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					Aid Effectiveness:
Trends and Impacts of Shifting
Financial Flows to Civil Society
Organisations in Southern Africa




Report on Donor Roundtable Dialogue

2 MARCH, 2007



GABORONE INTERNATIONAL CONVENTION CENTRE
GABORONE, BOTSWANA
      Aid Effectiveness:
 Trends and Impacts of Shifting
 Financial Flows to Civil Society
Organisations in Southern Africa




        Report on Donor Roundtable Dialogue

                  2 MARCH, 2007



    GABORONE INTERNATIONAL CONVENTION CENTRE
              GABORONE, BOTSWANA
Table of Contents



    Abbreviations........................................................................................................................................................................................................... iv

    Summary......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 1
          1.          Key Emerging Issues......................................................................................................................................................................... 2
          2.          Way Forward............................................................................................................................................................................................. 3

    Making a case for supporting civil society organisations
    in southern Africa, by Kemi Williams, DFID................................................................................................................................ 4
          1.          Role of CSOs in the poverty reduction supply chain........................................................................................ 4
          2.          Case: Southern Africa Trust........................................................................................................................................................ 5
          3.          Plenary Discussions........................................................................................................................................................................... 6

    Research findings on aid effectiveness: trends and impacts
    of shifting financial flows to CSOs in southern Africa,
    by Elling Tjonneland, Chr. Michelsen Institute (CMI)....................................................................................................... 7
          1.          Research Findings............................................................................................................................................................................... 7
          2.          Moving forward..................................................................................................................................................................................... 8
          3.          Plenary Discussions........................................................................................................................................................................... 9

    Multi-donor approaches to southern African CSO institutional development:
    challenges and opportunities, by Neville Gabriel, Southern Africa Trust............................................ 11
          1.          Emerging Learning from the Southern Africa Trust....................................................................................... 11

    Exploring future opportunities for regional
    CSO-Donor engagement in southern Africa........................................................................................................................ 13
          1.          Thematic group coordination in SADC, by Tracy Zinanga, SADC Secretariat....................... 13
          2.          CSOs and aid effectiveness: future opportunities or involvement,
                      by Gert Danielsen, Programme Specialist-Aid Effectiveness, UNDP............................................. 14
          3.          Opportunities for CSOs to engage in these initiatives,
                      by Siphamandala Zondi, Institute for Global Dialogue (IGD)............................................................... 15

    Way Forward. .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 18

    APPENDIX: List of Participants. ........................................................................................................................................................... 19
           Abbreviations


                     ACBF. .       African.Capacity.Building.Foundation
                     AFRODAD.      African.Forum.and.Network.on.Debt.and.Development
                     APRM. .       African.Peer.Review.Mechanism
                     AusAID. .     Australian.Agency.for.International.Development
                     BIDPA. .      Botswana.Institute.for.Development.Policy.Analysis
                     CAGE. .       Conflict.and.Governance.Facility.
                     CDE.    .     Centre.for.the.Development.and.Enterprise
                     CIDA.   .     Canadian.International.Development.Agency
                     CSOs.   .     Civil.Society.Organisations
                     CBOs.. .      Community.Based.Organizations.
                     DFID.   .     Department.for.International.Development
                     EC.     .     European.Commission
                     EU.     .     European.Union
                     GTZ.    .     German.Technical.Cooperation
                     ICP.    .     International.Cooperating.Partners
                     IGD.    .     Institute.for.Global.Dialogue.
                     NGOs. .       Non-Governmental.Organisations
                     NZAID. .      New.Zealand.Agency.for.International.Development
                     PRSPs. .      Poverty.Reduction.Strategy.Papers
                     RISDP. .      Regional.Indicative.Strategic.Development.Plan
                     SACAU. .      Southern.African.Confederation.of.Agricultural.Unions
                     SADC. .       Southern.African.Development.Community
                     SADC-CNGOs.   SADC.Council.of.Non-Governmental.Organizations
                     SARDC. .      Southern.African.Research.and.Documentation.Centre.
                     SARPN. .      Southern.African.Regional.Poverty.Network
                     SATUCC. .     Southern.African.Trade.Union.Co-ordination.Council
                     SIDA.. .      Swedish.International.Development.Agency
                     SIPO.   .     Strategic.Indicative.Plan.for.the.Organ
                     UNDP. .       United.Nations.Development.Programme
                     UN.     .     United.Nations
                     USAID. .      United.States.Agency.for.International.Development.




iv   Abbreviations
Summary


   The international donor community has put in place processes with the
   objective of enhancing aid effectiveness for a number of years now. The Rome
   High-Level Forum on Harmonisation (2003) and the Marrakech Roundtable
   on Managing for Results (2004) set precedents for the Paris Declaration on Aid
   Effectiveness (2005) which remains a landmark document on aid effectiveness.
   SADC member states and their international cooperation partners adopted a
   similar declaration in Windhoek in April 2006. Both the Paris and Windhoek
   Declarations call upon donor institutions, developing and developed countries
   to increase their efforts to effectively utilise development resources on the basis
   of the principles of ownership, harmonisation, alignment, managing for results
   and mutual accountability. The challenge that remains is the implementation
   of the declarations and addressing some of the emerging issues, such as how
   they relate to non-state actors.


   A.key.objective.of.the.Dialogue.was.to.establish.     addressing.issues.of.the.quality.of.aid,.moving.
   the. extent. to. which. external. donor. support.     from.project.support.to.budget.support,.aid.
   to.southern.Africa.civil.society.organisations.       absorption.capacity.of.southern.Africa.CSOs,.
   (CSOs).is.being.affected.by.the.new.emphasis.         and. the. limited. participation. of. key. interest.
   on. aid. effectiveness.. The. argument. is. that.     groups. in. influencing. decisions. on. how. aid.
   there.is.a.significant.shift.in.the.way.donors.are.   is.given,.managed.and.utilised,.among.other.
   channelling.their.support.to.CSOs,.including.         issues.
   the.pooling.of.donor.support.through.national.
   and.regional.intermediaries..This.in.turn.has.the.    It.is.in.this.context.that.the.Southern.Africa.Trust.
   potential.to.shift.the.dynamics.in.the.way.CSOs.      commissioned.a.research.report.on.the.subject.
   can.influence.poverty.reduction.efforts..Some.        of.“Aid. Effectiveness:.Trends. and. Impacts. of.
   key. questions. about. the. nature. and. extent.      Shifting.Financial.Flows.to.CSOs.in.Southern.
   of. coherence. between. donor. country. level.        Africa”..The.research.findings.of.this.work.were.
   support.and.their.regional.support.to.CSOs.are.       presented.at.a.one-day.roundtable.discussion.
   also.emerging..For.example,.how.does.donor.           on.2nd.March,.2007.in.Gaborone,.Botswana.
   support.to.CSOs.working.on.poverty.reduction.
   at.the.national.level.link.to.those.CSOs.working.     The.roundtable.session.objectives.were:
   on.regional.initiatives.                              •. To. share. the. research. findings. of. the.
                                                            draft.Southern.Africa.Trust.commissioned.
   In. addition,. there. are. also. concerns. about.        research.
   the. pace. and. limited. impact. of. improving.       •. To.discuss.ways.of.strengthening.CSOs.so.
   aid. effectiveness. through. harmonisation.              as.to.ensure.they.can.effectively.access.and.
   (donor.cooperation).and.alignment.(support.              manage.aid.flows.(absorptive.capacity).to.
   to.partner.priorities),.especially.in.relation.to.       southern.Africa.
              •. To.discuss.effective.mechanisms.and.innova-             CSO.and.government.collaboration.and.
                 tive.sources.of.funding.for.CSOs.in.southern.           harmonisation..
                 Africa.
              •. To.discuss.future.opportunities.for.region-          f ). There.is.a.need.for.increased.dialogue.
                 al.CSO-Donor.engagement.in.southern.                      among.donors.and.CSOs.given.that.they.
                 Africa.                                                   have.a.crucial.role.to.play.in.the.aid.supply.
                                                                           chain.especially.given.their.diversity.and.
              1. Key Emerging Issues                                       specialisation..CSOs.need.to.enhance.col-
              Key. emerging. issues. from. the. dialogue. are.             laboration.amongst.each.other.to.have.a.
              outlined.as.follows:                                         greater.influence.on.policy.dialogue.
              a). The.relationship.between.donors.and.civil.
                  society.organisations.(CSOs).is.a.strong.one..      g). There.is.need.to.enhance.multi.donor.ap-
                  An.estimated.one-third.of.official.aid.goes.            proaches.that.support.CSOs.in.Southern.
                  to.CSOs.in.the.South...However,.CSOs.have.              Africa.to.increase.their.networking.and.
                  not.effectively.and.directly.utilised.platforms.        learning.capability,..support.Community.
                  for.discussions.about.aid.effectiveness.that.           Based.Organisations.(CBOs),.reduce.dupli-
                  have.been.taking.place.in.recent.years.                 cation,.encourage.innovation.and.enhance.
                                                                          the.objectives.of.the.Paris.and.Windhoek.
              b). CSOs.play.a.critical.role.in.the.poverty.reduc-         declarations.
                  tion.supply.chain.given.that.they.speak.for.
                  the.voiceless.“poor”;.they.ensure.transpar-         2. Way Forward
                  ency.and.accountability.and.contribute.to.          Key.aspects.of.a.way.forward.that.emerged.as.
                  the.policy.process..Therefore,.they.are.an.         outcomes.of.the.closing.discussion.were:
                  important.player.in.the.process.that.seeks.         a). The.need.for.increased.dialogue,.sharing.of.
                  to.make.aid.more.effective.and.responsive.              information,.learning,.and.analysis.in.the.aid.
                  to.the.needs.of.its.intended.constituents..    .        effectiveness.agenda,.and.for.building.rela-
                  There.is.need.for.greater.CSO.involvement.in.           tionships.amongst.CSOs.in.the.region,.in.a.
                  the.aid.effectiveness.debate.and.process.               forum.such.as.this..This.will.enable.increased.
                                                                          engagement.of.CSOs.in.policy.dialogue.and.
              c). There.is.a.greater.need.to.use.regional.and.            increased.voice.and.attention.by.donors.and.
                  national.CSOs.as.intermediary.vehicles.for.             government.in.areas.of.mutual.interest.
                  delivery.of.aid.as.well.as.trying.to.harness.
                  the.diversity.of.the.sector.in.ensuring.aid.        b). Ensuring.declarations.such.as.Paris.and.
                  benefits. its. intended. constituents. and.             Windhoek.are.conceptualised.through.a.
                  reduces.poverty.levels.in.southern.Africa.              consultative.process..This.can.be.done.by.
                  while.at.the.same.time.ensuring.that.there.             providing.space.for.full.engagement/.in-
                  is.sustainability.for.such.efforts..A.case.study.       volvement.of.CSOs.so.as.to.entrench.the.
                  of.the.Southern.Africa.Trust.was.used.to.il-            principle.of.ownership.and.facilitate.better.
                  lustrate.this.point.                                    implementation.of.these.treaties.

              d). The.research.findings.from.the.study.on.Aid         c). Assessing.the.role.and.impact.of.CSOs.in.
                  Effectiveness: Trends and Impacts of Shifting           the.SADC-Regional.Indicative.Strategic.
                  Financial Flows to CSOs in Southern Africa.             Development.Plan.(RISDP).process.will.
                  illustrate.that.aid.volume.to.the.Southern.             provide.a.good.pointer.to.the.alignment.
                  Africa.Development.Cooperation.(SADC).                  of.their.strategies.both.at.the.national.and.
                  region.is.increasing...Service.delivery.is.noted.       regional.level,.enabling.a.better.evaluation.
                  as.one.of.the.key.areas.where.donors.are.               of.their.strategies.based.on.their.strategic.
                  investing..                                             performance.

              e). Donors.are.supporting.CSOs.through.mul-             d). There.is.a.need.for.CSOs.to.take.leadership.in.
                  tiple.funding.agencies.and.a.variety.of.                the.aid.effectiveness.debate.by.harnessing.
                  support.models..There.is.need.for.greater.              their.diversity,.developing.their.institutional.




2   Summary
An estimated one-third of official aid goes to CSOs in
 the South. However, CSOs have not effectively and
 directly utilised platforms for discussions about aid
  effectiveness that have been taking place in recent
                                                years.


          architecture,.and.actively.engaging.donors.       f ). The.research.report.will.be.finalised.after.
          and.governments.in.dialogue.on.their.needs..           taking.account.of.this.dialogue.meeting..It.
          The.Southern.Arica.Trust.is.keen.to.take.on.           will.then.be.issued.publicly..Further.focus.
          a.proactive.role.to.help.develop.learning.             discussions.will.be.convened.to.concretise.
          and.analysis.and.effective.practices,.so.as.to.        recommendations.for.specific.action.
          ensure.greater.CSO.engagement.with.the.
          aid.effectiveness.agenda.in.southern.Africa..     Central. to. these. developments. is. a. need. to.
          Broader.participation.and.voice.is.needed.        engage.in.dialogue.at.different.levels,.initially.
          to.address.this.leadership.vacuum.because.        informally.as.CSOs.cultivate.trust.among.each.
          the.Trust.does.not.want.to.necessarily.take.      other.and.invest.in.collaborative.partnerships,.
          a.leadership.role.in.this.area..The.Trust.will.   thus. positioning. themselves. strategically. for.
          follow.up.on.the.outcomes.of.this.meeting.        Accra.2008.
          with.SADC,.key.CSOs.in.the.region.working.
          on.aid.delivery.issues,.and.donor.regional.       Overall,.CSOs.need.to.proactively.engage.in.
          programmes.to.take.forward.a.process.             a.continuous.structured.policy.dialogue.and.
          in.a.programmatic.way..This.may.include.          also.ensure.that.community.voices.are.directly.
          structured.mechanisms.to.ensure.better.           heard.in.this.dialogue.
          knowledge.of.aid.flows.and.mechanisms,.
          sustained.monitoring.of.trends.in.aid.flows,.     The.following.record.highlights.presentations.
          and.regular,.structured.dialogue.between.         and.discussions.during.the.different.sessions.
          the.various.interest.groups.                      of.the.roundtable.dialogue.

       e). The.adoption.of.a.strategic.approach.by.
           CSOs.in.the.region.to.provide.better.focus.
           and.participation.in.policy.dialogue.on.aid.
           is.required..Conceptualising.the.strategies.
           from.a.systems.perspective.and.investigat-
           ing.the.impact.of.processes.such.as.the.
           APRM.in.the.region.will.be.beneficial.
           Making a case for supporting
           civil society organisations
           in southern Africa, by Kemi
           Williams, DFID

                          The relationship between donors and civil society organisations (CSOs)
                          is a strong one in many respects, with an estimated one-third of official aid
                          now going through or directly to CSOs in the South. CSOs have not however
                          been directly involved in the discussions about aid effectiveness that have
                          been taking place in recent years. The session, thus explored some of the
                          reasons for donors supporting greater involvement by CSOs in this process
                          from the DFID perspective and its intended goal of being a responsible
                          donor within the framework of market forces that allows for an exit strategy
                          (strategic plans shifting from five years to ten years e.g. Ghana and South
                          Africa) by the donor while at the same time ensuring sustainability of aid
                          projects.



                          1. Role of CSOs in the poverty                         For.these.to.be.effective.there.should.be:
                          reduction supply chain                                 •. Good.governance.
                          The. Paris. Declaration. (global. focus). and.         •. Sound.policies.e.g..PRSPs.
                          Windhoek. Declaration. (indigenised. for. the.         •. Complementary.interaction.between.CSOs.
                          SADC. region). developed. the. principles. of.            and.governments.in.the.service.delivery.
                          harmonisation,. alignment,. ownership. and.               realm.
                          mutual.accountability..These.principles.are.to.
                          make.aid.more.effective.and.responsive.to.the.         Guiding. the. process. was. that. governments.
                          needs. of. its. intended. constituents..The. aim.      needed.to.formulate.appropriate.and.realistic.
                          was.to:.                                               poverty. reduction. strategies.. Recipient.
                          a). Minimise.transaction.costs.to.governments.         countries. were. expected. to. put. in. place.
                              receiving.and.giving.aid.                          governance.systems.that.were.deemed.to.be.
                          b). Promote.coherence.in.the.allocation.and.                                                            .
                                                                                 “good. enough”. so. as. to. access. donor. funds..
                              use.of.aid.to.the.realities.facing.its.intended.   Enabling.this.goal.of.aid.effectiveness.provided.
                              beneficiaries.                                     an.opportunity.for.CSOs.to.fill.gaps.in.service.
                          c). Minimise.duplication.of.roles.among.stake-         delivery.and.project.implementation.as.regards.
                              holders.in.the.aid.supply.chain.                   the.aid.supply.chain.and.the.intended.goal.of.
                          d). Ensure.donors.support.recipient.govern-            providing.the.optimal.benefit.to.the.intended.
                              ment.priorities.(appropriateness.enables.          recipients.of.that.aid.
                              ownership).




4   Making a case for supporting civil.society.organisations.in.southern.Africa,.by.Kemi.Williams,.DFID
  Recipient countries were expected to put in place
governance systems that were deemed to be “good
              enough” so as to access donor funds.




     The. role. of. CSOs. in. this. aid. supply. chain. is.   2. Case: Southern Africa Trust
     thus:                                                    The.decision.to.form.the.Trust.was.based.on.
     •. Speaking.for.the.voiceless.(poor).                    an.observation.that.CSOs.were.not.working.
     •. Ensuring.transparency.and.accountability.is.          efficiently. in. the. region. and. had. a. poor.
        upheld.by.aid.recipient.governments.                  absorptive.capacity.of.resources..The.role.of.
     •. Contributing.towards.evidence.based.policy.           the.trust.was.to.engage.in.grant.making.and.
        processes.and.formulation.                            capacity.building.of.CSOs.in.the.SADC.region..
     •. Increasing.collaboration.with.government.in.          This.required.indigenisation.of.strategies.for.
        the.process.to.ensure.the.aid.supply.chain.           greater.effectiveness.as.well.as.a.vehicle.for.DFID.
        is.focused,.of.good.quality.and.responsive.           to.outsource.the.allocation.and.management.
        to.the.appropriate.needs.of.its.intended.             of.its.donor.funds..An.initial.grant.of.ten.million.
        recipients.                                           pounds. sterling. over. a. five. year. period. was.
                                                              provided.to.the.trust..This.was.meant.to.reduce.
     CSOs.should.thus.be.proactive.and.involved.in.           the.transaction.costs.associated.with.aid...The.
     improving.aid.effectiveness.by:                          goal.was.to.enable.increased.aid.effectiveness.
     a). Engaging.in.aid.projects.that.truly.define.          and.greater.impact.on.its.intended.recipients..
          the.needs.of.the.poor.                              This.enabled.the.aid.supply.chain.to.be.more.
     b). Modelling.aid.effectiveness.strategies.based.        responsive.as.bureaucratic.levels.were.reduced,.
          on.what.is.appropriate.to.its.intended.             although.still.prevalent,.which.resulted.in.time.
          recipients.                                         lags.in.the.availability.of.aid..The.problem.can.
     c). Holding.aid.delivery.stakeholders.account-           be.solved.by.the.donor.being.a.responsible.
          able.for.“what”.(i.e..the.goal.of.the.policies/     one.as.most.CSOs.operate.on.a.hand.to.mouth.
          projects.to.be.implemented).and.“for.whom”.         basis;.hence.any.time.lag.drastically.affects.the.
          (i.e..the.intended.beneficiaries.of.the.policies.   outcome.of.a.project..
          and.projects).
     d). Engaging.in.critical.thinking.on.the.aid.in-         Using. the. Southern. Africa. Trust. as. an. aid.
          struments.used,.and.whether.they.promote.           delivery. vehicle. coincides. with. aid. flows. to.
          harmonisation.e.g..PRSPs.do.they.deliver.for.       the. SADC. region. increase. annually. with. the.
          the.poor,.how.accountable.are.they?                 budgetary.framework.of.the.United.Kingdom.
     e). Collaborating.with.governments.to.develop.           providing.more.allocations.to.CSOs..This.is.in.
          robust.(inclusive).PRSPs.that.set.the.founda-       line.with.a.goal.to.increase.British.foreign.aid.
          tion.for.true.mutual.accountability.                to. 0.7%. of. gross. domestic. product. by. 2013..
     f ). Piloting.and.adopting.the.Paris.principles.on.      Redundancies.in.DFID.staff.have.also.called.for.
          aid.effectiveness.and.identifying.their.ap-         innovative.allocation.of.funds.so.as.to.reduce.
          propriateness.in.a.specific.country/region.         the.transaction.cost.of.providing.aid.
      .
           The focus on increasing financial flows to
           developing countries by donor countries is offering
           opportunities for the greater participation of CSOs
           as governments struggle to utilise funds at their
           disposal.


                          3. Plenary Discussions                                  The. meeting. concluded. that. the. focus. on.
                          Discussions.on.this.presentation.centred.on:-           increasing. financial. flows. to. developing.
                          a). The.need.to.create.the.Southern.Africa.Trust.       countries. by. donor. countries. is. offering.
                              for.the.region.and.its.sustainability.after.exit.   opportunities.for.the.greater.participation.of.
                              by.donors.                                          CSOs.as.governments.struggle.to.utilise.funds.
                          b). CSOs.struggle.with.bureaucracy.by.donors/.          at.their.disposal..This.has.further.increased.the.
                              governments.and.attempts.to.address.                need.to. use.CSOs.as. vehicles.for. delivery. of.
                              this..                                              aid.as.well.as.trying.to.harness.the.diversity.
                          c). The.effectiveness.of.an.initiative.like.the.        of. the. sector. in. ensuring. aid. benefits. its.
                              Southern.Africa.Trust.in.representing.a.shift.      intended. recipients. and. reduces. poverty.
                              in.the.type.and.volume.of.aid.flowing.into.         levels.in.southern.Africa.while.maintaining.a.
                              the.region.                                         sustainability.mindset..
                          d). Sustainability.of.this.support.model.to.im-
                              prove.aid.effectiveness.
                          e). CSOs.offering.one.of.the.key.vehicles.for.
                              delivery.of.aid.
                          .




   Making a case for supporting civil.society.organisations.in.southern.Africa,.by.Kemi.Williams,.DFID
Research findings on aid effectiveness:
trends and impacts of shifting
financial flows to CSOs in southern
Africa, by Elling Tjonneland, Chr.
Michelsen Institute (CMI)


     The Southern Africa Trust commissioned a report on the impacts of
     the aid effectiveness debate on CSOs in southern Africa. The report is based
     on the collection of data from seven SADC countries- Botswana, Lesotho,
     Malawi, Mozambique, South Africa, Zambia and Zimbabwe. It identifies the
     main trends in aid flows and support models to civil society while assessing
     trends in relation to the principles of aid effectiveness. The following are the
     preliminary findings of the report.



     1. Research Findings                                 b). Aid.effectiveness.processes.are.advancing.
     The. research. findings. focus. on. four. main.          at.the.official.level.in.southern.Africa:
     areas:                                                   •. The.Windhoek.declaration.adopts.a.
     a). Aid.volume.to.CSOs.in.the.Southern.Africa.               home-grown.adaptation.of.the.Paris.
         Development.Community.(SADC).region.is.                  declaration.for.the.SADC.region,.thereby.
         increasing.with.service.delivery.dominating.             enabling.the.appropriateness.of.the.Paris.
         as.a.major.proportion.of.aid.to.CSOs.that.is.            Declaration.to.the.SADC.region..
         channelled.to..them.to.engage.in.sectors.
         such.as.health.and.education.:                   c). The.role.of.CSOs.in.improving.aid.effective-
         •. Substantial.but.difficult.in.quantifying.         ness.is.not.guided.by.a.coherent.strategic.
            due.to.the.classification.of.aid.by.donors.       approach:
            as.regards.the.definition.of.CSOs.                •. There.is.a.limited.focus.on.civil.society.as.
         •. Channelled.through.northern.NGO’s.that.              CSOs.are.mostly.seen.as.a.last.resort.for.
            act.as.an.intermediary.between.donor.                aid.disbursement.where.governments.
            governments.and.CSOs.                                have.failed,.coupled.with.weak.absorp-
         •. New.donors.from.foundations.via.ACBF.                tive.capacity.of.donor.aid.
            to.the.EU.through.the.formation.of.spe-           •. There.is.poor.but.growing.donor.coop-
            cial.purpose.vehicles.and.philanthropic.             eration.in.line.with.the.principle.of.har-
            endeavours.to.disburse.aid.                          monisation,.through.greater.collabora-
         •. Small.but.significant.direct.support.to.             tion.on.points.of.interest.in.policy.debate.
            advocacy.and.policy.engagement.due.to.               and.poverty.reduction.strategies.
            a.perceived.need.to.enable.stakeholder.           •. CSOs.are.not.guided.by.a.strategic.ap-
            reconciliation.                                      proach.as.regards.the.donors/govern-
                                ment.perceptions.of.CSOs..This.makes.              •. Increased.dialogue.among.donors.on.
                                areas.of.engagement.between.the.two.                  their.CSOs.support.experience.
                                adversarial.and.not.collaborative..There.is.       •. Increased.collaboration.by.donor.agen-
                                also.a.competitiveness.mindset.amongst.               cies.that.engage.in.similar.policy.and.
                                CSOs.working.addressing.aid.issues.and.               project.areas.
                                between.CSOs.and.governments.                      •. Ensuring.a.higher.probability.of.collabo-
                             •. There.is.a.diversity.of.funding.agencies.             ration.by.starting.dialogue.at.the.outset.
                                and.variety.of.support.models..This.is.               of.programmes.
                                evident.in.professional.CSOs.that.have.            •. Establishment.of.local.funding.facilities.
                                proven.effective.in.delivering.projects.              in.close.proximity.to.CSOs.
                                that.have.an.impact.on.the.poor..It.is.            •. Regional.CSO.support.facilities.such.as.
                                based.on.donor.agencies.identifying.                  the.Southern.Africa.Trust.should.collabo-
                                their.strengths.and.weaknesses,.thus.al-              rate.with.other.equivalent.initiatives.in.
                                lowing.for.specialisation.                            areas.of.mutual.interest.for.greater.im-
                                                                                      pact.through.expertise.and.reduced.
                          d). New.trends.are.emerging.out.of.the.aid.ef-              transaction.costs.
                              fectiveness.initiatives:
                              •. New.entry.points.for.policy.engage-            b). Challenges.and.opportunities.at.the.regional.
                                 ment.are.emerging.as.donors/govern-                level.should.be.identified.and.addressed..
                                 ments.see.an.increased.need.to.adopt.              The.challenges.presenting.themselves.are:
                                 a.multi-stakeholder.approach.in.policy.            •. Mechanisms.formulated.in.the.restructur-
                                 engagement..However,.this.should.be.                  ing.of.SADC.as.regards.it.Secretariat.and.
                                 done.between.CSOs.and.SADC.at.the.                    officially-recognised.apex.organisations.
                                 regional,.thematic.and.national.levels.               is.not.yet.functional.resulting.in.minimal.
                              •. Some.agencies.are.increasing.direct.                  dialogue.with.CSOs.
                                 support.to.CSOs.especially.in.countries.           •. Weak.absorptive.capacity.of.CSOs.in.
                                 where.donors.perceive.that.governance.                the.region.to.engage.in.regional.policy.
                                 is.not.good.enough.                                   issues.
                              •. There.is.more.focus.on.capacity.building.          •. The. thematic. groups. and. the. draft.
                                 of.CSOs.so.as.to.increase.their.absorptive.           Windhoek.Declaration.Implementation.
                                 capacity.and.functionality.in.this.dynamic.           Plan.does.not.provide.CSOs.an.adequate.
                                 environment.                                          framework.with.which.to.monitor.donors.
                              •. International.NGOs.from.donor.countries.              and.harness.opportunities.availing.them-
                                 are.accessing.more.funds.as.donor.gov-                selves.for.regional.development.
                                 ernments.outsource.aid.disbursements.              •. The.need.to.engage.CSOs.in.the.thematic.
                                 to.their.local.NGO’s.that.are.increasingly.           groups.so.as.to.build.networks.and.col-
                                 taking. space. in. the. southern. Africa.             laborative.partnerships.
                                 region.                                            •. The.extent.of.engagement.between.
                                                                                       SADC.and.CSOs.will.determine.the.bias.
                                                                                       to.accountability.between.the.donors.
                          2. Moving forward                                            and.the.populace.of.the.SADC.region.
                          a). The.paradox.of.harmonisation.and.diversity.           •. Ensuring.alignment.between.SADC’s.
                              is.that.too.much.harmonisation.will.nega-                regional.development.strategy.(RISDP.
                              tively.affect.CSO.diversity.which.emanate.               and.SIPO).and.national.development.
                              from.the.diverse.purposes,.organisational.               strategies.
                              structures.and.constituencies.of.CSOs..The.
                              extent.of.harmonisation.is.also.constrained.      c). The.opportunities.presenting.themselves.
                              due.to.the.inherent.diversity.of.interests.and.       are:
                              priority.areas.amongst.donors..This.being.so,.        •. Restructuring.of.SADC.has.factored.in.
                              attempts.at.enabling.effective.CSO.support.              avenues.that.offer.CSOs.greater.involve-
                              through.collaborative.frameworks.among.                  ment.and.mutual.accountability.
                              donors.can.be.accelerated.by:




    Research findings on aid effectiveness: trends.and.impacts.of.shifting.financial.
8
    flows.to.CSOs.in.southern.Africa,.by.Elling.Tjonneland,.Chr..Michelsen.Institute.(CMI)
     International NGOs from donor countries are
     accessing more funds as donor governments
 outsource aid disbursements to their local NGO’s
that are increasingly taking space in the southern
                                     Africa region.


       •. Formation.of.thematic.groups.for.donor.        d). Reflection.on.the.fundamentals.of.how.aid.
          coherence.in.SADC.offers.opportunities.             functions.as.the.underlying.power.dynamics.
          for.mobilising.development.finance.for.             are.in.favour.of.donors.
          the.region,.a.role.CSOs.can.effectively.       e). Attention.to.the.politics.involved.in.donor.
          engage.in.and.facilitate.                           interactions.
       •. Stakeholder.engagement.will.offer.CSOs.        f ). The.need.for.a.deeper.assessment.of.the.
          greater.voice.in.SADC.policy.dialogue.              pattern.of.allocation.of.funds.between.CSOs.
          and.enable.greater.perspective.of.evolv-            and.governments.
          ing.donor.trends,.especially.as.regards.       g). The.need.for.greater.attention.to.the.role.of.
          capacity.building.                                  the.private.profit-making.sector.in.the.aid.
                                                              effectiveness.agenda.
    d). Investment.in.enabling.and.enforcing.NGO.        h). The.need.to.identify.issues.that.motivate.
        coalitions.could.be.an.option.as.they.are.            better.aid.delivery.
        more.effective.and.united.to.a.common.goal.      i). Increased.domination.of.the.aid.agenda.by.
        in.influencing.policy.and.engaging.donors.            northern.NGOs.in.the.SADC.region,.
        in.various.issues..They.also.serve.as.a.more.    j). Efforts.being.made.by.northern.NGOs.in.
        potent.voice.in.articulating.the.issues.af-           harmonising.aid.so.as.to.minimise.demands.
        fecting.the.citizens.in.the.region.from.a.non.        on.CSOs.in.the.SADC.region.
        partisan.perspective,.an.aspect.conducive.       k). Gaps.in.service.delivery.in.the.SADC.region.
        to.growth.and.better.welfare.of.the.regions.          in.the.context.of.capacity.development..
        citizens.                                             This.calls.for.the.need.for.capacity.building.
                                                              among.CSOs.in.the.region.
                                                         l). That.the.harmonisation.principle.is.pegged.
    3. Plenary Discussions                                    on.the.strength.of.the.organisation.of.civil.
    Discussions. on. the. research. findings.                 society.and.its.diversity.in.the.region,.the.
    highlighted:                                              question.being.whether.one.size.fits.all.
    a). The.need.for.a.better.conceptualisation.and.          stakeholders.or.whether.aid.should.be.more.
        definition.of.CSOs.in.the.poverty.debate.             focused.on.a.case.by.case.basis.
    b). The.need.for.a.determination.of.issues.and.      m).The.need.to.explore.and.identify.the.spe-
        principles.to.guide.a.strategic.approach.by.          cific.roles.of.the.three.major.stakeholders.in.
        CSOs.so.as.to.be.able.to.be.more.account-             the.aid.effectiveness.agenda;.donors,.SADC.
        able.for.results.                                     Secretariat.and.CSOs.
    c). Engagement.of.CSOs.within.the.framework.         n). Increased.use.of.budget.support.by.donors.
        of.the.APRM.as.an.avenue.to.influence.the.            and.the.uneasy.relationship.between.CSOs.
        aid.effectiveness.debate.                             and.government.on.service.delivery.
            The paradox of harmonisation and diversity is that
            too much harmonisation will negatively affect CSO
            diversity which emanate from the diverse purposes,
            organisational structures and constituencies of
            CSOs.


                           o). The.effects.of.minimising.transaction.costs.    w).The.need.for.realism.about.what.CSOs.can.
                               on.operational.space.for.donors.and.CSOs.           and.cannot.do.
                           p). The.need.to.invest.in.the.diversity.of.CSOs.    x). The.need.for.identification.of.points.of.parity.
                           q). The.definition.of.capacity.requirements.as.         and.strategic.fits.among.different.CSOs.in.
                               regards.CSOs.and.how.much.should.be.in-             the.SADC.region.
                               vested.in.capacity.building.
                           r). The.effects.of.issuing.pre-determined.calls.    The.session.concluded.that.CSOs.have.a.crucial.
                               for.proposals.that.set.the.agenda.for.work.     role.to.play.in.the.aid.supply.chain.especially.
                               undertaken.                                     given.their.diversity.and.specialisation..This.is.
                           s). The.need.to.balance.reducing.transaction.       evident.from.the.research.findings.that.have.
                               costs.and.aid.effectiveness.                    noted.a.trend.of.increased.aid.to.CSOs.in.the.
                           t). The.need.for.greater.investment.in.public-      region..However,.CSOs.have.to.collaborate.so.
                               private.partnership.initiatives.                as.to.maintain.relevance.and.have.a.greater.
                           u). Need.for.SADC-based.CSOs.to.engage.             influence. on. policy. dialogue. and. points. of.
                               northern.NGO’s.to.ensure.their.operations.      engagement.in.the.aid.supply.chain..We.now.
                               are.aligned.to.national.and.regional.devel-     look.at.the.experience.of.one.such.agency.that.
                               opment.plans.                                   could. provide. such. an. avenue. of. collective.
                           v). The.need.to.develop.appropriate.strategies.     influence. for. CSOs. in. the. region. in. the. aid.
                               for.CSOs.to.influence.the.aid.debate.so.that.   effectiveness.process.
                               CSOs.are.not.just.passive.recipients.of.aid.




     Research findings on aid effectiveness: trends.and.impacts.of.shifting.financial.
10
     flows.to.CSOs.in.southern.Africa,.by.Elling.Tjonneland,.Chr..Michelsen.Institute.(CMI)
Multi-donor approaches to
southern African CSO institutional
development: challenges and
opportunities, by Neville Gabriel,
Southern Africa Trust


     The Southern Africa Trust was established with the aim of
     strengthening the engagement of regional CSOs in the development and
     implementation of policies aimed at overcoming poverty. As an organisation,
     it provides a useful example of and for a multi-donor approach to the
     institutional development of CSOs. The opportunities and challenges of this
     approach are discussed below.


     1. Emerging Learning from the                          The.purpose.of.the.Southern.Africa.Trust.is.thus,.
     Southern Africa Trust                                  to.support.deeper.and.wider.engagement.in.
     The.goal.of.the.Trust.is.for.regional.civil.society.   policy. dialogue. to. overcome. poverty. in. the.
     organisation.to.be:                                    region.
     •. Effective:.CSOs.should.have.a.regional.im-
        pact.on.policy.formulation.and.implementa-          Learning. outcomes. of. the. Southern. Africa.
        tion.so.that.policies.work.better.to.overcome.      Trust’s.approach.include:
        poverty..This.can.be.done.through.capac-
        ity.building.of.stakeholders.who.engage.in.         a). A.pragmatic.approach.that.is.based.on.the.
        policy.work..                                           realities.facing.targeted.constituencies,.
     •. Active:.CSOs.should.be.vocal.participants.in.           works.best..In.the.aid.effectiveness.debate,.
        policy.dialogue..This.is.done.by.facilitating.          the.approach.of.the.Trust.is.that.changes.are.
        CSO.engagement.in.policy.processes.                     happening.to.the.way.aid.is.provided.and.
     •. Inclusive:.Through.the.adoption.of.a.multi-             this.is.already.having.an.impact.of.CSOs.in.
        stakeholder.approach.to.widening.participa-             the.region..The.question.is.therefore:.what.
        tion.among.various.constituents.and.creat-              can.we.do.about.this.for.the.benefit.of.CSOs.
        ing.an.enabling.environment.for.excluded.               and.for.more.effective.poverty.reduction?
        civil.society.voices.
     •. Informed:.Sharing.learning.and.analysis.and.        b). Increased.support.to.CSO.capacity.building.
        building.knowledge.networks..This.will.im-              can.improve.aid.effectiveness.since.CSOs.
        pact.on.the.quality.of.evidence-based.policy.           are.part.and.parcel.of.the.aid.supply.chain..
        generation.                                             However,.CSOs.must.demonstrate.that.they.
     •. Resourced:.Support.to.policy.work.will.be.              credibly.and.legitimately.represent.voices.of.
        provided.through.the.allocation.of.grants.              the.poor.
                         c). Assessing.the.power.dynamics.in.aid.supply.           while.at.the.same.time.receiving.more.aid.
                             and.absorption.must.include.assessing.the.            allocations.for.them.to.disburse..This.impacts.
                             power.dynamics.amongst.different.interests.           on.their.efficiency,.hence.the.increased.need.
                             amongst.CSOs.as.well..There.are,.for.exam-            for.them.to.utilise.a.multi-donor.approach.so.
                             ple,.major.differences.of.interest.and.influ-         as.to.outsource.the.management.function.
                             ence.amongst.the.NGO.establishment.and.               to.reduce.their.own.transaction.costs.
                             community.based.organisations,.as.between.
                             bigger.and.better.resourced.professionalized.      Key.implications.of.these.learning.outcomes.
                             NGOs.and.other.types.of.NGOs.                      are.that:
                                                                                •. Access.to.aid.flows.is.a.challenge.for.most.
                         d). The.question.of.whether.it.is.advisable.for.          CSOs.due.to.an.increasing.concentration.
                             CSOs.to.access.funding.through.govern-                of.resources.in.fewer.recipients..Investment.
                             ments.in.southern.Africa.is.a.moot.question.          in.CSO.institutional.development.and.link-
                             since.it.is.only.a.question.of.which.govern-          ages/networks.provides.avenues.to.reduce.
                             ments.CSOs.will.be.willing.to.take.money.             duplicity.and.provide.greater.access.to.aid.
                             from,.either.through.direct.donor.aid.or.             as.well.as.greater.voice.in.policy.dialogue.
                             budget.support..Greater.engagement.be-
                             tween.CSOs.and.governments.is.required.in.         •. Attempts.to.increase.harmonized.aid.but.
                             southern.Africa.if.we.are.to.build.develop-           not.transform.operating.systems.means.
                             mental.states.that.are.sustainable..However,.         that.transaction.costs.are.reduced.for.do-
                             there.is.no.doubt.that.the.type.of.govern-            nors.but.at.least.the.same.level.of.capacity.
                             ment.that.CSOs.access.funding.from.will.              (if.not.more).is.required.amongst.beneficiar-
                             influence.the.shape.of.CSO.programmes.                ies.as.when.aid.is.not.harmonised..This.calls.
                                                                                   for.CSOs.to.increase.capacity.building.if.the.
                         e). Donor.administrative.systems.lag.behind.              problem.is.not.addressed..In.addition,.CSOs.
                             political.developments.in.aid.coherence,.re-          must.address.their.current.weakness.in.ab-
                             sulting.in.a.dysfunction.between.formation.           sorptive.capacity..Hence.more.aid.does.not.
                             of.policy.and.translation.of.those.policies.          necessarily.translate.into.more.effective.aid.if.
                             into.operating.systems,.negatively.affect-            operating.systems.and.capacity.constraints.
                             ing.the.intended.goal.of.aid.harmonisation.           are.not.addressed.
                             processes.
                                                                                •. The.role.of.intermediary.civil.society.support.
                         f ). The.increasing.deconcentration.of.donor.             agencies.therefore.becomes.more.impor-
                              delivery.mechanisms.to.regional.and.na-              tant.as.they.become.central.to.the.aid.ef-
                              tional.levels,.taken.together.with.a.reduction.      fectiveness.agenda.because.they.can.more.
                              in.administrative.capacity.by.most.donors,.          effectively.develop.harmonised.systems.
                              is.resulting.in.an.increased.concentration.
                              of.financial.resources.in.fewer.CSO.recipi-       •. There.is.already.evidence.of.some.innovative.
                              ents.according.to.a.kind.of.“bigger.is.better”.      aid.delivery.initiatives.in.the.region.that.are.
                              principle,.because.this.is.administratively.         centred.on.maximising.CSO.impact.in.policy.
                              easier..CSOs.that.benefit.are.mostly.well-           work.to.overcome.poverty..The.formation.of.
                              established,.big,.and.highly.professional.           the.Southern.Africa.Trust.is.a.case.in.point.
                              service.delivery.or.research-type.institutes..       that.has.seen.more.coherence.in.addressing.
                              This.is.changing.the.nature.of.civil.society.        the.role.of.CSOs.in.the.region,.such.as.this.
                              organisation.in.the.region.                          forum..Other.examples.include.initiatives.in.
                                                                                   Mozambique.and.Lesotho.
                         g). Many.donors.face.the.same.challenge.of.re-
                             duced.capacity.but.increased.budgets..This.
                             trend.is.evident.in.downsizing.of.donor.staff.




     Multi-donor approaches to southern African CSO institutional development:
12
     challenges and opportunities, by Neville Gabriel, Southern Africa Trust
Exploring future opportunities
for regional CSO-Donor
engagement in southern Africa


     Stakeholder engagement among CSOs, donors and governments in
     the SADC region is a crucial step aimed at improving interaction between
     the three role players in the aid effectiveness agenda and increased aid
     flows to the region. One example of an aid effectiveness initiative in the
     region is the establishment of thematic groups bringing together SADC
     members and donor countries. What opportunities are there for CSOs to
     engage in such initiatives? How can they best have input into future policy
     development related to aid flows to the region?


     1. Thematic group coordination                        •. Level.2,.incorporating.joint.SADC/.ICP.task.
     in SADC, by Tracy Zinanga, SADC                          forces.that.comprise.a.wider.network.of.
     Secretariat                                              stakeholders.within.the.SADC.region,.in-
                                                              cluding.core.groups.and.thematic.groups.
     The.adoption.of.the.Windhoek.declaration.in.
     April,.2006.heralded.the.beginning.of.a.new.          Thematic.groups.are.forums.that.specialise.on.
     partnership. between. SADC. and. ICP’s. that.         one.aspect.of.the.poverty.reduction.debate.
     marked. the. implementation. of. the. SADC.           such.as.health,.education.or.agriculture.that.
     common.agenda.based.on.the.principles.of.             constitute. priority. areas. in. the. debate..They.
     the. Paris. declaration.. The. objectives. of. the.   are.normally.led.by.a.designated.country..The.
     indigenised.Paris.declaration.(read.Windhoek.         objectives.of.these.thematic.groups.are:
     Declaration).were.to:                                 •. Fora.for.exchanging.ideas.and.enhancing.
     •. Ensure.regular.institutionalised.dialogue.for.        dialogue.on.strategic.issues.(consultation).
        constructive.engagement,.information.and.          •. Platform.for.networking/.confidence.build-
        experience.exchange.and.promotion.of.best.            ing.between.SADC.and.stakeholders.
        practices.on.development.cooperation.              •. Fora.for.coordinating.activities.to.avoid.
     •. Improve.coordination.between.ICP’s.and.               overlaps.(duplicity).and.achieve.maximum.
        SADC.in.order.to.ensure.more.effective.de-            synergies.with.other.donors.and.other.SADC.
        velopment.cooperation.mechanisms.with.                activities.
        a.view.to.achieving.maximum.impact.
                                                           The.allocation.of.these.thematic.groups.is.as.
     This. provided. two. levels. of. dialogue. within.    follows:
     SADC,.namely:                                         •. Trade.facilitation-.led.by.the.EU.
     •. Level.1,.composed.of.a.joint.ministerial.con-      •. Water-.led.by.Germany.
        sultative.conferences.that.brought.all.SADC.       •. HIV.and.Aids-.led.by.Sweden.
        member.countries.to.a.negotiating.forum.           •. Energy-.led.by.Norway.
        to.chart.the.way.for.the.SADC.region.              •. Transport-.led.by.DFID.
                         •. Agriculture.and.food.security-.led.by.DFID.        b). The.opportunities.the.role.of.the.UN.presents.
                         •. Natural.resources.and.environment.(yet.to.             to.CSO’S.are:
                            be.named).                                             •. Creating.new.collaborative.partnerships.
                                                                                      in.country.governments.and.regional.
                         Structures.utilised.to.manage.these.thematic.                treaties.enabling.increased.voice.of.CSOs.
                         groups.and.ensure.their.efficient.coordination.              as.representing.a.significant.constituency.
                         are:                                                         in.the.poverty.reduction.debate.espe-
                         •. SADC.Secretariat                                          cially.as.regards.policy.issues..
                         •. Lead.ICP.to.assist.SADC.in.facilitating.coor-          •. Helping.to.ensure.increased.transpar-
                            dination.of.other.ICP’s.involved.or.interested.           ency.and.mutual.accountability.for.all.
                            in.a.thematic.area,.and.to.strategically.advise.          players.in.the.aid.effectiveness.agenda..
                            the.Secretariat.and.other.SADC.structures.on.             This.enables.increased.professionalism.
                            ICP.comparative.advantages,.and.individual.               of.CSOs.and.exposure.to.development.
                            ICP.priorities.of.support.                                finance.in.the.region.
                                                                                   •. Increased.participation.in.the.service.
                         CSOs. can. engage. in. these. thematic. groups.              delivery.of.non.core.functions,.ensuring.
                         as. enshrined. in. the. SADC.Treaty..The. treaty.            national.ownership,.thereby.reducing.
                         provides.for.continuous.engagement.with.the.                 project.implementation.upheavals..
                         private.sector,.civil.society,.non-governmental.          •. Supporting.regional.peer.training.that.
                         organisations,. and. workers/. employer.                     will.see.increased.capacity.building.in.
                         organisations.                                               order.to.be.more.responsive.to.the.dy-
                                                                                      namic.environment.and.increase.their.
                         2. CSOs and aid effectiveness:                               absorptive.capacity.
                         future opportunities for                                  •. Active. participation. in. the. Ghana.
                         involvement, by Gert Danielsen,                              Consultation.Group.thereby.lending.
                         Programme Specialist-Aid                                     their.voice.to.the.policy.debate.and.
                                                                                      representing.a.significant.constituency.
                         Effectiveness, UNDP
                                                                                      in.the.debate..
                         a). The.United.Nations.role.in.the.aid.effective-         •. Harnessing.comparative.advantages.
                             ness.debate.is:                                          in.the.respective.regions.(SADC).and.
                             •. To.ensure.commitment.from.the.United.                 their. alignment. with. the. National.
                                Nations.Development.Group.to.the.aid.                 Development.Plans.of.their.respective.
                                effectiveness.agenda.and.move.up-                     countries.in.their.region.
                                stream.from.project.implementation.                •. Integrating.cross.cutting.issues.among.
                             •. As.a.key.supporter.to.national.govern-                stakeholders.to.reduce.duplicity.and.
                                ments.in.the.implementation.of.the.Paris.             achieve.more.voice.as.we.move.towards.
                                Declaration.                                          Accra.2008.
                             •. To.be.instrumental.in.the.capacity.de-             •. Ensuring.international,.regional.and.na-
                                velopment.of.national.institutions.so.                tional.commitments.are.upheld.such.
                                as.to.enable.them.be.responsive.in.this.              as.the.Paris.Declaration,.Millennium.
                                dynamic.environment.                                  Development.Goals,.Gleneagles.Summit,.
                             •. Harmonising.inter.agency.organs.so.as.to.             and.the.Windhoek.Declaration..
                                formulate.and.implement.one.cohesive.
                                action.plan..This.means.the.UN.can.speak.      c). These.opportunities.can.be.harnessed.and.
                                as.one.voice.in.the.poverty.alleviation.           monitored.towards.the.Ghana.Consultation.
                                debate.having.taken.in.the.views.of.its.           Group.(Accra.2008.and.2010)..This.develop-
                                agencies.                                          ment.will.serve.as.a.form.of.strategic.meas-
                             •. To.provide.country.support.towards.                urement.on.the.impact.CSOs.may.have.con-
                                Accra.2008.                                        tributed.to.the.poverty.reduction.debate..




14   Exploring future opportunities.for.regional.CSO-Donor.engagement.in.southern.Africa
  The challenge of on-going struggles for democratic
       spaces (that is political in nature), as CSOs are
     viewed in suspicion and the constituencies they
represent are vaguely defined due to lack of coherent
                                              strategies.


        3. Opportunities for CSOs to                            •. Diminishing.democracy,.that.is,.the.
        engage in these initiatives, by                            widening.gap.between.state.(including.
        Siphamandala Zondi, Institute                              donors).and.civil.society.in.some.coun-
        for Global Dialogue (IGD)                                  tries.makes.the.strengthening.of.regional.
                                                                   CSOs.an.exercise.in.futility..This.cripples.
        a). The.participation.of.CSOs.in.public.policy.            their.advocacy.for.the.constituencies.
            development.in.the.national.and.regional.              they.represent.in.policy.dialogue.
            arena.remains.highly.unexplored..The.in-            •. Weak.democratic.institutions.are.marked.
            volvement.of.the.private.sector.(real.busi-            by.poor.citizen.participation.in.policy.
            ness).and.donors.is.more.pronounced.and.               dialogue,.even.though.state.has.been.
            institutionalised.than.CSO.engagement.in.              opening.up.to.political.parties,.business.
            the.debate..This.could.be.attributed.to.three.         and.donors.
            major.factors:                                      •. Exemption.or.leniency.by.business.and.
            •. State.(government).attitude.to.the.con-             donors.when.it.comes.to.democratic.
               cept.of.participatory.democracy.and.de-             processes.in.government,.while.receiv-
               velopment.as.they.are.emerging.young.               ing.increased.aid.flows.to.facilitate.state.
               democracies.                                        initiatives.through.increased.budgetary.
            •. Poor.donor.support.for.strengthening.               support.
               regional/.domestic.debate.in.policy.for-         •. Fear.that.deepening.democracy.must.
               mulation.and.capacity.building.of.CSOs,.            mean.democratization.of.all.critical.spac-
               but.using.them.as.conduits.for.project.             es.through.an.inclusive.process.thereby.
               implementation.                                     facilitating.greater.CSO.involvement.in.
            •. Structural.constraints.within.the.CSO.sec-          policy.dialogue,.hence.the.need.to.stifle.
               tor;.CSO’S.fragmentation,.narrow.agen-              their.role.
               das/.issue.based,.poor.external.support,.
               possession.of.indistinct.constituencies,.     c). Exploratory.areas.that.could.increase.re-
               shifting.loyalties.due.to.poor.ideologies.        gional.CSO-Donor.engagement.in.southern.
               and.strategy.for.self.sustenance.                 Africa.are:
                                                                 •. Through.a.consultative.process,.CSOs.
        b). Analysing.the.macro.environment.within.                  need.to.reach.a.common.understanding.
            which.CSOs.operate,.presents.certain.char-               of.their.role.in.policy.dialogue,.without.
            acteristics.of.this.particular.environment:              which.there.can.be.no.effective.collabo-
            •. The.challenge.of.on-going.struggles.for.              rative.partnerships.at.the.regional.level.
               democratic.spaces.(that.is.political.in.              and.in.thematic.groupings.
               nature),.as.CSOs.are.viewed.in.suspicion.         •. CSOs.have.to.develop.a.common.agen-
               and.the.constituencies.they.represent.are.            da,.set.of.priorities.and.key.engagement.
               vaguely.defined.due.to.lack.of.coherent.              strategies.based.on.a.shared.conceptual.
               strategies.                                           framework..The.consequence.being,.the.
                                 sector.will.have.limited.influence.(lobby-     e). CSOs.can.provide.input.to.future.policy.de-
                                 ing.power).against.well.organised.sectors.         velopment.and.related.aid.flows.in.the.SADC.
                                 (state.and.donors).in.policy.dialogue.             region.by:
                            •.   CSO.participation.in.thematic.groups.              •. Changing.their.culture.from.adversarial.
                                 should.not.substitute.for.policy.dialogue.            to.collaborative,.harnessing.their.synergy,.
                                 with.donors,.states.and.SADC.on.politi-               diversity.and.unity.
                                 cal-development.questions,.but.should.             •. CSOs.have.to.agree.on.a.proper.CSO.
                                 form.a.practical.dimension.of.multi-fac-              regional.platform.such.as.SADC.NGO,.
                                 eted.engagement.in.policy.dialogue.                   SARPN-style..It.could.be.informal.at.
                            •.   We.should.encourage.continuous.in-                    first.
                                 ter-CSO.conversations.and.region.wide.             •. Consolidate.thematic.focuses.in.con-
                                 networks.to.develop.common.ideas,.                    formity.with.the.Windhoek.declaration.
                                 approaches.and.strategies.suitable.for.               at.national.and.regional.level.
                                 the.highly.dynamic.environment.they.               •. Invest.in.research.into.what.should.be.
                                 operate.in.                                           key.priorities,.positions.and.engage-
                            •.   CSOs.should.continuously.probe.policy.                ment.strategies.for.CSOs.in.inter.CSO.
                                 and.harness.their.rich.variety.of.experi-             conversations..
                                 ence/.expertise,.levels.of.access.to.state.        •. Promote. harmony. and. institution-
                                 and.communities.and.various.strategic.                al. concordance. through. increased.
                                 focuses..They.will.then.be.able.to.effec-             collaboration.
                                 tively.participate.at.every.level.of.en-           •. Integrate.other.on-going.processes.
                                 gagement.and.on.any.issue.on.the.table..              such.as.ECOSOCC,.NEPAD,.RISDP.e.g..to.
                                 This.can.be.done.by.the sector organising             avoid.bureaucracy,.increase.response.
                                 itself in a neat body of institutions.                and.impact.on.intended.ultimate.aid.
                            •.   The.region’s.CSOs.need to increase en-                recipients.
                                 gagement with CSOs in the north and                •. Parallel.engagement.at.national.and.re-
                                 elsewhere..This.is.meant.to.share.experi-             gional.level.with.common.agenda.will.
                                 ences,.build.strategic.relationships.and.             ensure.effectiveness.
                                 fronts.in.donor.countries.so.as.to.be.             •. Formal.engagement.with.organised.
                                 incorporated.from.the.onset.of.policy.                donors.and.private.sector.(CHAMSI).to.
                                 dialogue.till.the.point.of.aid.flow.to.im-            establish.bonafide.relationships.
                                 plement.the.given.policy.initiative.               •. Establish.channels.of.engagement.with.
                                                                                       international.NGO’s,.especially.from.the.
                         d). The.effectiveness.of.this.engagement.is.de-               global.north.
                             pendent.on.three.vectors.of.fundamental.
                             change.in.the.mind.set.of.the.three.role.          The.discussions.highlighted.on.the.following.
                             players.in.the.policy.dialogue,.namely;            points:
                             •. Change.in.the.state-civil.society.relation-     •. The.need.to.invest.collaborative.partnerships.
                                ship.from.adversarial.to.collaborative.            among.CSOs.for.information.and.access.to.
                             •. A.shift.in.donor.thinking.from.viewing.            community.assets.in.Black.economic.em-
                                CSOs.as.extensions.of.donor.arms.to.               powerment.(BEE).transactions.
                                recognising.their.independent.mandate.          •. The.need.to.conduct.research.in.respect.to.
                                and.role.in.society.is.critical..This.can.be.      the.regional.aspects.of.poverty.in.the.SADC.
                                done.through.increased.support.to.CSO.             region.
                                development.in.an.effort.to.deepen.de-          •. Formulation.of.declarations.and.policy.
                                mocracy,.and.not.as.a.substitute.of.state,.        should.be.through.consultative.processes.
                                as.is.currently.the.forte.among.donors.         •. The.need.to.share.experiences.among.CSOs.
                             •. Investment.in.collaborative.partnerships.          on.engagements.with.donors.in.the.SADC.
                                by.CSOs.on.points.of.parity.in.key.policy.         region.
                                debates..




1   Exploring future opportunities.for.regional.CSO-Donor.engagement.in.southern.Africa
    A shift in donor thinking from viewing CSOs as
     extensions of donor arms to recognising their
independent mandate and role in society is critical.



     •. Time.constraints.to.CSO.engagement.with.        The. meeting. concluded. that. opportunities.
        regional.SADC.structures.should.be.ad-          that. exist. for. increased. regional. CSO-Donor.
        dressed,.given.the.under-capacity.and.heavy.    engagements. in. southern. Africa. should. be.
        demands.placed.on.CSOs.                         strengthened.. This. can. be. done. through. a.
     •. Points.of.engagement.in.meetings.on.policy.     consultative.framework.and.processes.amongst.
        should.be.addressed.so.as.to.eliminate.rub-     CSOs.in.the.region.so.as.to.achieve.critical.mass.
        berstamping.policy.directives.formulated.       and. lobbying. power. through. adoption. of. a.
        without.consultative.processes.                 stakeholder.engagement.mindset..Adopting.
     •. The.need.for.increased.and.continuous.en-       such.a.mind.set.will.enable.increased.output.of.
        gagement.in.SADC.consultative.groups.by.        CSOs.in.future.policy.development.dialogues.
        CSOs.in.the.region.                             with. donors. and. their. related. aid. flows. for.
     •. Initiation.of.discussions.away.from.northern.   the.benefit.of.their.intended.recipients.in.the.
        NGO’s.among.CSOs.in.the.region.                 pursuit.of.poverty.reduction.in.the.region.
     •. Seeking.opportunities.for.CSOs.that.arise.
        from.policy.debates.in.the.SADC.region..
     •. Poverty.discussions.should.be.approached.
        from.an.inter.sectoral.angle.
     •. Thematic.discussions.should.connect.with.
        grass.root.experience.and.the.changing.hu-
        man.conditions.in.the.region.
           Way Forward



                   Key aspects of a way forward that emerged as outcomes of the closing
                   discussion were:


                   a). The.need.for.increased.dialogue,.sharing.of.          address.this.leadership.vacuum.because.the.
                       information,.learning,.and.analysis.in.the.aid.       Trust.does.not.want.to.necessarily.take.a.lead-
                       effectiveness.agenda,.and.for.building.rela-          ership.role.in.this.area..The.Trust.will.follow.up.
                       tionships.amongst.CSOs.in.the.region,.in.a.           on.the.outcomes.of.this.meeting.with.SADC,.
                       forum.such.as.this..This.will.enable.increased.       key.CSOs.in.the.region.working.on.aid.deliv-
                       engagement.of.CSOs.in.policy.dialogue.and.            ery.issues,.and.donor.regional.programmes.
                       increased.voice.and.attention.by.donors.and.          to.take.forward.a.process.in.a.programmatic.
                       government.in.areas.of.mutual.interest.               way..This.may.include.structured.mechanisms.
                                                                             to.ensure.better.knowledge.of.aid.flows.and.
                   b). Ensuring.declarations.such.as.Paris.and.              mechanisms,.sustained.monitoring.of.trends.
                       Windhoek.are.conceptualised.through.a.                in.aid.flows,.and.regular,.structured.dialogue.
                       consultative.process..This.can.be.done.by.            between.the.various.interest.groups.
                       providing.space.for.full.engagement/.in-
                       volvement.of.CSOs.so.as.to.entrench.the.           e). The.adoption.of.a.strategic.approach.by.
                       principle.of.ownership.and.facilitate.better.          CSOs.in.the.region.to.provide.better.focus.
                       implementation.of.these.treaties.                      and.participation.in.policy.dialogue.on.aid.
                                                                              is.required..Conceptualising.the.strategies.
                   c). Assessing.the.role.and.impact.of.CSOs.in.              from.a.systems.perspective.and.investigat-
                       the.SADC-Regional.Indicative.Strategic.                ing.the.impact.of.processes.such.as.the.
                       Development.Plan.(RISDP).process.will.                 APRM.in.the.region.will.be.beneficial.
                       provide.a.good.pointer.to.the.alignment.
                       of.their.strategies.both.at.the.national.and.      f ). The.research.report.will.be.finalised.after.
                       regional.level,.enabling.a.better.evaluation.           taking.account.of.this.dialogue.meeting..It.
                       of.their.strategies.based.on.their.strategic.           will.then.be.issued.publicly..Further.focus.
                       performance.                                            discussions.will.be.convened.to.concretise.
                                                                               recommendations.for.specific.action.
                   d). There.is.a.need.for.CSOs.to.take.leadership.
                       in.the.aid.effectiveness.debate.by.harnessing.     Central.to.these.developments.is.a.need.to.engage.
                       their.diversity,.developing.their.institutional.   in.dialogue.at.different.levels,.initially.informally.as.
                       architecture,.and.actively.engaging.donors.        CSOs.cultivate.trust.among.each.other.and.invest.
                       and.governments.in.dialogue.on.their.needs..       in. collaborative. partnerships,. thus. positioning.
                       The.Southern.Africa.Trust.is.keen.to.take.on.      themselves.strategically.for.Accra.2008.
                       a.proactive.role.to.help.develop.learning.
                       and.analysis.and.effective.practices,.so.as.to.    Overall,.CSOs.need.to.proactively.engage.in.
                       ensure.greater.CSO.engagement.with.the.            a.continuous.structured.policy.dialogue.and.
                       aid.effectiveness.agenda.in.southern.Africa..      also.ensure.that.community.voices.are.directly.
                       Broader.participation.and.voice.is.needed.to.      heard.in.this.dialogue.




18   Way Forward
APPENDIX:
List of Participants


     Donor Roundtable Dialogue held on 2 March, 2007 at the Gaborone
     International Convention Centre in Gaborone, Botswana


     Donors
     Cindy Lopez-Bento, EC Gaborone
     Horst Michael Vogel, GTZ Gaborone
     Fred Wayne McDonald, USAID Gaborone
     Frederic Berard, French Embassy
     Helmut Mueller-Glodde, GTZ
     Janette Hetherton, NZAID Zimbabwe
     Jean-Didier Oth, Second Secretary (Development), Canadian High Commission
     Katarina Fried, SIDA Botswana
     Kemi Williams, DFID Southern Africa (speaker)
     Monica Moore USAID Gaborone
     Odile Dayak, French Embassy
     Overson Chiyaka, Hivos
     Rosa Ongeso, ACBF Harare
     Sonja Kurz, GTZ
     Stacey Greene, AusAID
     Subethri Naidoo, DFID Southern Africa
     Thato Jansen, USAID Gaborone
     Yvon Ruf, GTZ
                           Civil Society, Governmental and Other Organizations
                           Abie Ditlhake, SADC-CNGO
                           Alfredo Nuvunga, Deputy High Commissioner, Mozambique
                           Andrea Rogers, Synergos Institute
                           Charmaine Estment, CAGE
                           Donald Ndwandwe, Swaziland SADC National Office
                           Penelope Plowman, Facilitator
                           Sehoai Santho, Lesotho
                           Siphamandla Zondi, IGD (speaker)
                           Elling Tjonneland, CMI (speaker)
                           Farai Zizhou, BIDPA Gaborone
                           Innocent Nkata, Oxfam GB
                           Ishamel Sunga, SACAU
                           Gert Danielsen, UNDP (speaker)
                           Jorges Borges, Centre for the Development and Enterprise
                           Kaitira Kandjii, Media Institute of Southern Africa
                           Linda Scott Idhenga, Namibian High Commission, Botswana
                           Mafefe Mutombo, Embassy of DRC, Botswana
                           Moreblessings Chidaushe, AFRODAD
                           Moses Kachima, SATUCC
                           Neville Gabriel, Southern Africa Trust (speaker)
                           Nina Solberg Nygaar, Norwegian Church Aid, Gaborone
                           Ozias Tungwarara, AfriMAP
                           Phillip Mavulu, Acting Namibian High Commissioner, Botswana
                           Shelia Bunwaree, Mauritius
                           Sue Mbaya, SARPN
                           Tafadzwa Ndoro, SARDC
                           Thusani Mulaudzi, South Africa High Commission, Gaborone
                           Tracy Zinanga, SADC Secretariat (speaker)
                           Barbara Kalima-Phiri, Southern Africa Trust
                           Themba Mhlongo, Southern Africa Trust
                           Elizabeth Byaruhanga, Southern Africa Trust
                           Petronilla Ndebele, Southern Africa Trust
                           Titise Make, Southern Africa Trust




20   APPENDIX:.List.of.Participants.
                       PO Box 1234
                     Halfway House
                           Midrand
                              1685
                       South Africa

                  1st Floor, Block A
         Samrand Development Bldg
              No.1 Samrand Avenue
                            Midrand
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                Tel. +27 11 313 3065
               Fax. +27 12 657 9237
E-mail: info@southernafricatrust.org
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