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					  Introduction
       &
Early Embryology

Human Structure & Development
         ANHB 2212

      Semester 1 – 2008


    Dr. Avinash Bharadwaj
     avinash@anhb.uwa.edu.au
                           Welcome!
   The Promise :
       An exciting unit!
       All possible help during the course of the unit
       Improvements… already in place
            Last year‟s SPOT – both 2212 and 1102!
   Unit Coordinators
       Avinash Bharadwaj
       Julie Hill
   Lecturers
       Assoc Prof Geoff Meyer
       Yours truly
       ++
   Demonstrators/Tutors
         Prerequisites other than A&HB
                    Units…?
   “Prescribed reading”…
       Integrated with learning resources
       Available well before the actual classes
       In case of difficulty (unlikely )…
         … Contact me!
                More About the Unit
   Learning load (?) and help
       Directed self-study
       Pre-lab prep is essential
   Resources, especially website
       www.lab.anhb.uwa.edu.au/anhb2212
       Some resources and features on WebCT.
       WebCT URL : http://webct.uwa.edu.au
       Lab manual – available in co-op shop soon
       Textbooks (“Recommended”)
       Course Reader : Online, includes “prescribed” reading
               What’s in It for You?
   Wide variety of student background and goals
   Integrated Structure, Function and Development
      Componets are not separable!

       Separation in labs inevitable…
   Carefully selected content
       Relevance to all streams considered
   Assessment designed to facilitate all streams
       Core topics…
       “Other areas”
     UWA Student email account

   Must be activated immediately
   Class List emails for important announcements
   Check your email regularly.
   Auto redirect to other accounts is not encouraged.
    Mails coming from other accounts are likely to be auto
    deleted.
       ANHB computing account
   For accessing web material on G.03 computers
   Now can be done through the Histology Lab.
   You can do it on Thursday, Week 1 Lab!



   You do not need this for computers other than in the
    A&HB building.
   The Unit website is “open” – needs no username or
    password as of now.
           Lab Allocation – OLCR
   Lab time allocations only through OLCR.
   If problems persist, see
    Wendy Colangelo, Ground floor, A&HB Building.
   Adjustments done only for genuine reasons, mostly
    timetable clashes.
   Mutual exchange between two students : Both must
    see Wendy together!
   Allocation will settle down in a week‟s time!
                Communication
   Offices : Avinash : 1.77, First floor, A&HB
            Julie   : 1.75, First floor, A&HB
   Email : avinash@anhb.uwa.edu.au
          jhill@anhb.uwa.edu.au
   In general, Policy-related mails and those with
    subject related questions to Avinash
    Admin-related mails to Julie.
   Subject header must include : “ANHB2212”, your
    name, and a word or two about the subject. E.g.
      ANHB 2212 – Jane Smith – Embryology question
        Teaching Strategies – Lectures
   Theme based
       Slide-show and printable versions available in
        advance.
          No handouts!
          Not incorporated in the lab manual.

       Recorded on Lectopia
             Teaching Strategies – Labs
   Anatomy labs : “free movement”.
       Visit all tables
       Check for exhibits in the centre or on the boards.
   Histology labs are “sit-down”!
                             For Both Labs
   Directed self study
   Pre-lab study is essential
   Attendance/worksheets : Stick to the allotted tutor.
   Roving resource persons.
     Teaching Strategies – Tutorials
   Interactive, Q-A sessions.
   Usually a week after the topic.
       Time to study/understand, identify „gaps‟.
   Questions not supplied in advance!
   Essay writing practice during tutorials.
    Attendance at Labs and Tutorials is compulsory and
                          recorded.
     Penalties apply for absence without valid reason.
              Email Julie regarding absence.
                 Unit Outcomes
   Detailed specific outcomes listed on the website
   Do not read all at once!
   Assessment carefully matched with outcomes.
                      In general…
   Critical thinking and analysis is encouraged.
   HUGE lot of guidance on the Unit website.
   Correct use of language is essential 
                      Assessment
   Continuous assessment : 20% of total unit mark
       2x30 min tests – Weeks 5 and 9 (Tutorial hour)
       MCQs, Short answer Qs, True / False Qs

   End-of-semester Examination :
       Written (3 hours) : 50% of total unit mark
          MCQs, SAQs, One short essay

       Lab (1.5 to 2 hours):
          25 – 30 Spot questions : 30% of total unit mark.

          Actual marks are scaled to these weightages.
          Other Assessment Events
  Formative, do not count towards final mark.
 Short notes / Essays written during tutorials
       Marked and returned for feedback
   Pre-test in Week 1 Tutorial
       Feedback to coordinators
   Mock lab test (Week 8) administered as
    practice. (If possible, also in Week 13).
                 For This Week…
   Recap (also if you have not done ANHB
    1101/1102) :
       Course Reader Chapters 1, 2 and 3.
       Chapter 2 : Details of mitosis and meiosis not
        examinable.
   Lab preparation : PowerPoint files on the Unit
    website (Link given on the website).
            Early Embryology
   Recap of ANHB 1101/1102 (or equivalent)
   Many facets…
   Tailoring to HSD 2212
   Some important concepts
                  Why and How

                    Gross Form, Correlation

Errors in development
   Structural
   Molecular          Embryology              Cellular and
                                              Molecular
(Clinical aspects)                            phenomena


     Real life aspects              Evolutionary
     (“non medical”)                mirror
                Fertilisation
   Ovum and Oöcyte
   Second meiotic division
   Site of fertilisation
   Sperm : Acrosomal reaction
   Zona pellucida
   Single sperm…
                       Fertilisation
   Completion of meiosis II
       Polar bodies (Also dealt with in Week 11)
   Restoration of diploidy
   Initiation of cleavage
   Chromosomal sex determination
   Genetic and evolutionary implications
       Paternal and maternal chromosomes
       Further mixing during next gametogenesis (crossing
        over)
                  Cleavage
   Nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio
   Division by reduction of cell volume
   Planes of cleavage
   Polarity…?  Inner cell mass and trophoblast
    formed later
   Transport through the uterine tube
   Zona pellucida… retained until implantation
                      Blastocyst

   Inner cell mass
   Trophoblast
       Invasive nature
   Zona pellucida disappears
   Implantation
           Trilaminar Embryo
   Epiblast and Hypoblast
   Hypoblast ≠ entoderm!
   Primitive streak
   Cell migration             E
   Mesoderm and entoderm      H



     Y    H
        Notochord & Neural Tube
   Notochord
       Axis
       Induction…
   Neural plate
       Neural groove
       Neural tube and crest
     Divisions of Mesoderm
   Paraxial



   Intermediate

   Lateral plate
                Segmentation
   Paraxial mesoderm

   “Somites”

   Each somite 
       Sclerotome
       Dermomyotome
               Fate of Germ Layers
   Ectoderm
       Epidermis (not skin!) ++
   Mesoderm
       Muscle, Connective (including skeletal) tissues
       Some epithelial structures
          Parts of urogenital systems
          Endothelium of heart and blood vessels

          “Serous membranes”

   Endoderm
       Lining epithelium of digestive system
        Head, Tail and Lateral Folds
   Flat three-layered embryo 
    … three dimensional tube
   Endoderm encloses a cavity 
    …digestive system
   Changes in the relative positions of certain regions
   Further correlation with the development of the heart
    and digestive system
      The Developing Human – Three
                 Phases


   Early development
   Embryonic phase – organogenesis
   The foetal period
   Differentiation, Histogenesis and Functional
    development


                                          Last Slide

				
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