly, the provision of some replacement livestock could generate supplementary income and
therefore improve livelihoods. Many villagers have had previous experience with livestock, and
grants for some replacement stock would be beneficial and at relatively low cost.

Other livelihood opportunities by way of rejuvenation of the rubber industry, reconstruction of tree
(coconut) plantations along the coastal sand barrier, recovery of some swampy/wetland areas
behind the sand barrier for tambaks or fruit and vegetable production, and small business
generation, may take time to realize measurable livelihood benefits. Accordingly, such activities
are considered to be of lower priority at this time.

Rehabilitating agricultural productivity as a principle livelihood source is dependent on a number
of factors that contribute to explaining the existing agricultural productivity gaps.




SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ                                                                          PAGE 12
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          Pre-tsunami agriculture of Aceh was predominantly a subsistence level low input, low
          output model. Successfully changing such a situation while ensuring that the change does
          not produce social problems requires long timelines.
          The existing boom economy, artificially supported by donor dollars, offers the
          predominantly subsistence level farmers the opportunity to sell their labour and thus more
          efficiently attain food security.
          There is a strong correlation between the speed with which infrastructure work is executed
          and the ability of farmers to commence farm work again.
          Due to the tsunami, is acknowledged that there has been a loss of farm labour, as much
          farm labour work was carried out previously by women. Mechanization and
          rationalization of farm holdings may be a partial solution.
Many of the present livelihoods rehabilitation programs focus on restoration of the previous means
of production and not on the processing of value-adding products. If the aim is to Build Back
Better, more emphasis should be on the physical qualities of the land as a basis for long term
planning to introduce greater options. Analysis of land capability in conjunction with alternate
modes of production could offer farmers alternative and more profitable opportunities.


2.5        The Need for Cross Sectoral and Integrated Programming
In Sections 3, 4 and 5 of the KAP recommended action proposals are classified under the separate
sectoral headings of infrastructure, livelihoods and environment. However, this simple
categorization should not be allowed to hide either the underlying importance of livelihoods
rehabilitation or the highly integrated nature of these proposals. Livelihoods development is
critical, and infrastructure and environmental initiatives should be seen to be supporting that
objective. However, the distinction between the sectoral categories is not always clear cut and it is
similarly difficult at times to distinguish between the sequence of programs.

For these reasons it is necessary to comprehend the full range of recommendations put forward to
achieve the core objectives, and to appreciate that action (or inaction) under one sectoral heading
may have consequences for another sector or another location.




SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ                                                                          PAGE 13
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SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ                PAGE 14
Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya




3.        Infrastructure Rehabilitation
Refer to Map SK Inf/3 at back of report.


3.1       General Policy
3.1.1     Issues
Effective and efficient rehabilitation and reconstruction in Kecamatan Sukajaya is dependant upon
the completion of key infrastructure and associated elements. Generally Kecamatan Sukajaya was
only moderately affected by the tsunami in those areas which were low lying and close to the coast.
Buildings were damaged, along with sections of the roads, tambak systems, fish landings and
associated facilities, and bridge and culvert crossings. Some of these facilities have already been
rehabilitated and reconstructed and other parts are under construction. Therefore there is a
significant number of infrastructure elements that have been identified in this plan that were not
directly affected but will facilitate the implementation of the “build back better” philosophy of
BRR. Some of the infrastructure issues are addressed below.

Roads and Bridges

The section of the main road from Aneuk Laot to Krueng Raya (6 Km) is severely damaged. The
section of the route from Sabang City to the tourism areas (Gapang and Iboih Resort) is generally
in good condition, except a short but very steep section between Seurui and Lam Nibong which is
in severely damaged condition due to lack of road drainage system and topography characteristics.

The existing embankment has collapsed in one location and exposed the nearside edge of the road
asphalt at the higher level. The reinstatement or repair of the embankment has not been carried out.
The failed embankment is approximately 22 meters long, 14 meters wide and a vertical height from
the lower road of 16 meters. It was also observed water erosion of the embankment side edge is
occurring in several locations along this road and immediate action to remedy this situation should
be undertaken to avoid further embankment collapses. In addition, some parts of road between
Serui and Lam Nibong are in moderate to severe damage condition.

The other sections of the road include: (1) the road conjunction between Lam Nibong and Teluk
Teupin Anoe, with 1 Km length having moderate damage; (ii) between Teluk Teupin Anoe and
Ujung Guasarang, with 3.5 Km length having severe damage conditions.

The alternative road to the Provincial route is the Southern Route which is from Batee Shok to Cot
Damar, with 3.3 Km length in moderate to good condition. Another road alternative is from Cot
Bakoe Yoen to Sukajaya Camat Office, with 3.6 Km length having severe damage conditions.




SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ                                                                        PAGE 15
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Due to the tsunami and earthquake, 2 bridges were destroyed in Lhok Pria Laot (Aneuk Laot
Kelurahan) and in Lhok Krueng Raya (Krueng Raya Kelurahan). Most of the damaged
infrastructure has been rehabilitated and some parts are presently being reconstructed.

Water Supply

PDAM uses Aneuk Laot Lake since 2003 as a water source with 28 liter/second of flow with a
coverage area of 3 Km2 with 7 million ton of capacity. Based on a BPPT study, the water level of
Aneuk Laot has fallen by 8 meters due to leakage at the lake bottom caused by an earthquake.
Currently water flow to the sea is 105 liter/second compared with 50.5 liter/second prior to the
tsunami. In addition, sedimentation is gradually increasing in the Aneuk Laot Lake due to
geological alteration upstream.

The fresh water supply to Gapang and Iboih Resort is provided by PDAM using a 50 mm diameter
piped gravity fed supply from a water tower in Lung Angeun. This tower is ± one Km from Iboih
Kelurahan. The water supply is quite often interrupted, and when in operation has a very low
pressure delivery.

Based on community consultation, it is proposed to rehabilitate the water distribution network from
Aneuk Laot since the existing pipe was installed by the Dutch. In addition, it is proposed also to
rehabilitate broncapturing and pipe of 80 mm and additional deep well for Tapak Gajah Kelurahan
well as 4 units of shallow well in Kota Atas Kelurahan.

Lung Angeun spring water located in Iboih Kelurahan serves Gaboy, Lam Nibong and Teupin
Layeue (Kelurahan Iboih). However, the quantity is not enough to meet the demand of these three
locations. Water salinity is high due to there being no separation of the spring water from sea water
following the tsunami. Another water spring at Sarung Keris Mountain serves Batee Shok and
Krueng Raya Kelurahan (Sarung Keris and Ilham Syukuran Lingkungan). For Kelurahan Krueng
Raya, it is proposed to rehabilitate water resources in Sarung Keris Lingkungan and to develop 2
drilled well units in Ilham Syukuran Lingkungan.

Solid Waste

Solid waste collection by the Sanitation Department will only serve the area that has access to
vehicles (trucks or mini colt) in this Kecamatan. Currently, a solid waste container is provided by
each household and the waste is collected daily. Based on community consultation, it is understood
that there is lack of solid waste collection in some parts of Kelurahans within the Kecamatan. In
addition, the communities proposed household waste container/bin should be provided by the
government. Household waste containers are proposed in Aneuk Laot, Krueng Raya, Paya
Seunara, Kota Bawah Barat, and Kota Bawah Timur Kelurahan.



SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ                                                                         PAGE 16
Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya




The Sanitation Department employs the local community to collect solid waste from the beach area
and transport it once a week from Gapang and Iboih Resort. Domestic solid wastes from cafés or
households are not managed well by the community, particularly in the Iboih. Domestic solid
wastes are dumped in empty land and then burnt.

Power Supply

Power supply source for Sabang City is from diesel with 10 generator units with a total capacity of
8 MW provided by PLN. The electricity network serves all Kelurahans within Kecamatan
Sukakarya. However, some housing does not have connections to PLN due to their inability to pay
the connection fee.

The transmission line for the Kecamatan is via overhead cables supply. some of it passes through
protected forest. Disruption to electrical service happens frequently in Gapang and Iboih due to
falling trees damaging the cable in the protected forest. This condition affects the electricity supply
in the resort areas of Gapang and Iboih. Other potential power supply sources in this Kecamatan
are from geothermals located in Seurui and Pria Laot Kelurahan.

Coastal Defense

Sea walls were built along the northern and southern part of the beach for high tide protection.
Some parts of the sea wall were destroyed by tsunami and earthquake such as in Krueng Raya
Kelurahan. The community proposes to build a sea wall (1 KM) in Look Pang Lima to protect from
erosion. The public also proposes to build a sea wall for erosion protection in Lhok Panglima
Lingkungan (400 meters) and in Kota Bawah Timur and in Kota Bawah Barat Keluarahan (400-
600 meters).

3.1.2      Policy/Approach
Project infrastructure planning focuses on infrastructure gaps which occur beyond the boundaries
of the urban settlement area of each Kelurahan. This process supports the village planning process
that is being carried out by other consultants and/or NGOs. The village planning process identifies
and deals with such issues within the urban settlement areas.

While the village planning process, carried out by consultants and NGOs, addresses the major
infrastructure requirements, secondary issues which are important for the local community have not
yet been addressed. It is these elements which form the basis of the infrastructure programs of this
plan.

Coordination of the construction of infrastructure with the provision of housing, livelihood
establishment, replanting and environmental management will ensure that investment in these areas
can more adequately meet the needs of the community.


SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ                                                                           PAGE 17
Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya




3.1.3    Priority Program
The infrastructure priority program areas for Kecamatan Sukakarya is described below.

Roads

          Repair and upgrading of northern, southern and alternative kelurahan and local access
          roads to improve access between communities and to recreation areas. The suitable
          standard of road includes a sealed surface and drainage where appropriate. The roads
          identified are those which are currently not included in alternative programs.
          Repair bridges and culverts where necessary.
Water Supply

          Investigate hydrogeology of Aneuk Laot Lake to assess leakage location
          Replace distribution pipe from Aneuk Laot to Kebon Merica (Kota Bawah Barat
          Kelurahan) and rehabilitate broncapturing and pipe 80 mm in Jl Tjuk Nayk Dien (Kota
          Atas Kelurahan)
          Build additional wells in Tapak Gajah (Ie Meulee Kelurahan) and Kota Atas Kelurahan
          Upgrading of Lung Angeun spring water in Iboih Kelurahan and water reservoir from
          spring water of Sarung Keris Mountain, as well as distribution network in Batee Shok
          Kelurahan
Domestic Solid Waste

          Provision of suitable solid waste management to guidelines provided by SP/EM program
          (Appendix A).
Safety Infrastructure

          Build new retaining wall in Kota Bawah Timur, Kota Bawah Barat Kelurahan for erosion
          protection of adjoining housing area.
Coastal Defence

          Build new sea wall in Pantai Kasih for erosion protection
Tourism Infrastructure

          Rehabilitation of a walking trail in Gapang and Iboih Resort
          Provide sufficient water supply for Gapang and Iboih Resort
          Repair drainage culvert in Gapang Resort
          Create hammerhead turning in cul de sac for visitors in Gapang resort




SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ                                                                        PAGE 18
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          Provide new TPS (temporary collection site) for western and eastern end beach in Gapang
          Resort
          Design drainage and landscape in eastern end beach of Gapang Resort
          Design access road to the beach in eastern end beach of Gapang Resort
          Demolish and remove old toilet buildings on the beach of Gapang Resort
          Improve the access road to parking lot behind beach (Gapang Resort)
          Design and prepare new signage directing beach and resort traiffic , design and implement
          new entrance for Gapang Resort
          Replace existing fence on both sides of entrance road in Gapang Resort
          Provide master plan of sanitation system for Iboih Resort
          Provide tourist bus transportation from Balohan to Gapang and Iboih Resort and tourist
          ship from Sabang to Gapang and Iboih Resort

3.2       Options Program
3.2.1      Program Summary
Post-tsunami reconstruction and rehabilitation planning offers an opportunity to optimise and
upgrade infrastructure to an improved standard and with the coordination of stakeholders. These
infrastructure improvements are critical to ensure essential needs of the community are met and
that the level of service is, at a minimum, to the standard which had been planned pre-tsunami with
Sabang City approval.

The development of the options program for infrastructure has been undertaken in association with
the development of environmental rehabilitation proposals and the livelihood initiatives. All three
are interlinked and the works associated with infrastructure have a direct impact on people’s
livelihoods and the environmental conditions of the Kecamatan.

The Infrastructure program addresses the key needs of the Kecamatan and incorporates programs
that are not currently proposed by any NGOs or other agencies. They reflect the needs of the
community and are based on field work, consultation, a household survey and data collection.




SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ                                                                        PAGE 19
Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya




3.2.2     Program Description
 ROADS AND BRIDGES
 INFRASTRUCTURE 1- BUILD RETAINING STRUCTURE BETWEEN SERUI AND LAM NIBONG
         The road section between Serui and Lam Nibong is very steep section in severly damaged condition due to lack of road drainage system. The existing embankment has
         collapsed in one location and exposed the nearside edge of the road asphalt at the higher level. The collapsed material accumulated at the lower end of the embankment
         has been cleared away but the reinstatement or repair of the embankment has not been carried out. There is now a danger the upper level road will collapse further,
         rendering it impassable thus blocking off all access to the Western sector of the Island. The failed embankment is approximate 22 meters long, 14 meters wide and a
         vertical height from the lower road of 16 meters. It was also observed water erosion of the embankment side edge is occurring in several locations along this road and
         immediate action to remedy this situation should be undertaken to avoid further embankment collapses.
         Future value potential: Maintain access to tourism areas for community in Iboih Kelurahan.
 INFRASTRUCTURE 2 – UPGRADE ROAD BETWEEN SERUI AND LAM NIBONG
         This road is a part of northern route and serves as an access to the north coast of Sabang and tourism areas (Gapang and Iboih Resort). Some sections of the route are
         damaged due to lack of maintenance and inappropriate drainage design. The road damage has been categorised into minor, moderate and severe. Upgrading of the road
         to a sealed standard, with associated drainage will need to be undertaken.
         Future value potential: Improved access / travel time to tourism area, connection to kelurahans , and improved travel times
 INFRASTRUCTURE 3 - UPGRADE ROAD BETWEEN LAM NIBONG AND KM 0
         This road is a part of northern route and serves as an access to the north coast of Sabang and tourism areas (KM 0). Some parts of the route are damaged due to lack of
         maintenance and inappropriate drainage design. The road damage has been categorised into minor, and moderate. Upgrading of the road to a sealed standard, with
         associated drainage will need to be undertaken.
         Future value potential: Improved access / travel time to tourism area and connection to kelurahans
 INFRASTRUCTURE 4 – UPGRADE ALTERNATIVE ROAD FROM BATEESHOK TO COT DAMAR
         This road is an alternative road from the southern part to the northern part of Sabang. The existing road has deteriorated and is unsealed, and the drainage channel is
         inadequate. The road damage has been categorised into moderate. Upgrading of the road to a sealed standard, with associated drainage will need to be undertaken.
         Future value potential: Improved access / travel time from the southern part , connection between two kecamatans and kelurahans
 INFRASTRUCTURE 5 – UPGRADE ROAD BETWEEN LAM NIBONG TO TELUK TEUPIN ANOE
         This road is an access from the northern route to the southern route. Existing road has deteriorated and unsealed and drainage channel is inadequate. The road damage
         has been categorised as severe. Upgrading of the road to a sealed standard, with improved drainage will need to be undertaken.
         Future value potential: Improved access from northern to southern route, connection to kelurahan and improved travel times




SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ                                                                                  PAGE 20
Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya




 INFRASTRUCTURE 6 – UPGRADE ROAD BETWEEN TELUK TEUPIAN ANOE TO U. GUSARANG
         This road is part of southern route to serve as an access for number of kelurahans. The existing road deteriorated and is unsealed while the drainage channel is
         inadequate. The road damage has been categorised as severe. Upgrading of the road to a sealed standard, with improved drainage is required.
         Future value potential: Improved access / travel time to kelurahans
 INFRASTRUCTURE 7 – UPGRADE ROAD BETWEEN PAYA SEUNARA AND COT DAMAR
         This road serves as an access to a number of kelurahans and is a connecting road to the northern part of Sabang. The existing road has deteriorated and is
         unsealed. The drainage channels are inadequate. The road damage has been categorised into minor, moderate and severe. Upgrading of the road to a sealed
         standard, with improved drainage is required.
         Future value potential: Improved access / travel time to the kelurahans
 INFRASTRUCTURE 8 – 9 UPGRADE ACCESS ROAD TO GAPANG AND IBOIH BEACH
         This road serves as an access to the beach area. The existing road has deteriorated and is unsealed, while drainage channels need improvement. The road
         damage has been categorised as moderate. Upgrading of the road, with improved drainage is required.
         Future value potential: Improved access / travel time road tourists area
 INFRASTRUCTURE 10 – UPGRADE ROAD BETWEEN SUKAKARYA KECAMATAN OFFICE AND COT BAKOE YOEN (ANEUK LAOT KELURAHAN)
         This road serves as an access to some of the kelurahans. Existing road has deteriorated, it is unsealed and the drainage channels are inadequate. The road
         damage has been categorised into moderate and severe. Upgrading of the road to a sealed standard, with associated drainage is required.
         Future value potential: Improved access road some kelurahans and travel times
 INFRASTRUCTURE 11 – UPGRADE ROAD BETWEEN ANEUK LAOT TO KRUENG RAYA KELURAHAN
         This road serves as an access for a number of kelurahans. The existing road has deteriorated; its unsealed and drainage channels are inadequate. The road
         damage has been categorised into minor and moderate. Upgrading of the road to a sealed standard, with associated drainage is required.
         Future value potential: Improved access / travel time to a number of kelurahans
 INFRASTRUCTURE 12 – REHABILITATE BRIDGE IN LHOK PRIA LAOT AND LHOK KRUENG RAYA
         The bridge was destroyed due to tsunami and earthquake and needs to be repaired. The bridge will improve accessibility for fishermen both to their boats and to
         the market.
         Future value potential: Better access for delivering fish to the market




SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ                                                                                PAGE 21
Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya




 WATER SUPPLY
 INFRASTRUCTURE 13 – INVESTIGATE HYDROGEOLOGY OF ANEUK LAOT LAKE
         The Aneuk laot lake is a water source for PDAM to provide fresh water to some parts of Sukakarya Kecamatan (67.4%). Due to earthquake, lake bottom is possible
         leaking and the water level has been fallen up to 7 meters (based on BPPT Study), but the location of the leak is not identified. An investigation of the
         hydrogeology and geology of the lake is required it locate the leak and take appropriate action.
         Future value potential: Securing long term water supply to local community.
 INFRASTRUCTURE 14 – REPLACE DISTRIBUTION PIPE OF WATER SUPPLY
         Distribution pipe from Aneuk Laot to Kebun Merica (Kota Bawah Barat Kelurahan) was developed by the Dutch and currently the pipe is leaking and this reduces
         the water supply to housing sites. The existing pipe will need to be replaced / repaired to meet the water supply need according to the standard determined for
         urban area.
         Future value potential: Securing long term water supply to local community.
 INFRASTRUCTURE 15 – REHABILITATE WATER BRONCAPTURING AND PIPE OF 80 MM
         Broncapturing and pipe of 80 mm in Jl. Cut Nyak Dien (Kota Atas Kelurahan) was developed by the Dutch and will need to be rehabilitated to provide continuous
         flow of water supply to community.
         Future value potential: Securing long term water supply to local community
 INFRASTRUCTURE 16 – BUILD ADDITIONAL WELLS
         Community use well as water source in Tapak Gajah (Ie Meulee Kelurahan) and Kota Atas Kelurahan, but the existing wells are not enough for community needs.
         Deep well in Ds. Tapak Gajah and 4 units shallow well in Kota Atas Kelurahan will need to be developed to meet community needs according to water supply
         standard for urban area.
         Future value potential: Provided sufficient water supply for local community.
 INFRASTRUCTURE 17 – PROTECT LUNG ANGEUN SPRING WATER FROM HIGH TIDE
         Lung Angeun spring water is located close to the beach and is used as water source for local community in Iboih Kelurahan. Due to its location, high tide is able to
         influence water quality of the spring water. Water quality protection will need to be built to provide good water quality according to drinking water quality standard
         determined for local community.
         Future value potential: Provided good water quality for local community
 INFRASTRUCTURE 18 – UPGRADE WATER RESERVOIR CAPACITY AND DEVELOP DISTRIBUTION NET WORK
         Water supply source for community in Batee Shok Kelurahan is from spring water from the Sarung Keris Mountain. A reservoir is provided for the local community
         and water is taken from the reservoir. The community proposed to enlarge the reservoir capacity and to develop a distribution network from the reservoir to the
         housing sites.
         Future value potential: Securing long term water supply to local community

SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ                                                                                   PAGE 22
Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya




 INFRASTRUCTURE 19 – DEVELOP EMBUNG PAYA SEUNARA AS AN ALTERNATIVE WATER SOURCE
         A water dam has been constructed in Paya Seunara Kelurahan namely Embung Paya Seunara with a coverage area of ± 50 Ha by the Water Source Department
         of NAD Province. It is proposed to provide water supply for whole Sabang Island with the spring water as the water source. Development of the dam was delayed
         due to land acquisition problems.
         Future value potential: Securing long term water supply to the local community
 INFRASTRUCTURE 20 - DEVELOP WATER FALL AS AN ALTERNATIVE WATER SOURCE
         A water fall with a capacity of 100 litres/second located in Pria Laot (Batee Shok Kelurahan) is a potential for water supply to serve the whole of Sabang Island.
         Feasibility Study will need to be undertaken. PDAM proposed to BRR for 2007 budget.
         Future value potential: Securing long term water supply to local community
 SOLID WASTE
 INFRASTRUCTURE 21 – PROVIDE SUITABLE SOLID WASTE COLLECTION
         Currently domestic solid wastes are collected by the Sanitation Department from housing, commercial and recreational area which are accessable by truck. Based
         on public consultation, a collection system container for household rubbish should be provided by the government A suitable collection system is required for the
         Kecamatan. Solid waste management guidelines are provided by SPEM (see Appendix A).
         Future value potential: Enhance the environment and improve health of the community
 POWER SUPPLY
 INFRASTRUCTURE 22 – FEASIBILITY STUDY ON GEO THERMAL AS AN ALTERNATIVE POWER SUPPLY
         Currently the power supply is from diesel with the capacity of 8 MW which is generated by 10 (ten) units. There are two geothermals as alternative power supply
         located in Seurui and Pria Laot (Batee Shok Kelurahan). To develop these geothermals as power supply a feasibility study is required. No estimates of the
         potential power are available.
         Future value potential: Provide sufficient alternative power supply for the kecamatan and to support development activities in the kecamatan
 SAFETY INFRASTRUCTURE
 INFRASTRUCTURE 23 – 24 BUILD NEW RETAINING STRUCTURE
         Based on public consultation, there has been accidents due to the erosion in part of the kecamatan. A retaining structure is proposed to be built to prevent erosion
         in Radjawali 400 meters long (Kota Bawah Timur Kelurahan), Dadap 600 meters long and Lok Panglima 400 meters long ( Kota Bawah Barat Kelurahan)
         Future value potential: Reduce erosion in the specific areas




SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ                                                                                  PAGE 23
Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya




 COASTAL DEFENCE
 INFRASTRUCTURE 25 – BUILD NEW SEA WALL
         Based on public consultation, sea wall (1 KM) is proposed to be built for abrasion protection in Pantai Kasih (Kota Atas Kelurahan).
         Future value potential: Provide safe condition along the beach
 TOURISM INFRASTRUCTURE
 INFRASTRUCTURE 26 – REHABILITATE A WALKING TRAIL IN GAPANG AND IBOIH RESORT
         Gapang and Iboih Resort are tourism areas in the kecamatan, but both these areas there is a lack of accessibility particularly a walking trail surrounding the
         resorts near the beach. Department of Tourism of Sabang City proposed a rehabilitation of the walking trail for both areas in the BRR 2007 budget.
         Future value potential: Provided access to the beach and resort areas for visitors and to increase number of tourists to Gapang and Iboih Resort
 INFRASTRUCTURE 27 – PROVIDE SUFFICIENT WATER SUPPLY
         Water supply in Gapang and Iboih Resort is in intermittent and very low pressure operation causes a water shortage. To provide sufficient water supply according to
         the standard established. Department of Tourism proposed to BRR to develop a bore (drilled) well in respective area for 2007 budget. Iboih may improve
         considerably if the hydraulic of the existing supply are improved. See Appendix C ToR 60.
         Future value potential: Provide sufficient water supply for visitors and the local community
 INFRASTRUCTURE 28 - REPAIR DRAINAGE CULVERT IN GAPANG RESORT
         Drainage system is in poor condition in Western End Beach Gapang Resort and it will need to be replaced with proper design and construction to avoid flood in the
         area from sewerage.
         Future value potential: Provide improved sanitation system for Gapang Resort
 INFRASTRUCTURE 29 – IMPROVE TURNAROUND AREA FOR VISITORS IN GAPANG RESORT
         Existing turnaround area is very limited in Western End Beach of Gapang Resort. This condition causes difficulty to turnaround if many cars used by visitors. It will
         need to be improved with landscaping to formalise road barrier. TOR will be provided by SPEM.
         Future value potential: Provided sufficient turnaround area and good amenity for visitors
 INFRASTRUCTURE 30 – REMOVE AND CLEAN UP GARBAGE IN WESTERN END BEACH GAPANG RESORT
         Existing TPS is located close to existing turnaround area in the western end beach. Due to a hammerhead turning area being constructed, the existing TPS will
         need to be moved.
         Future value potential: Provided clean environment for visitors




SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ                                                                                    PAGE 24
Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya




 INFRASTRUCTURE 31 – DESIGN DRAINAGE AND LANDSCAPE IN EASTERN END BEACH OF GAPANG
         In eastern end beach, waste water from bungalows and cafes is discharged behind the building without a proper drainage system. This condition will create
         environmental problems in the future if there is no suitable drainage system. Drainage system design is required within the eastern end beach of Gapang resort
         along with landscape design at the entrance.
         Future value potential: Provided clean environment for visitors and amenity for eastern end beach of Gapang
 INFRASTRUCTURE 32 - DESIGN ACCESS ROAD TO THE BEACH IN EASTERN END BEACH
         At the eastern end of the beach, the entrance gate is not wide enough for local vehicle to delivery needs to the beach area. A simple access design and installation
         for a delivery truck is required.
         Future value potential: Provided accessibility for visitors and meet local delivery needs to the beach
 INFRASTRUCTURE 33 – DEMOLISH AND REMOVE OLD TOILET BUILDINGS ON THE BEACH
         At the eastern end of the beach, existing public toilets provided are not able to be used due to a lack of maintenance and tsunami damage. The toilet buildings on
         the beach will need to be demolished.
         Future value potential: Provided clean environment on the beach
 INFRASTRUCTURE 34 - PROVIDE NEW TPS (TEMPORARY COLLECTION SITE) FOR WESTERN END BEACH OF GAPANG
         The existing TPS located close to entrance gate at the eastern end of the beach is in a bad condition. This TPS will need to be moved to the parking lot behind the
         beach in Gapang Resort.
         Future value potential: Provided clean environment for visitors
 INFRASTRUCTURE 35 – IMPROVE THE ACCESS ROAD TO PARKING LOT IN BEHIND BEACH (GAPANG RESORT)
         The existing access road to the parking area behind the beach in Gapang Resort is in a poor condition ± 400 meters and will need to be upgraded to a sealed
         standard, with associated drainage.
         Future value potential: Provided accessibility to parking lot for visitors
 INFRASTRUCTURE 36 - DESIGN AND PREPARE NEW SIGNAGE DIRECTING BEACH AND RESORT TRAIFFIC
         Currently, there is no sign to direct visitors to the beach or to the resort area. An information board will need to be placed to direct visitors to beach or resort area.
         Future value potential: Provided information to visitors
 INFRASTRUCTURE 37 – DESIGN AND IMPLEMENT NEW ENTRANCE
         The existing main entrance to Gapang needs to be replaced with a new structure.
         Future value potential: Provided main entrance to Gapang




SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ                                                                                      PAGE 25
Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya




 INFRASTRUCTURE 38 – REPLACE EXISTING FENCE ON BOTH SIDES
         Existing fence on both sides of entrance road is needs to be replaced with a new one.
         Future value potential: Provided safe condition for visitors in Gapang Resort
 INFRASTRUCTURE 39 – PROVIDE MASTER PLAN OF SANITATION SYSTEM FOR IBOIH RESORT
         Existing sanitation system in Iboih Resort is in poor condition due to lack of master plan for sanitation. Some bungalows do not have bath room and toilet. Master
         plan of sanitation for Iboh Resort will need to be prepared to improve the facilities provided for tourists.
         Future value potential: Provided good sanitation for Iboih Resort and to increase the number of visitors to Iboih Resort.
 INFRASTRUCTURE 40 – PROVIDE TOURIST BUS TRANSPORTATION FROM BALOHAN TO GAPANG AND IBOIH RESORT
         Tourist bus transportation from Balohan to Gapang and Iboih Resort is currently not available and public transportations is in a poor condition.   Department of
         Tourism has proposed to BRR to provide tourist bus transportation for 2007 budget.
         Future value potential: Provided bus transportation for visitors to Gapang and Iboih Resort
 INFRASTRUCTURE 41– PROVIDE TOURIST SHIP FROM SABANG TO GAPANG AND IBOIH RESORT
         A tourist ship is another alternative transportation to Gapang and Iboih Resort through from the north coast of Sabang. Department of Tourism has proposed to BRR
         to provide the tourist ship transportation in the 2007 budget.
         Future value potential: Provided alternative transportation through north coast for visitors to Gapang and Iboih Resort




SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ                                                                                   PAGE 26
Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya




3.2.3     Project Proposals
                                                                                                   Proposed by
                                                                                                                 Estimated   Environmental
                                                 Problem to be                       Size/           Proposed                                 Status of
  ID            Projects            Location                       Beneficiaries                                 Budget       Assessment                     Reference
                                                  Addressed                         Quantity         Source of                                Program
                                                                                                                 Rp. (M)      Requirement
                                                                                                     Funding
ROAD AND BRIDGE
SK/       Build retaining      Between Serui    To avoid           General         L= 22 M        Community,         1200    No EIA          Dinas Per-
INF 1     structure and        and Lam          collapsed          community       W = 14 M       SP/EM - ADB                Required        mukiman
          upgrade roadside     NIbong (very     embankment                                                                                   dan
          drainage between     steep section)   erosion                            H from         DPPW                                       Prasarana
          Serui and Lam                                                            lower road                                                are
          Nibong (very steep                                                       = 16 M                                                    currently
          section)                                                                                                                           preparing
                                                                                                                                             tender list
                                                                                                                                             for this work
SK/       Upgrading of road    Between Serui    Parts of the       General         W=6            Community,        1,000    No EIA          see INF 1
INF 2     and roadside         and Lam          existing road      community       meter          SP/EM - ADB                Required
          drainage between     NIbong (Iboih    deteriorated and                   L = 1 Km       DPPW
          Serui and Lam        Kelurahan)       unsealed and
          Nibong                                drainage
                                                channels not
                                                suitable
SK/       Upgrading of road    Between Lam      Parts of the       General         W=6m           Community,        3,000    No EIA          see INF 1
INF 3     and roadside         Nibong to KM 0   existing road      Community       L = ± 3 Km     SP/EM - ADB                Required
          drainage between     (Iboih           deteriorated and
                                                                                                  DPPW
          Lam Nibong to KM     Kelurahan)       unsealed and
          0                                     drainage
                                                channels not
                                                suitable




SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ                                                                            PAGE 27
Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya




                                                                                                  Proposed by
                                                                                                                Estimated   Environmental
                                                Problem to be                       Size/           Proposed                                 Status of
  ID            Projects            Location                      Beneficiaries                                 Budget       Assessment                  Reference
                                                 Addressed                         Quantity         Source of                                Program
                                                                                                                Rp. (M)      Requirement
                                                                                                    Funding
SK/       Upgrading of road   Batee Shok       Parts of the       General         W=3m           SP/EM - ADB         500    No EIA          No program
INF 4     and roadside        Kelurahan –      existing road      Community       L = ± 1 Km                                Required        prepared
                                                                                                 DPPW
          drainage between    Cot Damar (in    deteriorated and
          Batee Shok and      Paya Seunara     unsealed and
          Cot Damar           Kelurahan)       drainage
                                               channels not
                                               suitable
SK/       Upgrading of road   Between Lam      Existing road      General         W=4m           Community,          600    No EIA          No program
INF 5     and roadside        Nibong and       deteriorated and   Community       L = 1 Km       SP/EM - ADB                Required        proposed
          drainage between    Teluk Teupin     unsealed and
                                                                                                 DPPW
          Lam Nibong to       Anoe (Iboih      drainage
          Teluk Teupin Anoe   Kelurahan)       channels not
                                               suitable
SK/       Upgrading of road   Between Teluk    Restore            General         W=6m           Community,        3,500    No EIA          No program
INF 6     and roadside        Teupin Anoe to   completely to be   Community       L = 3.5 Km     SP/EM - ADB                Required        proposed
          drainage between    U. Guasarang     the size of
          Teluk Teupin Anoe   (Iboih           provincial road                                   DPPW
          to U. Guasarang     Kelurahan)
SK/       Upgrading of road   Between Paya     Parts of the       General         W=4m           SP/EM - ADB         900    No EIA          No program
INF 7     and roadside        Seunara and      existing road      Community       L = 1.5 Km                                Required        proposed
                                                                                                 DPPW
          drainage between    Cot Damar        deteriorated and
          Paya Seunara and    (Paya Seunara    unsealed and
          Cot Damar           Kelurahan)       drainage
                                               channels not
                                               suitable
SK/       Upgrading of road   From main road   Existing road      General         W=4m           SP/EM - ADB          60    No EIA          No program
INF 8     from main road in   in Lam Nibong    deteriorated and   Community       L = 100 M                                 Required        proposed
                                                                                                 DPPW
          Lam Nibong to       to Gapang        unsealed and
          Gapang Beach        Beach            drainage
          and roadside                         channels not
          drainage                             suitable


SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ                                                                           PAGE 28
Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya




                                                                                                   Proposed by
                                                                                                                 Estimated   Environmental
                                                Problem to be                        Size/           Proposed                                 Status of
  ID            Projects            Location                       Beneficiaries                                 Budget       Assessment                    Reference
                                                 Addressed                          Quantity         Source of                                Program
                                                                                                                 Rp. (M)      Requirement
                                                                                                     Funding
SK/       Upgrading of road   From main road   Existing road       General         W=3m           SP/EM - ADB         500    No EIA          No program
INF 9     from main road in   in Lam Nibong    deteriorated and    Community       L = 1 Km                                  Required        proposed
                                                                                                  DPPW
          Lam Nibong to       to Iboih Beach   unsealed and
          Iboih Beach and                      drainage
          roadside drainage                    channels not
                                               suitable
SK/       Upgrading of road   Between          Existing road       General         W=3m           SP/EM - ADB       1,800    No EIA          Propose to
INF 10    from Sukajaya       Sukajaya         deteriorated and    Community       L = 3,6 Km                                Required        BRR NAD
          Kecamatan Office    Kecamatan        unsealed and                                                                                  Province for
          to Cot Bakoe Yoen   Office to Cot    drainage                                                                                      2006
          (Aneuk Laot)        Bakoe Yoen       channels not                                                                                  budget
          Kelurahan)                           suitable
SK/       Upgrading of road   Between Aneuk    Existing road       General         W=4m           Community,        3,600    No EIA          Propose to
INF 11    between Aneuk       Laot and         deteriorated and    Community       L = 6 Km       SP/EM - ADB                Required        BRR NAD
          Laot and Krueng     Krueng Raya      unsealed and                                                                                  Province for
          Raya                                 drainage                                                                                      2006
                                               channels not                                                                                  budget
                                               suitable
SK/       Rehabilitation of   Lhok Pria Laot   To improve          Fishermen       Lhok Pria      Community           300    No EIA                         Resurfacing
INF 12    bridges in Lhok     (Aneuk Laot      access to fishing                   Laot (L =                                 Required                       with asphalt
          Pria Laot (Aneuk    Kelurahan) and   activities                          ±10 M, W                                                                 Replace-
          Laot Kelurahan)     Lhok Krueng                                          = 3 M)                                                                   ment of
          and Lhok Krueng     Raya                                                 Lhok                                                                     handrails
          Raya (Kelurahan     (Kelurahan                                           Krueng                                                                   and wing
          Krueng Raya)        Krueng Raya)                                         Raya (L =                                                                wall
                                                                                   ±10 M, W                                                                 replacement
                                                                                   = 3 M)




SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ                                                                            PAGE 29
Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya




                                                                                                      Proposed by
                                                                                                                    Estimated   Environmental
                                                   Problem to be                        Size/           Proposed                                 Status of
  ID            Projects            Location                           Beneficiaries                                Budget       Assessment                  Reference
                                                    Addressed                          Quantity         Source of                                Program
                                                                                                                    Rp. (M)      Requirement
                                                                                                        Funding
WATER SUPPLY
SK/       Investigate           Aneuk Laot        Decline water        General                       Sanitation         1500    No EIA          No program   Recommen-
INF 13    hydrogeology of       Lake              level due to         Community                     Departement,               Required        proposed     ded in the
          Aneuk Laot Lake                         leakage of bottom                                  Bapedalda,                                              SOGREAH
                                                  of Aneuk Laot                                      SPEM - ADB                                              Rapid
                                                  Lake                                                                                                       Assessment
                                                                                                     PDAM
                                                                                                                                                             & Project
                                                                                                                                                             Prioritization
                                                                                                                                                             as Priority 1
SK/       Replacement of        Betrween          To provide           Kelurahan                     Community           250    No EIA          No program
INF 14    distribution pipe     Aneuk Laot to     continuous flow of   Community                                                Required        proposed
                                                                                                     PDAM
          from Aneuk Laot to    Kebon Merica      water supply from
          Kebon Merica          (Kota Bawah       Aneuk Laot to
          (Kota Bawah Barat     Barat             Kebon Merica
          Kelurahan)            Kelurahan)        (Kota Bawah
                                                  Barat Kelurahan)
SK/       Rehabilitation of     Jl. Cut NYak      To avoid water       Kelurahan                     Community           200    No EIA          No program
INF 15    pressure reducing     Dhien (Kota       leakage from         Community                                                Required        proposed
                                                                                                     PDAM
          station (bron         Atas Kelurahan)   broncapturing and
          capturing) and pipe                     pipe
          of 80 mm
SK/       Build additional      Tapak Gajah (Ie   To meet water        Kelurahan       Deep well     Community           160    No EIA          No program
INF 16    wells in Tapak        Meulee            supply need for      Community       in Ds.                                   Required        proposed
                                                                                                     PDAM
          Gajah (Ie Meulee      Kelurahan) and    local community                      Tapak
          Kelurahan) and        Kota Atas                                              Gajah and
          Kota Atas             Kelurahan                                              4 units
          Kelurahan                                                                    shallow
                                                                                       well in
                                                                                       Kota Atas
                                                                                       Kelurahan



SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ                                                                               PAGE 30
Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya




                                                                                                       Proposed by
                                                                                                                      Estimated   Environmental
                                                    Problem to be                         Size/          Proposed                                  Status of
  ID            Projects            Location                            Beneficiaries                                 Budget       Assessment                   Reference
                                                     Addressed                           Quantity        Source of                                 Program
                                                                                                                      Rp. (M)      Requirement
                                                                                                         Funding
SK/       Upgrading of high      Iboih Kelurahan   To protect water     Kelurahan                     Community            100    No EIA                        Study cost
INF 17    tide protection for                      spring quality       Community                                                 Required                      only
          Lung Angeun                              from high tide sea
          spring water in                          water (salinity)
          Iboih Kelurahan
SK/       Upgrading of water     Batee Shok        To provide water     Kelurahan                     Community            150    No EIA                        Plastic liner
INF 18    reservoir from         Kelurahan         supply from          Community                                                 Required                      to reservoir
          spring water of                          reservoir to
          Sarung Keris                             housing sites
          Mountain and
          distribution
          network in Batee
          Shok Kelurahan
SK/       Development of         Paya Seunara      Land acquisition     General         ± 50 Ha       Water           Unknown     EIA Required
INF 19    Embung Paya            Kelurahan         brings about         Community                     Resource
          Seunara as                               delayed                                            Department of
          alternative water                        development of                                     NAD Province
          source                                   Embung Paya
                                                   Seunara
SK/       Feasibility Study of   Pria Laot         To provide water     General         100 l/sec     PDAM                 600    UKL/ UPL        Proposed to   Study only
INF 20    Waterfall Pria Laot    (Batee Shok       supply for whole     Community                                                 according to    BRR in
          as an alternative      Kelurahan)        Sabang Island                                                                  GoI             2007
          water source                             included free port                                                             requirements    budget
                                                   and free trade
                                                   development in
                                                   the future




SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ                                                                                PAGE 31
Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya




                                                                                                       Proposed by
                                                                                                                     Estimated   Environmental
                                                    Problem to be                         Size/          Proposed                                Status of
  ID            Projects            Location                            Beneficiaries                                Budget       Assessment                 Reference
                                                     Addressed                           Quantity        Source of                               Program
                                                                                                                     Rp. (M)      Requirement
                                                                                                         Funding
DOMESTIC SOLID WASTE
SK/       Provision of          All kelurahan in   Lack domestic        General                       Community,        1100 /   UKL/UPL                     Solid waste
INF 21    suitable domestic     Kecamatan          solid waste          Community                     SP/EM - ADB        Year    according to                manage-
          solid waste                              collection system                                                             the GOI                     ment
          collection                               as part of solid                                                              requirement                 guidelines
                                                   waste                                                                         Decree                      provided by
                                                   management                                                                    308/2005                    SP/EM
                                                                                                                                                             [Appendix
                                                                                                                                                             A]
POWER SUPPLY
SK/       Feasibility study
INF 22    into geothermal
          power
SAFETY INFRASTRUCTURE
SK/       Build new retaining   Kota Bawah         To provide           Kelurahan       400 - 600     Community         1,000    No EIA
INF 23    structure in Kota     Timur and Kota     erosion protection   Community       Metres                                   Required
          Bawah Timur and       Bawah Barat        for local
          Kota Bawah Barat      Kelurahan          community in
          Kelurahan                                Rajawali
                                                   Lingkungan (Kota
                                                   Bawah Timur)
                                                   and Dadap (Kota
                                                   Bawah Barat)




SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ                                                                                PAGE 32
Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya




                                                                                                      Proposed by
                                                                                                                     Estimated   Environmental
                                                  Problem to be                        Size/            Proposed                                  Status of
  ID            Projects            Location                          Beneficiaries                                  Budget       Assessment                   Reference
                                                   Addressed                          Quantity          Source of                                 Program
                                                                                                                     Rp. (M)      Requirement
                                                                                                        Funding
SK/       Build new retaining   Lingkungan Lok   To provide           Kelurahan       400 Metres     Community            850    No EIA
INF 24    structure in          Panglima (Kota   erosion protection   Community                                                  Required
          Lingkungan Lok        Bawah Barat      for local
          Panglima (Kota        Kelurahan)       community in Lok
          Bawah Barat                            Panglima
          Kelurahan)                             Panglima
COASTAL DEFENCE
SK/       Build new sea wall    Pantai Kasih     To provide           General         1 Km           Community          4,000    UKL/UPL                       Final
INF 25    in Pantai Kasih       (Kota Atas       abrasion             Community                                                  according to                  decision
          (Kota Atas            Kelurahan)       protection in                                                                   the GOI                       should wait
          Kelurahan)                             Pantai Kasih                                                                    requirement                   until the
                                                                                                                                 Decree                        Dutch
                                                                                                                                 308/2005Not                   Coastal
                                                                                                                                 Required                      Defence
                                                                                                                                                               Study is
                                                                                                                                                               complete in
                                                                                                                                                               2007
TOURISM INFRASTRUCTURE
SK/       Rehabilitation of a   Gapang and       To improve           General                        Tourism              100    No EIA          Tourism
INF 26    walking trail in      Iboih Resort     accessibility in     Community                      Department of               Required        Depart-
          Gapang and Iboih                       Gapang and Iboih                                    Sabang City                                 ment of
          Resort                                 Resort                                                                                          Sabang City
                                                                                                                                                 proposed
                                                                                                                                                 this
                                                                                                                                                 program to
                                                                                                                                                 BRR in
                                                                                                                                                 2007
                                                                                                                                                 budget




SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ                                                                               PAGE 33
Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya




                                                                                                  Proposed by
                                                                                                                Estimated   Environmental
                                                Problem to be                        Size/          Proposed                                 Status of
  ID            Projects            Location                        Beneficiaries                               Budget       Assessment                      Reference
                                                 Addressed                          Quantity        Source of                                Program
                                                                                                                Rp. (M)      Requirement
                                                                                                    Funding
SK/       Provision of          Gapang and     Intermittent water   General                      SP/EM - ADB         500    UKL/UPL         Tourism          SP/EM ADB
INF 27    suitable water        Iboih Resort   supply and very      Community                                               according to    Depart-          proposed
          supply for visitors                  low pressure                                                                 the GOI         ment of          survey of
          in Gapang and                        operation                                                                    requirement     Sabang City      the existing
          Iboih Resort                                                                                                      Decree          proposed         elevations
                                                                                                                            308/2005        drill wells in   and
                                                                                                                                            Gapang and       decliners of
                                                                                                                                            Iboih to         the pipeline
                                                                                                                                            BRR in           from the
                                                                                                                                            2007             water tower
                                                                                                                                            budget           to the
                                                                                                                                                             delivery
                                                                                                                                                             points
                                                                                                                                                             approximate
                                                                                                                                                             cost
                                                                                                                                                             estimated to
                                                                                                                                                             be USD
                                                                                                                                                             2,000
SK/       Repair drainage       Western End    To avoid flooded     General                      SP/EM - ADB         150    UKL/UPL
INF 28    culvert by            Beach Gapang   area from            Community                                               according to
          replacing with new    Resort         sewerage                                                                     the GOI
          design                                                                                                            requirement
                                                                                                                            Decree
                                                                                                                            308/2005
SK/       Improve road cul      Western End    To provide           General                      SP/EM - ADB          50    UKL/UPL
INF 29    de sac                Beach Gapang   turnaround area      Community                                               according to
          hammerhead and        Resort         for visitors                                                                 the GOI
          formalise road                       Gapang Resort                                                                requirement
          barrier with                                                                                                      Decree
          landscaping                                                                                                       308/2005




SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ                                                                           PAGE 34
Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya




                                                                                                     Proposed by
                                                                                                                   Estimated   Environmental
                                                   Problem to be                        Size/          Proposed                                Status of
  ID            Projects            Location                           Beneficiaries                               Budget       Assessment                 Reference
                                                    Addressed                          Quantity        Source of                               Program
                                                                                                                   Rp. (M)      Requirement
                                                                                                       Funding
SK/       Remove and clean      Western End       To provide new       General                      SP/EM - ADB          50    UKL/UPL
INF 30    up garbage            Beach Gapang      TPS in turnaround    Community                                               according to
                                Resort            area with wall                                                               the GOI
                                                                                                                               requirement
                                                                                                                               Decree
                                                                                                                               308/2005
SK/       Prepare landscape     Eastern End       To provide           General                      SP/EM - ADB         500    UKL/UPL
INF 31    design with           Beach Gapang      amenity and          Community                                               according to
          drainage design       Resort            drainage system                                                              the GOI
          with new channel                        in Gapang Resort                                                             requirement
          on the boundary of                                                                                                   Decree
          the old hotel                                                                                                        308/2005
SK/       Design new            Eastern End       Access road to       General                      SP/EM - ADB         180    UKL/UPL
INF 32    walking and simple    Beach Gapang      the beach for        Community                                               according to
          access road to the    Resort            delivery truck and                                                           the GOI
          beach for delivery                      local needs                                                                  requirement
          truck and local                                                                                                      Decree
          needs                                                                                                                308/2005
SK/       Demolish old toilet   Eastern End       Clearance debris     General                      SP/EM - ADB          50    UKL/UPL
INF 33    buildings on beach    Beach Gapang      on beach             Community                                               according to
          and clean up other    Resort                                                                                         the GOI
          debris                                                                                                               requirement
                                                                                                                               Decree
                                                                                                                               308/2005
SK/       Clearance of all      Parking Lot,      Build new TPS for    General                      SP/EM - ADB          50    UKL/UPL
INF 34    beach generated       behind beach in   beach generated      Community                                               according to
          rubbish               Gapang Resort     rubbish                                                                      the GOI
                                                                                                                               requirement
                                                                                                                               Decree
                                                                                                                               308/2005



SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ                                                                              PAGE 35
Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya




                                                                                                     Proposed by
                                                                                                                   Estimated   Environmental
                                                  Problem to be                         Size/          Proposed                                Status of
  ID            Projects            Location                           Beneficiaries                               Budget       Assessment                 Reference
                                                   Addressed                           Quantity        Source of                               Program
                                                                                                                   Rp. (M)      Requirement
                                                                                                       Funding
SK/       Prepare access to    Parking Lot,      Improve access to     General                      SP/EM - ADB         250    UKL/UPL
INF 35    parking lot          behind beach in   parking lot           Community                                               according to
                               Gapang Resort                                                                                   the GOI
                                                                                                                               requirement
                                                                                                                               Decree
                                                                                                                               308/2005
SK/       Design and           Parking Lot,      Information of        General                      SP/EM - ADB          80    UKL/UPL
INF 36    prepare new          behind beach in   beach traffic and     Community                                               according to
          signage directing    Gapang Resort     resort traffic for                                                            the GOI
          beach traffic and                      visitors                                                                      requirement
          resort traffic                                                                                                       Decree
                                                                                                                               308/2005
SK        Design and           Main entrance     Remove present        General                      SP/EM - ADB          50    UKL/UPL
INF 37    implement new        to Gapang         structure of main     Community                                               according to
          entrance                               entrance                                                                      the GOI
                                                                                                                               requirement
                                                                                                                               Decree
                                                                                                                               308/2005
SK/       Replace fencing on   Main entrance     Remove present        General                      SP/EM - ADB         100    Not required
INF 38    both sides of        to Gapang         fencing               Community
          entrance road
SK/       Provide Master       Iboih Resort      Provision of          General                      SP/EM - ADB         150    No EIA                      Appendix F
INF 39    Plan for Water and                     suitable sanitation   Community                                               Required
          Sanitation System                      system for Iboih
          for Iboih Resort                       Resort




SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ                                                                              PAGE 36
Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya




                                                                                                        Proposed by
                                                                                                                       Estimated   Environmental
                                                   Problem to be                           Size/          Proposed                                  Status of
  ID            Projects            Location                              Beneficiaries                                Budget       Assessment                   Reference
                                                    Addressed                             Quantity        Source of                                 Program
                                                                                                                       Rp. (M)      Requirement
                                                                                                          Funding
SK/       Provision of bus       From Balohan     To facilitate           General                      Tourism              100    No EIA          Tourism
INF 40    transportation for     to Gapang and    tourists from           Community                    Department of               Required        Depart-
          tourism from           Iboih Resort     Balohan to                                           Sabang City                                 ment of
          Balohan to                              Gapang and Iboih                                                                                 Sabang City
          Gapang and Iboih                        Resort                                                                                           proposed to
          Resort                                                                                                                                   BRR in
                                                                                                                                                   2007
                                                                                                                                                   budget
SK/       Provision of shuttle   From Sabang to   To facilitate tourist   General                      Tourism              500    No EIA          Tourism
INF 41    ferry from Sabang      Gapang and       from Sabang to          Community                    Department of               Required        Depart-
          City to Gapang         Iboih Resort     Gapang and Iboih                                     Sabang City                                 ment of
          and Iboih Resort                        Resort                                                                                           Sabang City
                                                                                                                                                   proposed to
                                                                                                                                                   BRR in
                                                                                                                                                   2007
                                                                                                                                                   budget
Note: Environmental assessment will meet or exceed international standards as per GoI Decree 308/2005 and other relevant legislation.




SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ                                                                                 PAGE 37
Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya




SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ                PAGE 38
Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya




4.        Livelihoods Rehabilitation
Refer to Map SK Liv/4 at back of report.


4.1       Introduction
Livelihoods and Environment projects indicate areas critical for the consideration of larger scale
Infrastructure projects. Projects identified under Livelihoods Rehabilitation in Section 4 and
Environmental Management in Section 5 may have important impacts on projects selected for
Infrastructure Rehabilitation in Section 3. It is consequently necessary to consider the combined
effects of projects identified in the three sectors when implementing a project in any other sector.

4.2       General Policy
4.2.1     Issues
It is important to emphasise that Sabang and its economy had already been suffering a severe
economic decline for the three years before the tsunami due to the civil war between GAM and the
GOI. The setbacks were particularly severe for the tourist industry on the island with movements
of foreign visitors being restricted if they wanted to travel to any destination within the entire
Province of NAD. Essentially foreign tourism stopped for almost three years.

The impact of the tsunami was comparatively light on Sabang and the industries and households
directly affected were restricted to coastal communities. The most important non-government
employer of people and source of subsistence is still agriculture. This industry was not significantly
affected by the tsunami. However, indirectly there were larger numbers of households affected as
many workers on the island work seasonally and part time in both the agriculture and fisheries
sectors. So the loss of income from sea based employment has had an indirect effect on land based
agricultural industries due to a reduction in off farm income sources. There were also significant
losses of bungalow accommodation and smaller kiosks serving the tourist industry which has also
affected sources of off farm income.

Kecamatan Sukajaya had pockets of more severe damage by the tsunami, however, and many
households have already received temporary housing accommodation which is clustered on the
outskirts of the town of Balohan. Development of the permanent housing areas is now under way
with funding mainly by assistance from the ADB. In the short term, the development of livelihoods
is focussed on the residents of the temporary housing areas, the sea based activities destroyed by
the tsunami and any indirectly related industries.


4.2.2     Rationale
The rationale for providing households with sustainable livelihoods is to improve their long-term
quality of life through economic and social development, reflected in improved social indicators


SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ                                                                          PAGE 39
Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya




such as health and literacy. These indicators serve as inputs for the development of livelihood
policy and implementation initiatives.

Historically, the Kecamatans of Sabang have enjoyed a relatively higher standard of living than in
other parts of the NAD province. For example in 2003, Sabang households had a mean per capita
expenditure of Rp 377,000 compared to Rp 343000 in Banda Aceh. This is almost double that of
all other local government areas in the Province.

Data of the Regional Spatial Planning of Sabang (RTRW Kota Sabang tahun 2004 – 2014) show
that most of the soils are classified as latosols (brown, reddish brown, red, and associated brown).
This soil type is suitable for crops like coconut and even clove. According to the Dalam Angka
(2004) Sukakarya has also a tambak area of some 20 Ha while Sukajaya has some 37 Ha. The
tambaks are located Kelurahan Iboih.

Sukakarya is the more densely populated kecamatan of Sabang as it takes in a number of urban
kelurahans. Detailed information on the population in Kecamatan Sukajaya is shown in Table 1.

      Table 1 - Population in Kecamatan Sukakarya 2000-2004
                                Number of People
 No       Kelurahan
                                     2000       2001         2002         2003        2004
 1        Kota Atas                  3.487      3.555        3.657        4.504       3.938
 2        Kota Bawah Barat           2.903      2.960        2.900        3.503       3.759
 3        Kota Bawah Timur           2.216      2.259        2.566        2.533       2.744
 4        Aneuk Laot                  697          711        701           860        871
 5        Krueng Raya                 876          893        989           985       1.089
 6        Paya Seunara               1.813      1.848        1.833        2.040       2.401
 7        Batee Shok                  962          981        963         1.495       1.063
 8        Iboih                       522          532        501           643        668
          Kec. Sukakarya            13.476     13.739      14.110        16.563      16.533
Source:     Kecamatan Sukakarya Figure, 2004
            Potency Desa, 2000-2003
            Mapframe 3, 2006

Tourism

The great potential for the kecamatan is the Gapang Iboih tourist area. The tourist industry in
Gapang and Iboih is the main destination for most foreign tourists who presently visit Sabang. The
tourists coming from outside the country are mainly attracted to the area specifically for diving and
will visit for extended periods. Gapang tends to have the higher end of the market with up to 50 %
of the units with AC and spacious bungalows. Iboih is more suited to the backpacker market. The



SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ                                                                          PAGE 40
Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya




other main group is the domestic tourist who either come from Banda Aceh or other parts of the
NAD province. All local tourism tends to be only one or two days.

The tourist industry suffers from a plethora of existing problems which are related to:

          Basic power, water and sanitation
          Only low level accommodation offered
          Poor transport connections to the City of Sabang
          Lack of variety in food being offered
          No development of other tourist activities other than diving and snorkelling such as
          walking and hiking trials.
          Problems with serving of alcohol
          No development of smaller souvenir and service industries
Total visitors to the island have been estimated by the Dinas Parawisata at 72,000 annually, with
less than 3000 being foreign visitors. Using data collected in the field, the total visitation to the
Gapang Iboh area was estimated to be of the order of 20,000 to 30,000 visitors per year, of which
approximately 50% are made up of foreign visitors. The total value of tourism in this vicinity is
comparatively low and is presently of the order of $US1.6 million per year.

Fisheries

Small and medium sized industries could be developed, related to agricultural, fish, seafood and
other sectors. Fisheries were an important sector and a major income source for villagers near the
coast and the fishery sector in Sabang, produces mainly Tuna, Cakalang (bluefin tuna), grouper,
and other marine fish are exported locally to Banda Aceh and Medan.

Marine and Fishery Sector in Kecamatan Sukakarya has been severely affected by tsunami. Many
fishermen are unemployed due to tsunami, many boats and facilities severely damaged or lost .
Now some of the fisherman are more dependant on subsistence farming, and labour in construction
of housing.

Fish processing facilities were either destroyed or damaged during the tsunami. These industries
may be more viable in new facilities which are planned for the Port of Balohan, but will still suffer
from relatively low volumes of product, making any unit cost high and may prove to be unable to
compete with existing facilities in larger centres such as Banda Aceh and Medan.

The fishing industry in the Kecamatan employed up to 443 before the tsunami. As most of the fish
is bought by outside traders there is considerable local income generated by the industry. These
people also worked seasonally for the agricultural industries.



SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ                                                                           PAGE 41
Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya




The fishing industry is a priority sector for rehabilitation and consequent improvement. The
strategy is to ensure that all boats are replaced with seaworthy boats and that improved facilities for
fish storage and boat repair are included in a program.

Tambak rehabilitation is planned for an area of 11Ha in two locations in Iboih. A proposal has
been prepared by the community. This program would be extended to include areas of fish cages in
deeper water adjacent to the tamabaks.

Small Business

The rehabilitation of the small business sector around the Port of Balohan and Iboih and Gapang is
also considered to be a priority as there is a potential tourism market. This would be carried out
with a micro-credit program to be delivered at the Kecamatan level and may be better suited to
implementation through NGO and or the P2KP program. This would require further preparation
and liaison and coordination with individual NGO’s and relevant sections of the regional office of
BRR.

Prior to the tsunami people in Kecamatan Sukakarya had many businesses dependent on complete
copra processing. In the past the number of farmers processing copra was vast but the price of the
coconut oil is now lower than other any regular oil. Nowadays the process is now restricted to the
drying of copra which is sold before further processing to Medan. As a result many producers of
copra have stopped production completely because of the price fluctuation

Mid to long term planning requires an integrated approach and links to other sectors of the
economy. In islands like Sabang, fisheries, agriculture and tourism are closely interlinked and
should not be developed separately, but integrated. The central link here is the build back better
principle and environmentally sustainability. It is considered that the current leading sectors of
agriculture and fisheries will eventually be lead by the tourist industry. The objective of the
capacity building will be to provide the relevant local agricultural and farming stakeholders with
potential economic development opportunities within the complementary sectors of fisheries-
agriculture-tourism.


4.3       Options Program
4.3.1     Program Summary
The proposed livelihoods program is set out below. It should be noted that some of the previous
livelihoods such as fishponds (tambak) may have been operating in a non-sustainable way. Further
review of potential restoration of tambak areas is considered prudent before decisions are made to
go ahead with restoration.

          Provision of fishing boats


SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ                                                                           PAGE 42
Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya




          Tambak rehabilitation
          Provision boat for tourism activity
          Rehabilitation and reconstruction of tourism accommodation
          Small scale industry development to support tourism sector
          Small business enterprise development
          Provision of facilities for salt fish processing
          Agricultural industries capacity building




SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ                                                   PAGE 43
Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya




4.3.2     Program Description
 LIVELIHOOD 1 – SUPPLY OF FISHING BOAT
         This project involves resupply of fishing boat lost in the tsunami, many fishermen unemployment in this time. They need much more boat. Some of supply boat
         from donors/Marine& fishery are small capacity and not feasible.
         Future value potential: To improve livelihood and increase income of fishermen.
 LIVELIHOOD 2 – TAMBAK REHABILITATION
         Tambaks in Iboih (2 location) is currently being rehabilitated by BRR. In Iboih no Donors/NGO have committed to rehabilitation of the tambak areas. So far no
         proposal has been prepared by the community so at this stage a TOR is suggested for the facilitation of a community based proposal.
         Future value potential: To develop sector and increase household income in Iboih & surrounding
 LIVELIHOOD 3 – PROVISION BOAT FOR TOURISM ACTIVITY
         Provision Coral Reef Boat Inspection are mainly facilities for Tourism attractive in Iboih & Pulau Rubiah. Local & foreign tourism very interest. with Coral reef in
         this area. Boats for tourist activity are damage and destroyed due to tsunami.
         Future value potential: Opportunities for future tourism development (ie local, regional & to increase tourist destination.
 LIVELIHOOD 4 –REHABILITATION & RECONSTRUCTION BUNGALOWS & RESTAURANT IN TOURISM AREA
         This Project of Rehabilitation & Reconstruction Bungallow in Tourism area shoul be before the Some of Bungallow need to be Rehabilitation some of need to
         rebuilt. Before the tsunami many bungallow & Restaurant in Iboih & Rubiah Island are damaged,due to not operation in aceh conflict/Millitary Emergency.
         Tsunami was destroyed some of bungalow in tourism area. In Iboih & Rubiah Island. Tourist visits after tsunami are higher than before due to the Helsinky peace
         agreement (free visit).
         No Donors/NGO have committed to rehabilitation/Rebuilt of the Bungallows areas. So far no proposal has been prepared by the community so at this stage a
         TOR is suggested for the facilitation of a community based proposal
         Future value potential: To develop tpurism sector, and to increase tourist destination.
 LIVELIHOOD 5 – SMALL BUSINESS INDUSTRY FOR SUPPORT TOURISM SECTOR
         This project of home industry such as Fish Crisp, fish dish & other, is good prospect and the material of food processing are available, and this project could be
         absorption the unemployment in Kecamatan. This project also can be solve problem of post harvest for food cropping & Fisheries. Comm
         unity has no capital for purchase equipment process & material.
         Future value potential : To develop small scale Industry, absorption employment & increase income of Community




SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ                                                                                    PAGE 44
Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya




 LIVELIHOOD 6       SMALL BUSINESS ENTERPRISE DEVELOPMENT
         Many kiosk in the vicinity of Iboih was severely damaged by the Tsunami and in Bateeshok not affected by tsunami but the trader have no capital to operate the
         kiosk. The aim of the proposal is provide finance to 15 local traders to develop their kiosks and small business enterprises in the vicinity of the tourism area in
         Iboih and surrounding also in Bateeshok.
         Future value potential: This project has good future prospects due to the increasing numbers of tourists, and increase income.
 LIVELIHOOD 7- SALT FISH PROCESSING
         This project involves the construction of room for boilld processing & completing facilities (marlin) for drying fish. This production of the production of salt fish
         which will replace the facilities lost in the tsunami. The community have submitted a full proposal which full details the cost estimate.
         Future value potential: This approach is a more sustainable method of processing salt fish and means that fishing communities can stay employed during the
         non-fishing season
 LIVELIHOOD 8 – AGRICULTURE CAPACITY BUILDING/TRAINING
         The objective of the capacity building will be provide the relevant local agricultural stakeholders with potential economic development opportunities within the
         complementary sectors of fisheries-agriculture-tourism The agricultural sector should be an integral part of the strategic planning in land management and part
         of the design of Sabang’s future using the principle of “build back better”.
         Future value potential : Agriculture This approach is a more sustainable method of Agriculture for develop this sector, Increase production & increase income
         of farmer




SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ                                                                                      PAGE 45
Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya




4.3.3     Project Proposals
                                                                                                                     Est. Budget       Environmental
                                                Problem to be                                                                                                Status of
   ID           Projects          Location                         Beneficiaries   Size/ Quantity      Proposed by                      Assessment
                                                 Addressed                                                             Rp (M)                                Program
                                                                                                                                        Requirement
FISHERIES INDUSTRY
SK/         Supply of fishing   Iboih, Kota    Many Fishermen      Fishermen’s     50 unit            Community/            2500       No EIA Required   Need to establish
LIV 1       boats               Bawah Barat,   lost of Boat, and   Associations                       ADB-ETESP                                          eligibility of
                                Kota Atas,     have no capital                                                                                           fishermen and
                                Kota Bawah     to purchase and                                        SP/EM and                                          project concept
                                Timur          re-establish                                           Fisheries


TAMBAK REHABILITATION
SK/         Tambak              Iboih          Cleaning &          11 Fish         11 Ha, in 2        Community/            2450      Indonesian AMDAL   ToR developed
LIV 2       rehabilitation                     Reconstruction      farmers/ 55     location           ADB-ETESP                       requirements       See Appendix C
                                               of walls/Repair     people                                                             UKL/RPL            TOR 29
                                               Fresh Water                                            SP/EM and
                                               Replanting, fish                                       Fisheries                                          Need preparation
                                               cage                                                                                                      of community
                                                                                                                                                         based proposal &
                                                                                                                                                         brief feasibility
                                                                                                                                                         study
TOURISM IMPROVEMENT
SK/         Provision Boat      Iboih          Corall Reef         Tourist &       2 unit             Community/                100    No EIA Required   Proposed by
LIV 3       for Tourism                        inspection Boat     Tourism                            Tourism &                                          Tourism & Culture
            activity                           destroyed by        Business                           Cultural                                           Dept
                                               tsunami                                                Department




SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ                                                                                PAGE 46
Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya




                                                                                                                           Est. Budget      Environmental
                                               Problem to be                                                                                                      Status of
   ID           Projects         Location                           Beneficiaries   Size/ Quantity          Proposed by                      Assessment
                                                Addressed                                                                    Rp (M)                               Program
                                                                                                                                             Requirement
SK/         Rehabilitation &   Teupin         Many bungalows        Tourist &       Rehabilitation         Tourism &                  950   No EIA Required   ToR project
LIV 4       Reconstruction     Layeu,         are damaged/          Tourism         16 units in            Cultural               Need                        concept note to
            of bungalows in    Gapang,        destroyed due to      Business        Iboih,                 Department       Assessment                        BRR
            tourism area       Teupin         military                              Reconstruction                                                            No Donors/NGO
                               Reudep,Teup    emergency &                                                                             100
                                                                                    7 units in Iboih                                                          have committed
                               in Serekui,    tsunami                               & 3 units in                                                              to rehabilitation/
                               Pulau Rubiah                                         Rubiah                                                                    reconstruction of
                                                                                                                                                              bungalows
SK/         Small Scale        Kota Bawah     Develop home          Community       50 household           Community/                 400   No EIA Required   See Appendix C
LIV 5       Industry (Home     Barat, Kota    industry such as                                             ADB-ETESP                                          TOR 28 Need
            Industry)          Atas           fish dish & other,                                                                                              preparation of
            Development to                    no capital to                                                SP/EM                                              Micro Finance
            support tourism                   purchase                                                                                                        Scheme
            sector                            equipment
                                              process &
                                              material
SK/         Small Business     Iboih,         Replacement of        Community &     15 traders             Community/                 200   No EIA Required   See Appendix C,
LIV 6       Enterprise         Bateeshok      kiosk/small           Traders                                ADB-ETESP                                          TOR 28 Need
            Development                       business in                                                                                                     assessment/
                                              vicinity of tourism                                          SP/EM                                              preparation of
                                              area.                                                                                                           community based
                                                                                                                                                              proposals for
                                                                                                                                                              Micro Finance
                                                                                                                                                              [US$ 10,000]
SMALL SCALE/MEDIUM INDUSTRY
SK/         Salt Fish          Krueng Raya    All processing        Local           4 unit/ facilities     Community/                 150      No EIA         Need preparation
LIV 7       Processing         & Pasiran      facilities            Community                              ADB-ETESP           Estimated     Requirement      of proposal & brief
                               (Kota Bawah    destroyed                                                                           cost of                     feasibility study
                               Timur)         Complete                                                     SP/EM                                              [~US$10,000]
                                                                                                                          replacement of
                                              redevelopment of                                                                 equipment
                                              industry required



SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ                                                                                     PAGE 47
Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya




                                                                                                                     Est. Budget    Environmental
                                                Problem to be                                                                                            Status of
   ID           Projects          Location                         Beneficiaries   Size/ Quantity      Proposed by                   Assessment
                                                 Addressed                                                             Rp (M)                            Program
                                                                                                                                     Requirement
AGRICULTURE – CAPACITY BUILDING
SK/         Agriculture         All Villages   Lack of             Agricultural    Not yet            ADB-ETESP      200 Cost for   No EIA Required   See Appendix G
LIV 8       Capacity            coordinated    coordination and    Sector          decided            SP/EM                study
            Building/Training   trough         information
                                Agriculture    concerning
                                Department     linkages of
                                               agricultural and
                                               other industries,
                                               such as tourism
                                               & fisheries
Note: Environmental assessment will meet or exceed international standards as per GoI Decree 308/2005 and other relevant legislation.




SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ                                                                                PAGE 48
Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya




5.        Environmental Management
Refer to Map SK EnM/5 at back of report.


5.1       Introduction
Livelihoods and Environment projects indicate areas critical for the consideration of larger scale
Infrastructure projects. Projects identified under Livelihoods Rehabilitation in Section 4 and
Environmental Management in Section 5 may have important impacts on projects selected for
Infrastructure Rehabilitation in Section 3. It is consequently necessary to consider the combined
effects of projects identified in the three sectors when implementing a project in any other sector.

5.2       Site Observations and Analysis
As discussed in Section 2, Kecamatan Sukakarya belongs to that group of islands in the Northern
Outliers of the Barisan range. The islands feature four land systems, (i) marine landform, (ii)
aluvio-cullovial land, (iii) alluvial land, (iv) hilly and mountainous landform. The dominant
topographical landform of the island (s) are volcanic cones intersecting with the coastline with
negligible beach or off shore marine shelf. Soils are shallow, weathered conglomerates and there is
limited flat land. The steep slopes are mostly vegetated with secondary “protected” forest.
Settlement on Sabang dates 1000’s of years and, as a result, Kecamatan Sukakarya is therefore
predominantly a highly modified environment. Although there were limited indicators and
monitoring sites to identify the status of the physical environment, it is understood from a number
of reports that the environment, including both marine and terrestrial, was on a degrading trajectory
pre-tsunami. Species imbalance, most particularly a predominance of wild pigs, had become a
serious problem and forest ecology was compromised by island wide logging. The fishing industry
put great pressure on inshore fishing and compromised, in part, the limited coral reef systems
through cyanide and bombing. Nearly all mangrove areas had been cleared for conversion to
Tambak. From a biodiversity perspective, the Kecamatan Sukakarya was not being well managed.

However, the digital imagery suggest that the tambaks in Sukakaya were unusual in that there was
not a wholesale clearance of mangrove around the relatively small tambak areas, most particularly
in Iboih. The size of the individual tamabaks was also much bigger and consequently more
efficient in terms of production and income, and, presumably, with greater nutrient benefit to the
macro ecosystem.

Kelurahan Iboih has a relatively more diverse forest and protected baseline environment compared
to all other areas of the island, due to its lower population density and relative isolation. More
attention on forest preservation should be paid in this Kelurahan where the “Kilometre-0”, coral
reef, and other recreation sites are located.




SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ                                                                         PAGE 49
Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya




As a result of the landform characteristics, Kecamatan Sukakarya was not greatly affected by the
tsunami. Topographical characteristics of this kecamatan are dominated by steep hill formations
comprising multiple discrete watersheds, with a very narrow coastal flat plain. Although there was
some damage by the earthquake, without extensive beaches and with only a partial off shore marine
shelf, the tsunami effect was limited. However, coral beds adjacent Iboih were unfortunately
reported to have been damaged resulting in large deposits of coral along shoreline.

The cultural heritage of all of Sabang is significant and is based on the pre-colonial seafaring
period of trade from India, Africa and Arabia followed by the period of Dutch colonialism and
subsequent Japanese occupation during the Second World War. All of these periods have left a
cultural history which could be integrated with the physical and biological ecology of the island
environment to make up a successful eco tourism experience.


5.3       Issues
The secluded characteristics of an island provides the opportunity for manageable impact of
environmental management programs, clear integration across numerous government agencies and
a strong synergy between land users ,and, in the case of Sabang, a potentially burgeoning tourism
industry. The Kecamatan Sukakarya Field Assessment Report (FAR) identifies the following
environmental issues:

          The potential for tourism to influence management of the environment is significant yet an
          understanding of key environmental management principles and practices need
          promotion;
          There is an immediate need to commence a process that fosters a shared vision of what
          needs to be accomplished among the entire population including government decision-
          makers, business operators including farmers and fishermen, school children and the
          police and army who are stationed on the island and who play a significant role in natural
          resource management;
          Although it is touted as having the greatest potential for tourism within Aceh, there is
          presently no representation of representatives of Kota Sabang on the only BRR
          Provincial level SATKER responsible for tourism under the direction of the BRR Deputy
          for Economy and Business;
          Land use conflicts are a common problem including illegal logging and household wood
          collection in protected forest, pollution of water supply caused by agricultural activity and
          lack of sanitation, land slips from inappropriate developments, some conversion of
          coastal wetlands for tambak and weed invasion (water hyacinth) of the main water
          resource which accelerates evaporation and thus water loss;




SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ                                                                           PAGE 50
Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya




          Areas of previous mangrove habitat have been denuded either by conversion to tambak,
          fuelwood collection or as a result of the tsunami;
          Fresh water supply management is a major limiting factor for the island development;
          Forest conservation to strengthen management of biodiversity, habitat and species
          imbalance, (particularly that of wild pig) is a critical issue;
          Hot water springs which should be considered a valuable and prized asset are presently
          perceived as a health hazard, lie in derelict condition and appear to have negligible
          management;
          That the Sabung Island has a unique cultural history and that the KAP should address
          management of both the physical and cultural environment;
          There is awareness of key issues within various government departments but no clear
          articulation of an overall strategy to integrate the addressing of problems;
          Funded programs for the 2006 budget and proiposd programs for 2007 and 2008 by Kota
          Sabang have identified needs in the following categories:
              1.   Master Planning
              2.   Maintenance Initiatives
              3.   Physical Environment ‘Green’ Initiatives / Amenity
              4.   Environmental Education
              5.   Tourism Development Improvement



5.3.1     Policy / Approach
The approach of any environmental management program in Kecamatan Sukakarya needs to
intergrate a “whole of island” methodology that incorporates management of both the physical and
the socio-cultural issues. Tourism at the moment satisfies a very particular “niche market” which is
primarily focused on diving and a low standard weekend accommodation market based on people
working and/or living in Banda Aceh and other tsunami recovery centres. The multiplier effect of
this small tourist industry is very low due to the low level of service offered by the few
accommodation outlets. If tourism is to expand as a livelihood vehicle for the island a clear
message of “environmental stewardship” should start to be in evidence across the whole of
Sabung. Successful tourism initiatives will also need to offer a tangible benefit to a community
which is still largely made up of largely subsistence level fishing and share cropper farming
households,. something that will need to occur over an intermediate (5-7 year) timeframe.       The
SP/EM environmental team recommends:

          Development of a masterplan (with sub-components) for the management and monitoring
          of physical and socio-cultural environmental resources on Sabang;




SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ                                                                          PAGE 51
Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya




          Adopting an integrated eco-tourism model (as distinct from a “mass tourism” Bali type
          tourism model) with emphasis upon the physical and cultural elements of the island
          society;
          The first step in this model will be to address the basic infrastructure issues such as
          unreliability of power supply, uncertainty of road access, unreliable communications and
          improved water supply and sanitation particularly to the Iboih resort bungalow areas
          Modifying the forest conservation status to ensure greater stewardship and sustainability
          of both flora and fauna habitat;
          Extensive revegetation programs in coral, mangrove, coastal, forest and amenity species
          across entire island.
          Assuming that the present land acquisition issues are resolved, specific and intensive
          revegetation in the catchment area of the completed Paya Seunara reservoir to ensure the
          quantity and quality of water coming in the dam.
          Improved catchment management of the Aneuk Laot lake to address pollution control of
          organic and inorganic water pollution which have lead to the current problem of
          increasing water hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes) or “eceng gondok” to reduce the loss of
          water due to evapotranspiration.
          Integration with livelihood and infrastructure programs.


The above approach assumes both a “passive” and “active” eco-tourism model. The active model
has been successfully deployed in environmental rehabilitation projects and promotes participation
by ‘tourists’ in addressing a problem. For example, organised groups of hunters, using bow and
arrow technology, would come to Sabang to hunt wild pigs while other groups would arrive to
assist in planting coral beds or take part in building walking trails. Passive models would
emphasise the quiet sanctuary of the island where tourists can enjoy both comfort and opportunity
for contemplation. Participants in either of these models will reject the “mass” tourism model.

5.3.2      Rationale
The government of Sabang City has identified a strategy to prioritize three sectors for development
in Sabang. They are tourism, fisheries, and services. The combination of mountain and marine
ecology provides a great range of tourism opportunity but a clean and healthy environment is an
essential precursor for any environment based tourism. A series of carefully crafted and integrated
programs can make a massive contribution to improving management but they need to be fostered
with a broad understanding across the community. This requires thorough resource stewardship
that in turn requires a change in management practices, not only at the potential tourism ikons, (e.g.
Kilometer 0, Ibioh, Gabung, Water Falls, Hot Water Springs) but across the entire island;
environmental education programs are essential for all and will be most successful if they focus on
changing knowledge, attitudes and ultimately practices! On the other hand, minimal attention to


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any integrated approach will negate any potential for a viable tourism industry that is well known
for its service orientated ethos which collectively has high expectations and ultimately relies on the
quality of the visitor experience to generate ongoing business.

Issues such as integrated catchment / watershed management, production of “green” power,
presentation and interpretation of the rich physical and cultural elements, development of stand-
alone eco-tourism sub-projects, support for introduction of sanitation will all be very important to
support tourism.


5.3.3     Priority Program
Priority programs in Kecamatan Sukakarya are:

          Management - physical and socio-cultural environmental management plan;
          Socialization - facilitate long term cross-department adoption of strategy for
          environmental management for the entire island;
          Catchment Management – incorporates biodiversity and re-vegetation, erosion control,
          water and potential pollution management along with integrated weed eradication;
          Forest Protection - Forest revegetation programs and successfully changing the
          conservation status and operation of the protected areas;
          Coastal rehabilitation - includes coral, seagrass, mangrove re-plantation, tambak,
          rehabilitation, coastal drainage and sanitation improvement;
          Amenity – road and streetscape tree planting, detailing to walking trails and coordinated
          coastal rehabilitation activities;
          Eco-tourism - Using eco-tourism models to promote a number of critical initiatives
          including a feral pig management program;

5.3.4     Program Summary
Sukakarya is one of the two kecamatans of Sabang Kota. This kecamatan has greater ecosystem
variety from marine to upland forest. Environmental management at one part of the island will not
succeed because in small island like Sabang, the whole island including surrounding coastal water
actually is one ecosystem. With clever use of resources, the opportunity is there to exploit both the
mainstream and eco-tourism potential.

A strategic emphasis should be adopted in areas such as the dense forest in Jaboi and Marine Park
in Rubiah island. With the shallow top soil and steeply sloping land, the land capability to retain
the water is already limited. Therefore, vegetation conservation is not only important for
biodiversity, to avoid erosion and land slides, but also to ensure the availability of fresh water, the
viability.



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5.3.5     Program Description
 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT
 ENVIRONMENT 1 - Development of integrated environmental management plan to address physical & socio-cultural issues
      Produce collaborative and participative plan to enable the entire community to improve environmental management.

         Future value potential: An island environment that has environmental indicators and demonstrates management success of its valuable resources.
 ENVIRONMENT 2 - Socialization of environmental management plan for all stakeholders & government departments.
      The program will facilitate the adoption of an environmental care ethic across the island.

         Future value potential: Island biodiversity, including species habitat will greatly improve through collective stewardship.
 FOREST PROTECTION & WATER CATCHMENT MANAGEMENT
 ENVIRONMENT 3 - Complete catchment management plan to address vegetation protection & pollution control.
      Development and introduction of a management plan across forests and water catchment areas.

         Future value potential: Integrity of forests and availability of fresh water will be maintain and support biodiversity of the island.
 ENVIRONMENT 4 – Aneuk Laot Clean up from waterhyacint aquatic weed
      The existence of water hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes) in lake increases water loss from evapotranspiration. Clean up of this aquatic weed will increase lake capacity
      in retaining the water.

         Future value potential: Greater availability of fresh water for local people

 ENVIRONMENT 5 - Changing the conservation status of forest in Iboih and improving monitoring & enforcement of forest protection.
      Tougher conservation or watch to the existing forest is needed to protect fresh water availability and limited top fertile soil, and prevent land sliding.

         Future value potential: availability of fresh water will be maintain and support biodiversity of the island.
 COASTAL REHABILITATION – CORAL REEF REPLANTING
 ENVIRONMENT 6 - Coral Reef Replanting
      Systematic replanting of coral reef building on the existing program.
         Future value potential: Support to enhance marine biodiversity and collaboration by eco-tourism inputs.




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 ECO TOURISM PROGRAM
 ENVIRONMENT 7 - Conduct on-going program development for potential of eco-tourism for environmental protection, management & economic opportunity
      There is limited understanding of both the complexity and the potential which an integrated eco-tourism could make to the island. The Island of Sabung has the
      potential to nurture a unique vehicle to improve both the integrity of the environment and the viability of the tourism industry.

         Future value potential: increase income and profit of farmer.
 ENVIRONMENT 8 - Seminar to produce plan to reduce Wild pig population
      Wild pig has becomes enemy of farmer in Sabang because the population seems to be increasing over time. The pig has no natural enemy. The trap made by
      local farmer to reduce the population seems not to be successful. Regular hunting involving hunters outside the area can be considered as an option.
         Future value potential: increase income and profit of farmer
 AMENITY REVEGETATION PROGRAMS
 ENVIRONMENT 9 - Conduct on-going program of coordinated amenity plantings
      Road and streetscapes, walking trails & coastal areas.

         Future value potential: increase income and profit of farmer. Regular hunting involving hunters outside the area can be considered as an option.




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5.3.6     Project Proposals
                                                                                                                         Estimated   Environmental
                                                       Problem to be                          Size/                                                  Status of
     ID                Projects          Location                           Beneficiaries                  Proposed by    Budget      Assessment                 Reference
                                                        Addressed                            Quality                                                 Program
                                                                                                                          Rp. (M)     Requirement
 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT
 ENV-1        Development of           Entire Island   Need to              Quality of the                ADB SP/EM           1000   No EIA                      TOR
              integrated                               integrate            Sabang                                                   Required                    prepared
              environmental                            planning             island
              management plan to                       initiatives across   environment.
              address physical &                       all stakeholders.
              socio-cultural issues.
 ENV-2        Socialization of         Entire Island   Commence             The entire                    Imam mukim          2000   No EIA                      TOR
              environmental                            process of           inhabitants of                of Iboih                   Required                    prepared
              management plan for                      stakeholder          Sabang
              all stakeholders &                       adoption of
              government                               environmental
              departments.                             management.
 FOREST PROTECTION & WATER CATCHMENT MANAGEMENT
 ENV-3        Complete catchment       Entire Island   Biodiversity         Integrity of                  ADB SP/EM           1500   No EIA
              management plan to                       loss, erosion,       forests, water                Consultation               Required
              address vegetation                       pollution of         supply &
              protection & pollution                   water.               sustainability
              control.                                                      of settlement.
 ENV-4        Aneuk Laot Clean up      Aneuk laot      Species              All people of                 Imam mukim          1800   No EIA                      TOR
              from water hyacinth      Lake            imbalance &          Sabang city                   of Paya Raya               Required                    Prepared
              aquatic weed                             Increase lake
                                                       capacity.
 ENV-5        Changing forest          Entire Island   Environmental        Quality &                     Imam mukim          1300   No EIA                      TOR
              conservation status &                    quality issues       integrity of                  of Iboih                   Required                    prepared
              improving monitoring                     including            Sabang
              & enforcement.                           biodiversity         physical
                                                       enhancement,         environment.
                                                       and habitat



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                                                                                                                         Estimated   Environmental
                                                      Problem to be                           Size/                                                  Status of
     ID                Projects         Location                          Beneficiaries                    Proposed by    Budget      Assessment                 Reference
                                                       Addressed                             Quality                                                 Program
                                                                                                                          Rp. (M)     Requirement
 COASTAL REHABILITATION – CORAL REEF REPLANTING
 ENV 6        Coral Reef              Between         Extensive coral     Tourist           0.5           Bp DODENT           1200   No EIA                      TOR
              Replanting Pilot        Rubiah Island   damage by the       industry of       Hectares      Aceh Coral                 Required                    Prepared
              Program in Iboih        & main beach    tsunami             Iboih & fishing                 Reef
                                      at Iboih                            industry                        Foundation
 ECO TOURISM PROGRAM
 ENV-7        Conduct on-going        Entire Island   Making the link     Tourism                         ADB - SPEM          2000   No EIA                      TOR
              program development                     between             industry &                                                 Required                    Prepared
              for potential of eco-                   management &
              tourism for                             tourism will
              environmental                           stimulate
              protection,                             opportunities for
              management &                            environmental
              economic                                management.
              opportunity.
 ENV-8        Seminar to produce      All villages    To protect          All farmers in                  SPEM Field            20   No EIA                      Sabang
              plan to reduce Wild                     farmer’s            Sabang                          team                       Required                    G’ment
              pig population                          plantations and                                                                                            offers Rp.
                                                      crops from the                                                                                             125 000,-
                                                      pig                                                                                                        per pig tail
                                                                                                                                                                 killed TOR
                                                                                                                                                                 prepared
 AMENITY REVEGETATION PROGRAMS
 ENV-9        Conduct on-going        Entire Island   Road &              Visual                          Government          1500   No EIA                      TOR
              program of                              streetscapes,       amenity of the                  Department                 Required                    Prepared
              coordinated amenity                     walking trails &    island.                         Consultation
              plantings.                              coastal areas.
Note: Environmental assessment will meet or exceed international standards as per GoI Decree 308/2005 and other relevant legislation.




SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ                                                                                   PAGE 57
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6.        Summary and Conclusions
In the development of this Kecamatan Action Plan considerable emphasis has been placed on
consultation and the achievement of ‘buy-in’ to the process and programs. This has occurred
through consultation at the kecamatan, and village levels, the POJKA, and with the NGOs currently
working in the area. This combined with field surveys, collection of documentation, and mapping
has resulted in a reasonably comprehensive rapid assessment view of the needs and opportunities
within the study area.

The consultation process involved initial meetings with the Camat and key kecamatan officials,
followed by field surveys and analysis of the issues through air photo interpretation. The
consultation with the village leaders was undertaken in community forum meetings where the
issues of environment, livelihood and environment were addressed through discussions. The issues
and opportunities that were identified by the village leaders were considered and where within the
scope of this study included within the proposed program. Additional meetings were held with the
Camat and the POJKA to discuss the proposals. This process, while time consuming, served to
achieve a high level of buy-in at the local level.

The NGO coordination meetings provided a useful forum for the collection of information relating
to NGO activities and assisted in identifying the gaps between the needs of the community and the
existing programs. Addition individual consultation was undertaken with NGOs where required to
further assist this identification process.

As a result of this consultation process key priorities have been outlined and a broad range of
projects have been described. Some of these projects can proceed to immediate implementation
while others, because of their complexity, will require additional analysis and design.

This should be looked on as the first step in a process of planning and design and development
which will lead to successful rehabilitation and future development of Kecamatan Sukakarya.




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Appendices




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Appendix A Solid Waste Management Guidelines
           for Urban Areas
A.1       Introduction
Domestic and light commercial solid waste is composed of organic/wet wastes such as kitchen
wastes (vegetable residues, fruit peelings), other food and cooking wastes; inorganic/dry wastes
such as plastics, papers, glass, cans, etc.; greenwaste such as grass clippings and tree prunings; and
residuals such as used disposable nappies and other non recyclables and non-compostables
approximately as follows;

Item               Typical          Typical Contents
                   Percentage
Greenwaste         50%              Tree prunings and grass clippings

Wet wastes         25%              Predominantly kitchen wastes, of which at most half would be
                                    compostable and the remainder non-compostable food and
                                    cooking scraps as well as general residual wastes such as
                                    disposable diapers

Dry Waste          25%              Both non-recyclables such as broken crockery and recyclables
/Recyclables                        such as plastic, glass, paper, metals, etc


The proposed approach to solid waste management focuses on on-site waste management at
householder level (waste minimization, segregation and composting) and the collection system is
just for residual wastes. Solid waste should be collected by the Sanitation Department in accessible
areas of these large towns or cities. However the more remote or hard to access areas will require a
communal collection system. This local collection system will be sensibly integrated where
possible with the existing solid waste management system undertaken by the Sanitation department
in order to enhance more effective existing solid waste management. It is assumed that a final
disposal location such as a sanitary landfill or controlled dump will already be available.


A.2      Objectives
Objectives of the guideline are to ensure that the community is able to:

       a)   Comprehend the significance of participation in the collection system in terms of
            achieving comprehensive solid waste management.
       b) Segregate organic/wet and inorganic/dry wastes.
       c)   Participate in composting and recycling programs.
       d) Manage their wastes in a sustainable and independent manner.


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     e) Use directly at household level the compost generated as a result of solid waste
        management by community members

A.3      SWM Approach
There are several components to solid waste management in urban areas, some of which may have
to be amended due to local community and physical conditions.

1) Waste minimization program
     These programs are proposed to encourage community members to reduce their wastes at the
     source (generator) by changing their life style. The Community must be made be aware that
     more wastes generated mean that more cost will result for both waste transportation and also
     final disposal. There will also potentially be more environmental problems such as ground
     water pollution, and odor. Waste minimization covers the three fundamentals of reduce, reuse
     and recycle (3R).

          Reduce
          This program is proposed to reduce waste at the source through changing purchasing
          attitudes, such as to buy groceries in family size rather than sachet size; to buy refills
          rather than single use containers; to purchase items that can be repaired and/or with a long
          life span; to buy items in simple and safe packaging, etc and overall, to generally avoid
          excessive and wasteful packaging.

          Reuse
          This program is proposed to encourage reuse of used materials rather than disposing of the
          material as wastes, such as reusing a bottle for drinking water or plastic bottle for planting
          plants: used towels can be reused as cleaning cloths or for kitchen mitten/kitchen gloves;
          recyclable papers or banana leaves rather than Styrofoam used for protective wrapping;
          reuse the blank side of copy paper as memo paper; etc.

          Recycle
          Plastics, papers, glass, cans, metals and other materials are able to be recycled for making
          new products. Aim to have the community buy recyclable materials rather than just used
          once and then thrown away. These kinds of materials are able to be collected if household
          waste is segregated, and then sold to eco aids or to be given to scavengers

A special component of waste minimization is individual composting at the household level.
Individual composting is to be encouraged for households that have space for composting activities
and also have gardening activity. There are a range of suitable composting systems for household
and gardening wastes. A simple composting system can be established by using stacks of old tires,
by excavating shallow pits into the ground or using any above ground containers that allow free


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drainage. There are also specialized composting bins that allow the compost to be regularly rotated
and aerated, as well as plastic cones that provide protection against the rain but still allow aeration
of the compost. In this case, residual wastes (meat, oily waste, disposable diapers, etc.) are able to
be buried on-site or collected by the Sanitation Department/Office).

2) Solid waste collection system
     a)   Urban areas with good internal access (good street layout and width) – a collection service
          should be provided for emptying an individual container for each household. The
          container provided is only for wet/organic wastes, residual wastes and yard wastes
          (greenwastes), while recyclable dry wastes are collected and placed in separate plastic
          bags by the household and are able to be sold to the “eco aids” or are able to be given to
          scavengers.
          The plastic drum or plastic bag container should be in the order of 40 litres, and is to be
          located in front of the house for the Sanitation Department/Office to collect. Wet wastes
          should be collected at least weekly, whereas dry waste collections for greenwaste and
          recyclables can be as infrequently as monthly.

          In future, the greenwaste may be separated out for less frequent collection and then this
          waste can be chipped or ground in tub grinders to make mulch for use on parks and
          gardens, rather than taking up valuable landfill space. This would then require a 3 bag
          system for residuals and excess wet waste; greenwaste and recyclables.

     b) Urban precincts with limited internal access (poor or narrow internal roads) - should have
        a communal-based system utilizing a supplied bin/container for residual waste, non-
        compostable wet waste and greenwaste. This makes up about 60% of the total waste
        production per person or 1.5 Litres/person.day. A wheeled metal bin of 120 liters or
        mobile garbage bin (MGB) of 120 litres is able to serve waste generated from say 20
        households or 80 people if collected daily. It is recommended to use metal bins in order to
        limit theft and maximize container life. Another type of bin is the hook-lift bin of typically
        6 m3 capacity which will serve 1,000 households or about 4,000 people if collected daily.
          Recyclables will be collected by eco aids or scavengers, or will be received in another
          kind of container. All these bins should be located in strategic places which are easily
          accessible by the local people. An improvement on this system is to supply 2 bins at each
          location, with one for non-compostable wet wastes and residuals, and the other larger bin
          for greenwaste, however the space available for bins is often limited. Also the community
          would have to be educated to segregate their residual and excessive wet waste from the
          greenwaste for placing in separate bins.




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Factors to be considered in developing SWM particularly collection systems in urban areas include
the following:

     a)   The community should be involved in deciding how to solve solid waste management
          problems locally. The community will need to be educated on the options and issues prior
          to asking the community to decide the local solid waste management program.
     b) Provide a demonstration/pilot to show how to separate between wet and dry wastes in
        terms of compostable wet wastes (eg vegetable peelings); non-compostable wet waste
        (such as oily wastes and meat scraps); residual wastes (eg disposable nappies);
        recyclables (eg glass, metals, plastic) and yard waste / greenwaste.
     c)   Regardless of the above outcomes and decisions, the community should be trained on the
          household-based composting process. The compost will be used directly by the
          householders in the semi urban and peri urban areas for gardening; it is not for
          commercial sale.
     d) Facilitate the role of eco aids/junkshop to enable collection of the recyclable materials
        from individual households
The approach for urban solid waste management is shown in the following diagram. Note that this
diagram only refers to in-house waste and not the yard waste or greenwaste which should be kept
separate where possible. Greenwaste can be recycled after chipping or mulching at the central
disposal facility. Alternatively, some of the smaller greenwaste items such as grass clippings and
tree leaves can be added to the household compost to provide a source of carbon and also dry
material for moisture content management.




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                       Figure 1: Diagram of SWM Approach in Semi Urban Area




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A.4    Staging of Composting
a) Waste segregation
     In this stage, waste segregation between compostable material, recyclables and residual waste
     is carried out.

b) Size reduction
     Size reduction is undertaken by chopping up the so that it is easier and quicker to be putrefied
     as compost.

c)   Establish a Compost System
     There are a range of suitable composting systems for household and agricultural wastes. The
     mound system is described below, but also a simple composting system can be established by
     using stacks of old tires, by excavating shallow pits into the ground or using any above ground
     containers that allow free drainage. There are also specialized composting bins that allow the
     compost to be regularly rotated and aerated, as well as plastic cones that provide protection
     against the rain but still allow aeration of the compost. For a basic mounding system;

          To maximize composting efficiency and provide additional drainage of the mound, a
          method of allowing air to flow through the base of the mound is desirable. This can be
          achieved by placing a large pipe at the base of the mound with many holes drilled around
          the perimeter, a small frame made of stiff chicken wire or a bundle of bamboo shoots to sit
          along the ground located along the centre of the mound.
          The chopped organic/wet waste, manure (if any) and also carbon-rich, dry material such
          as tree cuttings, leaves or paper is mixed and mounded over the air drain described above.
          Mound design has a nominal width of 1-1.5 metres, height of 1 metre and length is
          adjusted as required to suite the volume requiring composting
          Compact the mound lightly by just stepping on and shaping the mound.
d) Inversion
     Inversion is carried out when the temperature reaches approximately 50oC, and can be
     undertaken manually or by loader. Progressively, the mound is taken from the top and is
     placed in a new mound until the top of the old mound is at the base of the new mound and vise
     versa.

     Inversion is required to discharge excessive heat, allow fresh air into compost previously
     located at the mound interior, distribute the decomposition process more evenly throughout the
     mound, distribute moisture, and break the compoact material into smaller particles.




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e)   Watering
     Test for determining whether watering is required is to manually squeeze some of the
     composting material. If water cannot be squeezed out, then the mound should be watered. In
     wet climates or periods, it may be necessary to cover the mound to prevent the mound
     becoming too wet. Excess water limits oxygen transfer which slows the composting process
     and also produces bad odours.

f)   Maturation
     After composting 30-40 days, the mound temperature decreases to ambient temperature. At
     this time, the mound should have a dark brown or black color and an earthy odour, not an
     ammonia or sulphurous odour.

g) Screening
     Screening is then carried out to obtain a compost size according to the needs and to separate
     out residual materials that should not be in the final compost product.

     Any materials not yet composted properly are returned to the new compost mound, while
     residual materials are disposed off.

h)   Storage
     Screened compost should be stored in a dry location protected from contamination by fungus
     and weed seed.




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Appendix B Projects Identified and Costed by
           BRR Region (outline summary)
ETESP6 with Extension

        Sector                      # Projects # Projects   Costed %     Rp Million     %     Rp Million
                                    Identified    Costed    Identified     Costed            Per Project
BRR Region One
  Aceh Besar (6 kecamatan o/o 22)
        Infrastructure                   103          78         76%      640,437     85%         8,211
        Livelihoods                        74         37         50%        98,908    13%         2,673
        Environment                        45         23         51%        13,596     2%           591
        Total                            222         138         62%      752,941     100%        5,456
  Aceh Jaya (6 kecamatan o/o 6)
        Infrastructure                   133          97         73%      183,197     75%         1,889
        Livelihoods                        49          9         18%        61,590    25%         6,843
        Environment                        23          0          0%             0     0%
        Total                            205         106         52%      244,787     100%        2,309
  Sabang (2 kecamatan o/o 2)
        Infrastructure                     59         56         95%       68,880     64%         1,230
        Livelihoods                        12         11         92%        38,625    36%         3,511
        Environment                         9          2         22%           198     0%            99
        Total                              80         69         86%      107,703     100%        1,561
Total BRR Region One
        Infrastructure                   103          78         76%      640,437     85%         8,211
        Livelihoods                        74         37         50%        98,908    13%         2,673
        Environment                        45         23         51%        13,596     2%           591
        Total                            222         138         62%      752,941     100%        5,456
BRR Region Two
  Aceh Barat (5 kecamatan o/o 11)
        Infrastructure                   112          82         73%      211,205     89%         2,576
        Livelihoods                        52         13         25%        27,166    11%         2,090
        Environment                        27          0          0%             0     0%
        Total                            191          95         50%      238,371     100%        2,509
Total
        Infrastructure                   215         160         74%      851,642     86%         5,323
        Livelihoods                      126          50         40%      126,074     13%         2,521
        Environment                        72         23         32%        13,596     1%           591
        Total                            413         233         56%      991,312     100%        4,255




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Appendix C TOR
C.1       TOR 28 – Community Based Proposal For Micro-Financing to Assist
          Business Development
Name of Project         Development of a community based proposal for Small and Medium Business
                        Development in the Kecamatan
Purpose(s)              The purpose will be to develop a community based proposal which will lead to
                        microfinancing program for small and medium business entrepreneurs
Rationale and           The area in the vicinity of Balohon was severely damaged by the Tsunami. The
General Description     aim of the proposal is provide finance to 10 local traders to rebuild their kiosks
                        and small business enterprises in the vicinity of the Port of Balohan


Suggested List of       The study should include but not be limited to the following:
Tasks/Activities        Review current schemes to identify the usage, hindrances, benefits, and
                        community impact, of pre- and post-tsunami financial mechanisms (banks,
                        registered cooperatives, development banks, micro-credit facilities, NGOs)
                        Analyze market opportunities for a range of present and business activities, and
                        constraints
                        Assess future potential for micro-credit to assist in redevelopment of the informal
                        sector affected by the tsunami.
                        Determine mechanism, criteria and payback arrangement for receiving funds, for
                        micro or small loans, or for medium and large loans from financial institutions
                        Determine potential institution used to channel funds, depending upon target
                        client(s)
                        Prepare draft report with a range of recommendations and a plan of action and
                        review with the community local, kabupaten, BRR, and other appropriate officials
                        Prepare final report with recommendations

Anticipated Output(s)   Plan of Action to support micro-finance structures to resestablish small and
                        medium business opportunities in Balohan

Time Frame              One months
Budget                  US $ 10,000
Comments and            Consultant team should include two national experts (SME, community
Suggestions             development), preferably with prior experience in NAS.




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C.2       TOR 29 – Community Based Tambak Rehabilitation Study
Name of Project         Community Based Tambak Rehabilitation
Purpose(s)              The intent is to prepare a community based proposal and a brief feasibility of
                        developing tambaks in select parts of the kecamatan, including physical, human
                        resource and financial aspects in conjunction with the community
Rationale and           Tambak cultivation is common in many parts of Aceh. Commonly tambak has
General Description     been established in areas of previous mangrove, where necessary exchange of
                        fresh and salt water could occur. Because of the proximity of tambak to the ocean,
                        facilities in some areas have been heavily damaged during the tsunami. This may
                        present san opportunity for the development of such facilities in the kecamatan.
                        However, before a commitment to tambak rehabilitation is made, a brief
                        examination of a range of issues should be undertaken with the community. The
                        establishment of tambak should adopt a silvo-fisheries model, integrating a buffer
                        zone of mangrove species to mimic the traditional tambak ecosystems
Suggested List of       The Scope of Work for development of the proposal should include but is not
Tasks/Activities        limited to the following:
                        Typical tambak profile -- location, condition, commodity grown, approximate yield,
                        market, approximate net income; i.e. the ‘basics’ for tambak development
                        Soil profile – geo-physical landforms, soil types and specifications, and ecology
                        Tenure -- tambak ownership and land ownership factors
                        Potential number of beneficiaries -- direct (owners, workers) and indirect
                        (merchants, households)
                        Methods of cultivation (traditional and intensive) and required inputs
                        Environmental impact of structure and inputs; government regulations
                        Financial assistance options for tambak rehabilitation
                        Preparation budget for development, including construction, inputs, operation,
                        marketing, and management
                        Prepare a draft report with findings and recommendations
                        Review with key officials and community
                        Finalise report



Anticipated Output(s)   A community based proposal for tambak development
Time Frame              2 months
Budget                  US $ 20,000
Comments and            Consultant team should consist of one internationally recognized aquaculture
Suggestions             fisheries expert and two national experts (i.e. aquaculture/fisheries and community
                        development)




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C.3       ToR 60 – Pulau Sabang – Repair existing water main at Iboih
Name of Project         Repair existing water main at Iboih

Purpose(s)              To obtain better water flows in the pipeline
Rationale and           The fresh water supply to these locations is provided by PDAM using a 50mm dia
General Description     piped gravity fed supply from a Water Tower in Lhong Angen. This tower is
                        approx one kilometre from Oboih village. The water supply is quite often
                        intermittent and when in operation has a very low pressure delivery. The pipe
                        section from the village to the tourist beach rises in section for about half the
                        distance approx 15 meters in height and then has a declivity to the beach over a
                        similar distance and height. Because of the low water pressure the existing public
                        toilets in the beach resort are not able to operate due to the lack of maintenance
                        and cleansing water.
Suggested List of       It is suggested there could be adverse siphonic pressures built up in the pipeline
Tasks/Activities        which is preventing the delivery system operating efficiently. A survey of the
                        existing elevations and declines of the pipeline is required from the Water tower to
                        the delivery points. Engineering calculations can then be made to ascertain the
                        problem and the appropriate action taken. It could be a very simple solution such
                        as to insert an air relief valve in the pipeline at the appropriate position.
Anticipated Output(s)   Better water flows
Time Frame              Immediate
Budget                  USD 2.000
Comments and            No action taken yet
Suggestions




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Appendix D Draft ToR – Coral Replanting Pilot
           Project
Development of Community Proposal and Project Concept

D.1       Background
The Aceh Coral Conservation Group has been working in the iboih area for the past 15 years. It
was one of the first conservation groups working in Sabang on coral reef and mangrove
preservation. As a result of the tsunami extensive areas of coral reef were either damaged or
destroyed between the main village beach of Iboih and the island just off the coast (Pulau Rubiah).

This NGO is now seeking funding to restore up 0.5 hectares using a pilot approach to coral
replanting. On the basis of the results form the pilot they will then seek additional assistance to
increase the area of planting to all damaged areas.


D.2      Scope of Work
To work with the community to prepare a project concept note and proposal involving the
following tasks:

          Delineation and selection of pilot area
          Develop evaluation parameters to measure progress of the pilot area(s)
          Construction of moorings and cables
          Re planting of Coral
          On- going measurement and evaluation
          Preparation and Submission of Report
D.3     Estimated Project Cost
5000 m2 Rp 150000 Planting

Preparation of moorings including labor and diving personnel Rp 10 million

Total Cost of Planting Rp 11,500000




D.4    Estimated Cost For Community Proposal
One Week Duration $2000




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Appendix E Draft TOR - Pollution Control &
           Catchment Management
Pollution Control & Catchment Management of Aneuk Laot Lake ( Water Hyacinth and
Weed Control)

E.1      Objective
To safeguard the lake as a water supply and conservation area and preserve the lake ecosystem
from the activities arising from agriculture, intrusive settlement and associated development


E.2        Background
The scope of the study covers Aneuk Laot lake and it catchment area. The lake provides up to 60%
of the water supply for the entire City of Sabang. This lake and its catchment area is considered to
be a strategic area and needs increased conservation protection and rehabilitation in order to
maintain water quality and reduce sources of pollution. The lake is also a potential natural tourism
object which will increase in value from the ecological and economic perspective. 5

Present activity in the catchment area of the lake includes agricultural activities which lead to
sedimentation and run-off of agricultural chemicals. There are also illegal housing and related
activities which cause further pollution of the water body. The growth of water hyacinth is
increasing on the surface of the lake as the organic load entering the lake increases. There may also
be sources of inorganic pollution from agricultural pesticides

Agricultural activities dominate over others in the surrounding areas of the lakes, and the
community increasingly settles nearby so that there is a possibility of intense interaction between
the lakes and the community and their agricultural activities.

Scope of Work

          Prepare and agree on a baseline monitoring program and identification of current sources
          of pollution and areas of weed infestation
          Review the current pollution control regulations
          Review the current land use control regulation
          Review the enforcement regulation
          Review current institutional arrangements between PDAM Sabang and BAPEDALDA
          To identify and monitor the rate of pollution in the lake requires survey/investigation of
          catchment area activities
          To map activities at an agreed scale



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          Prepare and gain agreement on a community based program to support the technical
          activities and action plan to reduce and/or pollution and illegal land use activities.
          Agree on a financial/budgetary mechanism to ensure on-going implementation
          Revise and strengthen pollution, catchment management and enforcement regulations

E.3     Indicative Budget
A Team of one International and two local consultants for 2-3 months with follow up after six
months and one year of Implementation. $50000 to $70000.




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Appendix F Draft TOR - Preparation of a Water
           and Sanitation Action Plan
Kecamatan Sukakarya Keluran Iboih




F.1       Background
The tourist industry in Gapang and Iboih is the main destination for most foreign tourists who
presently visit Sabang. The tourists coming from outside the country are mainly attracted to the
area specifically for diving and will visit for extended periods. The other type of foreign tourist is
the individual or family who are presently working on assignments for international and local aid
organisations or government entities. Gapang tends to have the higher end of the market with up to
50 % of the units with AC and spacious bungalows. Iboih is more suited to the backpacker market
The other main group is the domestic tourist who either comes form Banda Aceh or other parts of
the NAD province. There is also a significant number of local tourists from Java who are
employees of aid and government agencies who are presently living in Banda Aceh.All local
tourism tends to be only one or two days.

All of these groups except the international diving group tends to frequent the resorts over the
weekend. In general terms these areas are reasonably full at the weekends but generally have very
low occupancies during the week.

Total visitors to the island has been estimated by the Dinas Parawisata at 72000 annually with less
than 3000 foreign visitors. However there is no consistent recording of visitation over time. Using
data collected in the field the total visitation to the Gapang Iboh area was estimated to be of the
order of 20000 to 30000 visitors per year of which approximately 50% are made up of foreign
visitors. The majority of foreign visitors are those living and working in Banda Aceh. The total
value of tourism in this vicinity is of the order of $US1.6 million.

Iboih is the lower standard bungalow area of the two resorts and is located approximately three
kilometres further west towards Kilometre O from Gapang. The bungalow area adjoins the village
of Iboih and can only be reached on foot by a pathway which extends for approximately 600 metres
along the hillside overlooking the beach.The total number of units in the Iboh area is approximately
100 bungalows of which only 50 units are still of reasonable standard. The other bungalows have
suffered from deterioration due to lack of maintenance and /or tsunami damage. The standard of
water supply and sanitation in this area is also deteriorating with low water supply pressure and
poor quality provision of toilet facilities. All bungalows are dependent on public facilities provided
by the City of Sabang with up to 20 bungalows being serviced by one Asian style toilet facility.



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Many of the individual facilities are no longer operational. This terms of reference (TOR) is for the
preparation of a water and sanitation action plan for the vicinity of Iboih.


F.2       Objectives
      1) To prepare a water supply and sanitation strategy for the development of sustainable
         tourism in Kelurahan Iboih in consultation with relevant community, City of Sabang and
         other stakeholders.
      2) To prepare an action plan for water and sanitation which would support the development
         of sustainable tourism in the Iboih Gapang resort areas
F.3        Scope of Work
          Prepare a base map at suitable scale using Ikonos Imagery
          In consultation with Kota Sabang form a project POKJA to coordinate study activities
          with relevant city officials..
          Agree on study assumptions concerning the future growth and composition of tourism in
          the Iboih Gapang study area
          Agree on standards of service provision for water supply and sanitation
          Carry out an inventory of water supply and resources available to the study area household
          and utility level and determine ability and willingness to pay for service
          Carry out a household survey of existing sanitation and needs and determine willingness
          and ability to pay
          Prepare a water supply and sanitation strategy for sustainable tourism and gain agreement
          from relevant stakeholders
          Prepare planning and engineering options for satisfying agreed service standards
          Evaluate water supply and sanitation options
          Prepare action plan with engineering, institutional, operation, maintenance and funding
          recommendations.
F.4      Budget
One international and two local consultants with Sanitation Engineering Planning Qualifications.
2-3 months $50000.




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Appendix G Draft Tor - Agricultural Rehabilitation
           through Capacity Building
Agricultural Rehabilitation through Capacity Building and Training in the City of Sabang


G.1       Introduction
For “building back better” a long term vision on regional physical planning should be emphasized.
A natural resource based strategy is necessary for the West coast of NAD including the islands
Sabang, Aceh, Bireuh and Nasi. KAP analysis is dealing with mainly short term immediate actions
to be taken on infrastructure. The livelihood and environmental sections are dealing with medium
to longer term issues which in most cases will require further preparation and this draft TOR
outline the scope of the work on the island of Sbang


G.2       Background
Apart from fisheries and public services, agriculture is a major primary occupation of the
population in Sabang. The fishing industry is the main short term issue to be addressed for
livelihood development , Upgrading of the quality of tourism is one area which will be addressed
in the short term as part of the KAP for Kecamatan Sukajaya. Agriculture and farming are the main
medium to long term issues.

For the island of Sabang sectoral approaches should only be applied at the lower levels of physical
planning. Mid-long term and long term planning require an integrated approach of the above
mentioned sectors. In islands like Sabang, fisheries, agriculture and tourism are closely interlinked
and shouldn’t be developed separately, but integrated. The central link here is the building back
better principle and environmentally sustainable. The development of Sabang in the near future will
be a dynamic process. When tourism starts growing, a string of events will be set in motion and
economic growth is enhanced, the now leading sectors will eventually be lead by the tourist
industry and also, it makes sense for farming to follow and focus on supporting the demands of
tourism.


G.3       Capacity building:
The objective of the capacity building will be to provide the relevant local agricultural stakeholders
with potential economic development opportunities within the complementary sectors of fisheries-
agriculture-tourism

          Agricultural developments have been sub optimal due to the Aceh conflict. The present
          situation in agriculture and forestry is hampered by organisational structures and
          responsibilities which are not clearly defined, the level of efficiency for an effective
          support of stakeholders (fishermen and / or farmers) is low. However both coconut and


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          kebun farming suffer from under-productivity. One of the main factors is the lack of “best
          practice” sustainable farming methods.
          Problems in the field keep lingering for long periods and are not sufficiently dealt with
          and consequently not solved: These include roaming wild pigs, water availability in dryer
          regions, land ownership (planned as water reservoir), provision of basic agricultural
          hardware (tools, food crops, new resistant seeds, fertiliser, the use of pesticides), etc.
          The present position of Sabang importing rice and not being self-supporting, will be
          looked at in more detail. The possibilities for salak production at larger scale will also be
          addressed. To guarantee a more sustainable position of smallholders, there is the need for
          micro finance and soft loans to set up small business and processing facilities to improve
          their financial position.
          Input at all levels will be revised and upgraded:
          –    basic maps and mapping skills and tools, techniques
          –    basic laboratory capacity for the first analysis without being dependent on far away
               institutes
          –    basic soil data is not available and not being inventoried and stored
          –    know how of soils, land use and land capabilities is not available
          –    support for farmers and small stakeholders based on well documented knowledge and
               expertise (learning lessons principle)
With the upcoming demands for tourism and economic revival in Sabang, it is considered that an
upgrade of the capacity and quality of agricultural advice and extension services is needed.
Training at various levels and various sectors in soil and land management skills is needed. The
agricultural sector should be an integral part of the strategic planning in land management and part
of the design of Sabang’s future using the principle of “build back better”.

The assistance and inputs provided by the BRR or NGOs should be complemented by training in
capacity building in order to increase agricultural output and sustainability. ETESP SP/EM
recommends that a study be conducted in detail for several aspects of an agricultural training
program before it is undertaken. This study could be completed as part of Phase II by ETESP
SP/EM or conducted by an independent consultant. The Scope of Work should include but is not
limited to the following:


G.4      Scope of Work
      3) Conduct survey and analysis to determine:
               Needs within both kecamatans
               Benefits of land consolidation
               The structure of agriculture and forestry


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               Strengths and weaknesses of the agricultural and forestry institutions
               Sensitive areas worthy of re-greening or redevelopment
               Broad scale agricultural and forestry issues which require a programmatic approach
               Programming factors
                       Beneficiaries
                       –   Farm groups
                       –   Individuals
                       –   Extension workers
                       Location
                       Group size
                       Training level required
                       Materials required
     4) Training assessment to determine type and level of training(s)
               Direct to beneficiaries
                       –   Integrated management
                       –   Level of participation
               Training of trainers
               Dinas / Agric extension service involvement
     5) Prepare training packages
               Initial materials
               Follow-up trainings
     6) Determine cost of training
     7) Determine institutional mechanism for funding program
               Dinas
               Kecamatan
               BRR
               NGO
               Donor
     8) Determine agency responsible for implementing trainings
               Dinas
               Kecamatan
               BRR
               NGO

Cost of study if prepared by independent consultant:              US$ 20,000


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Appendix H Maps
Maps are inserted at back of report



Map SK Bas/1           Baseline

Map SK EnC/2           Environmental Conditions

Map SK Inf/3           Infrastructure Rehabilitation

Map SK Liv/4           Livelihood Rehabilitation

Map SK EnM/5           Environmental Management




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