Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya Document history and status Revision Date issued Reviewed by Approved by Date approved Revision type th Mal Horner Lyndsay th DRAFT – FOR DRAFT FINAL August 8 2006 August 8 2006 (Team Leader) Chapple (SKM) COMMENT st Mal Horner Lyndsay st FINAL August 31 2006 August 31 2006 FINAL (Team Leader) Chapple (SKM) Distribution of copies Revision Copies Issued to FINAL 2 ADB Axel Hebel FINAL 3 ADB-EMS Pieter M. Smidt FINAL 2 BAPPENAS Ir. Medrilzam & Uke Mohammad Hussein FINAL 2 BRR Dr. Erwin Fahmi FINAL 2 BAPPEDA NAD Prof. Abdul Rahman Lubis FINAL 2 BAPEDALDA NAD Ir. T. H. Said Mustafa Public Works FINAL 1 NAD BAPPEDA For distribution to: BAPPEDA (1), Bupati (1), Camat of FINAL 4 Kota Sabang Sukakarya (2) World Bank/ FINAL 1 J. Victor Bottini IREP Sea Defence FINAL 1 Bram van der Boon Project Printed: 4 September 2006 Last saved: 4 September 2006 12:41 PM File name: COCS_60_059-RPT-0051 (FINAL) KAP Sukakarya Author: Douglas Martin Project manager: Lyndsay Chapple Name of organisation: Asian Development Bank Name of project: ETESP Package 6 Extension Name of document: Kecamatan Action Plan – Sukakarya Document version: Final Project number: COCS-60-059 SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya Contents 1. Introduction 1 1.1 Report Summary and Purpose 1 1.1.1 Overview 1 1.1.2 The Kecamatan Planning Process 1 1.1.3 The Kecamatan Action Plan 4 1.2 Plan Implementation 5 1.2.1 Legal Basis 5 1.2.2 Planning Process Assumptions 5 1.2.3 How Can We Use the KAP? 6 1.2.4 Who Can Use the KAP? 6 1.2.5 Linkage to Village Planning Structure 6 1.3 Economics and Finance 7 2. Regional Considerations 9 2.1 The Need for a Regional Perspective 9 2.2 Physical Characteristics 9 2.3 The Environment 11 2.4 The Livelihoods Dimension 11 2.5 The Need for Cross Sectoral and Integrated Programming 13 3. Infrastructure Rehabilitation 15 3.1 General Policy 15 3.1.1 Issues 15 3.1.2 Policy/Approach 17 3.1.3 Priority Program 18 3.2 Options Program 19 3.2.1 Program Summary 19 3.2.2 Program Description 20 3.2.3 Project Proposals 27 4. Livelihoods Rehabilitation 39 4.1 Introduction 39 4.2 General Policy 39 4.2.1 Issues 39 4.2.2 Rationale 39 4.3 Options Program 42 4.3.1 Program Summary 42 4.3.2 Program Description 44 4.3.3 Project Proposals 46 SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ PAGE i Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya 5. Environmental Management 49 5.1 Introduction 49 5.2 Site Observations and Analysis 49 5.3 Issues 50 5.3.1 Policy / Approach 51 5.3.2 Rationale 52 5.3.3 Priority Program 53 5.3.4 Program Summary 53 5.3.5 Program Description 54 5.3.6 Project Proposals 56 6. Summary and Conclusions 59 Appendices Appendix A Solid Waste Management Guidelines for Urban Areas A.1 Introduction A.2 Objectives A.3 SWM Approach A.4 Staging of Composting Appendix B Projects Identified and Costed by BRR Region (outline summary) Appendix C TOR C.1 TOR 28 – Community Based Proposal For Micro-Financing to Assist Business Development C.2 TOR 29 – Community Based Tambak Rehabilitation Study C.3 ToR 60 – Pulau Sabang – Repair existing water main at Iboih Appendix D Draft ToR – Coral Replanting Pilot Project D.1 Background D.2 Scope of Work D.3 Estimated Project Cost D.4 Estimated Cost For Community Proposal Appendix E Draft TOR - Pollution Control & Catchment Management E.1 Objective E.2 Background E.3 Indicative Budget SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ PAGE ii Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya Appendix F Draft TOR - Preparation of a Water and Sanitation Action Plan F.1 Background F.2 Objectives F.3 Scope of Work F.4 Budget Appendix G Draft Tor - Agricultural Rehabilitation through Capacity Building G.1 Introduction G.2 Background G.3 Capacity building: G.4 Scope of Work Appendix H Maps (Maps are inserted at back of report) Rencana Aksi Kecamatan Sukakarya Lihat setelah laporan bahasa Inggris (Indonesian version) SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ PAGE iii Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya List of Abbreviations ADB Asian Development Bank AMDAL Analisis dampak Lingkungan (Environmental Impact Analysis) ARRIS JICA established Aceh Reconstruction and Rehabilitation Information System AUSAID Australian Agency for International Development BAKOSURTANAL Badan Koordinasi Survei dan Pemetaan (National Coordinating Agency for Surveys and Mapping) BANGDES Directorat Jenderal Pembanguanan Village Planning Unit (Ministry of Home Affairs) BAPEDAL Badan Pengendali dampak Lingkungan (Agency for Environmental Impact Management) BAPEDALDA Badan Pengenddalian Dampak Lingkungan Daerah (Provincial Agency for Environmental Impact Management) BAPPEDA Badan Perencanaan dan Pembangunan Daerah (Provincial Planning Agency) BAPPENAS Badan Perencanaan dan Pembangunan Nasional (National Planning Agency) BGR Germany Board of Geological Survey BPN Badan Pertanahan Nasional (National Land Agency) BPS Badan Pusat Statistik (Central Bureau of Statistics) BRR Badan Rehabilitasi dan Rekonstruksi (Rehabilitation and Reconstruction Agency) BRR/ RO BRR Regional Office CAP Community Action Plan CIDA Canadian International Development Agency CIFOR Center for International Forestry Research COFISH Coastal Community Development and Fisheries Resources Management (ADB) Project COREMAP Coral Reef Rehabilitation and Management (ADB & WB) Project DANIDA Danish Bilateral Aid Agency DEPDAGRI Ministry for Home Affairs DKP Departemen Kelautan dan Perikanan (Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries) DPR Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat (Parliament) DPRD Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat Daerah (Local Parliament) EIA Environmental Impact Assessment EIS Environmental Impact Statement EMP Environmental Management Plan EPM Environmental Protection Measures ERM Environmental Risk Management ESRI The manufacturer of ArcInfo and ArcView GIS software ETESP Earthquake and Tsunami Emergency Support (ADB) Project EU European Union FAO Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations FAR Field Assessment Report FFI Flora and Fauna Indonesia GAM Gerakan Aceh Merdeka (Free Aceh Movement) GFI Government Financial Institution GIS Geographic Information System GOI or GoI Government of Indonesia GTZ German International Development Agency HHW Household Hazardous Waste IA Implementing Agency ICZM Integrated Coastal Zone Management IEE Initial Environmental Examination INGO International NGO IUCN International Union for the Conservation of Nature JICA Japan International Cooperation Agency KAP Kecamatan Action Plan SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ PAGE iv Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya KDP Kecamatan Development Program KLH Ministry of State for Environment LAPAN Lembaga Antarilesa dan Penerbangan Nasional (National Aerospace and Aviation Association) LGU Local Government Unit LREP Land Resource Evaluation and Planning (ADB) Project MAPFRAME A spreadsheet form of the latest statistics from BPS MCRMP Marine and Coastal Resources Management (ADB) Project MREP Marine Resources Evaluation (ADB) Project MRF Materials Recovery Facility MSWMB Municipal Solid Waste Management Board NAD Province of Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam NGO Non-Government Organization PDAM Perusahaan Daerah Air Minum (Local Government Water Company) PLN Perusahaan Listrik Negara (Power Company) PMO Project Management Office POKJA Government Working Group PPIU Project Planning and Implementation Units PU Pekerjaan Umum(Ministry of Public Works) RALAS Reconstruction of Aceh Land Administration System RRP ADB Report and Recommendations to the President RTRW Rencana Tata Ruang Wilayah (Regional Spatial Plan) SCTTRSPAN 2005 Steering Committee & Technical Team for the Review of Spatial Planning for NAD & Nias 2005 SERD South East Asia Regional Department SKM Sinclair Knight Merz SPAR Sub Project Appraisal Report SPEM Spatial Planning and Environmental Management component of ETESP SWM Solid Waste Management SWMB Solid Waste Management Board SWMP Solid Waste Management Plan TOR Terms of Reference TS Waste Transfer Station UKL Upaya Pengelolaan Lingkungan Hidup (Environmental Management Efforts) UNDP United Nations Development Program UNEP United Nations Environment Program UN-HIC United Nations Humanitarian Information Center (same as UN-IMS) UNICEF United Nations Children Fund UN-IMS United Nations Information Management Service UN-OPS United Nations Office for Project Services UNOSAT United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs UPL Upaya Pemantauan Lingkungan Hidup (Environmental Monitoring Efforts) USAID United States Agency for International Development WRI World Resource Institute WWF World Wildlife Fund YIPD Yayasan Inovasi Pereriintahan Daerah (Centre for Local Governance Innovation) YLI or LIF Yayasan Leuser International SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ PAGE v Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya 1. Introduction 1.1 Report Summary and Purpose 1.1.1 Overview The Kecamatan Action Plan [KAP] identifies priority projects and programs that will focus on the improvement of infrastructure in the post-tsunami rehabilitation and reconstruction in NAD and Nias. The KAP has been prepared with the communities and stakeholders of the Kecamatan and with the agencies of the Kabupaten and the Regional Offices of BRR [BRR/RO] to address the BRR commitment to initiate planning at the Kecamatan level of local government. In this project the improvement of infrastructure provides the basis for the rehabilitation and reconstruction of Kecamatans as the first phase of a two-phase program. Phase I will fast track the rehabilitation of the immediate infrastructure needs of the Kecamatan while identifying the wider employment and environmental considerations. Some of the projects and programs identified in Phase I can proceed to detail design and implementation immediately through the programs administered by the BRR Regional Office responsible for the Kabupaten, whereas others will need additional study before they can proceed to implementation. Phase II of the program will promote a regional planning framework for the programs initiated in Phase I where the more inclusive planning for livelihoods and environment programs will be developed. Over time, the combined Phase I and II projects and programs will be continually updated as the basis for enhancing future planning policy for the Kecamatan in the context of village and district level decision making. This document gives an outline of the planning process and current institutional arrangements [Section 1] and describes the regional context for current and future planning [Section 2]. The following sections and tables discuss and describe the projects identified in the three areas of infrastructure, livelihoods and environment. This has come about as a result of a comprehensive and fairly detailed process of analysis, field survey and consultation. The projects identified in Sections 3, 4 and 5 relate directly to the problem analysis contained in a separate document “Kecamatan Sukakarya – Field Assessment Report” [FAR]. That report includes a range of background materials that support the proposals in this Action Plan. Section 6 summarises the proposed program. See also Map SK Bas/1 at back of report. 1.1.2 The Kecamatan Planning Process The following diagram (see Figure 1) provides a guideline to field consultation that was to carry out the process. It leads to the drafting of project options in cooperation with the concerned participants and the development of a Kecamatan Action Plan. SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ PAGE 1 Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya Figure 1 - Kecamatan Planning Process SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ PAGE 2 Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya The process used in identifying the issues and problems was multi faceted. Using pre- and post- tsunami mapping, missing infrastructure was identified and key environmental features were located. Available secondary data was examined. Interviews and discussions were held with Kecamatan and Kabupaten staff and with NGOs. The process intentionally avoids village level issues by focusing on the functional and behavioural linkages between the villages. Community consultations involved the Camat and Kepala Desas [Village Heads] of the affected villages and other key community leaders. Simple questionnaires about key issues and problems were distributed [recorded in the FAR] and the issues discussed in community consultation. The consultations served to identify key factors and to set priorities. Findings were further discussed with the Camat, staff and key leaders, Kabupaten and the BRR/RO. A working group of local government officials [POKJA] was set up to provide local information to the Field Team and to consult on key issues. The environmental vulnerability of coastal areas to construction of settlements, infrastructure, etc. has been a continuing consideration of the SP/EM program and the environmental sensitivity of areas has been identified in a sensitivity map for each Kabupaten. These maps have been produced in the form of an atlas (“Environmental Sensitivity Mapping”) as an additional tool to assist decision-making and planning. More critical in the present situation is the coastal environment’s exposure to future tsunami related activity. The SP/EM consultation process has revealed that it is difficult to introduce measures that could reduce community exposure to potential extreme wave action. There is collective political conviction that affected local populations should not be exposed to the additional trauma of being re-settled in new areas away from their traditional communities in tsunami affected locations. Land tenure is a major reason for this decision and BAPPENAS has recommended in their Master Plan document under Presidential Decree the application of buffer zones. In response to the critical local conditions, however, BRR determined that people be allowed to return to private and traditionally owned land in order to rebuild and houses are being built close to the coastline or positioned where they are affected by high tides. While the SP/EM program approach has been to endorse the application, where possible, of some form of buffer zone between the coast and any settlement, current planning is principally short term and in response to the BRR request for infrastructure rollout in the present development areas. There are several factors to consider under the issue: No settlement in any part of the world has taken into account the potential impact of a 13 m tsunami wave – or even the more likely smaller tsunamis, and in the case of Aceh nearly all areas along the coast are vulnerable to wave action; SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ PAGE 3 Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya Well-grounded planning addressing this issue would most likely rule out any development at all in the urban locations in Banda Aceh, Baitussalam and Pekan Bada as all these areas lie in the flood plain of the Krueng Aceh River. Settlements of greatest density in Aceh are located in what could be termed a hazard zone and where there is a shortage of alternative land. The combined impacts of tsunami effects are relative to the relationship between topography and distance from the coastline and epicentre of an earthquake. An appropriate buffer zone in such circumstances would be a combination of distance from the coast and also elevation; in the flatter topography of coastal areas the setback distance is considered to be more critical. A land system analysis is a necessary first step in determining a regionally relevant buffer, but even then the amount of land dedicated would be highly subjective. The coastline, most particularly the west coast, is still in a high state of flux; a recent aerial survey has identified extreme accretion and erosion processes at work. Expert geomorphological advice varies regarding the time period required for these dynamics to reach equilibrium, but all are in agreement that the coastline will be an area of high activity for some time to come. A Dutch Sea Defence Study, intended to provide further understanding of this issue is being carried out for the Aceh coastline and will produce flood risk maps related to earthquake generated tsunamis. These maps will become available in October 2006. It is therefore essentially difficult to be making decisions affecting the location of infrastructure. People, however, need to rebuild their lives and in a situation where decisions have been taken to re-house people locally few resettlement programs have been proposed outside of affected tsunami areas. Development requirements may change in the future when there is a greater emphasis on longer term planning rather than on current immediate term reconstruction imperatives. BAPPENAS has the longer term planning responsibilities and may in the future require formal verification of some danger zones and setbacks. Such longer term spatial planning can commence a more comprehensive planning process that will promote future settlement in less vulnerable locations. The work of the SP/EM KAP program has carried out a gap analysis that has addressed immediate rehabilitation and reconstruction needs of the displaced communities and did not involve a formal spatial planning exercise. In light of future initiatives the KAP can, however, become a basis for a spatial planning approach in the context of action oriented regional planning. This issue is considered in Section 2. 1.1.3 The Kecamatan Action Plan The Kecamatan Action Plan [KAP] is a planning document to set priority targets for rebuilding infrastructure within the Kecamatan. It includes selected projects/sub-programs proposed by the community and assessed by the consultant in coordination with local expertise within the context of stated livelihoods requirements and environmental considerations. The KAP directly reflects the concerns, desires and priorities expressed by the represented communities. SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ PAGE 4 Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya The recommendations are coordinated with the BRR and with the Kabupatan, principal donors and NGOs operating in the Kecamatan, and with components of the ADB Earthquake and Tsunami Emergency Support Project [ETESP]. It recommends possible sources for funding the selected programs and should be considered a living document to coordinate current and future activities at the Kecamatan level. Other programs and projects planned over time by the Kecamatan, Kabupatan and the BRR/RO will be included as additions to the KAP. The KAP will be updated and maintained and will be coordinated with all operating donors and NGOs to build a comprehensive program for the rebuilding of the Kecamatan. Over time, KAPs should, be used to establish planning policy developed under an expanded regional spatial planning program, integrating the infrastructure programs with comprehensive livelihoods and environmental agendas. 1.2 Plan Implementation 1.2.1 Legal Basis In the present Indonesian government structure, the Kecamatan is located between the Kabupaten and the Desa, and plays a purely administrative role. It has no planning or implementation functions. Due to the nature of the tsunami, the resulting damage has occurred in areas that are mainly coincident with the coastal Kecamatans of the local government areas along the entire western and eastern coast of NAD. Consequently, in conjunction with the new BRR structure the Kecamatan level presents an opportunity to carry out a strategic planning role in order to support the many administrative tasks required resulting from the tsunami. An interim Memorandum of Understanding has been jointly discussed with BRR, Kabupaten and the Camat in order to give the planning process a defacto legal basis. 1.2.2 Planning Process Assumptions The KAP will be used in conjunction with the Kabupaten Development Program. The Kecamatan level of government will be strengthened with capacity building according to a new BRR structure which allows BRR to implement projects as well as be an executing agency. In the immediate term, all funding will flow from Central Government, donors and NGOs to BRR to Kecamatan based Project Planning so that all stakeholders are subject to the same planning process. Such funding procedure will allow a more balanced emphasis on larger infrastructure which is not normally addressed at the Desa level. The KAP will combine a top down approach with the bottom up approach where the focus is on the Kecamatan Forum to allocate funding based on the proposals from each Desa. This will address the weakness of the bottom up approach in operation and maintenance, and in its lack of consideration of larger infrastructure issues. SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ PAGE 5 Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya 1.2.3 How Can We Use the KAP? To provide the basis for BRR to make investment decisions which include more than one village area. To make decisions about how much budget each infrastructure sector will receive each year. To decide which part of the Kecamatan requires more resources to boost different sectors. To stimulate private sector participation in the Kecamatan. To decide if a Development, Location or Building Permit should be given to a developer or an individual. To decide how to balance long term goals with short term objectives. To protect special areas. To decide if the environmental and social impacts of development are too severe. By the Village Forum to allocate funding for larger “public and collective goods” and support proposals for attracting more private sector participation. The Forum will need to agree on what will be the mix between resources going to larger infrastructure rather than proposals from each village. To add value by developing objective criteria on which to evaluate proposals using the KDP approach. 1.2.4 Who Can Use the KAP? BRR - to allocate financial and human resources DPR - to make decisions on the Kabupaten Budget BUPATI - to give planning and resource allocation advice to the DPR BAPPEDA - to make decisions about development and giving out permits BAPEDALDA - to make decisions about environmental and social impacts of development CAMAT - to provide administrative data and support to the BUPATI VILLAGE HEAD - to coordinate infrastructure involving more than one village VILLAGE FORUM - to provide a basis for deciding on funding of specific projects between villages. 1.2.5 Linkage to Village Planning Structure Implementation of the rehabilitation program also depends on other supporting programs being in place at the village level. They include the successful re-establishment of property rights, necessary for the reconstruction of houses and communities, and protection of the people’s ownership and land rights in the affected areas. These programs are being established under the RALAS project and developed under the village mapping program. An intensive village planning program is being carried out by key donors and NGOs for affected villages under an extensive BRR program that addresses most housing and Level 1 infrastructure issues specific to the village. SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ PAGE 6 Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya Outside the village areas the KAP will provide for the relocation of communities by a process of resettlement and future mechanisms to assist in improving local preparedness and means of escape during future earthquakes, tsunamis and other natural disaster. The Sea Defence Project is undertaking the design for escape from villages. 1.3 Economics and Finance The original assumption was that all projects identified in tsunami-affected areas would be funded by BRR. Those which were not the direct result of the tsunami could be covered by build back better. This assumption was held by the consultants and by affected regional governments. At the start of the ETESP extension to Package 6, it became apparent that projects would have to be packaged to enable them to enter the BRR budgeting system. This was carried out and a package of projects in three Aceh Besar Kecamatans, covering infrastructure, livelihoods and environment was presented to BRR. The discussion that followed demonstrated that the original funding assumption was not correct. There were several reasons for this. First BRR did not have sufficient funds to pay for all identified projects. Second, the funding gaps which BRR has identified are in sectors which are traditionally the responsibility of regional government, e.g. roads, flood control and local environment. Third, there had always been the assumption that regional governments would have to fund some share of the works. Fourth, the realisation was growing in BRR and the World Bank that regional governments’ ability to fund had increased significantly, as a result of increases in world oil prices and changes in central government revenue sharing. Fifth, it was seen that the regional governments had not as yet fully realised their responsibilities. Finally, BRR was learning that its abilities lay mainly in the direction of strategic funding and that it could not have staff on the ground able to make the decisions required for detailed Kecamatan level planning. To deal with these problems, BRR has initiated Joint Secretariats so that they and regional governments can discuss funding needs and capabilities. Since these are not yet decided, allocations to funding source given in the KAP tables do not yet include the results of those discussions. BRR has also asked to continue packaging projects at Kabupaten level. The packages compiled under the KAP program are presented by BRR region in the document “Cost Estimates for Identified Projects”. The packages will be used immediately to assist BRR in allocating its 2007 budget to regional offices. For a summary of cost estimates for identified projects see Appendix B. Since the project was told to concentrate on infrastructure, not all identified projects in the livelihood and environmental sectors have been budgeted. SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ PAGE 7 Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ PAGE 8 Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya 2. Regional Considerations 2.1 The Need for a Regional Perspective The kecamatan-focused consultation process has been valuable in that it has identified a broad range of local issues. At the same time it was instructive in that many of the so-called ‘local’ issues were in fact being repeated from one kecamatan to another. What this points to is there may be merit in taking a broader regional view of many of these activities. A purely kecamatan approach may actually be misleading, and may not make much sense from a ‘marketing’ point of view. Thus it is important to look at the regional aspects of the physical geography, the environment and livelihoods activities. “Building back better” will benefit from an integrated approach that incorporates the local as well as regional and provincial perspectives. In order to generate ‘best-fit’ solutions, there needs to be integration of kecamatan, kabupaten and provincial elements. It is also important to recognise that unless communities are urged to adopt long term structural changes they will revert to what they know now, and thus will revert back to previous subsistence and low level economic practices - a situation which, for many, will mean perpetual poverty. Livelihoods programs should look at alternate modes of production, comparative advantage, economies of scale and rationalisation in the market place to promote a mix of district and sub- district and even provincial initiatives that would benefit all levels of producers, processors and consumers. Infrastructure programs should implement national and provincial physical and environmental standards that address area-wide needs, sustainability criteria and energy efficiency objectives. From an environmental perspective, integrated regional programs should include coastal and watershed management and regional drainage and irrigation plans. Such initiatives would benefit from a regional, ecological and land systems based approach. 2.2 Physical Characteristics Understanding the physical characteristics of the coastal lowland plains and hills ecological systems will enhance the planning for rehabilitation. The west coast of Aceh belongs to the so called Western Coastal Plains and Hills Region of Sumatra. In general the western coastal lowlands can be classified into four different coastline types, each with its specific parent material, age, elevation and slope, soil characteristics and layout of alluvial systems, deltas and modified estuaries. Figure 2 below identifies the position of the four coastline types. This KAP belongs to the first category, the northernmost outliers of the Barisan Range, which includes Sabang and Pulo Aceh. These islands feature fringing coral reefs and consist mainly of moderately steep (16-25%) and SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ PAGE 9 Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya steep (> 25%) sloping hills, hilly and mountainous areas. The soils vary widely, from rocky and gravely lahar sediments in the north-eastern parts of Sabang to richer soils from volcanic rocks and intermediate and mafic tuffs and lava’s in Nasi, Bireuh and Aceh, while the southern parts of Aceh has calcareous rock parent material. Figure 2 - Simplified Geological Map Due to the steep slopes and inaccessibility, all these islands have a low potential for agriculture production and fishing is far more important. However, the environmental significance of this collective zone should not be underestimated and the potential for greater protection and management, possibly generated from an eco-tourism perspective, is documented. For example, Sabang has some extraordinary coral reefs and beaches (Pulo Rubiah, beaches of Cot Gapang) and Pulo Aceh has some exclusive beaches where sea turtles lay eggs. All forested areas on these SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ PAGE 10 Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya islands will benefit from the designation of a natural conservation zoning. The strategic and economical position of Sabang has extensive history and the island, from this point of view, is far more important than the others. 2.3 The Environment Environmental sensitivity mapping and field assessment of both the marine and terrestrial environments have revealed that few areas are in an undisturbed or pristine state. Although there has been massive destruction as a result of the tsunami, it is well documented that the physical environment had been degrading before the tsunami. In brief, the study area is a highly modified system and some present land use (see Map SK EnC/2 at back of report) and resource exploitation practices are clearly unsustainable. Policies, institutional commitment, and community understanding of the issues and alternatives all need to be developed to achieve improved standards in environmental management. The present situation could also be enhanced by facilitating a full application of the very good existing polices and enforcement of pertinent laws. Environmental planning in highly modified landscapes is a challenge, most particularly when the scale of destruction is all inclusive. There are: Negligible or highly compromised ecological and spatial planning benchmarks. Difficulties in gaining agreement on indicators and monitoring processes; Pressures to reinstate basic livelihood opportunities, thus usurping the good intentions behind long-term planning initiatives; Shortfalls in capacity, resources and political commitment; Numerous examples where solving one problem leads to the emergence of another; and Clear gaps in understanding all of the above at institutional and community levels. It is clear that in the existing situation there is a need for long term environmental education, combined with capacity building of institutions and allocation of resources. Communities and local government must clearly see the benefits of environmental management and protection. 2.4 The Livelihoods Dimension During the KAP development process considerable consultation was undertaken with a variety of stakeholders – from the village level to the kecamatan level to the kabupaten level, and with a variety of government and non-government stakeholders. The consultations served a number of purposes, from pure information gathering to consensus building and also served to give legitimacy to the planning outcomes. In spite of all the immediate needs such as housing and water and the repair of key pieces of damaged or destroyed infrastructure, it became clear in all the surveyed Kecamatans that the underlying concern was livelihoods. There was a general realization that many of the basic needs SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ PAGE 11 Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya had been, or were about to be, met and that the present preoccupation with repair and rehabilitation activities by NGOs and other agencies would eventually come to an end. At that point the people would have to resume their previous forms of livelihood activities, or preferably embark on new and improved ones. While there are some minor variations from kecamatan to kecamatan, overwhelmingly the priority needs, as identified by the people, are rehabilitation of paddy fields, followed closely by rehabilitation of the fishing industry, and in some cases rejuvenation of the faltering rubber industry. Field observations continually revealed that a high level of former paddy fields remain idle. In some areas effort has been made to drain and clear the fields of tsunami debris and sediment deposits but extensive areas remain where drainage and land clearance need to be undertaken before crops can be sown. Rehabilitation of these areas is seen as both vital and urgent and initiatives to remove debris and sediment from paddy fields, repair drainage channels and restore access roads are addressed in the KAPs. Fishing, both offshore and onshore, has been a supplementary form of income for many villagers and in some coastal villages it was the primary source of income. Many lives and much equipment and facilities were lost in the tsunami. Reinstatement of the industry has been made difficult by the environmental upheavals that prevent many rivers from being able to enter the sea at their former estuaries. Full rehabilitation of the industry may take a long time, given the uncertainties about the way the natural environment will settle in the years ahead. However, supplementary incomes could be enhanced in the short term by the provision of fishing boats, nets, landing places and marketing facilities, and the dredging of estuaries. Similarly, the provision of some replacement livestock could generate supplementary income and therefore improve livelihoods. Many villagers have had previous experience with livestock, and grants for some replacement stock would be beneficial and at relatively low cost. Other livelihood opportunities by way of rejuvenation of the rubber industry, reconstruction of tree (coconut) plantations along the coastal sand barrier, recovery of some swampy/wetland areas behind the sand barrier for tambaks or fruit and vegetable production, and small business generation, may take time to realize measurable livelihood benefits. Accordingly, such activities are considered to be of lower priority at this time. Rehabilitating agricultural productivity as a principle livelihood source is dependent on a number of factors that contribute to explaining the existing agricultural productivity gaps. SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ PAGE 12 Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya Pre-tsunami agriculture of Aceh was predominantly a subsistence level low input, low output model. Successfully changing such a situation while ensuring that the change does not produce social problems requires long timelines. The existing boom economy, artificially supported by donor dollars, offers the predominantly subsistence level farmers the opportunity to sell their labour and thus more efficiently attain food security. There is a strong correlation between the speed with which infrastructure work is executed and the ability of farmers to commence farm work again. Due to the tsunami, is acknowledged that there has been a loss of farm labour, as much farm labour work was carried out previously by women. Mechanization and rationalization of farm holdings may be a partial solution. Many of the present livelihoods rehabilitation programs focus on restoration of the previous means of production and not on the processing of value-adding products. If the aim is to Build Back Better, more emphasis should be on the physical qualities of the land as a basis for long term planning to introduce greater options. Analysis of land capability in conjunction with alternate modes of production could offer farmers alternative and more profitable opportunities. 2.5 The Need for Cross Sectoral and Integrated Programming In Sections 3, 4 and 5 of the KAP recommended action proposals are classified under the separate sectoral headings of infrastructure, livelihoods and environment. However, this simple categorization should not be allowed to hide either the underlying importance of livelihoods rehabilitation or the highly integrated nature of these proposals. Livelihoods development is critical, and infrastructure and environmental initiatives should be seen to be supporting that objective. However, the distinction between the sectoral categories is not always clear cut and it is similarly difficult at times to distinguish between the sequence of programs. For these reasons it is necessary to comprehend the full range of recommendations put forward to achieve the core objectives, and to appreciate that action (or inaction) under one sectoral heading may have consequences for another sector or another location. SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ PAGE 13 Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ PAGE 14 Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya 3. Infrastructure Rehabilitation Refer to Map SK Inf/3 at back of report. 3.1 General Policy 3.1.1 Issues Effective and efficient rehabilitation and reconstruction in Kecamatan Sukajaya is dependant upon the completion of key infrastructure and associated elements. Generally Kecamatan Sukajaya was only moderately affected by the tsunami in those areas which were low lying and close to the coast. Buildings were damaged, along with sections of the roads, tambak systems, fish landings and associated facilities, and bridge and culvert crossings. Some of these facilities have already been rehabilitated and reconstructed and other parts are under construction. Therefore there is a significant number of infrastructure elements that have been identified in this plan that were not directly affected but will facilitate the implementation of the “build back better” philosophy of BRR. Some of the infrastructure issues are addressed below. Roads and Bridges The section of the main road from Aneuk Laot to Krueng Raya (6 Km) is severely damaged. The section of the route from Sabang City to the tourism areas (Gapang and Iboih Resort) is generally in good condition, except a short but very steep section between Seurui and Lam Nibong which is in severely damaged condition due to lack of road drainage system and topography characteristics. The existing embankment has collapsed in one location and exposed the nearside edge of the road asphalt at the higher level. The reinstatement or repair of the embankment has not been carried out. The failed embankment is approximately 22 meters long, 14 meters wide and a vertical height from the lower road of 16 meters. It was also observed water erosion of the embankment side edge is occurring in several locations along this road and immediate action to remedy this situation should be undertaken to avoid further embankment collapses. In addition, some parts of road between Serui and Lam Nibong are in moderate to severe damage condition. The other sections of the road include: (1) the road conjunction between Lam Nibong and Teluk Teupin Anoe, with 1 Km length having moderate damage; (ii) between Teluk Teupin Anoe and Ujung Guasarang, with 3.5 Km length having severe damage conditions. The alternative road to the Provincial route is the Southern Route which is from Batee Shok to Cot Damar, with 3.3 Km length in moderate to good condition. Another road alternative is from Cot Bakoe Yoen to Sukajaya Camat Office, with 3.6 Km length having severe damage conditions. SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ PAGE 15 Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya Due to the tsunami and earthquake, 2 bridges were destroyed in Lhok Pria Laot (Aneuk Laot Kelurahan) and in Lhok Krueng Raya (Krueng Raya Kelurahan). Most of the damaged infrastructure has been rehabilitated and some parts are presently being reconstructed. Water Supply PDAM uses Aneuk Laot Lake since 2003 as a water source with 28 liter/second of flow with a coverage area of 3 Km2 with 7 million ton of capacity. Based on a BPPT study, the water level of Aneuk Laot has fallen by 8 meters due to leakage at the lake bottom caused by an earthquake. Currently water flow to the sea is 105 liter/second compared with 50.5 liter/second prior to the tsunami. In addition, sedimentation is gradually increasing in the Aneuk Laot Lake due to geological alteration upstream. The fresh water supply to Gapang and Iboih Resort is provided by PDAM using a 50 mm diameter piped gravity fed supply from a water tower in Lung Angeun. This tower is ± one Km from Iboih Kelurahan. The water supply is quite often interrupted, and when in operation has a very low pressure delivery. Based on community consultation, it is proposed to rehabilitate the water distribution network from Aneuk Laot since the existing pipe was installed by the Dutch. In addition, it is proposed also to rehabilitate broncapturing and pipe of 80 mm and additional deep well for Tapak Gajah Kelurahan well as 4 units of shallow well in Kota Atas Kelurahan. Lung Angeun spring water located in Iboih Kelurahan serves Gaboy, Lam Nibong and Teupin Layeue (Kelurahan Iboih). However, the quantity is not enough to meet the demand of these three locations. Water salinity is high due to there being no separation of the spring water from sea water following the tsunami. Another water spring at Sarung Keris Mountain serves Batee Shok and Krueng Raya Kelurahan (Sarung Keris and Ilham Syukuran Lingkungan). For Kelurahan Krueng Raya, it is proposed to rehabilitate water resources in Sarung Keris Lingkungan and to develop 2 drilled well units in Ilham Syukuran Lingkungan. Solid Waste Solid waste collection by the Sanitation Department will only serve the area that has access to vehicles (trucks or mini colt) in this Kecamatan. Currently, a solid waste container is provided by each household and the waste is collected daily. Based on community consultation, it is understood that there is lack of solid waste collection in some parts of Kelurahans within the Kecamatan. In addition, the communities proposed household waste container/bin should be provided by the government. Household waste containers are proposed in Aneuk Laot, Krueng Raya, Paya Seunara, Kota Bawah Barat, and Kota Bawah Timur Kelurahan. SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ PAGE 16 Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya The Sanitation Department employs the local community to collect solid waste from the beach area and transport it once a week from Gapang and Iboih Resort. Domestic solid wastes from cafés or households are not managed well by the community, particularly in the Iboih. Domestic solid wastes are dumped in empty land and then burnt. Power Supply Power supply source for Sabang City is from diesel with 10 generator units with a total capacity of 8 MW provided by PLN. The electricity network serves all Kelurahans within Kecamatan Sukakarya. However, some housing does not have connections to PLN due to their inability to pay the connection fee. The transmission line for the Kecamatan is via overhead cables supply. some of it passes through protected forest. Disruption to electrical service happens frequently in Gapang and Iboih due to falling trees damaging the cable in the protected forest. This condition affects the electricity supply in the resort areas of Gapang and Iboih. Other potential power supply sources in this Kecamatan are from geothermals located in Seurui and Pria Laot Kelurahan. Coastal Defense Sea walls were built along the northern and southern part of the beach for high tide protection. Some parts of the sea wall were destroyed by tsunami and earthquake such as in Krueng Raya Kelurahan. The community proposes to build a sea wall (1 KM) in Look Pang Lima to protect from erosion. The public also proposes to build a sea wall for erosion protection in Lhok Panglima Lingkungan (400 meters) and in Kota Bawah Timur and in Kota Bawah Barat Keluarahan (400- 600 meters). 3.1.2 Policy/Approach Project infrastructure planning focuses on infrastructure gaps which occur beyond the boundaries of the urban settlement area of each Kelurahan. This process supports the village planning process that is being carried out by other consultants and/or NGOs. The village planning process identifies and deals with such issues within the urban settlement areas. While the village planning process, carried out by consultants and NGOs, addresses the major infrastructure requirements, secondary issues which are important for the local community have not yet been addressed. It is these elements which form the basis of the infrastructure programs of this plan. Coordination of the construction of infrastructure with the provision of housing, livelihood establishment, replanting and environmental management will ensure that investment in these areas can more adequately meet the needs of the community. SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ PAGE 17 Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya 3.1.3 Priority Program The infrastructure priority program areas for Kecamatan Sukakarya is described below. Roads Repair and upgrading of northern, southern and alternative kelurahan and local access roads to improve access between communities and to recreation areas. The suitable standard of road includes a sealed surface and drainage where appropriate. The roads identified are those which are currently not included in alternative programs. Repair bridges and culverts where necessary. Water Supply Investigate hydrogeology of Aneuk Laot Lake to assess leakage location Replace distribution pipe from Aneuk Laot to Kebon Merica (Kota Bawah Barat Kelurahan) and rehabilitate broncapturing and pipe 80 mm in Jl Tjuk Nayk Dien (Kota Atas Kelurahan) Build additional wells in Tapak Gajah (Ie Meulee Kelurahan) and Kota Atas Kelurahan Upgrading of Lung Angeun spring water in Iboih Kelurahan and water reservoir from spring water of Sarung Keris Mountain, as well as distribution network in Batee Shok Kelurahan Domestic Solid Waste Provision of suitable solid waste management to guidelines provided by SP/EM program (Appendix A). Safety Infrastructure Build new retaining wall in Kota Bawah Timur, Kota Bawah Barat Kelurahan for erosion protection of adjoining housing area. Coastal Defence Build new sea wall in Pantai Kasih for erosion protection Tourism Infrastructure Rehabilitation of a walking trail in Gapang and Iboih Resort Provide sufficient water supply for Gapang and Iboih Resort Repair drainage culvert in Gapang Resort Create hammerhead turning in cul de sac for visitors in Gapang resort SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ PAGE 18 Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya Provide new TPS (temporary collection site) for western and eastern end beach in Gapang Resort Design drainage and landscape in eastern end beach of Gapang Resort Design access road to the beach in eastern end beach of Gapang Resort Demolish and remove old toilet buildings on the beach of Gapang Resort Improve the access road to parking lot behind beach (Gapang Resort) Design and prepare new signage directing beach and resort traiffic , design and implement new entrance for Gapang Resort Replace existing fence on both sides of entrance road in Gapang Resort Provide master plan of sanitation system for Iboih Resort Provide tourist bus transportation from Balohan to Gapang and Iboih Resort and tourist ship from Sabang to Gapang and Iboih Resort 3.2 Options Program 3.2.1 Program Summary Post-tsunami reconstruction and rehabilitation planning offers an opportunity to optimise and upgrade infrastructure to an improved standard and with the coordination of stakeholders. These infrastructure improvements are critical to ensure essential needs of the community are met and that the level of service is, at a minimum, to the standard which had been planned pre-tsunami with Sabang City approval. The development of the options program for infrastructure has been undertaken in association with the development of environmental rehabilitation proposals and the livelihood initiatives. All three are interlinked and the works associated with infrastructure have a direct impact on people’s livelihoods and the environmental conditions of the Kecamatan. The Infrastructure program addresses the key needs of the Kecamatan and incorporates programs that are not currently proposed by any NGOs or other agencies. They reflect the needs of the community and are based on field work, consultation, a household survey and data collection. SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ PAGE 19 Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya 3.2.2 Program Description ROADS AND BRIDGES INFRASTRUCTURE 1- BUILD RETAINING STRUCTURE BETWEEN SERUI AND LAM NIBONG The road section between Serui and Lam Nibong is very steep section in severly damaged condition due to lack of road drainage system. The existing embankment has collapsed in one location and exposed the nearside edge of the road asphalt at the higher level. The collapsed material accumulated at the lower end of the embankment has been cleared away but the reinstatement or repair of the embankment has not been carried out. There is now a danger the upper level road will collapse further, rendering it impassable thus blocking off all access to the Western sector of the Island. The failed embankment is approximate 22 meters long, 14 meters wide and a vertical height from the lower road of 16 meters. It was also observed water erosion of the embankment side edge is occurring in several locations along this road and immediate action to remedy this situation should be undertaken to avoid further embankment collapses. Future value potential: Maintain access to tourism areas for community in Iboih Kelurahan. INFRASTRUCTURE 2 – UPGRADE ROAD BETWEEN SERUI AND LAM NIBONG This road is a part of northern route and serves as an access to the north coast of Sabang and tourism areas (Gapang and Iboih Resort). Some sections of the route are damaged due to lack of maintenance and inappropriate drainage design. The road damage has been categorised into minor, moderate and severe. Upgrading of the road to a sealed standard, with associated drainage will need to be undertaken. Future value potential: Improved access / travel time to tourism area, connection to kelurahans , and improved travel times INFRASTRUCTURE 3 - UPGRADE ROAD BETWEEN LAM NIBONG AND KM 0 This road is a part of northern route and serves as an access to the north coast of Sabang and tourism areas (KM 0). Some parts of the route are damaged due to lack of maintenance and inappropriate drainage design. The road damage has been categorised into minor, and moderate. Upgrading of the road to a sealed standard, with associated drainage will need to be undertaken. Future value potential: Improved access / travel time to tourism area and connection to kelurahans INFRASTRUCTURE 4 – UPGRADE ALTERNATIVE ROAD FROM BATEESHOK TO COT DAMAR This road is an alternative road from the southern part to the northern part of Sabang. The existing road has deteriorated and is unsealed, and the drainage channel is inadequate. The road damage has been categorised into moderate. Upgrading of the road to a sealed standard, with associated drainage will need to be undertaken. Future value potential: Improved access / travel time from the southern part , connection between two kecamatans and kelurahans INFRASTRUCTURE 5 – UPGRADE ROAD BETWEEN LAM NIBONG TO TELUK TEUPIN ANOE This road is an access from the northern route to the southern route. Existing road has deteriorated and unsealed and drainage channel is inadequate. The road damage has been categorised as severe. Upgrading of the road to a sealed standard, with improved drainage will need to be undertaken. Future value potential: Improved access from northern to southern route, connection to kelurahan and improved travel times SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ PAGE 20 Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya INFRASTRUCTURE 6 – UPGRADE ROAD BETWEEN TELUK TEUPIAN ANOE TO U. GUSARANG This road is part of southern route to serve as an access for number of kelurahans. The existing road deteriorated and is unsealed while the drainage channel is inadequate. The road damage has been categorised as severe. Upgrading of the road to a sealed standard, with improved drainage is required. Future value potential: Improved access / travel time to kelurahans INFRASTRUCTURE 7 – UPGRADE ROAD BETWEEN PAYA SEUNARA AND COT DAMAR This road serves as an access to a number of kelurahans and is a connecting road to the northern part of Sabang. The existing road has deteriorated and is unsealed. The drainage channels are inadequate. The road damage has been categorised into minor, moderate and severe. Upgrading of the road to a sealed standard, with improved drainage is required. Future value potential: Improved access / travel time to the kelurahans INFRASTRUCTURE 8 – 9 UPGRADE ACCESS ROAD TO GAPANG AND IBOIH BEACH This road serves as an access to the beach area. The existing road has deteriorated and is unsealed, while drainage channels need improvement. The road damage has been categorised as moderate. Upgrading of the road, with improved drainage is required. Future value potential: Improved access / travel time road tourists area INFRASTRUCTURE 10 – UPGRADE ROAD BETWEEN SUKAKARYA KECAMATAN OFFICE AND COT BAKOE YOEN (ANEUK LAOT KELURAHAN) This road serves as an access to some of the kelurahans. Existing road has deteriorated, it is unsealed and the drainage channels are inadequate. The road damage has been categorised into moderate and severe. Upgrading of the road to a sealed standard, with associated drainage is required. Future value potential: Improved access road some kelurahans and travel times INFRASTRUCTURE 11 – UPGRADE ROAD BETWEEN ANEUK LAOT TO KRUENG RAYA KELURAHAN This road serves as an access for a number of kelurahans. The existing road has deteriorated; its unsealed and drainage channels are inadequate. The road damage has been categorised into minor and moderate. Upgrading of the road to a sealed standard, with associated drainage is required. Future value potential: Improved access / travel time to a number of kelurahans INFRASTRUCTURE 12 – REHABILITATE BRIDGE IN LHOK PRIA LAOT AND LHOK KRUENG RAYA The bridge was destroyed due to tsunami and earthquake and needs to be repaired. The bridge will improve accessibility for fishermen both to their boats and to the market. Future value potential: Better access for delivering fish to the market SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ PAGE 21 Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya WATER SUPPLY INFRASTRUCTURE 13 – INVESTIGATE HYDROGEOLOGY OF ANEUK LAOT LAKE The Aneuk laot lake is a water source for PDAM to provide fresh water to some parts of Sukakarya Kecamatan (67.4%). Due to earthquake, lake bottom is possible leaking and the water level has been fallen up to 7 meters (based on BPPT Study), but the location of the leak is not identified. An investigation of the hydrogeology and geology of the lake is required it locate the leak and take appropriate action. Future value potential: Securing long term water supply to local community. INFRASTRUCTURE 14 – REPLACE DISTRIBUTION PIPE OF WATER SUPPLY Distribution pipe from Aneuk Laot to Kebun Merica (Kota Bawah Barat Kelurahan) was developed by the Dutch and currently the pipe is leaking and this reduces the water supply to housing sites. The existing pipe will need to be replaced / repaired to meet the water supply need according to the standard determined for urban area. Future value potential: Securing long term water supply to local community. INFRASTRUCTURE 15 – REHABILITATE WATER BRONCAPTURING AND PIPE OF 80 MM Broncapturing and pipe of 80 mm in Jl. Cut Nyak Dien (Kota Atas Kelurahan) was developed by the Dutch and will need to be rehabilitated to provide continuous flow of water supply to community. Future value potential: Securing long term water supply to local community INFRASTRUCTURE 16 – BUILD ADDITIONAL WELLS Community use well as water source in Tapak Gajah (Ie Meulee Kelurahan) and Kota Atas Kelurahan, but the existing wells are not enough for community needs. Deep well in Ds. Tapak Gajah and 4 units shallow well in Kota Atas Kelurahan will need to be developed to meet community needs according to water supply standard for urban area. Future value potential: Provided sufficient water supply for local community. INFRASTRUCTURE 17 – PROTECT LUNG ANGEUN SPRING WATER FROM HIGH TIDE Lung Angeun spring water is located close to the beach and is used as water source for local community in Iboih Kelurahan. Due to its location, high tide is able to influence water quality of the spring water. Water quality protection will need to be built to provide good water quality according to drinking water quality standard determined for local community. Future value potential: Provided good water quality for local community INFRASTRUCTURE 18 – UPGRADE WATER RESERVOIR CAPACITY AND DEVELOP DISTRIBUTION NET WORK Water supply source for community in Batee Shok Kelurahan is from spring water from the Sarung Keris Mountain. A reservoir is provided for the local community and water is taken from the reservoir. The community proposed to enlarge the reservoir capacity and to develop a distribution network from the reservoir to the housing sites. Future value potential: Securing long term water supply to local community SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ PAGE 22 Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya INFRASTRUCTURE 19 – DEVELOP EMBUNG PAYA SEUNARA AS AN ALTERNATIVE WATER SOURCE A water dam has been constructed in Paya Seunara Kelurahan namely Embung Paya Seunara with a coverage area of ± 50 Ha by the Water Source Department of NAD Province. It is proposed to provide water supply for whole Sabang Island with the spring water as the water source. Development of the dam was delayed due to land acquisition problems. Future value potential: Securing long term water supply to the local community INFRASTRUCTURE 20 - DEVELOP WATER FALL AS AN ALTERNATIVE WATER SOURCE A water fall with a capacity of 100 litres/second located in Pria Laot (Batee Shok Kelurahan) is a potential for water supply to serve the whole of Sabang Island. Feasibility Study will need to be undertaken. PDAM proposed to BRR for 2007 budget. Future value potential: Securing long term water supply to local community SOLID WASTE INFRASTRUCTURE 21 – PROVIDE SUITABLE SOLID WASTE COLLECTION Currently domestic solid wastes are collected by the Sanitation Department from housing, commercial and recreational area which are accessable by truck. Based on public consultation, a collection system container for household rubbish should be provided by the government A suitable collection system is required for the Kecamatan. Solid waste management guidelines are provided by SPEM (see Appendix A). Future value potential: Enhance the environment and improve health of the community POWER SUPPLY INFRASTRUCTURE 22 – FEASIBILITY STUDY ON GEO THERMAL AS AN ALTERNATIVE POWER SUPPLY Currently the power supply is from diesel with the capacity of 8 MW which is generated by 10 (ten) units. There are two geothermals as alternative power supply located in Seurui and Pria Laot (Batee Shok Kelurahan). To develop these geothermals as power supply a feasibility study is required. No estimates of the potential power are available. Future value potential: Provide sufficient alternative power supply for the kecamatan and to support development activities in the kecamatan SAFETY INFRASTRUCTURE INFRASTRUCTURE 23 – 24 BUILD NEW RETAINING STRUCTURE Based on public consultation, there has been accidents due to the erosion in part of the kecamatan. A retaining structure is proposed to be built to prevent erosion in Radjawali 400 meters long (Kota Bawah Timur Kelurahan), Dadap 600 meters long and Lok Panglima 400 meters long ( Kota Bawah Barat Kelurahan) Future value potential: Reduce erosion in the specific areas SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ PAGE 23 Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya COASTAL DEFENCE INFRASTRUCTURE 25 – BUILD NEW SEA WALL Based on public consultation, sea wall (1 KM) is proposed to be built for abrasion protection in Pantai Kasih (Kota Atas Kelurahan). Future value potential: Provide safe condition along the beach TOURISM INFRASTRUCTURE INFRASTRUCTURE 26 – REHABILITATE A WALKING TRAIL IN GAPANG AND IBOIH RESORT Gapang and Iboih Resort are tourism areas in the kecamatan, but both these areas there is a lack of accessibility particularly a walking trail surrounding the resorts near the beach. Department of Tourism of Sabang City proposed a rehabilitation of the walking trail for both areas in the BRR 2007 budget. Future value potential: Provided access to the beach and resort areas for visitors and to increase number of tourists to Gapang and Iboih Resort INFRASTRUCTURE 27 – PROVIDE SUFFICIENT WATER SUPPLY Water supply in Gapang and Iboih Resort is in intermittent and very low pressure operation causes a water shortage. To provide sufficient water supply according to the standard established. Department of Tourism proposed to BRR to develop a bore (drilled) well in respective area for 2007 budget. Iboih may improve considerably if the hydraulic of the existing supply are improved. See Appendix C ToR 60. Future value potential: Provide sufficient water supply for visitors and the local community INFRASTRUCTURE 28 - REPAIR DRAINAGE CULVERT IN GAPANG RESORT Drainage system is in poor condition in Western End Beach Gapang Resort and it will need to be replaced with proper design and construction to avoid flood in the area from sewerage. Future value potential: Provide improved sanitation system for Gapang Resort INFRASTRUCTURE 29 – IMPROVE TURNAROUND AREA FOR VISITORS IN GAPANG RESORT Existing turnaround area is very limited in Western End Beach of Gapang Resort. This condition causes difficulty to turnaround if many cars used by visitors. It will need to be improved with landscaping to formalise road barrier. TOR will be provided by SPEM. Future value potential: Provided sufficient turnaround area and good amenity for visitors INFRASTRUCTURE 30 – REMOVE AND CLEAN UP GARBAGE IN WESTERN END BEACH GAPANG RESORT Existing TPS is located close to existing turnaround area in the western end beach. Due to a hammerhead turning area being constructed, the existing TPS will need to be moved. Future value potential: Provided clean environment for visitors SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ PAGE 24 Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya INFRASTRUCTURE 31 – DESIGN DRAINAGE AND LANDSCAPE IN EASTERN END BEACH OF GAPANG In eastern end beach, waste water from bungalows and cafes is discharged behind the building without a proper drainage system. This condition will create environmental problems in the future if there is no suitable drainage system. Drainage system design is required within the eastern end beach of Gapang resort along with landscape design at the entrance. Future value potential: Provided clean environment for visitors and amenity for eastern end beach of Gapang INFRASTRUCTURE 32 - DESIGN ACCESS ROAD TO THE BEACH IN EASTERN END BEACH At the eastern end of the beach, the entrance gate is not wide enough for local vehicle to delivery needs to the beach area. A simple access design and installation for a delivery truck is required. Future value potential: Provided accessibility for visitors and meet local delivery needs to the beach INFRASTRUCTURE 33 – DEMOLISH AND REMOVE OLD TOILET BUILDINGS ON THE BEACH At the eastern end of the beach, existing public toilets provided are not able to be used due to a lack of maintenance and tsunami damage. The toilet buildings on the beach will need to be demolished. Future value potential: Provided clean environment on the beach INFRASTRUCTURE 34 - PROVIDE NEW TPS (TEMPORARY COLLECTION SITE) FOR WESTERN END BEACH OF GAPANG The existing TPS located close to entrance gate at the eastern end of the beach is in a bad condition. This TPS will need to be moved to the parking lot behind the beach in Gapang Resort. Future value potential: Provided clean environment for visitors INFRASTRUCTURE 35 – IMPROVE THE ACCESS ROAD TO PARKING LOT IN BEHIND BEACH (GAPANG RESORT) The existing access road to the parking area behind the beach in Gapang Resort is in a poor condition ± 400 meters and will need to be upgraded to a sealed standard, with associated drainage. Future value potential: Provided accessibility to parking lot for visitors INFRASTRUCTURE 36 - DESIGN AND PREPARE NEW SIGNAGE DIRECTING BEACH AND RESORT TRAIFFIC Currently, there is no sign to direct visitors to the beach or to the resort area. An information board will need to be placed to direct visitors to beach or resort area. Future value potential: Provided information to visitors INFRASTRUCTURE 37 – DESIGN AND IMPLEMENT NEW ENTRANCE The existing main entrance to Gapang needs to be replaced with a new structure. Future value potential: Provided main entrance to Gapang SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ PAGE 25 Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya INFRASTRUCTURE 38 – REPLACE EXISTING FENCE ON BOTH SIDES Existing fence on both sides of entrance road is needs to be replaced with a new one. Future value potential: Provided safe condition for visitors in Gapang Resort INFRASTRUCTURE 39 – PROVIDE MASTER PLAN OF SANITATION SYSTEM FOR IBOIH RESORT Existing sanitation system in Iboih Resort is in poor condition due to lack of master plan for sanitation. Some bungalows do not have bath room and toilet. Master plan of sanitation for Iboh Resort will need to be prepared to improve the facilities provided for tourists. Future value potential: Provided good sanitation for Iboih Resort and to increase the number of visitors to Iboih Resort. INFRASTRUCTURE 40 – PROVIDE TOURIST BUS TRANSPORTATION FROM BALOHAN TO GAPANG AND IBOIH RESORT Tourist bus transportation from Balohan to Gapang and Iboih Resort is currently not available and public transportations is in a poor condition. Department of Tourism has proposed to BRR to provide tourist bus transportation for 2007 budget. Future value potential: Provided bus transportation for visitors to Gapang and Iboih Resort INFRASTRUCTURE 41– PROVIDE TOURIST SHIP FROM SABANG TO GAPANG AND IBOIH RESORT A tourist ship is another alternative transportation to Gapang and Iboih Resort through from the north coast of Sabang. Department of Tourism has proposed to BRR to provide the tourist ship transportation in the 2007 budget. Future value potential: Provided alternative transportation through north coast for visitors to Gapang and Iboih Resort SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ PAGE 26 Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya 3.2.3 Project Proposals Proposed by Estimated Environmental Problem to be Size/ Proposed Status of ID Projects Location Beneficiaries Budget Assessment Reference Addressed Quantity Source of Program Rp. (M) Requirement Funding ROAD AND BRIDGE SK/ Build retaining Between Serui To avoid General L= 22 M Community, 1200 No EIA Dinas Per- INF 1 structure and and Lam collapsed community W = 14 M SP/EM - ADB Required mukiman upgrade roadside NIbong (very embankment dan drainage between steep section) erosion H from DPPW Prasarana Serui and Lam lower road are Nibong (very steep = 16 M currently section) preparing tender list for this work SK/ Upgrading of road Between Serui Parts of the General W=6 Community, 1,000 No EIA see INF 1 INF 2 and roadside and Lam existing road community meter SP/EM - ADB Required drainage between NIbong (Iboih deteriorated and L = 1 Km DPPW Serui and Lam Kelurahan) unsealed and Nibong drainage channels not suitable SK/ Upgrading of road Between Lam Parts of the General W=6m Community, 3,000 No EIA see INF 1 INF 3 and roadside Nibong to KM 0 existing road Community L = ± 3 Km SP/EM - ADB Required drainage between (Iboih deteriorated and DPPW Lam Nibong to KM Kelurahan) unsealed and 0 drainage channels not suitable SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ PAGE 27 Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya Proposed by Estimated Environmental Problem to be Size/ Proposed Status of ID Projects Location Beneficiaries Budget Assessment Reference Addressed Quantity Source of Program Rp. (M) Requirement Funding SK/ Upgrading of road Batee Shok Parts of the General W=3m SP/EM - ADB 500 No EIA No program INF 4 and roadside Kelurahan – existing road Community L = ± 1 Km Required prepared DPPW drainage between Cot Damar (in deteriorated and Batee Shok and Paya Seunara unsealed and Cot Damar Kelurahan) drainage channels not suitable SK/ Upgrading of road Between Lam Existing road General W=4m Community, 600 No EIA No program INF 5 and roadside Nibong and deteriorated and Community L = 1 Km SP/EM - ADB Required proposed drainage between Teluk Teupin unsealed and DPPW Lam Nibong to Anoe (Iboih drainage Teluk Teupin Anoe Kelurahan) channels not suitable SK/ Upgrading of road Between Teluk Restore General W=6m Community, 3,500 No EIA No program INF 6 and roadside Teupin Anoe to completely to be Community L = 3.5 Km SP/EM - ADB Required proposed drainage between U. Guasarang the size of Teluk Teupin Anoe (Iboih provincial road DPPW to U. Guasarang Kelurahan) SK/ Upgrading of road Between Paya Parts of the General W=4m SP/EM - ADB 900 No EIA No program INF 7 and roadside Seunara and existing road Community L = 1.5 Km Required proposed DPPW drainage between Cot Damar deteriorated and Paya Seunara and (Paya Seunara unsealed and Cot Damar Kelurahan) drainage channels not suitable SK/ Upgrading of road From main road Existing road General W=4m SP/EM - ADB 60 No EIA No program INF 8 from main road in in Lam Nibong deteriorated and Community L = 100 M Required proposed DPPW Lam Nibong to to Gapang unsealed and Gapang Beach Beach drainage and roadside channels not drainage suitable SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ PAGE 28 Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya Proposed by Estimated Environmental Problem to be Size/ Proposed Status of ID Projects Location Beneficiaries Budget Assessment Reference Addressed Quantity Source of Program Rp. (M) Requirement Funding SK/ Upgrading of road From main road Existing road General W=3m SP/EM - ADB 500 No EIA No program INF 9 from main road in in Lam Nibong deteriorated and Community L = 1 Km Required proposed DPPW Lam Nibong to to Iboih Beach unsealed and Iboih Beach and drainage roadside drainage channels not suitable SK/ Upgrading of road Between Existing road General W=3m SP/EM - ADB 1,800 No EIA Propose to INF 10 from Sukajaya Sukajaya deteriorated and Community L = 3,6 Km Required BRR NAD Kecamatan Office Kecamatan unsealed and Province for to Cot Bakoe Yoen Office to Cot drainage 2006 (Aneuk Laot) Bakoe Yoen channels not budget Kelurahan) suitable SK/ Upgrading of road Between Aneuk Existing road General W=4m Community, 3,600 No EIA Propose to INF 11 between Aneuk Laot and deteriorated and Community L = 6 Km SP/EM - ADB Required BRR NAD Laot and Krueng Krueng Raya unsealed and Province for Raya drainage 2006 channels not budget suitable SK/ Rehabilitation of Lhok Pria Laot To improve Fishermen Lhok Pria Community 300 No EIA Resurfacing INF 12 bridges in Lhok (Aneuk Laot access to fishing Laot (L = Required with asphalt Pria Laot (Aneuk Kelurahan) and activities ±10 M, W Replace- Laot Kelurahan) Lhok Krueng = 3 M) ment of and Lhok Krueng Raya Lhok handrails Raya (Kelurahan (Kelurahan Krueng and wing Krueng Raya) Krueng Raya) Raya (L = wall ±10 M, W replacement = 3 M) SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ PAGE 29 Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya Proposed by Estimated Environmental Problem to be Size/ Proposed Status of ID Projects Location Beneficiaries Budget Assessment Reference Addressed Quantity Source of Program Rp. (M) Requirement Funding WATER SUPPLY SK/ Investigate Aneuk Laot Decline water General Sanitation 1500 No EIA No program Recommen- INF 13 hydrogeology of Lake level due to Community Departement, Required proposed ded in the Aneuk Laot Lake leakage of bottom Bapedalda, SOGREAH of Aneuk Laot SPEM - ADB Rapid Lake Assessment PDAM & Project Prioritization as Priority 1 SK/ Replacement of Betrween To provide Kelurahan Community 250 No EIA No program INF 14 distribution pipe Aneuk Laot to continuous flow of Community Required proposed PDAM from Aneuk Laot to Kebon Merica water supply from Kebon Merica (Kota Bawah Aneuk Laot to (Kota Bawah Barat Barat Kebon Merica Kelurahan) Kelurahan) (Kota Bawah Barat Kelurahan) SK/ Rehabilitation of Jl. Cut NYak To avoid water Kelurahan Community 200 No EIA No program INF 15 pressure reducing Dhien (Kota leakage from Community Required proposed PDAM station (bron Atas Kelurahan) broncapturing and capturing) and pipe pipe of 80 mm SK/ Build additional Tapak Gajah (Ie To meet water Kelurahan Deep well Community 160 No EIA No program INF 16 wells in Tapak Meulee supply need for Community in Ds. Required proposed PDAM Gajah (Ie Meulee Kelurahan) and local community Tapak Kelurahan) and Kota Atas Gajah and Kota Atas Kelurahan 4 units Kelurahan shallow well in Kota Atas Kelurahan SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ PAGE 30 Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya Proposed by Estimated Environmental Problem to be Size/ Proposed Status of ID Projects Location Beneficiaries Budget Assessment Reference Addressed Quantity Source of Program Rp. (M) Requirement Funding SK/ Upgrading of high Iboih Kelurahan To protect water Kelurahan Community 100 No EIA Study cost INF 17 tide protection for spring quality Community Required only Lung Angeun from high tide sea spring water in water (salinity) Iboih Kelurahan SK/ Upgrading of water Batee Shok To provide water Kelurahan Community 150 No EIA Plastic liner INF 18 reservoir from Kelurahan supply from Community Required to reservoir spring water of reservoir to Sarung Keris housing sites Mountain and distribution network in Batee Shok Kelurahan SK/ Development of Paya Seunara Land acquisition General ± 50 Ha Water Unknown EIA Required INF 19 Embung Paya Kelurahan brings about Community Resource Seunara as delayed Department of alternative water development of NAD Province source Embung Paya Seunara SK/ Feasibility Study of Pria Laot To provide water General 100 l/sec PDAM 600 UKL/ UPL Proposed to Study only INF 20 Waterfall Pria Laot (Batee Shok supply for whole Community according to BRR in as an alternative Kelurahan) Sabang Island GoI 2007 water source included free port requirements budget and free trade development in the future SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ PAGE 31 Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya Proposed by Estimated Environmental Problem to be Size/ Proposed Status of ID Projects Location Beneficiaries Budget Assessment Reference Addressed Quantity Source of Program Rp. (M) Requirement Funding DOMESTIC SOLID WASTE SK/ Provision of All kelurahan in Lack domestic General Community, 1100 / UKL/UPL Solid waste INF 21 suitable domestic Kecamatan solid waste Community SP/EM - ADB Year according to manage- solid waste collection system the GOI ment collection as part of solid requirement guidelines waste Decree provided by management 308/2005 SP/EM [Appendix A] POWER SUPPLY SK/ Feasibility study INF 22 into geothermal power SAFETY INFRASTRUCTURE SK/ Build new retaining Kota Bawah To provide Kelurahan 400 - 600 Community 1,000 No EIA INF 23 structure in Kota Timur and Kota erosion protection Community Metres Required Bawah Timur and Bawah Barat for local Kota Bawah Barat Kelurahan community in Kelurahan Rajawali Lingkungan (Kota Bawah Timur) and Dadap (Kota Bawah Barat) SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ PAGE 32 Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya Proposed by Estimated Environmental Problem to be Size/ Proposed Status of ID Projects Location Beneficiaries Budget Assessment Reference Addressed Quantity Source of Program Rp. (M) Requirement Funding SK/ Build new retaining Lingkungan Lok To provide Kelurahan 400 Metres Community 850 No EIA INF 24 structure in Panglima (Kota erosion protection Community Required Lingkungan Lok Bawah Barat for local Panglima (Kota Kelurahan) community in Lok Bawah Barat Panglima Kelurahan) Panglima COASTAL DEFENCE SK/ Build new sea wall Pantai Kasih To provide General 1 Km Community 4,000 UKL/UPL Final INF 25 in Pantai Kasih (Kota Atas abrasion Community according to decision (Kota Atas Kelurahan) protection in the GOI should wait Kelurahan) Pantai Kasih requirement until the Decree Dutch 308/2005Not Coastal Required Defence Study is complete in 2007 TOURISM INFRASTRUCTURE SK/ Rehabilitation of a Gapang and To improve General Tourism 100 No EIA Tourism INF 26 walking trail in Iboih Resort accessibility in Community Department of Required Depart- Gapang and Iboih Gapang and Iboih Sabang City ment of Resort Resort Sabang City proposed this program to BRR in 2007 budget SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ PAGE 33 Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya Proposed by Estimated Environmental Problem to be Size/ Proposed Status of ID Projects Location Beneficiaries Budget Assessment Reference Addressed Quantity Source of Program Rp. (M) Requirement Funding SK/ Provision of Gapang and Intermittent water General SP/EM - ADB 500 UKL/UPL Tourism SP/EM ADB INF 27 suitable water Iboih Resort supply and very Community according to Depart- proposed supply for visitors low pressure the GOI ment of survey of in Gapang and operation requirement Sabang City the existing Iboih Resort Decree proposed elevations 308/2005 drill wells in and Gapang and decliners of Iboih to the pipeline BRR in from the 2007 water tower budget to the delivery points approximate cost estimated to be USD 2,000 SK/ Repair drainage Western End To avoid flooded General SP/EM - ADB 150 UKL/UPL INF 28 culvert by Beach Gapang area from Community according to replacing with new Resort sewerage the GOI design requirement Decree 308/2005 SK/ Improve road cul Western End To provide General SP/EM - ADB 50 UKL/UPL INF 29 de sac Beach Gapang turnaround area Community according to hammerhead and Resort for visitors the GOI formalise road Gapang Resort requirement barrier with Decree landscaping 308/2005 SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ PAGE 34 Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya Proposed by Estimated Environmental Problem to be Size/ Proposed Status of ID Projects Location Beneficiaries Budget Assessment Reference Addressed Quantity Source of Program Rp. (M) Requirement Funding SK/ Remove and clean Western End To provide new General SP/EM - ADB 50 UKL/UPL INF 30 up garbage Beach Gapang TPS in turnaround Community according to Resort area with wall the GOI requirement Decree 308/2005 SK/ Prepare landscape Eastern End To provide General SP/EM - ADB 500 UKL/UPL INF 31 design with Beach Gapang amenity and Community according to drainage design Resort drainage system the GOI with new channel in Gapang Resort requirement on the boundary of Decree the old hotel 308/2005 SK/ Design new Eastern End Access road to General SP/EM - ADB 180 UKL/UPL INF 32 walking and simple Beach Gapang the beach for Community according to access road to the Resort delivery truck and the GOI beach for delivery local needs requirement truck and local Decree needs 308/2005 SK/ Demolish old toilet Eastern End Clearance debris General SP/EM - ADB 50 UKL/UPL INF 33 buildings on beach Beach Gapang on beach Community according to and clean up other Resort the GOI debris requirement Decree 308/2005 SK/ Clearance of all Parking Lot, Build new TPS for General SP/EM - ADB 50 UKL/UPL INF 34 beach generated behind beach in beach generated Community according to rubbish Gapang Resort rubbish the GOI requirement Decree 308/2005 SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ PAGE 35 Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya Proposed by Estimated Environmental Problem to be Size/ Proposed Status of ID Projects Location Beneficiaries Budget Assessment Reference Addressed Quantity Source of Program Rp. (M) Requirement Funding SK/ Prepare access to Parking Lot, Improve access to General SP/EM - ADB 250 UKL/UPL INF 35 parking lot behind beach in parking lot Community according to Gapang Resort the GOI requirement Decree 308/2005 SK/ Design and Parking Lot, Information of General SP/EM - ADB 80 UKL/UPL INF 36 prepare new behind beach in beach traffic and Community according to signage directing Gapang Resort resort traffic for the GOI beach traffic and visitors requirement resort traffic Decree 308/2005 SK Design and Main entrance Remove present General SP/EM - ADB 50 UKL/UPL INF 37 implement new to Gapang structure of main Community according to entrance entrance the GOI requirement Decree 308/2005 SK/ Replace fencing on Main entrance Remove present General SP/EM - ADB 100 Not required INF 38 both sides of to Gapang fencing Community entrance road SK/ Provide Master Iboih Resort Provision of General SP/EM - ADB 150 No EIA Appendix F INF 39 Plan for Water and suitable sanitation Community Required Sanitation System system for Iboih for Iboih Resort Resort SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ PAGE 36 Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya Proposed by Estimated Environmental Problem to be Size/ Proposed Status of ID Projects Location Beneficiaries Budget Assessment Reference Addressed Quantity Source of Program Rp. (M) Requirement Funding SK/ Provision of bus From Balohan To facilitate General Tourism 100 No EIA Tourism INF 40 transportation for to Gapang and tourists from Community Department of Required Depart- tourism from Iboih Resort Balohan to Sabang City ment of Balohan to Gapang and Iboih Sabang City Gapang and Iboih Resort proposed to Resort BRR in 2007 budget SK/ Provision of shuttle From Sabang to To facilitate tourist General Tourism 500 No EIA Tourism INF 41 ferry from Sabang Gapang and from Sabang to Community Department of Required Depart- City to Gapang Iboih Resort Gapang and Iboih Sabang City ment of and Iboih Resort Resort Sabang City proposed to BRR in 2007 budget Note: Environmental assessment will meet or exceed international standards as per GoI Decree 308/2005 and other relevant legislation. SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ PAGE 37 Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ PAGE 38 Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya 4. Livelihoods Rehabilitation Refer to Map SK Liv/4 at back of report. 4.1 Introduction Livelihoods and Environment projects indicate areas critical for the consideration of larger scale Infrastructure projects. Projects identified under Livelihoods Rehabilitation in Section 4 and Environmental Management in Section 5 may have important impacts on projects selected for Infrastructure Rehabilitation in Section 3. It is consequently necessary to consider the combined effects of projects identified in the three sectors when implementing a project in any other sector. 4.2 General Policy 4.2.1 Issues It is important to emphasise that Sabang and its economy had already been suffering a severe economic decline for the three years before the tsunami due to the civil war between GAM and the GOI. The setbacks were particularly severe for the tourist industry on the island with movements of foreign visitors being restricted if they wanted to travel to any destination within the entire Province of NAD. Essentially foreign tourism stopped for almost three years. The impact of the tsunami was comparatively light on Sabang and the industries and households directly affected were restricted to coastal communities. The most important non-government employer of people and source of subsistence is still agriculture. This industry was not significantly affected by the tsunami. However, indirectly there were larger numbers of households affected as many workers on the island work seasonally and part time in both the agriculture and fisheries sectors. So the loss of income from sea based employment has had an indirect effect on land based agricultural industries due to a reduction in off farm income sources. There were also significant losses of bungalow accommodation and smaller kiosks serving the tourist industry which has also affected sources of off farm income. Kecamatan Sukajaya had pockets of more severe damage by the tsunami, however, and many households have already received temporary housing accommodation which is clustered on the outskirts of the town of Balohan. Development of the permanent housing areas is now under way with funding mainly by assistance from the ADB. In the short term, the development of livelihoods is focussed on the residents of the temporary housing areas, the sea based activities destroyed by the tsunami and any indirectly related industries. 4.2.2 Rationale The rationale for providing households with sustainable livelihoods is to improve their long-term quality of life through economic and social development, reflected in improved social indicators SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ PAGE 39 Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya such as health and literacy. These indicators serve as inputs for the development of livelihood policy and implementation initiatives. Historically, the Kecamatans of Sabang have enjoyed a relatively higher standard of living than in other parts of the NAD province. For example in 2003, Sabang households had a mean per capita expenditure of Rp 377,000 compared to Rp 343000 in Banda Aceh. This is almost double that of all other local government areas in the Province. Data of the Regional Spatial Planning of Sabang (RTRW Kota Sabang tahun 2004 – 2014) show that most of the soils are classified as latosols (brown, reddish brown, red, and associated brown). This soil type is suitable for crops like coconut and even clove. According to the Dalam Angka (2004) Sukakarya has also a tambak area of some 20 Ha while Sukajaya has some 37 Ha. The tambaks are located Kelurahan Iboih. Sukakarya is the more densely populated kecamatan of Sabang as it takes in a number of urban kelurahans. Detailed information on the population in Kecamatan Sukajaya is shown in Table 1. Table 1 - Population in Kecamatan Sukakarya 2000-2004 Number of People No Kelurahan 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 1 Kota Atas 3.487 3.555 3.657 4.504 3.938 2 Kota Bawah Barat 2.903 2.960 2.900 3.503 3.759 3 Kota Bawah Timur 2.216 2.259 2.566 2.533 2.744 4 Aneuk Laot 697 711 701 860 871 5 Krueng Raya 876 893 989 985 1.089 6 Paya Seunara 1.813 1.848 1.833 2.040 2.401 7 Batee Shok 962 981 963 1.495 1.063 8 Iboih 522 532 501 643 668 Kec. Sukakarya 13.476 13.739 14.110 16.563 16.533 Source: Kecamatan Sukakarya Figure, 2004 Potency Desa, 2000-2003 Mapframe 3, 2006 Tourism The great potential for the kecamatan is the Gapang Iboih tourist area. The tourist industry in Gapang and Iboih is the main destination for most foreign tourists who presently visit Sabang. The tourists coming from outside the country are mainly attracted to the area specifically for diving and will visit for extended periods. Gapang tends to have the higher end of the market with up to 50 % of the units with AC and spacious bungalows. Iboih is more suited to the backpacker market. The SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ PAGE 40 Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya other main group is the domestic tourist who either come from Banda Aceh or other parts of the NAD province. All local tourism tends to be only one or two days. The tourist industry suffers from a plethora of existing problems which are related to: Basic power, water and sanitation Only low level accommodation offered Poor transport connections to the City of Sabang Lack of variety in food being offered No development of other tourist activities other than diving and snorkelling such as walking and hiking trials. Problems with serving of alcohol No development of smaller souvenir and service industries Total visitors to the island have been estimated by the Dinas Parawisata at 72,000 annually, with less than 3000 being foreign visitors. Using data collected in the field, the total visitation to the Gapang Iboh area was estimated to be of the order of 20,000 to 30,000 visitors per year, of which approximately 50% are made up of foreign visitors. The total value of tourism in this vicinity is comparatively low and is presently of the order of $US1.6 million per year. Fisheries Small and medium sized industries could be developed, related to agricultural, fish, seafood and other sectors. Fisheries were an important sector and a major income source for villagers near the coast and the fishery sector in Sabang, produces mainly Tuna, Cakalang (bluefin tuna), grouper, and other marine fish are exported locally to Banda Aceh and Medan. Marine and Fishery Sector in Kecamatan Sukakarya has been severely affected by tsunami. Many fishermen are unemployed due to tsunami, many boats and facilities severely damaged or lost . Now some of the fisherman are more dependant on subsistence farming, and labour in construction of housing. Fish processing facilities were either destroyed or damaged during the tsunami. These industries may be more viable in new facilities which are planned for the Port of Balohan, but will still suffer from relatively low volumes of product, making any unit cost high and may prove to be unable to compete with existing facilities in larger centres such as Banda Aceh and Medan. The fishing industry in the Kecamatan employed up to 443 before the tsunami. As most of the fish is bought by outside traders there is considerable local income generated by the industry. These people also worked seasonally for the agricultural industries. SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ PAGE 41 Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya The fishing industry is a priority sector for rehabilitation and consequent improvement. The strategy is to ensure that all boats are replaced with seaworthy boats and that improved facilities for fish storage and boat repair are included in a program. Tambak rehabilitation is planned for an area of 11Ha in two locations in Iboih. A proposal has been prepared by the community. This program would be extended to include areas of fish cages in deeper water adjacent to the tamabaks. Small Business The rehabilitation of the small business sector around the Port of Balohan and Iboih and Gapang is also considered to be a priority as there is a potential tourism market. This would be carried out with a micro-credit program to be delivered at the Kecamatan level and may be better suited to implementation through NGO and or the P2KP program. This would require further preparation and liaison and coordination with individual NGO’s and relevant sections of the regional office of BRR. Prior to the tsunami people in Kecamatan Sukakarya had many businesses dependent on complete copra processing. In the past the number of farmers processing copra was vast but the price of the coconut oil is now lower than other any regular oil. Nowadays the process is now restricted to the drying of copra which is sold before further processing to Medan. As a result many producers of copra have stopped production completely because of the price fluctuation Mid to long term planning requires an integrated approach and links to other sectors of the economy. In islands like Sabang, fisheries, agriculture and tourism are closely interlinked and should not be developed separately, but integrated. The central link here is the build back better principle and environmentally sustainability. It is considered that the current leading sectors of agriculture and fisheries will eventually be lead by the tourist industry. The objective of the capacity building will be to provide the relevant local agricultural and farming stakeholders with potential economic development opportunities within the complementary sectors of fisheries- agriculture-tourism. 4.3 Options Program 4.3.1 Program Summary The proposed livelihoods program is set out below. It should be noted that some of the previous livelihoods such as fishponds (tambak) may have been operating in a non-sustainable way. Further review of potential restoration of tambak areas is considered prudent before decisions are made to go ahead with restoration. Provision of fishing boats SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ PAGE 42 Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya Tambak rehabilitation Provision boat for tourism activity Rehabilitation and reconstruction of tourism accommodation Small scale industry development to support tourism sector Small business enterprise development Provision of facilities for salt fish processing Agricultural industries capacity building SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ PAGE 43 Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya 4.3.2 Program Description LIVELIHOOD 1 – SUPPLY OF FISHING BOAT This project involves resupply of fishing boat lost in the tsunami, many fishermen unemployment in this time. They need much more boat. Some of supply boat from donors/Marine& fishery are small capacity and not feasible. Future value potential: To improve livelihood and increase income of fishermen. LIVELIHOOD 2 – TAMBAK REHABILITATION Tambaks in Iboih (2 location) is currently being rehabilitated by BRR. In Iboih no Donors/NGO have committed to rehabilitation of the tambak areas. So far no proposal has been prepared by the community so at this stage a TOR is suggested for the facilitation of a community based proposal. Future value potential: To develop sector and increase household income in Iboih & surrounding LIVELIHOOD 3 – PROVISION BOAT FOR TOURISM ACTIVITY Provision Coral Reef Boat Inspection are mainly facilities for Tourism attractive in Iboih & Pulau Rubiah. Local & foreign tourism very interest. with Coral reef in this area. Boats for tourist activity are damage and destroyed due to tsunami. Future value potential: Opportunities for future tourism development (ie local, regional & to increase tourist destination. LIVELIHOOD 4 –REHABILITATION & RECONSTRUCTION BUNGALOWS & RESTAURANT IN TOURISM AREA This Project of Rehabilitation & Reconstruction Bungallow in Tourism area shoul be before the Some of Bungallow need to be Rehabilitation some of need to rebuilt. Before the tsunami many bungallow & Restaurant in Iboih & Rubiah Island are damaged,due to not operation in aceh conflict/Millitary Emergency. Tsunami was destroyed some of bungalow in tourism area. In Iboih & Rubiah Island. Tourist visits after tsunami are higher than before due to the Helsinky peace agreement (free visit). No Donors/NGO have committed to rehabilitation/Rebuilt of the Bungallows areas. So far no proposal has been prepared by the community so at this stage a TOR is suggested for the facilitation of a community based proposal Future value potential: To develop tpurism sector, and to increase tourist destination. LIVELIHOOD 5 – SMALL BUSINESS INDUSTRY FOR SUPPORT TOURISM SECTOR This project of home industry such as Fish Crisp, fish dish & other, is good prospect and the material of food processing are available, and this project could be absorption the unemployment in Kecamatan. This project also can be solve problem of post harvest for food cropping & Fisheries. Comm unity has no capital for purchase equipment process & material. Future value potential : To develop small scale Industry, absorption employment & increase income of Community SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ PAGE 44 Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya LIVELIHOOD 6 SMALL BUSINESS ENTERPRISE DEVELOPMENT Many kiosk in the vicinity of Iboih was severely damaged by the Tsunami and in Bateeshok not affected by tsunami but the trader have no capital to operate the kiosk. The aim of the proposal is provide finance to 15 local traders to develop their kiosks and small business enterprises in the vicinity of the tourism area in Iboih and surrounding also in Bateeshok. Future value potential: This project has good future prospects due to the increasing numbers of tourists, and increase income. LIVELIHOOD 7- SALT FISH PROCESSING This project involves the construction of room for boilld processing & completing facilities (marlin) for drying fish. This production of the production of salt fish which will replace the facilities lost in the tsunami. The community have submitted a full proposal which full details the cost estimate. Future value potential: This approach is a more sustainable method of processing salt fish and means that fishing communities can stay employed during the non-fishing season LIVELIHOOD 8 – AGRICULTURE CAPACITY BUILDING/TRAINING The objective of the capacity building will be provide the relevant local agricultural stakeholders with potential economic development opportunities within the complementary sectors of fisheries-agriculture-tourism The agricultural sector should be an integral part of the strategic planning in land management and part of the design of Sabang’s future using the principle of “build back better”. Future value potential : Agriculture This approach is a more sustainable method of Agriculture for develop this sector, Increase production & increase income of farmer SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ PAGE 45 Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya 4.3.3 Project Proposals Est. Budget Environmental Problem to be Status of ID Projects Location Beneficiaries Size/ Quantity Proposed by Assessment Addressed Rp (M) Program Requirement FISHERIES INDUSTRY SK/ Supply of fishing Iboih, Kota Many Fishermen Fishermen’s 50 unit Community/ 2500 No EIA Required Need to establish LIV 1 boats Bawah Barat, lost of Boat, and Associations ADB-ETESP eligibility of Kota Atas, have no capital fishermen and Kota Bawah to purchase and SP/EM and project concept Timur re-establish Fisheries TAMBAK REHABILITATION SK/ Tambak Iboih Cleaning & 11 Fish 11 Ha, in 2 Community/ 2450 Indonesian AMDAL ToR developed LIV 2 rehabilitation Reconstruction farmers/ 55 location ADB-ETESP requirements See Appendix C of walls/Repair people UKL/RPL TOR 29 Fresh Water SP/EM and Replanting, fish Fisheries Need preparation cage of community based proposal & brief feasibility study TOURISM IMPROVEMENT SK/ Provision Boat Iboih Corall Reef Tourist & 2 unit Community/ 100 No EIA Required Proposed by LIV 3 for Tourism inspection Boat Tourism Tourism & Tourism & Culture activity destroyed by Business Cultural Dept tsunami Department SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ PAGE 46 Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya Est. Budget Environmental Problem to be Status of ID Projects Location Beneficiaries Size/ Quantity Proposed by Assessment Addressed Rp (M) Program Requirement SK/ Rehabilitation & Teupin Many bungalows Tourist & Rehabilitation Tourism & 950 No EIA Required ToR project LIV 4 Reconstruction Layeu, are damaged/ Tourism 16 units in Cultural Need concept note to of bungalows in Gapang, destroyed due to Business Iboih, Department Assessment BRR tourism area Teupin military Reconstruction No Donors/NGO Reudep,Teup emergency & 100 7 units in Iboih have committed in Serekui, tsunami & 3 units in to rehabilitation/ Pulau Rubiah Rubiah reconstruction of bungalows SK/ Small Scale Kota Bawah Develop home Community 50 household Community/ 400 No EIA Required See Appendix C LIV 5 Industry (Home Barat, Kota industry such as ADB-ETESP TOR 28 Need Industry) Atas fish dish & other, preparation of Development to no capital to SP/EM Micro Finance support tourism purchase Scheme sector equipment process & material SK/ Small Business Iboih, Replacement of Community & 15 traders Community/ 200 No EIA Required See Appendix C, LIV 6 Enterprise Bateeshok kiosk/small Traders ADB-ETESP TOR 28 Need Development business in assessment/ vicinity of tourism SP/EM preparation of area. community based proposals for Micro Finance [US$ 10,000] SMALL SCALE/MEDIUM INDUSTRY SK/ Salt Fish Krueng Raya All processing Local 4 unit/ facilities Community/ 150 No EIA Need preparation LIV 7 Processing & Pasiran facilities Community ADB-ETESP Estimated Requirement of proposal & brief (Kota Bawah destroyed cost of feasibility study Timur) Complete SP/EM [~US$10,000] replacement of redevelopment of equipment industry required SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ PAGE 47 Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya Est. Budget Environmental Problem to be Status of ID Projects Location Beneficiaries Size/ Quantity Proposed by Assessment Addressed Rp (M) Program Requirement AGRICULTURE – CAPACITY BUILDING SK/ Agriculture All Villages Lack of Agricultural Not yet ADB-ETESP 200 Cost for No EIA Required See Appendix G LIV 8 Capacity coordinated coordination and Sector decided SP/EM study Building/Training trough information Agriculture concerning Department linkages of agricultural and other industries, such as tourism & fisheries Note: Environmental assessment will meet or exceed international standards as per GoI Decree 308/2005 and other relevant legislation. SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ PAGE 48 Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya 5. Environmental Management Refer to Map SK EnM/5 at back of report. 5.1 Introduction Livelihoods and Environment projects indicate areas critical for the consideration of larger scale Infrastructure projects. Projects identified under Livelihoods Rehabilitation in Section 4 and Environmental Management in Section 5 may have important impacts on projects selected for Infrastructure Rehabilitation in Section 3. It is consequently necessary to consider the combined effects of projects identified in the three sectors when implementing a project in any other sector. 5.2 Site Observations and Analysis As discussed in Section 2, Kecamatan Sukakarya belongs to that group of islands in the Northern Outliers of the Barisan range. The islands feature four land systems, (i) marine landform, (ii) aluvio-cullovial land, (iii) alluvial land, (iv) hilly and mountainous landform. The dominant topographical landform of the island (s) are volcanic cones intersecting with the coastline with negligible beach or off shore marine shelf. Soils are shallow, weathered conglomerates and there is limited flat land. The steep slopes are mostly vegetated with secondary “protected” forest. Settlement on Sabang dates 1000’s of years and, as a result, Kecamatan Sukakarya is therefore predominantly a highly modified environment. Although there were limited indicators and monitoring sites to identify the status of the physical environment, it is understood from a number of reports that the environment, including both marine and terrestrial, was on a degrading trajectory pre-tsunami. Species imbalance, most particularly a predominance of wild pigs, had become a serious problem and forest ecology was compromised by island wide logging. The fishing industry put great pressure on inshore fishing and compromised, in part, the limited coral reef systems through cyanide and bombing. Nearly all mangrove areas had been cleared for conversion to Tambak. From a biodiversity perspective, the Kecamatan Sukakarya was not being well managed. However, the digital imagery suggest that the tambaks in Sukakaya were unusual in that there was not a wholesale clearance of mangrove around the relatively small tambak areas, most particularly in Iboih. The size of the individual tamabaks was also much bigger and consequently more efficient in terms of production and income, and, presumably, with greater nutrient benefit to the macro ecosystem. Kelurahan Iboih has a relatively more diverse forest and protected baseline environment compared to all other areas of the island, due to its lower population density and relative isolation. More attention on forest preservation should be paid in this Kelurahan where the “Kilometre-0”, coral reef, and other recreation sites are located. SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ PAGE 49 Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya As a result of the landform characteristics, Kecamatan Sukakarya was not greatly affected by the tsunami. Topographical characteristics of this kecamatan are dominated by steep hill formations comprising multiple discrete watersheds, with a very narrow coastal flat plain. Although there was some damage by the earthquake, without extensive beaches and with only a partial off shore marine shelf, the tsunami effect was limited. However, coral beds adjacent Iboih were unfortunately reported to have been damaged resulting in large deposits of coral along shoreline. The cultural heritage of all of Sabang is significant and is based on the pre-colonial seafaring period of trade from India, Africa and Arabia followed by the period of Dutch colonialism and subsequent Japanese occupation during the Second World War. All of these periods have left a cultural history which could be integrated with the physical and biological ecology of the island environment to make up a successful eco tourism experience. 5.3 Issues The secluded characteristics of an island provides the opportunity for manageable impact of environmental management programs, clear integration across numerous government agencies and a strong synergy between land users ,and, in the case of Sabang, a potentially burgeoning tourism industry. The Kecamatan Sukakarya Field Assessment Report (FAR) identifies the following environmental issues: The potential for tourism to influence management of the environment is significant yet an understanding of key environmental management principles and practices need promotion; There is an immediate need to commence a process that fosters a shared vision of what needs to be accomplished among the entire population including government decision- makers, business operators including farmers and fishermen, school children and the police and army who are stationed on the island and who play a significant role in natural resource management; Although it is touted as having the greatest potential for tourism within Aceh, there is presently no representation of representatives of Kota Sabang on the only BRR Provincial level SATKER responsible for tourism under the direction of the BRR Deputy for Economy and Business; Land use conflicts are a common problem including illegal logging and household wood collection in protected forest, pollution of water supply caused by agricultural activity and lack of sanitation, land slips from inappropriate developments, some conversion of coastal wetlands for tambak and weed invasion (water hyacinth) of the main water resource which accelerates evaporation and thus water loss; SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ PAGE 50 Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya Areas of previous mangrove habitat have been denuded either by conversion to tambak, fuelwood collection or as a result of the tsunami; Fresh water supply management is a major limiting factor for the island development; Forest conservation to strengthen management of biodiversity, habitat and species imbalance, (particularly that of wild pig) is a critical issue; Hot water springs which should be considered a valuable and prized asset are presently perceived as a health hazard, lie in derelict condition and appear to have negligible management; That the Sabung Island has a unique cultural history and that the KAP should address management of both the physical and cultural environment; There is awareness of key issues within various government departments but no clear articulation of an overall strategy to integrate the addressing of problems; Funded programs for the 2006 budget and proiposd programs for 2007 and 2008 by Kota Sabang have identified needs in the following categories: 1. Master Planning 2. Maintenance Initiatives 3. Physical Environment ‘Green’ Initiatives / Amenity 4. Environmental Education 5. Tourism Development Improvement 5.3.1 Policy / Approach The approach of any environmental management program in Kecamatan Sukakarya needs to intergrate a “whole of island” methodology that incorporates management of both the physical and the socio-cultural issues. Tourism at the moment satisfies a very particular “niche market” which is primarily focused on diving and a low standard weekend accommodation market based on people working and/or living in Banda Aceh and other tsunami recovery centres. The multiplier effect of this small tourist industry is very low due to the low level of service offered by the few accommodation outlets. If tourism is to expand as a livelihood vehicle for the island a clear message of “environmental stewardship” should start to be in evidence across the whole of Sabung. Successful tourism initiatives will also need to offer a tangible benefit to a community which is still largely made up of largely subsistence level fishing and share cropper farming households,. something that will need to occur over an intermediate (5-7 year) timeframe. The SP/EM environmental team recommends: Development of a masterplan (with sub-components) for the management and monitoring of physical and socio-cultural environmental resources on Sabang; SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ PAGE 51 Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya Adopting an integrated eco-tourism model (as distinct from a “mass tourism” Bali type tourism model) with emphasis upon the physical and cultural elements of the island society; The first step in this model will be to address the basic infrastructure issues such as unreliability of power supply, uncertainty of road access, unreliable communications and improved water supply and sanitation particularly to the Iboih resort bungalow areas Modifying the forest conservation status to ensure greater stewardship and sustainability of both flora and fauna habitat; Extensive revegetation programs in coral, mangrove, coastal, forest and amenity species across entire island. Assuming that the present land acquisition issues are resolved, specific and intensive revegetation in the catchment area of the completed Paya Seunara reservoir to ensure the quantity and quality of water coming in the dam. Improved catchment management of the Aneuk Laot lake to address pollution control of organic and inorganic water pollution which have lead to the current problem of increasing water hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes) or “eceng gondok” to reduce the loss of water due to evapotranspiration. Integration with livelihood and infrastructure programs. The above approach assumes both a “passive” and “active” eco-tourism model. The active model has been successfully deployed in environmental rehabilitation projects and promotes participation by ‘tourists’ in addressing a problem. For example, organised groups of hunters, using bow and arrow technology, would come to Sabang to hunt wild pigs while other groups would arrive to assist in planting coral beds or take part in building walking trails. Passive models would emphasise the quiet sanctuary of the island where tourists can enjoy both comfort and opportunity for contemplation. Participants in either of these models will reject the “mass” tourism model. 5.3.2 Rationale The government of Sabang City has identified a strategy to prioritize three sectors for development in Sabang. They are tourism, fisheries, and services. The combination of mountain and marine ecology provides a great range of tourism opportunity but a clean and healthy environment is an essential precursor for any environment based tourism. A series of carefully crafted and integrated programs can make a massive contribution to improving management but they need to be fostered with a broad understanding across the community. This requires thorough resource stewardship that in turn requires a change in management practices, not only at the potential tourism ikons, (e.g. Kilometer 0, Ibioh, Gabung, Water Falls, Hot Water Springs) but across the entire island; environmental education programs are essential for all and will be most successful if they focus on changing knowledge, attitudes and ultimately practices! On the other hand, minimal attention to SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ PAGE 52 Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya any integrated approach will negate any potential for a viable tourism industry that is well known for its service orientated ethos which collectively has high expectations and ultimately relies on the quality of the visitor experience to generate ongoing business. Issues such as integrated catchment / watershed management, production of “green” power, presentation and interpretation of the rich physical and cultural elements, development of stand- alone eco-tourism sub-projects, support for introduction of sanitation will all be very important to support tourism. 5.3.3 Priority Program Priority programs in Kecamatan Sukakarya are: Management - physical and socio-cultural environmental management plan; Socialization - facilitate long term cross-department adoption of strategy for environmental management for the entire island; Catchment Management – incorporates biodiversity and re-vegetation, erosion control, water and potential pollution management along with integrated weed eradication; Forest Protection - Forest revegetation programs and successfully changing the conservation status and operation of the protected areas; Coastal rehabilitation - includes coral, seagrass, mangrove re-plantation, tambak, rehabilitation, coastal drainage and sanitation improvement; Amenity – road and streetscape tree planting, detailing to walking trails and coordinated coastal rehabilitation activities; Eco-tourism - Using eco-tourism models to promote a number of critical initiatives including a feral pig management program; 5.3.4 Program Summary Sukakarya is one of the two kecamatans of Sabang Kota. This kecamatan has greater ecosystem variety from marine to upland forest. Environmental management at one part of the island will not succeed because in small island like Sabang, the whole island including surrounding coastal water actually is one ecosystem. With clever use of resources, the opportunity is there to exploit both the mainstream and eco-tourism potential. A strategic emphasis should be adopted in areas such as the dense forest in Jaboi and Marine Park in Rubiah island. With the shallow top soil and steeply sloping land, the land capability to retain the water is already limited. Therefore, vegetation conservation is not only important for biodiversity, to avoid erosion and land slides, but also to ensure the availability of fresh water, the viability. SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ PAGE 53 Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya 5.3.5 Program Description ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT ENVIRONMENT 1 - Development of integrated environmental management plan to address physical & socio-cultural issues Produce collaborative and participative plan to enable the entire community to improve environmental management. Future value potential: An island environment that has environmental indicators and demonstrates management success of its valuable resources. ENVIRONMENT 2 - Socialization of environmental management plan for all stakeholders & government departments. The program will facilitate the adoption of an environmental care ethic across the island. Future value potential: Island biodiversity, including species habitat will greatly improve through collective stewardship. FOREST PROTECTION & WATER CATCHMENT MANAGEMENT ENVIRONMENT 3 - Complete catchment management plan to address vegetation protection & pollution control. Development and introduction of a management plan across forests and water catchment areas. Future value potential: Integrity of forests and availability of fresh water will be maintain and support biodiversity of the island. ENVIRONMENT 4 – Aneuk Laot Clean up from waterhyacint aquatic weed The existence of water hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes) in lake increases water loss from evapotranspiration. Clean up of this aquatic weed will increase lake capacity in retaining the water. Future value potential: Greater availability of fresh water for local people ENVIRONMENT 5 - Changing the conservation status of forest in Iboih and improving monitoring & enforcement of forest protection. Tougher conservation or watch to the existing forest is needed to protect fresh water availability and limited top fertile soil, and prevent land sliding. Future value potential: availability of fresh water will be maintain and support biodiversity of the island. COASTAL REHABILITATION – CORAL REEF REPLANTING ENVIRONMENT 6 - Coral Reef Replanting Systematic replanting of coral reef building on the existing program. Future value potential: Support to enhance marine biodiversity and collaboration by eco-tourism inputs. SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ PAGE 54 Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya ECO TOURISM PROGRAM ENVIRONMENT 7 - Conduct on-going program development for potential of eco-tourism for environmental protection, management & economic opportunity There is limited understanding of both the complexity and the potential which an integrated eco-tourism could make to the island. The Island of Sabung has the potential to nurture a unique vehicle to improve both the integrity of the environment and the viability of the tourism industry. Future value potential: increase income and profit of farmer. ENVIRONMENT 8 - Seminar to produce plan to reduce Wild pig population Wild pig has becomes enemy of farmer in Sabang because the population seems to be increasing over time. The pig has no natural enemy. The trap made by local farmer to reduce the population seems not to be successful. Regular hunting involving hunters outside the area can be considered as an option. Future value potential: increase income and profit of farmer AMENITY REVEGETATION PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENT 9 - Conduct on-going program of coordinated amenity plantings Road and streetscapes, walking trails & coastal areas. Future value potential: increase income and profit of farmer. Regular hunting involving hunters outside the area can be considered as an option. SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ PAGE 55 Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya 5.3.6 Project Proposals Estimated Environmental Problem to be Size/ Status of ID Projects Location Beneficiaries Proposed by Budget Assessment Reference Addressed Quality Program Rp. (M) Requirement ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT ENV-1 Development of Entire Island Need to Quality of the ADB SP/EM 1000 No EIA TOR integrated integrate Sabang Required prepared environmental planning island management plan to initiatives across environment. address physical & all stakeholders. socio-cultural issues. ENV-2 Socialization of Entire Island Commence The entire Imam mukim 2000 No EIA TOR environmental process of inhabitants of of Iboih Required prepared management plan for stakeholder Sabang all stakeholders & adoption of government environmental departments. management. FOREST PROTECTION & WATER CATCHMENT MANAGEMENT ENV-3 Complete catchment Entire Island Biodiversity Integrity of ADB SP/EM 1500 No EIA management plan to loss, erosion, forests, water Consultation Required address vegetation pollution of supply & protection & pollution water. sustainability control. of settlement. ENV-4 Aneuk Laot Clean up Aneuk laot Species All people of Imam mukim 1800 No EIA TOR from water hyacinth Lake imbalance & Sabang city of Paya Raya Required Prepared aquatic weed Increase lake capacity. ENV-5 Changing forest Entire Island Environmental Quality & Imam mukim 1300 No EIA TOR conservation status & quality issues integrity of of Iboih Required prepared improving monitoring including Sabang & enforcement. biodiversity physical enhancement, environment. and habitat SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ PAGE 56 Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya Estimated Environmental Problem to be Size/ Status of ID Projects Location Beneficiaries Proposed by Budget Assessment Reference Addressed Quality Program Rp. (M) Requirement COASTAL REHABILITATION – CORAL REEF REPLANTING ENV 6 Coral Reef Between Extensive coral Tourist 0.5 Bp DODENT 1200 No EIA TOR Replanting Pilot Rubiah Island damage by the industry of Hectares Aceh Coral Required Prepared Program in Iboih & main beach tsunami Iboih & fishing Reef at Iboih industry Foundation ECO TOURISM PROGRAM ENV-7 Conduct on-going Entire Island Making the link Tourism ADB - SPEM 2000 No EIA TOR program development between industry & Required Prepared for potential of eco- management & tourism for tourism will environmental stimulate protection, opportunities for management & environmental economic management. opportunity. ENV-8 Seminar to produce All villages To protect All farmers in SPEM Field 20 No EIA Sabang plan to reduce Wild farmer’s Sabang team Required G’ment pig population plantations and offers Rp. crops from the 125 000,- pig per pig tail killed TOR prepared AMENITY REVEGETATION PROGRAMS ENV-9 Conduct on-going Entire Island Road & Visual Government 1500 No EIA TOR program of streetscapes, amenity of the Department Required Prepared coordinated amenity walking trails & island. Consultation plantings. coastal areas. Note: Environmental assessment will meet or exceed international standards as per GoI Decree 308/2005 and other relevant legislation. SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ PAGE 57 Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ PAGE 58 Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya 6. Summary and Conclusions In the development of this Kecamatan Action Plan considerable emphasis has been placed on consultation and the achievement of ‘buy-in’ to the process and programs. This has occurred through consultation at the kecamatan, and village levels, the POJKA, and with the NGOs currently working in the area. This combined with field surveys, collection of documentation, and mapping has resulted in a reasonably comprehensive rapid assessment view of the needs and opportunities within the study area. The consultation process involved initial meetings with the Camat and key kecamatan officials, followed by field surveys and analysis of the issues through air photo interpretation. The consultation with the village leaders was undertaken in community forum meetings where the issues of environment, livelihood and environment were addressed through discussions. The issues and opportunities that were identified by the village leaders were considered and where within the scope of this study included within the proposed program. Additional meetings were held with the Camat and the POJKA to discuss the proposals. This process, while time consuming, served to achieve a high level of buy-in at the local level. The NGO coordination meetings provided a useful forum for the collection of information relating to NGO activities and assisted in identifying the gaps between the needs of the community and the existing programs. Addition individual consultation was undertaken with NGOs where required to further assist this identification process. As a result of this consultation process key priorities have been outlined and a broad range of projects have been described. Some of these projects can proceed to immediate implementation while others, because of their complexity, will require additional analysis and design. This should be looked on as the first step in a process of planning and design and development which will lead to successful rehabilitation and future development of Kecamatan Sukakarya. SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ PAGE 59 Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya Appendices SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya Appendix A Solid Waste Management Guidelines for Urban Areas A.1 Introduction Domestic and light commercial solid waste is composed of organic/wet wastes such as kitchen wastes (vegetable residues, fruit peelings), other food and cooking wastes; inorganic/dry wastes such as plastics, papers, glass, cans, etc.; greenwaste such as grass clippings and tree prunings; and residuals such as used disposable nappies and other non recyclables and non-compostables approximately as follows; Item Typical Typical Contents Percentage Greenwaste 50% Tree prunings and grass clippings Wet wastes 25% Predominantly kitchen wastes, of which at most half would be compostable and the remainder non-compostable food and cooking scraps as well as general residual wastes such as disposable diapers Dry Waste 25% Both non-recyclables such as broken crockery and recyclables /Recyclables such as plastic, glass, paper, metals, etc The proposed approach to solid waste management focuses on on-site waste management at householder level (waste minimization, segregation and composting) and the collection system is just for residual wastes. Solid waste should be collected by the Sanitation Department in accessible areas of these large towns or cities. However the more remote or hard to access areas will require a communal collection system. This local collection system will be sensibly integrated where possible with the existing solid waste management system undertaken by the Sanitation department in order to enhance more effective existing solid waste management. It is assumed that a final disposal location such as a sanitary landfill or controlled dump will already be available. A.2 Objectives Objectives of the guideline are to ensure that the community is able to: a) Comprehend the significance of participation in the collection system in terms of achieving comprehensive solid waste management. b) Segregate organic/wet and inorganic/dry wastes. c) Participate in composting and recycling programs. d) Manage their wastes in a sustainable and independent manner. SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya e) Use directly at household level the compost generated as a result of solid waste management by community members A.3 SWM Approach There are several components to solid waste management in urban areas, some of which may have to be amended due to local community and physical conditions. 1) Waste minimization program These programs are proposed to encourage community members to reduce their wastes at the source (generator) by changing their life style. The Community must be made be aware that more wastes generated mean that more cost will result for both waste transportation and also final disposal. There will also potentially be more environmental problems such as ground water pollution, and odor. Waste minimization covers the three fundamentals of reduce, reuse and recycle (3R). Reduce This program is proposed to reduce waste at the source through changing purchasing attitudes, such as to buy groceries in family size rather than sachet size; to buy refills rather than single use containers; to purchase items that can be repaired and/or with a long life span; to buy items in simple and safe packaging, etc and overall, to generally avoid excessive and wasteful packaging. Reuse This program is proposed to encourage reuse of used materials rather than disposing of the material as wastes, such as reusing a bottle for drinking water or plastic bottle for planting plants: used towels can be reused as cleaning cloths or for kitchen mitten/kitchen gloves; recyclable papers or banana leaves rather than Styrofoam used for protective wrapping; reuse the blank side of copy paper as memo paper; etc. Recycle Plastics, papers, glass, cans, metals and other materials are able to be recycled for making new products. Aim to have the community buy recyclable materials rather than just used once and then thrown away. These kinds of materials are able to be collected if household waste is segregated, and then sold to eco aids or to be given to scavengers A special component of waste minimization is individual composting at the household level. Individual composting is to be encouraged for households that have space for composting activities and also have gardening activity. There are a range of suitable composting systems for household and gardening wastes. A simple composting system can be established by using stacks of old tires, by excavating shallow pits into the ground or using any above ground containers that allow free SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya drainage. There are also specialized composting bins that allow the compost to be regularly rotated and aerated, as well as plastic cones that provide protection against the rain but still allow aeration of the compost. In this case, residual wastes (meat, oily waste, disposable diapers, etc.) are able to be buried on-site or collected by the Sanitation Department/Office). 2) Solid waste collection system a) Urban areas with good internal access (good street layout and width) – a collection service should be provided for emptying an individual container for each household. The container provided is only for wet/organic wastes, residual wastes and yard wastes (greenwastes), while recyclable dry wastes are collected and placed in separate plastic bags by the household and are able to be sold to the “eco aids” or are able to be given to scavengers. The plastic drum or plastic bag container should be in the order of 40 litres, and is to be located in front of the house for the Sanitation Department/Office to collect. Wet wastes should be collected at least weekly, whereas dry waste collections for greenwaste and recyclables can be as infrequently as monthly. In future, the greenwaste may be separated out for less frequent collection and then this waste can be chipped or ground in tub grinders to make mulch for use on parks and gardens, rather than taking up valuable landfill space. This would then require a 3 bag system for residuals and excess wet waste; greenwaste and recyclables. b) Urban precincts with limited internal access (poor or narrow internal roads) - should have a communal-based system utilizing a supplied bin/container for residual waste, non- compostable wet waste and greenwaste. This makes up about 60% of the total waste production per person or 1.5 Litres/person.day. A wheeled metal bin of 120 liters or mobile garbage bin (MGB) of 120 litres is able to serve waste generated from say 20 households or 80 people if collected daily. It is recommended to use metal bins in order to limit theft and maximize container life. Another type of bin is the hook-lift bin of typically 6 m3 capacity which will serve 1,000 households or about 4,000 people if collected daily. Recyclables will be collected by eco aids or scavengers, or will be received in another kind of container. All these bins should be located in strategic places which are easily accessible by the local people. An improvement on this system is to supply 2 bins at each location, with one for non-compostable wet wastes and residuals, and the other larger bin for greenwaste, however the space available for bins is often limited. Also the community would have to be educated to segregate their residual and excessive wet waste from the greenwaste for placing in separate bins. SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya Factors to be considered in developing SWM particularly collection systems in urban areas include the following: a) The community should be involved in deciding how to solve solid waste management problems locally. The community will need to be educated on the options and issues prior to asking the community to decide the local solid waste management program. b) Provide a demonstration/pilot to show how to separate between wet and dry wastes in terms of compostable wet wastes (eg vegetable peelings); non-compostable wet waste (such as oily wastes and meat scraps); residual wastes (eg disposable nappies); recyclables (eg glass, metals, plastic) and yard waste / greenwaste. c) Regardless of the above outcomes and decisions, the community should be trained on the household-based composting process. The compost will be used directly by the householders in the semi urban and peri urban areas for gardening; it is not for commercial sale. d) Facilitate the role of eco aids/junkshop to enable collection of the recyclable materials from individual households The approach for urban solid waste management is shown in the following diagram. Note that this diagram only refers to in-house waste and not the yard waste or greenwaste which should be kept separate where possible. Greenwaste can be recycled after chipping or mulching at the central disposal facility. Alternatively, some of the smaller greenwaste items such as grass clippings and tree leaves can be added to the household compost to provide a source of carbon and also dry material for moisture content management. SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya Figure 1: Diagram of SWM Approach in Semi Urban Area SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya A.4 Staging of Composting a) Waste segregation In this stage, waste segregation between compostable material, recyclables and residual waste is carried out. b) Size reduction Size reduction is undertaken by chopping up the so that it is easier and quicker to be putrefied as compost. c) Establish a Compost System There are a range of suitable composting systems for household and agricultural wastes. The mound system is described below, but also a simple composting system can be established by using stacks of old tires, by excavating shallow pits into the ground or using any above ground containers that allow free drainage. There are also specialized composting bins that allow the compost to be regularly rotated and aerated, as well as plastic cones that provide protection against the rain but still allow aeration of the compost. For a basic mounding system; To maximize composting efficiency and provide additional drainage of the mound, a method of allowing air to flow through the base of the mound is desirable. This can be achieved by placing a large pipe at the base of the mound with many holes drilled around the perimeter, a small frame made of stiff chicken wire or a bundle of bamboo shoots to sit along the ground located along the centre of the mound. The chopped organic/wet waste, manure (if any) and also carbon-rich, dry material such as tree cuttings, leaves or paper is mixed and mounded over the air drain described above. Mound design has a nominal width of 1-1.5 metres, height of 1 metre and length is adjusted as required to suite the volume requiring composting Compact the mound lightly by just stepping on and shaping the mound. d) Inversion Inversion is carried out when the temperature reaches approximately 50oC, and can be undertaken manually or by loader. Progressively, the mound is taken from the top and is placed in a new mound until the top of the old mound is at the base of the new mound and vise versa. Inversion is required to discharge excessive heat, allow fresh air into compost previously located at the mound interior, distribute the decomposition process more evenly throughout the mound, distribute moisture, and break the compoact material into smaller particles. SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya e) Watering Test for determining whether watering is required is to manually squeeze some of the composting material. If water cannot be squeezed out, then the mound should be watered. In wet climates or periods, it may be necessary to cover the mound to prevent the mound becoming too wet. Excess water limits oxygen transfer which slows the composting process and also produces bad odours. f) Maturation After composting 30-40 days, the mound temperature decreases to ambient temperature. At this time, the mound should have a dark brown or black color and an earthy odour, not an ammonia or sulphurous odour. g) Screening Screening is then carried out to obtain a compost size according to the needs and to separate out residual materials that should not be in the final compost product. Any materials not yet composted properly are returned to the new compost mound, while residual materials are disposed off. h) Storage Screened compost should be stored in a dry location protected from contamination by fungus and weed seed. SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya Appendix B Projects Identified and Costed by BRR Region (outline summary) ETESP6 with Extension Sector # Projects # Projects Costed % Rp Million % Rp Million Identified Costed Identified Costed Per Project BRR Region One Aceh Besar (6 kecamatan o/o 22) Infrastructure 103 78 76% 640,437 85% 8,211 Livelihoods 74 37 50% 98,908 13% 2,673 Environment 45 23 51% 13,596 2% 591 Total 222 138 62% 752,941 100% 5,456 Aceh Jaya (6 kecamatan o/o 6) Infrastructure 133 97 73% 183,197 75% 1,889 Livelihoods 49 9 18% 61,590 25% 6,843 Environment 23 0 0% 0 0% Total 205 106 52% 244,787 100% 2,309 Sabang (2 kecamatan o/o 2) Infrastructure 59 56 95% 68,880 64% 1,230 Livelihoods 12 11 92% 38,625 36% 3,511 Environment 9 2 22% 198 0% 99 Total 80 69 86% 107,703 100% 1,561 Total BRR Region One Infrastructure 103 78 76% 640,437 85% 8,211 Livelihoods 74 37 50% 98,908 13% 2,673 Environment 45 23 51% 13,596 2% 591 Total 222 138 62% 752,941 100% 5,456 BRR Region Two Aceh Barat (5 kecamatan o/o 11) Infrastructure 112 82 73% 211,205 89% 2,576 Livelihoods 52 13 25% 27,166 11% 2,090 Environment 27 0 0% 0 0% Total 191 95 50% 238,371 100% 2,509 Total Infrastructure 215 160 74% 851,642 86% 5,323 Livelihoods 126 50 40% 126,074 13% 2,521 Environment 72 23 32% 13,596 1% 591 Total 413 233 56% 991,312 100% 4,255 SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya Appendix C TOR C.1 TOR 28 – Community Based Proposal For Micro-Financing to Assist Business Development Name of Project Development of a community based proposal for Small and Medium Business Development in the Kecamatan Purpose(s) The purpose will be to develop a community based proposal which will lead to microfinancing program for small and medium business entrepreneurs Rationale and The area in the vicinity of Balohon was severely damaged by the Tsunami. The General Description aim of the proposal is provide finance to 10 local traders to rebuild their kiosks and small business enterprises in the vicinity of the Port of Balohan Suggested List of The study should include but not be limited to the following: Tasks/Activities Review current schemes to identify the usage, hindrances, benefits, and community impact, of pre- and post-tsunami financial mechanisms (banks, registered cooperatives, development banks, micro-credit facilities, NGOs) Analyze market opportunities for a range of present and business activities, and constraints Assess future potential for micro-credit to assist in redevelopment of the informal sector affected by the tsunami. Determine mechanism, criteria and payback arrangement for receiving funds, for micro or small loans, or for medium and large loans from financial institutions Determine potential institution used to channel funds, depending upon target client(s) Prepare draft report with a range of recommendations and a plan of action and review with the community local, kabupaten, BRR, and other appropriate officials Prepare final report with recommendations Anticipated Output(s) Plan of Action to support micro-finance structures to resestablish small and medium business opportunities in Balohan Time Frame One months Budget US $ 10,000 Comments and Consultant team should include two national experts (SME, community Suggestions development), preferably with prior experience in NAS. SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya C.2 TOR 29 – Community Based Tambak Rehabilitation Study Name of Project Community Based Tambak Rehabilitation Purpose(s) The intent is to prepare a community based proposal and a brief feasibility of developing tambaks in select parts of the kecamatan, including physical, human resource and financial aspects in conjunction with the community Rationale and Tambak cultivation is common in many parts of Aceh. Commonly tambak has General Description been established in areas of previous mangrove, where necessary exchange of fresh and salt water could occur. Because of the proximity of tambak to the ocean, facilities in some areas have been heavily damaged during the tsunami. This may present san opportunity for the development of such facilities in the kecamatan. However, before a commitment to tambak rehabilitation is made, a brief examination of a range of issues should be undertaken with the community. The establishment of tambak should adopt a silvo-fisheries model, integrating a buffer zone of mangrove species to mimic the traditional tambak ecosystems Suggested List of The Scope of Work for development of the proposal should include but is not Tasks/Activities limited to the following: Typical tambak profile -- location, condition, commodity grown, approximate yield, market, approximate net income; i.e. the ‘basics’ for tambak development Soil profile – geo-physical landforms, soil types and specifications, and ecology Tenure -- tambak ownership and land ownership factors Potential number of beneficiaries -- direct (owners, workers) and indirect (merchants, households) Methods of cultivation (traditional and intensive) and required inputs Environmental impact of structure and inputs; government regulations Financial assistance options for tambak rehabilitation Preparation budget for development, including construction, inputs, operation, marketing, and management Prepare a draft report with findings and recommendations Review with key officials and community Finalise report Anticipated Output(s) A community based proposal for tambak development Time Frame 2 months Budget US $ 20,000 Comments and Consultant team should consist of one internationally recognized aquaculture Suggestions fisheries expert and two national experts (i.e. aquaculture/fisheries and community development) SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya C.3 ToR 60 – Pulau Sabang – Repair existing water main at Iboih Name of Project Repair existing water main at Iboih Purpose(s) To obtain better water flows in the pipeline Rationale and The fresh water supply to these locations is provided by PDAM using a 50mm dia General Description piped gravity fed supply from a Water Tower in Lhong Angen. This tower is approx one kilometre from Oboih village. The water supply is quite often intermittent and when in operation has a very low pressure delivery. The pipe section from the village to the tourist beach rises in section for about half the distance approx 15 meters in height and then has a declivity to the beach over a similar distance and height. Because of the low water pressure the existing public toilets in the beach resort are not able to operate due to the lack of maintenance and cleansing water. Suggested List of It is suggested there could be adverse siphonic pressures built up in the pipeline Tasks/Activities which is preventing the delivery system operating efficiently. A survey of the existing elevations and declines of the pipeline is required from the Water tower to the delivery points. Engineering calculations can then be made to ascertain the problem and the appropriate action taken. It could be a very simple solution such as to insert an air relief valve in the pipeline at the appropriate position. Anticipated Output(s) Better water flows Time Frame Immediate Budget USD 2.000 Comments and No action taken yet Suggestions SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya Appendix D Draft ToR – Coral Replanting Pilot Project Development of Community Proposal and Project Concept D.1 Background The Aceh Coral Conservation Group has been working in the iboih area for the past 15 years. It was one of the first conservation groups working in Sabang on coral reef and mangrove preservation. As a result of the tsunami extensive areas of coral reef were either damaged or destroyed between the main village beach of Iboih and the island just off the coast (Pulau Rubiah). This NGO is now seeking funding to restore up 0.5 hectares using a pilot approach to coral replanting. On the basis of the results form the pilot they will then seek additional assistance to increase the area of planting to all damaged areas. D.2 Scope of Work To work with the community to prepare a project concept note and proposal involving the following tasks: Delineation and selection of pilot area Develop evaluation parameters to measure progress of the pilot area(s) Construction of moorings and cables Re planting of Coral On- going measurement and evaluation Preparation and Submission of Report D.3 Estimated Project Cost 5000 m2 Rp 150000 Planting Preparation of moorings including labor and diving personnel Rp 10 million Total Cost of Planting Rp 11,500000 D.4 Estimated Cost For Community Proposal One Week Duration $2000 SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya Appendix E Draft TOR - Pollution Control & Catchment Management Pollution Control & Catchment Management of Aneuk Laot Lake ( Water Hyacinth and Weed Control) E.1 Objective To safeguard the lake as a water supply and conservation area and preserve the lake ecosystem from the activities arising from agriculture, intrusive settlement and associated development E.2 Background The scope of the study covers Aneuk Laot lake and it catchment area. The lake provides up to 60% of the water supply for the entire City of Sabang. This lake and its catchment area is considered to be a strategic area and needs increased conservation protection and rehabilitation in order to maintain water quality and reduce sources of pollution. The lake is also a potential natural tourism object which will increase in value from the ecological and economic perspective. 5 Present activity in the catchment area of the lake includes agricultural activities which lead to sedimentation and run-off of agricultural chemicals. There are also illegal housing and related activities which cause further pollution of the water body. The growth of water hyacinth is increasing on the surface of the lake as the organic load entering the lake increases. There may also be sources of inorganic pollution from agricultural pesticides Agricultural activities dominate over others in the surrounding areas of the lakes, and the community increasingly settles nearby so that there is a possibility of intense interaction between the lakes and the community and their agricultural activities. Scope of Work Prepare and agree on a baseline monitoring program and identification of current sources of pollution and areas of weed infestation Review the current pollution control regulations Review the current land use control regulation Review the enforcement regulation Review current institutional arrangements between PDAM Sabang and BAPEDALDA To identify and monitor the rate of pollution in the lake requires survey/investigation of catchment area activities To map activities at an agreed scale SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya Prepare and gain agreement on a community based program to support the technical activities and action plan to reduce and/or pollution and illegal land use activities. Agree on a financial/budgetary mechanism to ensure on-going implementation Revise and strengthen pollution, catchment management and enforcement regulations E.3 Indicative Budget A Team of one International and two local consultants for 2-3 months with follow up after six months and one year of Implementation. $50000 to $70000. SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya Appendix F Draft TOR - Preparation of a Water and Sanitation Action Plan Kecamatan Sukakarya Keluran Iboih F.1 Background The tourist industry in Gapang and Iboih is the main destination for most foreign tourists who presently visit Sabang. The tourists coming from outside the country are mainly attracted to the area specifically for diving and will visit for extended periods. The other type of foreign tourist is the individual or family who are presently working on assignments for international and local aid organisations or government entities. Gapang tends to have the higher end of the market with up to 50 % of the units with AC and spacious bungalows. Iboih is more suited to the backpacker market The other main group is the domestic tourist who either comes form Banda Aceh or other parts of the NAD province. There is also a significant number of local tourists from Java who are employees of aid and government agencies who are presently living in Banda Aceh.All local tourism tends to be only one or two days. All of these groups except the international diving group tends to frequent the resorts over the weekend. In general terms these areas are reasonably full at the weekends but generally have very low occupancies during the week. Total visitors to the island has been estimated by the Dinas Parawisata at 72000 annually with less than 3000 foreign visitors. However there is no consistent recording of visitation over time. Using data collected in the field the total visitation to the Gapang Iboh area was estimated to be of the order of 20000 to 30000 visitors per year of which approximately 50% are made up of foreign visitors. The majority of foreign visitors are those living and working in Banda Aceh. The total value of tourism in this vicinity is of the order of $US1.6 million. Iboih is the lower standard bungalow area of the two resorts and is located approximately three kilometres further west towards Kilometre O from Gapang. The bungalow area adjoins the village of Iboih and can only be reached on foot by a pathway which extends for approximately 600 metres along the hillside overlooking the beach.The total number of units in the Iboh area is approximately 100 bungalows of which only 50 units are still of reasonable standard. The other bungalows have suffered from deterioration due to lack of maintenance and /or tsunami damage. The standard of water supply and sanitation in this area is also deteriorating with low water supply pressure and poor quality provision of toilet facilities. All bungalows are dependent on public facilities provided by the City of Sabang with up to 20 bungalows being serviced by one Asian style toilet facility. SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya Many of the individual facilities are no longer operational. This terms of reference (TOR) is for the preparation of a water and sanitation action plan for the vicinity of Iboih. F.2 Objectives 1) To prepare a water supply and sanitation strategy for the development of sustainable tourism in Kelurahan Iboih in consultation with relevant community, City of Sabang and other stakeholders. 2) To prepare an action plan for water and sanitation which would support the development of sustainable tourism in the Iboih Gapang resort areas F.3 Scope of Work Prepare a base map at suitable scale using Ikonos Imagery In consultation with Kota Sabang form a project POKJA to coordinate study activities with relevant city officials.. Agree on study assumptions concerning the future growth and composition of tourism in the Iboih Gapang study area Agree on standards of service provision for water supply and sanitation Carry out an inventory of water supply and resources available to the study area household and utility level and determine ability and willingness to pay for service Carry out a household survey of existing sanitation and needs and determine willingness and ability to pay Prepare a water supply and sanitation strategy for sustainable tourism and gain agreement from relevant stakeholders Prepare planning and engineering options for satisfying agreed service standards Evaluate water supply and sanitation options Prepare action plan with engineering, institutional, operation, maintenance and funding recommendations. F.4 Budget One international and two local consultants with Sanitation Engineering Planning Qualifications. 2-3 months $50000. SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya Appendix G Draft Tor - Agricultural Rehabilitation through Capacity Building Agricultural Rehabilitation through Capacity Building and Training in the City of Sabang G.1 Introduction For “building back better” a long term vision on regional physical planning should be emphasized. A natural resource based strategy is necessary for the West coast of NAD including the islands Sabang, Aceh, Bireuh and Nasi. KAP analysis is dealing with mainly short term immediate actions to be taken on infrastructure. The livelihood and environmental sections are dealing with medium to longer term issues which in most cases will require further preparation and this draft TOR outline the scope of the work on the island of Sbang G.2 Background Apart from fisheries and public services, agriculture is a major primary occupation of the population in Sabang. The fishing industry is the main short term issue to be addressed for livelihood development , Upgrading of the quality of tourism is one area which will be addressed in the short term as part of the KAP for Kecamatan Sukajaya. Agriculture and farming are the main medium to long term issues. For the island of Sabang sectoral approaches should only be applied at the lower levels of physical planning. Mid-long term and long term planning require an integrated approach of the above mentioned sectors. In islands like Sabang, fisheries, agriculture and tourism are closely interlinked and shouldn’t be developed separately, but integrated. The central link here is the building back better principle and environmentally sustainable. The development of Sabang in the near future will be a dynamic process. When tourism starts growing, a string of events will be set in motion and economic growth is enhanced, the now leading sectors will eventually be lead by the tourist industry and also, it makes sense for farming to follow and focus on supporting the demands of tourism. G.3 Capacity building: The objective of the capacity building will be to provide the relevant local agricultural stakeholders with potential economic development opportunities within the complementary sectors of fisheries- agriculture-tourism Agricultural developments have been sub optimal due to the Aceh conflict. The present situation in agriculture and forestry is hampered by organisational structures and responsibilities which are not clearly defined, the level of efficiency for an effective support of stakeholders (fishermen and / or farmers) is low. However both coconut and SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya kebun farming suffer from under-productivity. One of the main factors is the lack of “best practice” sustainable farming methods. Problems in the field keep lingering for long periods and are not sufficiently dealt with and consequently not solved: These include roaming wild pigs, water availability in dryer regions, land ownership (planned as water reservoir), provision of basic agricultural hardware (tools, food crops, new resistant seeds, fertiliser, the use of pesticides), etc. The present position of Sabang importing rice and not being self-supporting, will be looked at in more detail. The possibilities for salak production at larger scale will also be addressed. To guarantee a more sustainable position of smallholders, there is the need for micro finance and soft loans to set up small business and processing facilities to improve their financial position. Input at all levels will be revised and upgraded: – basic maps and mapping skills and tools, techniques – basic laboratory capacity for the first analysis without being dependent on far away institutes – basic soil data is not available and not being inventoried and stored – know how of soils, land use and land capabilities is not available – support for farmers and small stakeholders based on well documented knowledge and expertise (learning lessons principle) With the upcoming demands for tourism and economic revival in Sabang, it is considered that an upgrade of the capacity and quality of agricultural advice and extension services is needed. Training at various levels and various sectors in soil and land management skills is needed. The agricultural sector should be an integral part of the strategic planning in land management and part of the design of Sabang’s future using the principle of “build back better”. The assistance and inputs provided by the BRR or NGOs should be complemented by training in capacity building in order to increase agricultural output and sustainability. ETESP SP/EM recommends that a study be conducted in detail for several aspects of an agricultural training program before it is undertaken. This study could be completed as part of Phase II by ETESP SP/EM or conducted by an independent consultant. The Scope of Work should include but is not limited to the following: G.4 Scope of Work 3) Conduct survey and analysis to determine: Needs within both kecamatans Benefits of land consolidation The structure of agriculture and forestry SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya Strengths and weaknesses of the agricultural and forestry institutions Sensitive areas worthy of re-greening or redevelopment Broad scale agricultural and forestry issues which require a programmatic approach Programming factors Beneficiaries – Farm groups – Individuals – Extension workers Location Group size Training level required Materials required 4) Training assessment to determine type and level of training(s) Direct to beneficiaries – Integrated management – Level of participation Training of trainers Dinas / Agric extension service involvement 5) Prepare training packages Initial materials Follow-up trainings 6) Determine cost of training 7) Determine institutional mechanism for funding program Dinas Kecamatan BRR NGO Donor 8) Determine agency responsible for implementing trainings Dinas Kecamatan BRR NGO Cost of study if prepared by independent consultant: US$ 20,000 SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ Kecamatan Action Plan - Sukakarya Appendix H Maps Maps are inserted at back of report Map SK Bas/1 Baseline Map SK EnC/2 Environmental Conditions Map SK Inf/3 Infrastructure Rehabilitation Map SK Liv/4 Livelihood Rehabilitation Map SK EnM/5 Environmental Management SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ
"Project Evaluation Proposal Tamplate"