[Forest stewardship plans help integrate multiple resources in land management; including timber, soils, water, wetlands, fish & wildlife, threatened & endangered species & cultural & historical resources of significance, forest health & fire hazard reduction, aesthetics, recreation & special forest products &. Plans describe current known natural resources & outline a 10 yr plan to help achieve goals while maintaining & enhancing resources.] 1) COVER PAGE OF FOREST STEWARDSHIP PLAN A. LANDOWNER NAMES, MAIL & E-MAIL ADDRESSES & PHONE #’s: Dick & Jane Smith, 44 Forestry Road, White Salmon, WA 98672 Hp. 509-395-2111, Wk ph.541-361-4044, cell ph 541-980-1111 Dick&Janesemail@example.com B. PROPERTY DESCRIT/PTION: 30 acres more/less in the W1/2 SW1/4 NW1/4 & the SE1/4, SW1/4 NW1/4 of Sec. 9, T 3 N, R 12 E WM. Mailbox & road access are 8.5 miles up the Snowden Rd, NE of White Salmon. Drive up driveway ¼ mile to main Y in road & go L for another ¼ mi. to residence. [To get free maps go to: http://www.klickitatcounty.org/Road/ContentROne.asp?fContentIdSelected=455695186&fCategoryIdSelecte d=%2D342308583&fX=X & http://www.topozone.com/ Clip this & paste it into Internet Explorer’s address line in place of what’s there & hit ‘Go’. Then on the top of the Internet Explorer Menu bar open ‘Tools’ & make sure ‘Pop-up Blocker’ is turned off. Then double-click on the ‘Mapping Program’ & hit ‘OK& OK’ & patiently wait till a general map comes up. On the top left are some icon options. If you know your parcel #, use the Blue binoculars & ‘Find’. A parcels bar will show on your page. Double click the extreme left side number in the ‘Zoom To’ column. You’ll see your parcel highlighted. If you want to zoom in or out double click the + or – magnifying glass on the upper left icons & then place your mouse on the map where you want to enlarge or shrink. On the right hand side are ‘Layers’ you can check in a box if you want to view them on your map. Add ‘Parcels & or Parcel- numbers’ & or ‘Topo Map’ Later add ‘2006 Photo & Communities’ as underlay’s. Then if you’ve got your Pop- up’s turned on you can ‘Refresh’ your map to show checked box changes. Then you can click the grey ‘Printer’ icon. Eventually you’ll see what options for a page layout you can print out. I prefer 8.5 x 11 as ‘ Landscape’ gets the max amount of map on a page. I change my pg setup under ‘File’ to’ landscape’ with .7” margins to hold the map better too. If you have a color printer it’ll print in color. If you want better quality use photo paper. If you take too long you’ll get timed out as many others may need to access the site. If you just want to look up a legal description by section township & range use the Red binoculars. When making your maps consider making at least 4 copies of each map showing your parcel, topo & photo. Making a copy at a Zoomed out view makes a better vicinity map to helps find your land. You should also download & attach a free topographic base map from the following DNR forest practices website. http://www3.wadnr.gov/dnrapp5/website/fpars/viewer.htm You need this because it shows the identified water drainage types, which can affect your management.. Hand draw your property perimeters on it. Also check out www.dnr.wa.gov/ Drop down to "featured sites" mid pg. & click on "Forest Health" Also see info on DNR's Webster Forest Nursery & the latest info. about ordering Photo & Map products.] C. PLAN PREPARER INFORMATION: This was written by myself Dick Smith, assisted by Dept. of Natural Resources Service Forester Jesse Calkins. D. DATE PLAN WAS PREPARED: 12/31/2008 ----------Page break---------- 2) TABLE OF CONTENTS (optional) ----------Page break---------- 3) DESCRIPTION OF LANDOWNERS OBJECTIVE(S) A. Short Term: pre-commercially thin overcrowded trees; reduce fire ladder fuels; & inter-plant past logged areas B. Long Term: Develop & maintain a fire, insect & disease resistant forest. Provide habitat for birds & other wildlife. Maintain an esthetically pleasing appearance. Make a profit from the commercial sale of timber & other forest products. Our highest priority is fire hazard reduction or we may lose our trees & desirable wildlife habitat! 4) GENERAL PROPERTY DESCRIPTION The 30 acre forest is located about 3.5 miles north on the Zee Rd.(paved), about 7 miles NE of White Salmon, WA. Wee Rd. (a gravel road), on the south side of Z Rd, winds through the 30 acres. The land adjoins forests, hay fields & scattered homes in an area zoned 5 acre minimums. We don‟t intend to sub-divide our land in the near future. The property is on Fox Hill & was the old Smit homestead. The land includes a 1 acre home site. The topography generally rises (no more than 55% slopes) with ridges, benches & hollows. Four distinct seasons exist due to its location east of the Cascades. Average elevation is 1800‟ & annual precipitation is from 38 to 48”. 5) RESOURCE DESCRIPTIONS/RECOMMENDATIONS A. FOREST HEALTH: GENERAL RESOURCE INVENTORY/CONDITION DESCRIPTION Animal & weather damage have caused many tree injuries. Some root rot in our woods. Mistletoe of various species is widespread. Bark/fir engraver beetle attacks are seen in the grand fir. Pine beetles are killing some ponderosa pine. Most areas are overcrowded & heavy fire ladders fuels exist. Brushy areas in a once logged over area needs competition control & interplanting. GENERAL RESOURCE PROTECTION MEASURES HIGH PRIORITY: Keep any fires that do get started on the ground, by removing most ladder fuels like brush & low branches to increase tree & building survival. Reduce insect & destructive fungal attacks. Protect seedlings from wildlife. RESOURCE MANAGEMENT/ENHANCEMENT RECOMMENDATIONS Create & maintain additional fuel breaks like openings, trails & roads with turnouts & turnarounds. Try to create & maintain a 30 ft. “lean, green & clean” zone around all buildings. Keep highly flammable trees & shrubs away, so needles & leaves won‟t accumulate on buildings & so flaming trees wouldn‟t radiate excessive heat to structures. Keep any trees in this zone pruned of dead branches or 1/2 to 2/3 of their height & spaced 10-20t.+ apart from the outside drip line to another. Work toward excluding the more flammable, pitch containing conifers away from buildings. Keep firewood away from buildings. Maintain a watered green lawn/ unburnable surface as much possible in this 30 ft. zone around buildings. In the next 150 ft. beyond the 1st zone & also 105 ft. in from the outer edge of your forested land perimeter reduce crown fire spread by thinning trees out to 10-20 ft. between outer drip lines. Reduce ladder fuels by also pruning trees dead branches off or up to 1/2 to 2/3 of tree heights; cut out most brush & excess seedlings & keep most herbaceous plants low. Pile or chip slash & debris (burn piles Nov.- mid March, when the area‟s wet by rain or snow). Keep fires out of punky old partly underground old logs & stumps. [Fires can creep underground in wood with no apparent sign for months.] Keep fire trails & roads open with good turn-arounds or passing spots. Try to develop extra water storage for fire fighting purposes. Reduce insect & root damage by cutting live trees or branches mid Aug- Jan 1, when the sap‟s down. [A tree’s less vulnerable to insect damage then.] If we have to cut/pile outside that window (like to put a power line in) we will paint the cuts where live stumps or branches were. Immediately cut slash up for firewood/chip/pile under black plastic to deter bugs. Favor/plant more fire & insect resistant species. Seek species diversity. [Most pests mainly attack one species.] Install nest boxes for insect-eaters. Treating root disease by pulling /pushing over stumps to expose them to the sun, planting resistant species of trees & sprinkle Boraxo on the outside cambium layer around a freshly cut infected stumps. Puff puffball mushrooms on seedling roots when planting to help fight harmful fungi. Consider using yellow mesh Vexar tubes, lightweight geo-textile bud caps, fencing & or repellant to protect trees. II: TIMBER & WOOD PRODUCTS: GENERAL RESOURCE INVENTORY/CONDITION DESCRIPTION Conifers are about 85% Douglas-fir, 10 % white fir & 5% ponderosa pine. Dominant Doug fir & white fir average about 20” at diameter breast height, are 55 years old & have two 32‟ saw logs in each to a 6” top inside diameter. The understory is brush with a few younger suppressed white fir, Doug fir & red cedar. Dominant pine average about 18‟ in diameter & are about 45 years old & have three 16‟ logs in most of them. The pine are scattered in more open or brushy areas of vine maple, hazelnut & occasional oak clumps. Commercial hardwoods (firewood) include Oregon oak & a few big leaf maples, average about 2 scattered per acre. Most hardwoods are suppressed & dying from over shading conifers. An 11 year-old ponderosa pine plantation covers a 5 acre strip along the south edge of our land. It‟s overstocked with 1742 trees/acre at a spacing averaging about 5‟x5‟. [Consider hiring a timber cruiser or forester to give you more detailed stand inventory data.] GENERAL RESOURCE PROTECTION MEASURES Take extra care from Mar 1>mid August to minimize damage from use of heavy wheeled equipment in stands when high sap flow is high pressure in a trees trunks & roots. Patch cut or thin (2-4 acre spots) in late summer thru winter, creating wider tree spacing & diversity & to let more light in & reduce potential crown fire hazard. Control excess brush & interplant Doug fir, ponderosa pine or even some western white pine, incense cedar & Sequoia gigantea. RESOURCE MANAGEMENT/ENHANCEMENT RECOMMENDATIONS Keep stands thinned 5-20‟ between outside drip lines to reduce insect attack, crown fire spread risk & to increase the vigor & growth & to enhance understory plant nutrition. Leave a few denser conditions for animal resting or calving or around owl, hawk or squirrel nest trees [Your adjacent neighbors may already have plenty!]. If logging is considered, obtain & carefully review a Forest Practice cutting permit, the Forest Practices Illustrated & Planting Forest Seedlings booklets obtainable from DNR's SE Region office 509-925-8510. [Or go to www.dnr.wa.gov /dnr/htdocs/forestpractices/ Click on the FPARS icon, then Forms & Maps. Dept. of Natural Resources (DNR) Forest Practice forester, Jon Paul Anderson JONPAUL.ANDERSON@dnr.wa.gov cell (541) 980-1840, or DNR’s SE Region Forest Practice office staff at (509) 925-8510, can help understand a Forest Practice application.] III: SOILS: GENERAL RESOURCE INVENTORY/CONDITION DESCRIPTION [Call Natural Resources Conservation Service office in Goldendale, WA 509-773-5822/5833 or White Salmon Underwood conservation district 493-1036, for help getting soils info. on your land. Call or go your Assessor’s website for your property description if you can’t find it. Be able to show NRCS what part of the Section Township & Range your land’s in & its parcel #. You can go to: http://websoilsurvey.nrcs.usda.gov/ or http://websoilsurvey.nrcs.usda.gov/app/ or to download GIS-ready data:http://soildatamart.nrcs.usda.gov/ ] The Soil Series is predominantly XYZ Soil type, well drained, averaging 60" deep, supporting ponderosa pine, grand fir, Douglas-fir, broadleaf & vine maple. The Doug-fir 50 yr. Site Index (SI) is 110 at 50 years & for ponderosa pine, SI is 100. Soil Loss tolerance is 5. [NOTE: These soil values may required for some cost share applications.] Soil slopes range from 2 to 35% [means surface varies from 2-35 ft of rise per every 100 ft. of flat distance run]. The landform is basalt plateaus, benches, hillsides with steep side slopes & draws. Water permeability is moderate to moderately slow. Moist soil compaction potential is high. Moist & dry soil displacement potential is low. Erosion potential is low-medium. Soil parent material is loess & volcanic ash. The organic layer thickness is 1-2". Typical top soil is red brown (when dry). Underlying soil layers average brown over a brown loam. Soil is 5-25% hard basalt pebbles & cobbles, 15-35% soft fragments. Prescribed burning damage potential is low. This soil is often low in nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus & sulfur, boron & selenium. Rockiness isn't a timber harvest limitation here. Natural & disturbed slopes are considered stable. Grass, brush & competing hardwoods/conifers can be severe & may require control. GENERAL RESOURCE PROTECTION MEASURES Restrict equipment use to designated skid trails, use chains or even discontinue use during high soil moisture to lessen compaction & erosion potential in the wet season, especially from Nov 1-June 1. [Frozen ground is good!] RESOURCE MANAGEMENT/ENHANCEMENT RECOMMENDATIONS Use pre-designated skid trails that don‟t cover more than 10% of the harvests areas. Fall trees to lead to skid trails. Skid trail disturbance should be limited to about 15 ft. in wide Rub trees along a skid trail should be left standing till all timber tributary to the trail is removed. Water-bar skid trails right after logging. Grade roads with a slight out slope or a crown. Rock roads or build in effective dips, water-bars & install culverts of suitable size (minimums are 18”). Cross wet areas at right angles or avoid altogether. Consider falling trees away from these areas & pulling line to skid them out to avoid wet soil disturbance. Avoid wet area trails or landings. Pile, chip or winter burn excess slash not wanted for wildlife cover. [95% of tree nutrients are in the needles, leaves & small twigs.] IV. WATER QUALITY, RIPARIAN & WETLAND AREAS: GENERAL RESOURCE INVENTORY/CONDITION DESCRIPTION [Call DNR SE Region Forest Practices 509-925-8510, for a topographic base map showing drainage types or go to www.dnr.wa.gov/dnr/htdocs/forestpractices/ Click on the FPARS icon, then Forms & Maps, then Mapping website to print an activity map. Attach the map to your plan with your land & rds drawn in. Note the typed waters, springs or Class A, B or forested wetlands. Consider 4-5 copies of each map, enough for you,& others like DNR.] We have one Np drainage that divides the property east & west [Np means Non fish but it has a perennial spring on it. Np’s require a 50’ buffer, if you log it.] GENERAL RESOURCE PROTECTION MEASURES Since downstream fish downstream may be impacted & we plan to use a road that crosses the drainage we‟ll take measures needed to lessen sediment movement. [Stream crossings, culvert installations or upgrades of existing culverts to meet 100 yr. Flood events, often require a Hydraulic permit. Check with Dept. of Fish & Wildlife Bill Weiler 365-0075 or DNR forester Jon Paul Anderson (541) 980-1840 to see what’s needed.] All roads will be upgraded to meet Forest Practice law as new logging occurs or if a potential contributor of sediments from an area previously logged affects a drainage [Minimum culvert sizes required are 15” or more, 18”if it’s a Np drainage.] RESOURCE MANAGEMENT/ENHANCEMENT RECOMMENDATIONS We cross one Np stream with a road that may potentially cause sediments to enter the drainage & move down. To minimize sediment movement toward this drainage, approaches to culverts will be rocked with cleaner type rock for 100 ft. Frequent diversions or rolling drain dips will be put in. We‟ll regularly maintain road surface gravel & grade to keep a crowned or out sloped profile. We‟ll consider planting or leaving extra dogwood & vine maple for air dust filtration along roads. Grass or [like Festica ovina] & legumes like clover or alfalfa will be seeded on exposed road fills, cut banks & landings. We‟ll do fuel & hydraulic repairs & use herbicides carefully to avoid spills & damage. [If trees are left for a Forest Practice logging permit in a Riparian or Wetland Mgt. Zone, you may be eligible for Forest Riparian Easement Program re-imbursement. Contact Small Landowner Office forester firstname.lastname@example.org (509) 925-0969 for help. If you need a larger culvert to meet fish passage requirements you may be able to get cost share $$ also under FFFPP (Family Forest Fish Passage Program)!] V: FISH & WILDLIFE HABITAT: GENERAL RESOURCE INVENTORY/CONDITION DESCRIPTION No fish are in the Np draw on our land. Since they occur downstream we minimize sediment movement (see water section above). Nuthatch, chickadee, wren, swallows, blue bird, raven, red tail & Cooper hawk, Sawhet & Pygmy owl, Alligator & Blue-belly lizard, blue tailed skink, rubber boa, bats, garter snake, rattlesnake, toad, frogs, rabbit & black tail deer, flying & Douglas squirrel & coyote often occur. We see occasional raccoon, bear, bobcat & cougar. GENERAL RESOURCE PROTECTION MEASURES Create habitat variety of habitat structure for resting, breeding & nesting. Protect nest trees. [See variable density thinning under "B. Timber & Wood Products." You might look at this website. www.woodlandfishandwildlife.org ] RESOURCE MANAGEMENT/ENHANCEMENT RECOMMENDATIONS Enhance habitat diversity by selective brush control (favor currents, elderberry, dogwood); vary stand structure by thinning, supplemental planting/seeding preferred foods. Save or create snags & down logs especially near water, rock outcrops & wildlife corridors when consistent with fire mgt. Install nest boxes/roost poles to supplement/speed snags use. Control animal damage on plantings by repellants & mechanical barriers. Limit hunting. Contact DNR‟s Service Wildlife Biologist, Jim Bottorf (360) 902-2599/791-5560 email@example.com for a site visit. VI. THREATENED & ENDANGERED SPECIES & CULTURAL RESOURCES: GENERAL RESOURCE INVENTORY/CONDITION DESCRIPTION ["Threatened or Endangered (T&E) species of wildlife in our area listed by the U.S. Secretary of the Interior or Commerce, & or the Washington Fish & Wildlife commission & Cultural & Historical resources of significance (archaeological sites, artifacts, traditional religious, ceremonial & social uses & activities of affected Indian tribes.) may be adversely affected by management like harvesting, road construction or use, pesticides or site prep. Timing may be critical.] There are no T& E species of concern & no known cultural resources on our land according to the Washington Dept. of Fish & Wildlife (WDFW) biologist Bill Weiler 509-365-0075/cell 969-6323 firstname.lastname@example.org; or Yakama Indian Nation (YIN) archeologist David Powell 509-865-5121/cell 945-4925 email@example.com (Timber Fish & Wildlife POB 151, Toppinish, WA 98948); & Dept. of Natural Resources (DNR) Forest Practices 509-925-8510, 713 E. Bowers Rd., Ellensburg, WA 98926. I contacted them 12-15-08. See my attached e-mails/letter copies. [YIN archeologist David Powell must be asked if you have cultural or historical resources of significance on your land & what to do about it. If you plan to log, do major excavations like building road/clearing land, other than for a home or garden, David may need to look at your site. David will try to have as least impact as possible on folks who make a good faith effort to cooperate. I haven’t heard of any complaints about him! You may also call DNR’s SE Region 509-925-8510 & ask Brenda or Jeanne in Forest Practices to see if your land has known Threatened & Endangered species or archeological sites. Say you’re writing a Forest Mgt. plan for your land. Be prepared to give them a legal description in a Section Township & Range. Don’t expect them to say exactly where an owl is!] GENERAL RESOURCE PROTECTION MEASURES Be sensitive to change & be willing to help reasonably protect resources if they‟re brought to light. RESOURCE MANAGEMENT/ENHANCEMENT RECOMMENDATIONS If we apply for a Forest Practice logging permit it triggers a notification process to tell us if I we have a species of concern/known cultural or historical resource of significance. We‟d be told of any applicable conditions. VII. AESTHETICS & RECREATION: GENERAL RESOURCE INVENTORY/CONDITION DESCRIPTION Views around our house & from adjoining roads are mostly conifers with few plants of contrasting shapes & colors. GENERAL RESOURCE PROTECTION MEASURES Consider what others will have to see or hear in our land management activities. RESOURCE MANAGEMENT/ENHANCEMENT RECOMMENDATIONS Consider saving or varied species that survive well here & produce abundant flowers/edible fruit/seeds. Enhance views by pruning, planting dogwoods, Mt. Ash, vine maple & aspen to provide color/texture contrasts. Use irregular patch cuts along roads to prevent rectangular appearance of harvest units, get good green-up before harvesting adjoining areas. Post no trespassing to restrict hunters, campers & ATV users & associated trash. VIII: AGRO-FORESTRY/SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS: optional. GENERAL RESOURCE INVENTORY/CONDITION DESCRIPTION Some livestock forage exists but the area is unfenced. Many mushrooms have been observed. Some medicinal Oregon grape, elderberry & Usnea lichen exists. Some conifers may be pruned for making wreaths. RESOURCE MANAGEMENT/ENHANCEMENT RECOMMENDATIONS Explore fencing & leasing/running animals (like lamas) in areas of high grass or brush to reduce high fire hazards. IX. MANAGEMENT TIME TABLE [This is a sample suggested timetable plan for the next 10 yrs. It isn’t cast in stone! Consider reviewing & updating your time table every 5 yrs.] Year 1 Write Stewardship Mgt plan, assisted by DNR Service Forester/WSU Extension Forester/hire a forester to write one. [No cost share’s allowed to write your own plan. There may be cost share $$ to help hire a forester.] Contact the Natural Resource Conservation Service or Soil Conservation Center office in White Salmon (509-493-1936) or Goldendale (509-773-5822) to see if you‟re eligible for cost share work under EQUIP for the same or similar practices you‟re interested in working with the DNR on. [EQUIP has a much larger pool of $$ to draw from!] Take WSU forest stewardship course [Call Underwood Conservation District to see if one’s scheduled 493-1936.] Arrange site visit with Service/Forest Practice foresters/Small Landowner Office foresters, Fire Dept., Conservation Dist., & wildlife biologists, to get mgt. ideas. Have property lines surveyed & boundaries well painted & flagged Inventory conifer, hardwood, shrubs, flowers, animals, birds & reptile; culverts & other improvements [When in bloom/fruit is a good time to tag/label valuable wildlife shrubs/trees… elderberry, dogwood, red flowering current] ID & inventory fungi [rare, edible, harmful, medicinal] Collect & store puffballs for puffing on new seedling roots! Locate worst mistletoe infected trees/disease/ insect pockets/ noxious weeds. Call Co. Weed Control for ID or help. Research herbicides use for noxious weeds/grass/brush/poison oak [You use least amount on fresh cuts in early fall.] Start compiling & adding to a forestry-wildife-mangement library of articles & books/resources & websites. Develop a simple record system to track management expense, labor hours & taxes. Consider Elwood's 4-D's [Date, Dollars, Details & Direction, attach a note to something like check # 4031] Post no trespassing signs every 50 ft. along property edge to reduce fire risk, trash deposits & needless road ruts. Create wildfire defensible space around buildings. [Do most work mid Aug>mid Feb to lessen insect/rot damage.] Chip/pile & cover slash piles with kraft paper or black poly & burn in winter, get DNR permit. [Burn slash & branches in Nov-Mar. to lessen potential damage & fire holdover escapes.] ID good sites near water, trails & open areas for perches/bird/bat box placement, cave starts, excavated cavities & nest platforms & to place wildlife watering devices/saltlicks. [Sheltered spots on trunks are good for boxes.] Hire reputable forester to do a 10-25% sample cruise of your timber. Survey types & quantities per acre of young conifers & other vegetation [1/50th acre = 16.7’ radius plot] Locate & mark some injured/poorly formed conifers as WRT‟s [Wildlife Reserve Tree snags] & GRT‟s [Green Recruitment Tree, future snags] & down logs to leave for wildlife habitat. Order seedlings for 2 acres at 250 tpa, 40% Doug-fir & 60% ponderosa pine, to replant hole NW of Hwy 141. Make plan for seedling transport to protect seedlings from jarring, drying & excess heat [Read planting advice!] Puff dry puffballs on tree roots to fight bad funguses, enhance water & nutrient uptake Buy pole saw & new anti-compression chain saw [safer & easier starting!] Buy a pocket extinguisher for saw & one for PU [Consider using large can of shaving cream & box of baking soda.] Check road ditches, waterbars, rolling dips, culverts for blockage/ needed maintenance. [Prevent washouts that can cause erosion/costly repair. Ruts can quickly get worse. Steep roads need closer drains. Re-direct water so it’ll run over ground filtering vegetation before entering channels. If planning to log, prepare a simple Road Maintenance & Abandonment Plan to show how you’ll keep roads from eroding. Put a load of rock on bad spots!] Year 2 Cut brush in fire hazard reduction strip, treat stumps in fall/spring (map area A) Mark save trees [blue flagging & paint spot butts; maintain good species mix & size for disease/insect resistance] Mark an average of 2 dead/dying 10” dbh+ x 10‟ high+ & 2 green defective snags 10” dbh + x 30‟ high+ per acre Pre-commercially thin trees average of 10‟-20‟ from drip line tips [Better than trunk to truck spacing] Prune trees 18‟+, or ½>2/3 tree height in general to reduce fire, disease, insects, weather damage risks to improve quality, after thinning to 10-20‟crown spacing. [Consider pruning higher if within 100’ of buildings for fire; & in mid Aug>mid Feb to lessen drawing in insects]. Identify good locations along water, trails & open areas for perch/bird/bat boxes. Look for sheltered spots on trunks. Get bat droppings to mix with water & smear on bat houses to attract bats Get specifications & prices from mills/ hire forester/logger to find best market [Self loading log truck drivers like David Woodruff, 395-2239, often know where the best markets are at the time.] Call self-loading log truck driver to scheduled log haul. [Not many self-loaders in our area!] Get Forest Practice application to log [http://www.dnr.wa.gov/BusinessPermits/ForestPractices/Pages/Home.aspx] Get fallers, skidder, self-loading truck scheduled for when you want them Review Forest Practices rules & conditions & start commercially thinning when you‟ve been approved Pile slash (or chip) in areas where you could safely burn, cover with plastic to cook beetles & keep dry. Contact DNR for burn permit & tell local Fire Dept. Burn piles only after heavy rain or some snow. Make sure roads are ready for winter, grade & rock. Clean out catch basins or drain dips. Update expense & other work/improvement records Continue putting up 2-3 birdboxes/acre to help insect control. [Suggest annual inspection, clean out & repair.] Estimate & order trees to fill major forest holes. [ I don’t fill every hole. Variety in texture & composition is often more desirable to support greater diversity, numbers & health of varied plants & wildlife. Less fire hazard too!] Interplant Doug-fir, ponderosa pine; larch [above 2500’ or give extra H20]. Try limited plantings of white pine/ Sequoia gigantea/ Incense cedar/maple/dogwood/elderberry. [Give extra shade/plant on NE>SE of stumps/logs.] Control competing/undesirable vegetation mechanically/by brush mower/weed eater/controlled grazing/herbicide. Continue to survey for noxious weeds & control as necessary [like poison oak!] Research potential special forest products that may be marketed [pitch, medicinal Oregon grape or Usnea lichen.] Fix priority problems on road drainage with drainage dips & good rock. Contact neighbors & learn their mgt. goals & encourage fire prevention. Join/support local volunteer fire dept. Year 3 Request a free Stewardship Sign from your DNR forester to show you‟re trying to be a good keeper of your land Continue to thin & prune trees & control undesirable species of brush. Watch seedlings for porcupine/deer damage. Prepare to protect trees with mechanical barriers, repellents/ hunting. Build & set out more bird boxes to reduce destructive forest insect populations. Check waterbars, rolling dips & culverts & plan any necessary maintenance. Put another load of rock on! Re-survey for noxious weeds & control as necessary [especially poison oak!] ID fungal root disease pockets in your stands, like Armillaria or laminated root rots or beneficial ones Plant large holes in stand with Doug-fir/ limited plantings of white pine/Sequoia/Incense cedar/maples/dogwood/Mt. ash/elderberry. [Give extra shade/plant on NE>SE of stumps/logs.] Continue making & installing small bird boxes, 2/ac. (map area A) Call Service forester to inspect, Hazard reduction work, have your records of work done & your costs Pile slash in areas where can safely burn [cover with plastic to cook beetles & keep dry or chip slash.] Put in 18”+ culverts where required for logging Make sure roads are ready for winter, grade & rock Contact DNR for burn permit & tell local Fire Dept. Burn piles after heavy rain or 1st snow. Update expense records Order trees for next year to fill in additional holes Maintain records Year 4 Continue to thin & prune trees & control undesirable species of brush. Check regeneration for weeds, shading & animal damage; protect as necessary. Clear old fire trails. Use these as fire breaks. Especially prune up trees on both sides to remove ladder fuels Continue to re-survey for noxious weeds & control as necessary. Check waterbars, rolling dips & culverts & plan any necessary maintenance. Put another load of rock on! Get reputable forester or logger, set goals & prepare commercial thinning from below of trees in pole size unit; remove all grand fir & space dominant & co-dominant Douglas-fir to about Diameter +8=feet between stems or space from crown tips 10-20‟. [Usually try to mark your leave trees with something like blue/pink ribbon.] Order & seed/plant wildlife forage plants & or wildflowers or legumes like clover or vetch. Plant large holes in stand with Doug-fir/ limited plantings of white pine/Sequoia/Incense cedar/maples/dogwood/Mt. Ash/elderberry. [Give extra shade/plant on NE>SE of stumps/logs.] Make & install more small bird boxes, 2/ac. (map area B) Clean out nest materials from birdboxes & spray WD40 or PAM to kill parasite eggs Actively remove Starlings from birdboxes Pull/treat scotch broom along old Snowden roadbed (map area G) Pull/spray knapweed & yellow star thistle (map area H) Plant trees in holes & install shade devices/use logs/stumps Remove interior barb wire fences (map areas A, B, C) Replace 2- side by side 12” corrugated metal pipes (cmps) with one 20” in diameter Develop plan with Underwood Conservation District for stream protection/enhancement, Apply for EQUIP funds to put in 36” corrugated metal pipe (cmp) on creek crossing Install raptor perches about 5-10‟ above fences or trees, use 1” dia. Grey PVC on T‟s (in map area F) Post no trespassing signs every 50 ft. along property edge Survey for disease & insects or excessive animal damage Make sure roads are ready for winter, grade & rock Clean out ditches, culverts & dig down catch basins at least 4” below the pipe mouth to collect sediment Maintain records Year 5 Continue to thin & prune trees & control undesirable brush species Check planting for weeds & animal damage & control as necessary. Commercially thin stand in fall on dry soils using designated skid trails, fall to lead. Chip & spread slash. Seed bare soil areas with grass-legume mix. Clean bird boxes in fall, monitor for starlings during year Check waterbars, rolling dips & culverts & plan any necessary maintenance. Put another load of rock on. Research other forest product market options-firewood, ferns, herbs, mushrooms, deformed trees Do survival & spacing inventory of all planted stock & seedlings Consider planting some Sequoia gigantea, Western white pine & Cedars Order & seed/plant wildlife forage & wildflowers Plant large holes in stand with Doug-fir/ limited plantings of white pine/Sequoia/Incense cedar/maples/dogwood/Mt. Ash/elderberry. [Give extra shade/plant on NE>SE of stumps/logs.] Establish 2 raptor nesting platforms (map area D) Make & install small bird in logged area, 2/ac. (map area C) & Make & install 1 bat box/5 ac.(area F) Clean bird boxes (map area B) Put out 4-40# semi-covered, Selenium supplemented salt blocks Keep pruning trees & thinning out undesirable brush Pull/treat scotch boom along old Snowden roadbed (map area G) & knapweed & yellow star thistle (area D) Plant trees in holes & install shade devices/use logs/stumps Remove interior barb wire fences (map areas C, D. E) Get Fish & Wildlife Dept. hydraulics permit, install 36” cmp in creek Remove saw muffler. Clean all soot deposits, especially from screen & exhaust ports to restore power & fire safety. Check vehicle exhausts & keep extinguisher, shovel, rake, Pulaski, adze, sickle hoe or McCloud fire tools available. Buy fire pump, tank or 55 gallon barrel & 300‟ of quick connect 1/4 turn hose & fittings, buy 2 gated Y‟s. Buy/make water tank for your pickup or ORV to load & carry or mount on trailer for fires & watering Make sure roads are ready for winter, grade & rock Maintain records Year 6 Continue to thin & prune trees & control undesirable species of brush. Continue removing fire ladders & excess ground fuels. Continue to survey for noxious weeds & control as necessary. Clean bird boxes in fall, monitor for starlings during year Check waterbars, rolling dips & culverts & plan any necessary maintenance. Put a load of rock on. Remove old barb wire fences Plant large holes in stand with Doug-fir/ limited plantings of white pine/Sequoia/Incense cedar/maples/dogwood/Mt. Ash/elderberry. [Give extra shade/plant on NE>SE of stumps/logs.] Establish 2 raptor nesting platforms (map area F) Make & install small bird boxes in logged area, 2/ac. (map area E) Make & install 1 bat box/5 ac.(map area F) Pull/treat scotch boom along old Snowden roadbed (map area D) Redo waterbarrs on old skid roads on hill (map area E) Start building hiking trail & fire trail (map area C) Girdle 2 wildlife trees to make dead snags & give more light Continue pruning interior trees & thinning out undesirable brush Survey for disease & insects or excessive animal damage Make sure roads are ready for winter, grade & rock Maintain records Year 7 Continue removing fire ladders & excess ground fuels. Survey for noxious weeds & control as necessary. Pre-commercially thin trees out so that there‟s 10-20 ft. between drip lines & prune conifers 16‟+ (mid Aug-Feb) to greatly reduce fire risks, disease & insects, weather damage & to improve wood production. Check waterbars, rolling dips & culverts & plan any necessary maintenance. Put another load of rock on. Control brush competition before further inter-planting or to release suppressed trees. Consider herbiciding cuts. Propagate/plant more elderberry, dogwood, Mtn. Ash & red-flowering current Make & install small bird in logged area, 2/ac. (Map area F) Clean bird boxes (Map area A, B, C, D) Relocate & tag all nest boxes with approx bearing & direction to them Make & install 1 bat box/5 ac.(map area G) Herbicide applications in fall just before colors turn/before spring conifer bud break Continue building hiking, orv/fire trail (map area B) Plan to make fire & wildlife ponds. Check with Conservation districts for guidance Do supplemental planting/interplanting ferns in damper sites, transplanted from other dry Continue pruning interior trees & thinning out undesirable brush Buy a drip torch & try a little controlled under burning to keep fuel loading down Consider fertilizing forest with potassium, sulfur, magnesium, Su-Po-Mag Consider blocking some roads in wet weather to protect from ruts & erosion caused by dirt bikes Make sure roads are ready for winter, grade & rock Clean out ditches, culverts & catch basins Maintain records Get on Underwood Conservation District's mailing list if you aren‟t already! Attend Krista Tie‟s Ethono botany class & consider other forestry, wildlife or riparian classes in the area Year 8 Continue to thin & prune trees & control undesirable species of brush. Locate contractor to cat scarify brush field with minimal soil disturbance Check regen unit for porcupine damage & control as necessary. Clean bird boxes in fall, monitor for starlings during year Check waterbars, rolling dips & culverts & plan any necessary maintenance. Put another load of rock on. Clean up dead branches that have fallen from storms, chip/pile Remove your saw muffler & remove as much soot as you can, especially from screen. Check woods vehicle exhaust & keep sharpened shovel, rake & Pulaski, adze, Sicklehoe or McCloud tools on them. Continue pruning interior trees & thinning out undesirable brush Continue building hiking, orv/fire trail (area C) Survey for disease & insects or excessive animal damage Pickup Sul-Po-Mag (Sulfur-Potassium-Magnesium) fertilizer from Wilbur-Ellis south of Hood River Apply 100#/acre of Sul-Po-mag to enhance disease, insect, drought, cold hardiness & wind stability For road/trail soft/wet spots put down geo-textile cloth/heavy perforated plastic/carpet (takes less rock!) [Apply crushed rock when drier. Iit doesn’t sink so easily & locks into place. Use smaller crushed rock on hills] Maintain records Year 9 Continue removing fire ladders & excess ground fuels. Survey for noxious weeds & control as necessary. Clean bird boxes in fall, monitor for starlings during year Check waterbars, rolling dips & culverts & plan any necessary maintenance. Put a load of rock on. Maintain no trespassing signs every 50 ft. along property edge Control competing vegetation mechanically or by herbicides Monitor seedlings for porcupine, hare, rabbit, vole, pocket gopher & deer damage & treat Plan rehab of brush field; transplant native desirable plants under 18” tall when dormant in the fall /early spring Go thru & mark out dogwoods, vine & broadleaf maples to save Hire D-4 cat or similar size with brush rake to make strips in brush field to plant in Order trees to plant strips, plan for 302 trees/acre [assume 50% mortality eventually] = 12‟x12‟ spacing Maintain records Year 10 Continue removing fire ladders & excess ground fuels up to ½>2/3 the height of conifers. Clean bird boxes in fall, monitor for starlings during year Check waterbars, rolling dips & culverts & plan any necessary maintenance. Put another load of rock on. Replace 4-40# semi-covered, Selenium supplemented salt blocks Survey for disease & insects or excessive animal damage Request another site visit by Service forester & or other natural resource professionals for mgt. suggestions Have a 5% sample of your stand re-cruised to see what‟s changed out there Start planning a selective thinning again to reopen tree crowns to stimulate growth & reduce fire & insect risk Maintain records Re-assess & update your mgt. plan 7. LANDOWNER Signature’s SOC. SEC. #’s DATE _____________________________________________________________________________________________ APPROVING STATE DNR SERVICE FORESTER [It may be useful to you to order/download another sample ‘Stewplan’ by authors Peter D. Knopp & Mark J. Twery. Their program offers a Windows interface. Their main application area is divided into tabs relating to logical sections of a forest stewardship plan. Stewplan helps make a stewardship plan, requiring a map & a few other externals to finish the job. Stewplan is available from the USDA Forest Service Publications Distribution, 359Main Rd., Deleware, OH 43015-8640 fx 740-368-0152. It is a free download from www.fs.fed.us/ne/burlington/ned. Consider getting the Forest Stewardship Planning Workbook too http://ext.nrs.wsu.edu/doc/pnw0490.pdf Many forest landowners want American Tree Farm certification to be able to have a wider market for their ‘green’ products/carbon credit. [Janean H. Creighton, Natural Resources Educator for WA State University Ext. 222 N Havana, Spokane, WA 99202 Phone: 509-477-2199 firstname.lastname@example.org. Janean’s now finishing another guide to help you in working on your objectives in a forest mgt. plan. You might consider contacting her.] SUPPLEMENTAL INFO FOLLOWING: WILDLIFE STRUCTURES (Birds that live in snags or bird boxes collect huge amounts of destructive insects, up to 2000/day for a pair feeding their young!): 1. Standard sized birdhouses (songbirds) or holes for small birds should be placed at least 5>10' above the ground. Large bird/bat/squirrel boxes or their holes/cavities should usually be placed 10' or higher. Birds have preferences & minimum heights can reduce predators & vandalism. For small Saw-whet owls see the following web site: www.shawcreekbirdsupply.com/plans_saw_whet_owl.htm 2. Exposed nest boxes, holes or excavated large cavities should be placed on more weather sheltered locations, like an N, NE or E trunks. Placing a box or cavity under a branch, swelling or bump on a tree & leaning it slightly down can offer extra weather protection. Sheltered entrance positions in a denser semi-permanent stand are less critical. 3. Roosts/perch poles should be mounted on 5-6" diameter wood poles or something comparably long lasting in metal/grey pvc. Cross piece diameter should be 1". Poles should be 5>10 ft. or more taller than the surrounding trees (if it's on an edge or in a stand of trees) or fence posts, if it's out in an open field. 4. Excavated cavities (for flying squirrels/owls) should be usually cut in 10 ft. high or higher above ground into a 10" or bigger diameter point. Larger diameter trees will increase cavity life expectancy. The excavation should be at least 4" X 4" wide X 10" long. 6" X 6" X 10" or larger cavity may be better in most cases. A board should be used to cover the holes edges to exclude weather. A minimum 1& 1/4" access hole (or larger) should be drilled in the board near the cavity coverings top. If a tree already has advanced rot a good nest support bottom is needed. If you're trying to create a cavity for woodpeckers (usually better left to make their own), re-fill the cavity up with wood chips. Woodpeckers need to remove chips as part of their nesting routine or they may have less fertile eggs. 5. Large nest platforms to attract hawks/owls should be mounted on multi-topped, or flattened tall, large trees. You may wish to hire someone who has done this before. I can give some advice on potentially desirable locations. 6. Down logs (larger the better) or slash piled on top of a stumps, large rocks or holes make dens for coyotes, bobcat & other critters to nest/rest in. Piling logs & slash also reduces fire hazards! 7. For relocation purposes fasten multiple folded tags (like soft aluminum, obtained from a news office/pie pans) with an install date, tree number, number of the bird box, wildlife tree, roost, large cavity or large nest platform. Example: 1999 Tree #5 Sm snag #2, Std box #3. Draw a map of where your practices are located, about how far they are apart from point to point (like one bird box to the next) on your place & what direction to go to the next tagged tree helps in follow-up maintenance or inspection in future years. Use aluminum nails sticking out a bit so trees can grow. 8. Get books/pamphlets on birds/making wildlife structures. Audubon & the state Dept. of Wildlife/U.S.F.S. have house plans & recommendations for specific birds. The NRCS Underwood Conservation District office in White Salmon (509) 493-1936, has an excellent birdhouse guides. Local libraries can help too. (Consider making boxes larger than smaller. Many birds like more room.) Dept. Fish & Wildlife has birdhouse plans (360) 902-2515 „Amy‟. 9. If you have woodpecker problems like a flicker making holes in your house… You might consider making an “unholed” box for them to have to nest in or drum on in the general area & height. PLANTINGS: Try to order larger, well rooted 1-1, plug-1 transplant stock or Styro-8 or Styro-10 or Styro-16 size plugs. Don‟t waste time/$$ on plain 1-0 plugs, or 2-0 or 2-1 stock sizes. Their survival rate is lower in our drier climate. Small un transplanted plugs that haven‟t been outside have too easy of a life not subjected to toughening elements. Small plugs often have weak cell walls & are tender & succulent to browse & not very drought, cold or insect resistant. Consider drought & cold hardiness (it can drop to -15 to -25 F. here). Cold hardiness is similar to drought hardiness, as frozen plants can't get water. Usually plants can come down from a colder 1000 ft. higher genetic seed source but rarely up more than 500' from a much lower elevation up w/o suffering weather damage. 100 miles north sort of equals 1000 ft. elevation rise, both have about a 3 degree temp. drop. Our Klickitat Co. seed zone is mostly 653. Transplanting local small (less than 18‟' high) healthy dormant trees/bushes may offer good genetics. Leave as much undisturbed soil on the roots as you can. Mature large existing conifers can seed in 1- 1½ times their height in radius, with no prevailing wind. If you have any brown mature puffball mushrooms puff them on your roots, these also boost survival & growth. Generally plant trees mid Feb>April, if local danger of deep freezing is past. You might consider Oct>Jan planting if you have deep soils, elevation above 3000‟, good soil moisture (or water well) & mulch. A mild winter, mulching or a good protective snow cover to insulate, often can enable trees to get a good head start with root growth. Light frost/snowfall on top of planted trees is ok, just don't plant in snow/you may get air pockets if snow falls in the hole. Plant before buds open. Minimize tree jerking/dropping/jarring & jamming [it breaks microscopic root hairs]; hot sun/dry soil/wind/below 32 degrees during transport & planting. Try to store trees in refrigeration or in shade preferably 34>40 degrees. Tamp dirt in firmly around roots so that you/ or a browsing animal can't easily pull it. A rainy day is best to plant on. Try to pre-soak tree roots in Vit. B1 (thiamine) mixed with water for several hrs. When planting where it's been logged before, plant in the more unique sheltered micro sites with favorable slope exposure (like facing NE, E or even SE on a hill or side of a stump or log or hole). Planting hoes work best in rocky soil; shovels/augers are faster & easier in deeper flatter ground. Consider giving a little extra water & fertilizing with potassium (or sul-po-mag, combo of sulfur, potassium & magnesium that can enhance cold & drought hardiness as well as diameter growth & insect & disease resistance). Plant trees as deep as their roots are long (10‟+), up to about ½" just below the lowest live limb or twig. To plant plug-1‟s/ or 1-1 bare root stock on steeper/rockier ground use a “hoe dad”. On easier ground use a long shovel or 4-6” power auger. When augering slow your RPM‟s down before pulling out of the hole/ lose too much dirt. Make auger holes have a larger “V“ top to make it easier to get roots in. Plugs can be planted with the previously mentioned tools but also with “dibbles” or tools shaped like the plug but slightly larger & longer. Plant 1-2‟ away from on the SE side of a bush, stump, log or card on a stake, to help shade a seedlings base. Matting or mulch (3"deep x 1‟ radius) helps. Scalping a 1 ft. radius around trees 1 or more inches deep or chemical spot treating (with an appropriate herbicide in a 1 ft. radius around new trees with something like a gallon jug over the tree to protect it) helps survival & growth. New buds on a tree shouldn‟t be open when spraying. Pre-spraying with long lasting (often cheaper) herbicide in the fall can be done by adding dye to your herbicide. Plant the center of the dye spot next spring. Piling chunks, sticks & branches around trees give extra shade & slow deer browse. If you‟re going to spray Roundup/grass herbicide around your trees do it before buds open. It can help to put a container/tube over the tree to avoid needless contact too. Deer are cleaner than some animals. Fish fertilizer/blood/hot peppers repellent mixed with a „sticker‟ help. A cotton ball stuck near the top of a tree treated with rotten meat can act as a spatial repellent. But if you see many deer in the area expect to have a problem controlling browse with just repellents. Bud caps made of very light geo- textile clothe (like a bed dust catcher) are pretty inexpensive physical barriers that breathe well. [One source is: CSI GEOSYNTHETICS 3500 SE Columbia Way Bldg 44, Vancouver, WA 98661 (360) 699-1426/ 800-426-7976.] Bud caps can be dipped in a repellent to help boost efficacy too. Yellow Vexar mesh tubes supported by stakes/high tensile wire/fiberglass pins can also limit some deer browse & may be needed for areas with high populations of snowshoe hare, rabbits or voles (short tailed mice). One source of tree shelters, mats, fertilizer & deer repellent is: http://www.treessentials.com/ (651) 681-0011. SOME PLANT SOURCES: Applewood (303) 431-7333 email@example.com [bulk grass/legume/wildflower seed] Rainier Seed (800) 828-8873 www.rainierseeds.com [bulk grass/legume/wildflower seed] Raintree 391 Butts Rd., Morton, WA 98356 (206) 496-6400 fax 1-888-770-8358 www.raintreenursery.com (Disease resistant fruit trees & bushes) http://henryfields.com/ We‟ve grown „Cold Set‟ standard non-hybrid tomatoes that can take a light frost for years. Burnt Ridge (360) 985-2873, fax (985-0882) firstname.lastname@example.org http://landru.myhome.net/burntridge/ (Disease resistant fruit tree) They re-sell to Raintree & they adds a bit to the price. You can save some. St. Lawrence Nurseries http://www.sln.potsdam.ny.us (315) 265-6739 (Call early AM or evenings. This is a family home business. Probably offer the most cold hardy nuts & fruits in the U.S.!) http://www.noursefarms.com/ 413-665-2658 carry berries like Evie 2 strawberries or Joan J raspberries D.L. Phipps (OR Dept. of Forestry) 541-584-2214 www.odf.state.or.us/nursery/home.htm Have plug-1 or 1-1‟s, Western white pine & incense cedar & may be able to get Sequoia gigantea to try. Lava Nursery 53O1 Culbertson Rd, Parkdale, OR 97041 (541) 352-73O3 Ship conifers Nov.15-Dec.15 or Mar.1- Feb.28, 1-1 stock or plug-1's. (Have plug-1 or 1-1 conifers like Doug-fir, Sequoia gigantia, Western white pine & incense cedar) Lawyer Nursery 800-551-9875 email@example.com (many hardy hardwoods & wildlife plants; & Sequoia) Potlatch [Greenhouse] Lewiston Nursery - Abbi/Shirish 208-799-1138 Grows 5000 Sequoia/yr. As Styro 5‟s, which are smaller than the Styro 8‟s. You might buy these & grown them in your garden a year before planting them out, making them plug-1's. Western Forestry System‟s 3731 15th Lewiston, 208-743-0147 (Jan Shafer- grows stryo 10‟s or smaller. Also do site prep & contract planting & even vexar tubing thru her nephew RichShafer IV. They also grow Sequoia gigantea & Meta Sequoia glypostroboidies (this is a type of Sequoia that loses it's needles every year like a larch.) USFS Hastings/Smith River Nursery (707) 487 3775 “Bill” firstname.lastname@example.org Sell conifers1-1 or plug-1 Sequoia gigantia/Incense cedar Dec.4-Mar.1 . $60/100 +$15 S&H or $300/1000+ S&H. Natural Resources Conservation Service, 1107 S. Columbus Av., Goldendale, WA 98620 (509) 773-5823. Often 200-400 trees in a bag. It‟s cheaper by a bag. Try to order in fall of previous year. For Klickitat Co. W. end call 493-1936 Tova Cochrane/Ann Gross/Adrianne Zuckerman/Jamie Gomez UCD@gorge.net (They have conifer & wildlife plants in late Feb>Apr from nurseries & add a fee to order & handle & store. Order early! . Webster Nursery, Olympia, WA (360) 753-5307. Sell Dec 15-Apr 30 (plug-1 or 1-1 conifers) Humble Roots Farm & Nursery, LLC, Mosier OR: Native plants, herbs & seeds of the Pacific NW. Kristin Currin (503) 449-3694 email@example.com web.mac.com/humbleroots "Washington Tree Seed Transfer Zone‟ booklet (a series of maps & chapters explaining the known genetics of each species & the best places to plant, based on 35 yrs' research by several natural resource agencies & pvt tbr companies] available at WA Dept. of Natural Resources website: http://www.dnr.wa.gov/webster/seedzonebook/ Western white pine, Sugar pine, Incense cedar & Sequoia may grow here but I wouldn't make them a high % of what you plant. They should be watched a more closely as they‟ll require a bit more care than a Ponderosa pine. If you once get them established I think you‟ll like them, unfortunately deer may too! OTHER POTENTIALLY USEFUL AGENCIES OR SOURCES: BIOMASS: http://biomassmagazine.com/article.jsp?article_id=1230 biomass fuels Community Power Corp, Pres Rob Walt (303) 933-3135 Ext. 222, firstname.lastname@example.org Http://www.gocpc.com http://www.theenergysavingsstore.com/ or http://roi.resolgerco.com/ National Renewable Energy Lab (even recycling old carpets by compressing them), http://www.nrel.gov/ http://www.ormat.com/ [John.Yarbrough@OIT.EDU wk885-1562, professor told me to watch this company! http://www.epa.gov/chp/documents/biomass_chp_catalog_part12.pdf Chiptec Wood Energy Systems www.chiptec.com/ Emery Energy Co. www.emeryenergy.com Local Appleton inventor David Smith has made an amazingly simple way to convert wood, paper, plastic, rubber & food scraps to energy. His machines squish (sort of like a meat grinder) wood, plastic or food scraps till it turns into several gases or a marketable brown liquid. ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ FIRE GENERAL: National Fire News http://www.nifc.gov/fireinfo/nfn.html “How to manage forests for healthy trees & wildfire resistance” http://www.montana.edu/wwwpb/pubs/4480.pdf "Guidelines for Thinning Ponderosa Pine for Improved Forest Health & Fire Prevention". http://cals.arizona.edu/pubs/natresources/az1397.pdf Fire-affected forest owners, “After The Burn” : www.cnr.uidaho.edu/extforest/AftertheBurnFINAL.pdf Salvage guide after fire: http://www.fs.fed.us/r6/nr/fid/pubsweb/pubs1/fire-injured-tree-rating-2-amends.pdf http://www.firesafespokane.com/ Changing fire risk rating http://www.dnr.wa.gov/, click on Fire Info in the R column & click on Fire Danger in Your County in the R column. Call DNR‟s 1-800-323-BURN to get the same info. Dept of Ecology air quality burn info. www.ecy.wa.gov/programs/air/aginfo/dailyburncallpage.htm Check Industrial Fire Precaution Levels & zones to learn the restrictions on logging or cutting etc.: http://www.dnr.wa.gov/RecreationEducation/Topics/FireInformation/Pages/rp_fire_ifpl.aspx http://www.emmps.wsu.edu/fire/ ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ FIRE TOOL REQUIREMENTS IN FIRE SEASON: Folks running a chainsaw in the wood should make sure it has a good cleaned spark arrestor & screen. They should have a shovel & fire extinguisher within 2 minutes round trip. Landings may need (depending on the class of day) a pumper truck or water trailer with a pump that will start easily & put out a good stream of water (100‟+ ) and 300‟ feet of hose or more. If you don‟t have a water truck or trailer you may be able to use two 5 gallon back pack pump cans or bladder bags. Any spark emitting vehicles need to have approved non-leaking spark arrestors, a mounted shovel & a minimum 5BC fire extinguisher. ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ BURNING OUTDOORS: Careless outdoor debris burning is the cause of many wildfires & nuisance smoke problems. Outdoor debris burning is subject to state & local fire safety & air quality regulations. Check for current "burn ban" restrictions. Burning may be locally regulated by a fire Dept. (like Rural 7). Burning on forestland is regulated by the Dept. of Natural Resources (DNR). Contact your local fire dept. for burn regulations in residential areas. In forested areas protected by DNR, debris burning is permitted without a written permit if all the following conditions are met: Burn one pile at a time of forest debris that is less than 4 feet in diameter (often July 1 – Oct. 15) or less than 10 ft. in diameter (Oct. 16 - June 30)... Burn only natural vegetation or untreated wood products. Burn piles must be at least 50 ft from structures & 500 ft from any forest slash. Clear the area around the burn pile of any flammable debris… It‟s too windy to burn if trees are swaying, flags are extended, or waves appear on open water. Maintain a connected water hose or at least 5 gal. of water & a shovel nearby. Attend the fire till it‟s completely out. Be prepared to extinguish a fire if it becomes a nuisance. Call 1-800-323-BURN to obtain updated air pollution alerts & local burning conditions before you burn. If any of these conditions can‟t be met, a written burn permit is required. These conditions apply only to burning in areas regulated by DNR. To get a written burn permit call your local DNR Region office at 1-800-527-3305 (wait for operator to help you). Consider no-burn options. On-site chipping is feasible. Limbs & other debris may be piled for wildlife habitat if located where it doesn‟t pose a wildfire hazard. Report uncontrolled fires @ 1-800-562-6010. Central Regional Dept. of Ecology 509-575-2490. ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ FIRE PERMITS: call Wenatchee dispatch, Wyatt Leighton email@example.com /Dan Lennon 773-5588 or Jon Paul Anderson firstname.lastname@example.org (541) 980-1840 / Steve Crow 509-493-3218/4379 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ FOREST PRODUCTS: How to Dry Lumber for Quality & Profit http://outreach.cof.orst.edu/lmbrdrying/index.htm Air Drying Lumber http://www.fpl.fs.fed.us/documnts/fplgtr/fplgtr117.pdf Portable Sawmill Manufacturers http://www.fpl.fs.fed.us/tmu/smdiameter_roundwood_util/portable_sawmill_manufacturers.pdf Washington State Small-scale Sawmills http://ext.nrs.wsu.edu/forestryext/sawmill/index.htm USFS's Top 25 Forest Products Utilization & Marketing Publications http://www.fpl.fs.fed.us/tmu/top_25.html http://smallfarms.wsu.edu/crops/specialtyForestProducts.html http://www.metrokc.gov/dchs/csd/wsu-ce/Forestry/chainsaw.htm ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ LOGGING: Managing Your Timber Sale http://cru84.cahe.wsu.edu/cgi-bin/pubs/EB1818.html Advice for Landowners before Logging http://ext.nrs.wsu.edu/Video/index.htm Siliviculture for WA Family Forests http://cru.cahe.wsu.edu/CEPublications/eb2000/eb2000.pdf Exploring New Uses for Small Diameter Timber http://www.forestrycenter.org/library/admin/uploadedfiles/Exploring_New_Uses_for_Small_Diameter_Timber.pdf Log Sort Yard Economics… http://www.fpl.fs.fed.us/documnts/fplgtr/fpl_gtr146.pdf To check for government processes you may need to go thru on property: http://apps.ecy.wa.gov/opas/ Download Forest Practices application to log http://www3.wadnr.gov/dnrapp4/fparsweb/public/FPAForms.aspx click on Forms & Maps in the green block. Then "E. WA FPA/N Form". Also get "E. WA FPA/N Instructions." If you have questions on application you can't resolve carefully reading instructions DNR‟s SE Region office in Ellensburg, 509-925-8510 & ask to talk to Forest Practices or call local DNR Forest Practice Jon-Paul Anderson (541) 980-1840 email@example.com Long-Term (forest practice logging) Applications (LTA's) for 3-15 yrs can be approved. These take more work than a std application, but once you have one, you can log when timber markets open. The Small Forest Landowner Office has Jeff Galleher; & Jenni Dykstra (Wildlife Biologist) available to assist you & DNR field foresters. More info see: http://www.dnr.wa.gov/BusinessPermits/Topics/SmallForestLandownerOffice/Pages/fp_sflo_lta.aspx ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ INSECTS & DISEASE: Current status on bugs, disease, fire, drought & gen. facts about WA forests http://www.wadnr.gov/htdocs/adm/comm/InsideDNR/2004a/022304foresthealth.html Bark beetle-latest research on vegetation treatments, long-term outcomes & fire interactions, diseases & lowdown www.wflccenter.org/news_pdf/252_pdf.pdf & www.treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/25555 Forest insects & disease http://www.fs.fed.us/r1-r4/spf/fhp/field_guide/132-135pb.htm ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ MAPS, GIS & PHOTOS: DNR's GIS Data Distribution portal: http://www3.wadnr.gov/dnrapp3/dataweb/dmmatrix.html. GIS data can be downloaded here no cost. DNR's Map Products pg: http://www.dnr.wa.gov/dataandmaps/maps/index.html gives info. how to get published map products. Map & Data DNR online products: http://www3.wadnr.gov/dnrapp5/website/fpars/ [printable activity, base, site class, & resource maps. Enter Township, Range, E/W of the Willamette Meridian & Section & click the "get map" button. Extra info is found at http://www3.wadnr.gov/dnrapp5/website/fpars/help/help.htm. (high-speed best) See USGS 2001 land-cover classifications/downloads @:http://seamless.usgs.gov/website/seamless/viewer.php http://ncasi.uml.edu/google/gforest.shtml Satellite maps & inventory data. Air photos previously DNR sold now buy @ WSDOT‟s Air Photography, 1655 South 2nd Ave, Tumwater, 98512 (360) 709-5550/fx 709-5599 http://www.wsdot.wa.gov/ppsc/aerial/CustomerServices/LabServiceRequest.pdf http://www.wsdot.wa.gov/ppsc/aerial/default.htm Walk in/fax, expect 3-5 day turn around. If want enlargements outline areas on reference map. Contact prints need Section, Township & Range. Accept cash, check, M.O., credit card. Hvy use customers can open accounts. WSDOT offers darkroom, digital & print finishing products/services. MAPS, GIS & PHOTOS: continued… Joe Moilanen firstname.lastname@example.org MOITEK AERIAL IMAGING www.moitek-infrared.com sells air photos from sources, older ones. Do custom photos & thermal imaging. Longview, WA (360) 636-2974/ 430-0634 To convert lats & longs to section township & range…www.cosports.com/tools/gps_coords.htm http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/seg/potfld/geomag.shtml set a compass to exact magnetic declination for your woods ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ MISCEL. Sites: DNR Service Forester, Jess Calkins (541) 980-1104/Wenatchee dispatch or email@example.com Columbia Gorge National Scenic Area planner (541) 386-1916; USDA, NRCS Klickitat Co. E. of Klickitat River (509) 773-5823 Underwood Conservation District is W. of the Klickitat Rr., Tova Cochrane 493-1936 firstname.lastname@example.org WSU Ext. Stevenson (509) 427-3931 http://Skamania.wsu.edu free Mid-Columbia Woodland Notes, great info! The Dept. of Natural Resources has a newsletter for small forest landowners at: email@example.com YAKAMA INDIAN NATION (YIN): (509) 865-5121 No calls 12:00-1:15 U of Idaho forestry ext. site, great resources: http://www.cnr.uidaho.edu/extforest/ “Getting Started: Preparing for the Montana Forest Stewardship Experience” is a 25 min. video in Streaming Video section of: http://ext.nrs.wsu.edu/Video/index.htm It helps prepare forest owners in stewardship planning. Cornell U. Coop. Ext. forestry seminars http://ext.nrs.wsu.edu/Video/Sitemap.htmwww.ForestConnect.info www.familyforestfoundation.org http://www.wafarmforestry.com/ http://www.evergreenmagazine.com is excellent source of free info. http://www.capitalpress.info/ http://www.seacoastonline.com/news/10162004/news/43313.htm Free SFLO (Small ForestLandowner Office) newsletter:firstname.lastname@example.org http://www.forestryusa.com Comprehensive site on forests, forestry & forest products sectors in America. http://www.woodlandowners.org/Primary_Web_Pages/Publication_Archives.htm http://www.campbellgroup.com/ Back issues of monthly pub. Timber Trends & other research materials>refer to the Research tab. Source of timber price info. New WSU ext website as of 2-13-09 it’s: http://ext.wsu.edu/forestry/ But, the sites below still work for a while To view & download WSU Extension bulletins look under „Publications‟ „Woodland‟ „Fish & Wildlife Series‟ To view WSU‟s streaming video collection: http://ext.nrs.wsu.edu/Video/index.htm Rural Technology Initiative WSU: http://www.ruraltech.org/ http://www.ruraltech.org/training/lms/index.asp http://ext.nrs.wsu.edu/Video/CP/index.htm To see posts on WSU‟s Forest Stewardship Calendar: look under news events forest stewardship http://eesc.orst.edu/AgComWebFile/EdMat/edmatindexfor.html osu for ex pubs http://www.odf.state.or.us/ Oregon Dept of Forestry http://www.nrsm.uq.edu.au/journal/ down under woodland owners http://www.cnr.uidaho.edu/extforest/ from our colleagues in Idaho, especially good for wildland fire Forests & Forestry in the Americas: An Encyclopedia (SAF) & International Society of Tropical Foresters (ISTF) at: http://forestryencyclopedia.jot.com/WikiHome http://www.fs.fed.us/pnw/pubs.htm the source for forest service Pacific Northwest publications http://www.privateforest.org/ of general interest http://www.innovativetreefarming.com http://www.metla.fi/info/vlib/Forestry/ online forestry library http://www.ga.wa.gov/surplus/direction.htm & http://www.ga.wa.gov/surplus/feature.htm State surplus store in Auburn WA. Has some used chainsaws, tools, computers, vehicles & furniture. ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ PICTURES: http://www.forestryimages.org/ lots of pictures! +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ PLANTS: "Field Guide for the ID & Use of Common Riparian Woody Plants other useful files available for download at: http://www.id.nrcs.usda.gov/programs/plant.html http://oregonstate.edu/instruct/for241/ tree ID To get issues of Tree Link (publication educating folks about economic, environmental, psychological & aesthetic benefits of trees & to assist public groups in planting trees) send e-mail address to email@example.com Great Ethno botany site! http://wsdot.wa.gov/Environment/CulRes/ShrubsTrees.htm Klickitat County Weed Control Marty Hudson (509) 773-5810 Fungi aren‟t plants but… http://www.fungimag.com/ Utah Tree Browser is now available at www.treebrowser.org Unusually fine plant books you might try to find: Food Plants of British Columbia Indians Part 1/Coastal Peoples & Part 2/Interior Peoples by Nancy J. Turner by Province of British Columbia Dept. of Recreation & Conservation. Bought at Provincial Museum, Victoria, Canada Edible & Medicinal Plants of the West by Gregory L. Tilford, Mountain Press Publishing CO., Missoula, Mt Plants of Southern Interior British Columbia written by Joe Antos, Ray Coupe, George Douglas, Rich Evans, Trevor Goward, Marianne Ignace, Dennis Lloyd, Roberta Parish, Rosamund Pojar, Anna Roberts. Printed by B.C. Ministry of Forests & Long Pine Publishing. ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ ROADS: DNR (RMAP) Road Maintenance Abandonment Planning, Tony Gilmer (541) 490-7263 firstname.lastname@example.org +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ TAXES: Dept Rev. Forest Tax Dwayne Woolsey (360) 260-6273 email@example.com Forest taxes www.timbertax.org Online help filling out WA Forrest Excise Tax returns http://dor.wa.gov/content/taxes/Timber or go to http://dor.wa.gov/content/taxes/Timber/videohelp/start.htm ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ WATER: WA DNR Small Landowner Office Forester, Bart Ausland assists landowners under 500 acres laying out required buffers along streams in logging & helps them apply for easement benefits $$ from the state for required protective water buffers (509) 925-0972 firstname.lastname@example.org See: Family Forest Fish Passage (cost share) Program http://www.dnr.wa.gov/sflo/fffpp/ & Forestry Riparian Easement Program http://www.dnr.wa.gov/sflo/frep/ WA Dept. of Ecology (DOE) Bryan Neet email@example.com; (509) 454-7843? ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ WILDLIFE: Fish & Wildlife habitat biologist Bill Weiler c(509) 969-6323 firstname.lastname@example.org h365-0075 http://www.wdfw.wa.gov/lands/lip/ WA Dept. of Fish & Wildlife www.extension.org choose Wildlife Damage Mgt Plans for building bird houses http://www.holoweb.com/cannon/buildingbh.htm Wildlife Habitat Incentives (cost share) Program http://www.wa.nrcs.usda.gov/programs/whip/whip.html Wildlife Damage Management at: icwdm.org Partners for Fish & Wildlife (cost share) Program http://partners.fws.gov/ http://www.wa.nrcs.usda.gov/programs/whip/whip.html WHIP = Wildlife Habitat Incentive Program Thinning Can Promote Bird Abundance & Species Diversity http://www.forestsandfish.com/Newsroom/pdfs/May-2005-FYI-Revised-thinning.pdf DNR Service Biologist, Jim Bottorff [comes from Olympia] (360) 902-2599/791-5560 email@example.com http://fresc.usgs.gov/products/papers/mang_bio.pdf usgs lab paper on thinning 2nd growth fir for wildlife ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ SOME LOCALS WHO’VE ASKED ME TELL YOU THEY WORK FOR LANDOWNERS: to reduce fire hazards/improve forest health./site prep, tree planting, brushing, thinning, pruning, chipping or birdhouse construction & placement, tree topping & specialty tree falling… Alan Blair (509) 493-2311 firstname.lastname@example.org; Bruce Amos 509-493-1648 ( call before 7:00pm, wife needs sleep!); Francisco Flores (541) 308-5543/386-5442; & Steve Walker 509-493-3626/2636 (Steve can put together a small crew to help thin, cut brush, small trees & prune branches & chip.); Sam Smith (509) 365-5214 (pre-com thins & plants) & Jon Caryl (509) 395-2321 [Jon charges $55/hr to chip branches & small trees, $150/ 3hr., $340 for a full day or $1500/week]. Some others have chippers. Dave Braun, Braun Arboricultural Consulting, cell 541-806-0347 email@example.com; Noah Peoples 509-493-3376/cell 509-281-0564 firstname.lastname@example.org Creates snags, prunes, tops & removes trees. Noah also does snow removal from rds & driveways. Rich Slawson (509) 773-5403 [does auger planting]; David Brown (509) 365-2346 [specialty faller/toper of difficult trees & also makes & installs birdboxes]. Robert Smith East of Appleton mills ties & lbr c(541) 993-7629. Scot Paider (541) 806- 1206 email@example.com or firstname.lastname@example.org of Hood River, does fire hazard reduction work like pre-com thinning, pruning & slash disposal. Scot creates wildlife snags. ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ …SOME LOCAL EQUIPMENT OPERATORS: for land clearing, excavation, rd building, rock hauling rock or with equip available for hire are: Noah Peoples 509-493-3376/cell 509-281-0564 email@example.com; Kirk Dalziel 541-490-2402 DazzleTrucking@juno.com; Mike Cochran Logging of Hood River 541-490-1064 has mulching head on a tracked shovel that can reach out 36‟ to chip up brush & small trees. MNM Contractors Marlene Pooler & Melvin Stanton (509) 364-3599 has a similar machine on the front of a skidder. Mark “Ray” McCabe 509-773-3467 has 3 wheel machines that can rapidly sheer off trees at ground level. He can collect trees in a mechanical arm & lay them down as a group in suitable locations. LSC Logging „Monte” 509-773-5788 does quite a bit of fire hazard reduction logging for landowners around Goldendale. Bill Anderson, 493-3022 near NW lake nw of White Salmon, mills logs into large beams or 1” material. He also logs land & has skidder, self loader & mill. Dale Dennis 509-493-1630 firstname.lastname@example.org operates & has heavy equipment & has a rock pit. ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ …LOCAL FORESTERS WHO’VE ASKED TO HAVE THEIR NAMES GIVEN OUT: May be hired for Forest Mgt. Plan writing, marking, marketing timber, cruising, planting: Jay McGloughlin hp(509) 364-4198 email@example.com; Bob Roe (509) 538-2643 firstname.lastname@example.org; Richard Johnson (509) 773-5954 email@example.com; Steve Dugger 493-1429. ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ …Non-local CONTRACTORS: Mark Bodine, Forest & Stream Restoration LLC, 360-858-7888/503-381- 6149 www.fsrllconline.com can come here to work... “specializes in eco-friendly land clearing & brush removal, fuels reduction & invasive species eradication. Mulches as they go & return it to the soil. Mulch slash vs burn. Brian J. Vrablick Yakima forester for NW Mgt. Inc has contact crew interested in work here. I‟ve never met him, his wk (509) 276-4699/cell (509) 999-8484 firstname.lastname@example.org web site is: www.consulting-foresters.com Progressive Forestry, Randy Humbert, Coeur d‟alene, ID (208) 664-9040/(509) 258-4314/ (509) 995-5463 & Tomas Ramirez Reforestation, Chehalis, WA (360) 269-1769, often plant large areas here/pre-commercially thin. ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ SOME SAW/TOOL PARTS SOURCES YOU MIGHT LOOK AT: MAIL ORDER: Bailey’s 800-322-4539 www.baileysonline.com ; Madsen’s Shop & Supply Inc 1408 S. Gold St Centralia, WA 98531 800-822-2808 www.madsens1.com ; Forestry Suppliers, Inc www.forestry-suppliers.com 800-647-5368; Harbor Freight 800-388-3000 www.harborfreight.com closest is 2950 NE Hogan Rd, Gresham (I‟d seriously look at getting a simple 4” chain saw grinder from these folks to sharpen your chains), 503-492-8386; DR CHIPPER http://www.drpower.com; Vermeer www.vermeer.com Portland 800-869-3989. Japanese Silky HAYAUCHI non-motorized pole saw has 20.5' handle. You can prune up to 26+ ft! Their blades cut easier than old fashioned ones. The oval aluminum extensions give better directional control for high cut pole rigidity & strength. Push buttons allow quick length changes & safety clamps lock them securely. A rubber grip helps control. The blades adjust to 2 angles for low/high cuts. Closest place to see a Silky is Dustin Adams cell 541-296-4943, Oak Hill Rd., The Dalles http://www.adamstractors.com/. Hayauchi replacement blades cost $50+ but they appear to hold up better than most, if you protect it from rocks & clean it with WD40/mixed gas. The blade can be sharpened ($9.00) by Chisholm Saw & Supply on the E. side of Hwy 141 between White Salmon & Husum (509) 493-3047. A Hayauchi weighs only 8# so it‟s easier on your back than power pruners. I prune all one height, then go back & do another extension. Dustin also sells planting tools, tractors & chippers. ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ Future Forestry Products, Inc. Willamina OR, 888-258-1445. www.futureforesty.com sell pruning saws & an Ascender that lets one pedal up a tree to 30', pruning as you go. Mark‟s has replaceable band saw type pruning blades for about $15 & a fascinating assortment of other equipment useful to woodland owners. He‟ll send info. ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ ‘Old fashioned= HAND PRUNING SAW, Hood River Supply, (541) 386-2757. 10' AL pole $30, fiberglass pole is $40, $15 blades. Blades are the old kind but will do the job with more work. They can get longer poles. ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ POWER PRUNERS/SAWS: buy chainsaws with an anti-compression valve for safer, easier starts. The Outdoor Toy Store (509) 427-7474 Carson, WA DJ’s (509) 493-3110, Bingen, WA Rental Center 707 Walnut, The Dalles (541) 296-5368 Bailey’s 800-322-4539 www.baileysonline.com Madsen’s Shop & Supply Inc 1408 S. Gold St Centralia, WA 98531 800-822-2808 www.madsens1.com ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ CHIPPERS: Many folks aren‟t happy with how their chippers perform. An exception‟s been the 18 hp DR chipper (about $2700+ www.drchipper.com). It‟s on a small trailer with it‟s own motor. It can chip up to 4” in dia. I got a Jinma Chinese chipper from Dustin Adams, The Dalles, OR www.adamstractors.com/ 541-296-4943 for $1,650. 3 yrs ago. It‟s was the best buy I‟ve seen. It can chip up to 5”+ in diameter. It runs off a tractor/cat PTO. I did find other replacement blades that perfectly fit this Jinma chipper. The cheaper “Bailey” blades (800-322-4539) are $57.90 for 2 [Part# CKD81025] vs Jinma‟s @ $110 for 2. Bailey blades have threaded holes so you don‟t have to mess with the nuts Jinma blades need! www.baileysonline.com Look for Bailey‟s 5 ½” pto chipper. Dustin no longer carries these but does sell Wallenstein wood chippers which he says are far better quality but are more expensive. He has models that can chip 4” ($2895) or 6” $3595 & are PTO (Power take Off driven). Here is their website link http://www.embmfg.com/ ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ SOME FERTILIZER, HERBICIDE OR SALT BLOCK SOURCES: Wilbur-Ellis Co. 3900 Heron Drive, Parkdale (541) 354-3255; GS Long 3305 Neal Mill Rd. Hood River (just off hwy 35) (541) 354-2116. These folks supply the larger growers but you can often buy from them in larger amounts. Kelp's a natural source of about 90 trace nutrients & good amount of potassium (K is the 3 rd main listing on most fertilizer bags). Kelp has an organic non-salt form (though it may have a little sea salt in it!). Deer carry 1000‟s of ticks, which transmit some bad diseases! If you enjoy having deer around, you might consider putting out some Sulfur-salt blocks. These deter ticks in cattle & deer (horses often won‟t eat it as it is too bitter). „Rabon‟ salt blocks kill flies & some other parasites. There‟s one for cows (& deer) & a diff. one for horses. Little-Bit Ranch supply, Hood River 541-386-1299, has Rabon salt (40#) blocks @ $32.60 & Sulfur salt (50#) blocks @ $9.20. Hood River Supply Cenex, Hood River (541) 386-2757, has Rabon salt (33#) blocks @ $14.49. Coastal Farm & Home Supply, 2865 NE Hogan Dr, Gresham (503) 674-5337 (across from Harbor Freight) www.coastalfarm.com has Rabon (40#) salt blocks for $24.99 & Sulfur salt (40#) blocks for $6.99. The Feed Shack on E. 2nd St. in The Dalles 541-298-4937, can get 50# bags of Kelp for $55 (they order). They also carry Sulfur-salt (50#) blocks for $7.50 & „Rabon‟ salt (33#) blocks for cows/horses for $19.95.