Answer Key Freshie study guide • 1. cant • 2. chagrin • 3. parasite • 4. enthrall • 5. posthumous • 6. candid • 7. zealous • 8. dexterous • 9. sinister • 10. ephemeral • 11. hypocrisy • 12. mercurial • 13. utopian • 14. haggard • 15. mentor • 16. havoc • 17. scruple • 18. curtail • 19. agnostic • 20. enigmatic • 21. nepotism • 22. nebulous • 23. procrustean • 24. denigrate • 25. prosaic • 26. docile • 27. boycott • 28. ignominy • 29. aboveboard • 30. anecdote 31. Bedlam 32. Martinet 33. Indolent 34. Meander 35. Precocious 36. Scapegoat 37. Aegis 38. Jaded 39. Atone 40. lewd • 41. succinct • 42. prevaricate • 43. aloof • 44. jovial • 45. saturnine Word History • 1. aegis • 2. auspicious • 3. jaded • 4. atone • 5. lewd • 6. succinct • 7. prevaricate • 8. aloof • 9. curtail • 10. travesty • 11. scruple • 12. havoc • 13. mentor • 14. haggard • 15. utopian • 16. mercurial • 17. hypocrisy • 18. zealous • 19. candid • 20. posthumous • 21. enthrall • 22. parasite • 23. cant • 24. ephemeral • 25. dexterous • 26. sinister • 27. ignominy • 28. aboveboard • 29. anecdote • 30. bedlam • 31. martinet • 32. meander • 33. precocious • 34. scapegoat • 35. agnostic • 36. nepotism • 37. enigmatic • 38. nebulous • 39. denigrate • 40. boycott Definitions 1. boycott 2. Docile 3. Prosaic 4. Denigrate 5. Procrustean 6. Blatant 7. Nebulous 8. Enigmatic 9. Nepotism 10. Agnostic 11. Shibboleth 12. Scapegoat 13. Precocious 14. Meander 15. indolent 16. Martinet 17. Bedlam 18. Anecdote 19. Aboveboard 20. Ignominy 21. Sinister 22. Ephemeral 23. Dexterous 24. Cant 25. Chagrin 26. Parasite 27. Enthrall 28. Posthumous 29. Candid 30. zealous • 31. hypocrisy • 32. diffident • 33. mercurial • 34. utopian • 35. haggard • 36. havoc • 37. mentor • 38. scruples • 39. travesty • 40. curtail • 41. saturnine • 42. jovial • 43. aloof • 44. prevaricate • 45. succinct • 46. lewd • 47. atone • 48. jaded • 49. auspicious • 50. aegis Romeo and Juliet—Sample quotes!! I hope you highlighted the selected quotes. • 1. Romeo: “O, I am Fortune’s fool!” • 2. Juliet: “Thy lips are warm!” • 3. Old Capulet: “ I tell thee what: get thee to church o’ Thursday, /or never after look me in the face. / Speak not; reply not; do not answer me./ My fingers itch.” • 4. Montague: “ But I can give thee more,/ For I will ray her statue in pure gold,/ There shall no figure at such rate be set/ As that of true and faithful Juliet.” • 5. Nurse: “ Go girl. Seek happy nights to happy days.” • 6. Friar Lawrence: “Wisely and slow. They stumble that run fast.” • 7. Mercutio: “A plague on both your houses.” • 8. Benvolio: “I do but keep the peace. Put up thy sword,/ Or manage it to part these men with me.” • 9. Tybalt: “ Romeo, the love I bear thee can afford / No better term than this: thou art a villain.” • 10. Prince: “Where be these enemies. . .Capulet, Montague, / See what a scourge is laid upon your hate. . .” • 11. Lady Capulet: “ I wish the fool were wedding to her grave.” • 12. Lady Montague: “O where is Romeo? Saw you him today? Right glad I am he was not at this fray.” • 13. Paris: “ Happily met, my lady and my wife.” • Iambic pentameter: a common meter in poetry consisting of an unrhymed line with five feet or accents, each foot containing an unaccented syllable and an accented syllable . One line of iambic pentameter contains 10 syllables. – Sonnet: 14 lines/ a poem with a particular rhyme scheme – Prologue: a sonnet – Blank verse: unrhymed iambic pentameter – Fate: reference to the heavens or the stars. Romeo and Juliet believe they are victims of fate. • Romeo’s characterization: hasty, impetuous. • Those who die: Mercutio, Tybalt, Paris, Romeo, Juliet, Lady Montague • Doubling: when actors play more than one character/ role in a play • Irony: Romeo and Juliet is full of dramatic irony—when the reader(s)/ audience know(s) more than the characters • How the Friar’s plan goes astray: Romeo doesn’t receive the letter; Balthasar brings Romeo news from Verona; Capulet moves the wedding day unexpectedly. • Soliloquy: a character is all alone on stage and speaks to the audience as if speaking to him or herself • Aside: a character is accompanied on the stage and speaks to the audience as if speaking to him or herself • Conflict: the feud between the Capulets and the Montagues • Characterize Tybalt: he has a hot, fiery temper and he loves to fight. • In order, who abandons Juliet: Lord Capulet, Lady Capulet, Nurse, Friar Lawrence • The Prince loses: Mercutio and Paris. • Romeo: is a DYNAMIC character. • The climax of the play: Romeo kills Tybalt and is banished • Characterize Capulet: he is very mercurial. • Who acts as the messenger: the Nurse • How many days: 5 days • Who would play Juliet? : a young boy • Biting one’s thumb, a compliment? : NO • A pun: a play on words THE TRAGEDY OF ROMEO AND JULIET by William Shakespeare – Grammar and Style EXERCISE 1 PARTS OF SPEECH Identify the parts of speech in the following sentences. Label the underlined words: v = verb n = noun adj = adjective adv = adverb prep = preposition pron = pronoun int = interjection conj = conjunction ACT I ADJ 1. What noise is this? Give me my long sword, ho! ADV 2. Younger than you, here in Verona, ladies of esteem, are made already mothers. N 3. Did my heart love till now? Forswear it, sight! For I ne’er saw true beauty till this night. ACT II V 4. She speaks, yet she says nothing. V 5. Wisely and slow. They stumble that run fast. ADV 6. Therefore love moderately: long love doth so; too swift arrives as tardy as too slow. ACT III PREP 7. So tedious is this day as is the night before some festival to an impatient child that hath new robes and may not wear them. PRON 8. Hath Romeo slain himself? ADJ 9. Ask for me tomorrow, and you shall find me a grave man. CONJ 10. It was the nightingale, and not the lark, that pierced the fearful hollow of thine ear. ACT IV V 11. Come you to make confession to this father? PRON 12. Ah, Juliet, I already know thy grief; it strains me past the compass of my wits. N 13. Nurse, will you go with me into my closet to help me sort such needful ornaments as you think fit to furnish me tomorrow? ACT V INT 4. Ah me! how sweet is love itself possessed, when but love’s shadows are so rich in joy! N 15. How fares my Juliet? That I ask again, for nothing can be ill if she be well. THE TRAGEDY OF ROMEO AND JULIET by William Shakespeare – Grammar and Style EXERCISE 9 STYLE: FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE Identify the figurative language in the following sentences. Label underlined words: p = personification s = simile m = metaphor o = onomatopoeia h = hyperbole ACT I O 1. In the instant came the fiery Tybalt, with his sword prepared; which, as he breathed defiance to my ears, he swung about his head and cut the winds, who, nothing hurt withal, hissed him in scorn. P 2. If I profane with my unworthiest hand this holy shrine, the gentle sin is this; my lips, two blushing pilgrims, ready stand to smooth that rough touch with a tender kiss. ACT II M 3. It is the East, and Juliet is the sun! S 4. My bounty is as boundless as the sea, my love as deep; the more I give to thee, the more I have, for both are infinite. H 5. A thousand times good night! P 6. The grey-eyed morn smiles on the frowning night, check’ring the Eastern clouds with streaks of light . . . ACT III S 7 No, ‘tis not so deep as a well, nor so wide as a church door; but ‘tis enough, ‘twill serve. P 8. Come, civil night, thou sober-suited matron, all in black, and learn me how to lose a winning match, played for a pair of stainless maidenhoods. H 9. That ‘banished,’ that one word ‘banished,’ hath slain ten thousand Tybalts. H 10. . . . beg pardon of the Prince, and call thee back with twenty thousand times more joy than thou went’st forth in lamentation. M 11. Night’s candles are burnt out, and jocund day stands tiptoe on the misty mountain tops. ACT IV S 12. Death lies on her like an untimely frost upon the sweetest flower of all the field. THE TRAGEDY OF ROMEO AND JULIET by William Shakespeare – Grammar and Style EXERCISE 10 STYLE: POETIC DEVICES Identify the poetic devices in the following sentences by labeling the underlined words: a. assonance b. consonance c. alliteration d. repetition e. rhyme ACT I Rhyme 1. Two households, both alike in dignity,/ In fair Verona, where we lay our scene,/From ancient grudge break to new mutiny, /Where civil blood makes civil hands unclean. Alliteration 2. Go thither, and with unattainted eye compare her face with some that I shall show, and I will make thee think thy swan a crow. Rhyme3. Did my heart love till now? / Forswear it, sight! / For I ne’er saw true beauty till this night. ACT II Consonance 4. He heareth not, he stirreth not, he moveth not; the ape is dead, and I must conjure him. Repetition 5. These violent delights have violent ends and in their triumph die, like fire and powder, which, as they kiss, consume. ACT III Assonance 6. Come, come, thou art as hot a Jack in thy mood as any in Italy; and as soon moved to be moody, and as soon moody to be moved. Consonance 7. It were a grief so brief to part with thee. ACT IV Repetition 8. O, shut the door! and when thou hast done so, come weep with me –past hope, past cure, past help! Alliteration 9. Sirrah, go hire me twenty cunning cooks. Alliteration 10. The sun for sorrow will not show his head. THE TRAGEDY OF ROMEO AND JULIET by William Shakespeare – Grammar and Style EXERCISE 12 STYLE: ALLUSIONS AND SYMBOLS Identify the allusions and symbols in the following sentences. Label the underlined words: a. historical b. mythological c. religious d. folklore and superstition ACT I Myth 1. She’ll not be hit with Cupid’s arrow. Religious 2. For saints have hands that pilgrims’ hands do touch, and palm to palm is holy palmers’ kiss. ACT II Religious 3 O, speak again bright angel! for thou art as glorious to this night, being o’er my head, as is a winged messenger of heaven . . . Religious 4. Call me but love, and I’ll be new baptized; henceforth I never will be Romeo. Myth 5. At lovers’ perjuries, they say Jove laughs. Myth 6. Bondage is hoarse and my not speak aloud, else would I tear the cave where Echo lies and make her airy tongue more hoarse than min with repetition Myth 7. . . . and flecked darkness like a drunkard reels from forth day’s path and Titan’s fiery wheels. Historical 8. Laura, to his lady, was a kitchen wench (marry, she had a better love to berhyme her), Dido a dowdy, Cleopatra a gypsy, Helen and Hero hildings and harlots, Thisbe a grew eye or so, but not to the purpose. Religious 9. There is no world without Verona walls, but purgatory, torture, hell itself. Proofreading exercise • Passage 1 Passage 2 1. C 1. A 2. D 2. B 3. A 3. A 4. B 4. C 5. B 5. B 6. C 6. A Lord of the Flies Protag: Ralph Antag: Jack Exposition: The boys crash on an uninhabited island; there are no adults so the boys must fend for themselves; there is an immediate conflict for the leadership position—Jack wants to be leader; main characters: Ralph, Jack, Piggy, and Simon • Rising action: Increased tension between the two groups—Ralph’s and Jack’s group— Ralph’s stresses the need for fire to return to civilization, order and rules, and huts while Jack wants to hunt and kill. • Climax: The boys kill Piggy • Falling action: the boys hunt Ralph • Resolution: Some of the boys make it off the island/ return to civilization • Foreshadowing: Simon’s death is foreshadowed several times (the boys mistake him for the beast) and Piggy’s death is also foreshadowed (they hunt and eat pig on the island) • Themes: the need for civilization, loss of innocence, blindness and sight, the uses and abuses of power, and the loss of identity Symbols: Ralph: Order, democracy, civilizing impulse Piggy: intelligence, reason Simon: Christ-like, a pure soul Jack: Anarchy, disorder Roger: Brute force, pure evil Littluns: the common man The older boys: the ruling class The island as a whole: a microcosm of a macrocosm The conch shell: island government Piggy’s glass: insight, tools of civilization The signal fire: rescue, hope, link to civilization The beast: fear of the unknown The Lord of the Flies: the evil within the boys/ physical manifestation of the beast The flies: the followers of evil The butterflies: the followers of good • There is irony in these words: “We’ve got to have rules and obey them. After all, we’re not savages.” Who says them? • Jack • What is ironic about the novel’s ending? • The boys are leaving their “small scale war” to return to the “big war” going on at home. Jack lights the fire that saves Ralph and the other boys. • What meaning does Golding infuse into the fire: destruction AND hope • What symbolizes the boys’ break from civilization? They stop following the rules, and they no longer work together. What powers does Jack ascribe to the beast? Immortality and the ability to change shapes • What are the first clues that life on the island will not be “paradise” ? The author’s description of the island • What requires communal effort? Tending the fire, building huts, using one space as the “lavatory.” • What sign came down from the grown-up’s world? A parachutist/ beast from air • What was Golding’ s premise for writing this novel? He wanted to show that without civilization, man reverts back to his primitive nature. • Who is Jack’s henchman? Roger • What does the Lord of the Flies mean? Devil • How do the boys react to their new environment? Initially, they are excited! • What shape is the island? Boat • The boy with the birthmark is the first child to die on the island. Review , R & J • Answers Act I, scenes I and 2 • 1. The setting is a street scene in Verona, Italy. • 2. The play opens with a conflict between the Capulet and Montague servants. Eventually, even the townspeople become involved. • 3. Benvolio tries to stop the fighting among the servants. • 4. Tybalt is aggressive and eager to fight. He challenges Benvolio to draw his sword. • 5. The Prince decrees that if anyone breaks the peace again, he shall pay with his life. • 6. Paris has asked for Juliet’s hand in marriage. • 7. Juliet is thirteen years old. • 8. As the play opens, Romeo’s state of mind can best be described as love−sick, in love with love, moody, and melancholy. • 9. Romeo finds out about the Capulet ball when an illiterate Capulet servant asks him to read the invitation list to him. • 10. Benvolio tries to remedy Romeo’s love−sickness by getting him to consent to go to the Capulet ball and Act I, scenes 3-5 • Answers • 1. Susan is the Nurse’s daughter who was born on the same day as Juliet; however, she died. • 2. Juliet’s birthday is on Lammas Eve. • 3. Lady Capulet visits with Juliet to ask her if she is ready for marriage. She asks Juliet to look at Paris at the • feast that night. • 4. The Nurse and Lady Capulet feel that Paris is a perfect match for Juliet and are in favor of the marriage. • 5. Mercutio loves to talk and uses figurative language and many plays on words. • 6. Queen Mab is the Queen of Fairies. She is responsible for what men dream. • 7. Romeo has a premonition that something is about to happen that will shorten his life. • 8. Lord Capulet threatens to tell everyone that any young lady who does not dance with him has corns on her • feet. • 9. Tybalt recognizes Romeo’s voice and becomes furious when Lord Capulet allows him to remain at the ball. • 10. The Nurse is the one who identifies each of the lovers. Act II, scenes 1 and 2 • Answers • 1. After the ball, Romeo goes over the wall and into the Capulet orchard. • 2. A soliloquy is a dramatic monologue spoken aloud by a character to reveal his thoughts to the audience. • Romeo uses a soliloquy to describe Juliet’s beauty as she stands on her balcony. • 3. Mercutio keeps calling for Romeo in Rosaline’s name. • 4. He overhears Juliet speaking of her love for him when she thinks she is alone. • 5. Love, which gave him wings, helped him over the wall and made it possible for him to find her balcony. • 6. Romeo and Juliet exchange vows of love. • 7. Romeo and Juliet plan to be married the next day. • 8. Romeo compares Juliet’s beauty to brightness, warmth, and light. • 9. The Nurse keeps interrupting the balcony scene. • 10. Juliet asks Romeo not to swear his love on the moon because the moon appears to change in size as it orbits the earth, suggesting that it is fickle. Act II, scenes 3 and 4 • 1. Friar Laurence’s special skill is in making medicines and potions from herbs. • 2. Friar Laurence compares the beneficial and poisonous parts of a plant to the good and evil within a man. • 3. Friar Laurence cautions Romeo about being too hasty. • 4. The Friar believes that by marrying the two lovers, he will end the feud between the Capulets and the Montagues. • 5. Tybalt has sent Romeo a challenge for a duel. He is angry that Romeo came to the ball uninvited and was allowed to remain. • 6. Juliet is going to get permission to go to Friar Laurence’s cell by saying that she needs to go to shrift, or • confession. • 7. Romeo and Juliet are to be married in Friar Laurence’s cell. • 8. Mercutio, Romeo’s friend, teases him about Rosaline and his love−sickness. • 9. Mercutio teases the Nurse and causes her to become angry. • 10. Romeo has given the Nurse a rope ladder in order that he might climb into Juliet’s window later that night. Act II, scenes 5 and 6 • Answers • 1. Juliet sent the Nurse at nine o’clock in the morning to find out the wedding news from Romeo. • 2. Juliet has been waiting three hours for the Nurse to return with the news. • 3. The Nurse teases Juliet by claiming to be tired from her journey and prolongs telling her the news. • 4. The Nurse is in favor of the marriage and feels that Romeo is handsome as well as polite. • 5. The Friar is afraid that both lovers are acting too hastily. • 6. The Friar warns Romeo again about acting too hastily. • 7. The lovers say that their love has grown to such an extent that it cannot be counted. • 8. Four main characters know of the marriage. Romeo and Juliet, of course, are aware; but also the Nurse and • Friar Laurence have become accomplices in the affair. • 9. The marriage takes place in Friar Laurence’s cell or chapel. • 10. Friar Laurence is also referred to as the ghostly confessor. Act III, scenes 1 and 2 • Answers • 1. Benvolio tries to get Mercutio to leave the streets of Verona because he is trying to prevent another fight. • 2. Tybalt comes to the public square hoping to incite a fight with Romeo. • 3. Mercutio calls Tybalt “Good King of Cats.” • 4. Tybalt insults Romeo by calling him a villain, hoping that this will cause him to fight. • 5. Romeo will not fight Tybalt because now they are related by marriage. Tybalt is Juliet’s cousin. • 6. Mercutio fights Tybalt because he is angry that Tybalt is insulting Romeo, his friend. • 7. Mercutio is killed when Romeo comes between them and blocks his view of Tybalt. Tybalt reaches under Romeo’s arm and stabs Mercutio. • 8. Romeo kills Tybalt because he feels that he must revenge his friend’s death. After all, it was Romeo’s fight and not Mercutio’s. • 9. Benvolio is the one who tells the Prince about the murders and relates exactly what happened. • 10. Romeo’s punishment is to be banished from Verona. If he is caught in the city of Verona, he will be put to death. Act III, scenes 3 and 4 • Answers • 1. It is very late on Monday night in Scene 3. • 2. After the murders, Romeo ran to hide in Friar Laurence’s cell. • 3. Romeo would rather die than be banished from Verona. • 4. The Friar tells him the news that he will not be killed but only banished. • 5. The thought of not seeing or touching Juliet ever again bothers Romeo the most. • 6. The Friar gives Romeo three reasons for being happy: Juliet is alive; he is alive, and he is only banished not • killed. • 7. The Nurse gives Juliet’s ring to Romeo. • 8. Romeo must leave Juliet’s bed chamber before daybreak and go to Mantua. • 9. Lord Capulet has arranged for Juliet to marry Paris on Thursday. • 10. Lady Capulet is to tell Juliet the “good news” before she retires to bed. Act III, scene 5 • Answers • 1. Scene 5 takes place on day three, a Tuesday morning. • 2. The lovers are trying to determine the time of night or early morning. Romeo must be out of the city before • daylight. The nightingale sings at night, while the lark sings in the early part of the morning. • 3. Juliet has a vision that she sees Romeo as one dead in the bottom of a tomb. • 4. Juliet’s mother, Lady Capulet, comes to visit with her early that morning. • 5. Lady Capulet brings Juliet the news that her father has consented for her to marry Paris on Thursday. • 6. Juliet is upset and willfully says that she will not marry Paris. This is the first time she has been disobedient to her parents. • 7. After her parents leave, Juliet turns to the Nurse for a solution to her dilemma. • 8. The Nurse advises Juliet to forget Romeo, since he is banished, and marry Paris. • 9. Juliet tells the Nurse that she is going to see Friar Laurence to confess her sins and get forgiveness. She is really going there to seek the Friar’s help. • 10. If Friar Laurence cannot help her, she has the power to commit suicide rather than marry Paris. Act IV , scene 1-3 • Answers • 1. Paris is arranging his wedding with Friar Laurence. • 2. The marriage is hasty in order to stop Juliet’s tears over Tybalt’s death. • 3. The sleeping potion will last for 42 hours. • 4. After her parents think she is dead, Juliet will be placed in the Capulet vault with her deceased ancestors. • 5. When Juliet awakens from the sleeping potion, Romeo will be waiting for her in the tomb. • 6. Lord Capulet is supervising the wedding preparations. • 7. Lord Capulet moves the wedding from Thursday to Wednesday. • 8. If the potion does not work, she plans to kill herself with the dagger that she lays beside her. • 9. The vision of Tybalt coming after Romeo gives her the strength to go ahead and drink the potion. • 10. Romeo will know of the plan because Friar Laurence is planning to send him a letter. Act IV, scenes 4-5 • Answers • 1. Scene 4 takes place at three in the morning. • 2. Scene 4 takes place early on Wednesday morning. • 3. The Capulets know that Paris is coming because they can hear the music of his musicians. • 4. The Nurse is sent to wake up Juliet. • 5. The Nurse finds Juliet “dead” in her bed chamber. • 6. The Friar tries to console the Capulets by assuring th7. The wedding preparations change dramatically. The wedding music becomes funeral dirges. The wedding flowers become funeral flowers, and the happiness associated with a wedding becomes sadness. • 8. Paris is devastated by the news that Juliet is dead. He says, “Beguiled, divorced, wronged, spited, slain! / Most detestable Death, by thee beguiled, / By cruel, cruel thee quite overthrown. / O love! O life! not life, but love in death!” • 9. Lord Capulet believes that Juliet is dead because he feels that her body is cold to the touch and her joints are stiff. • 10. Act IV ends with a comic discussion between the musicians and Peter.em that Juliet is in heaven. Act V, scenes 1 and 2 • Answers • 1. Scene 1 takes place in Mantua where Romeo has been banished. • 2. Romeo dreams that Juliet finds him dead and brings him back to life as an emperor with her kisses. • 3. Balthasar, Romeo’s servant, brings him the news that Juliet is dead and was buried in the Capulet tomb. • 4. Romeo goes to the Apothecary to buy poison. • 5. Romeo pays 40 ducats for the poison. • 6. The Apothecary hesitates in selling Romeo the poison because it is against the law in Mantua to sell the substance. • 7. Because of his extreme poverty, the Apothecary consents to sell Romeo the poison. • 8. Friar Laurence entrusts the important letter to Friar John to deliver to Romeo. This letter explains to Romeo about Juliet’s pretended death and tells him to be at the tomb when she wakes up. • 9. Friar John is not able to deliver the letter because he is quarantined while visiting the sick. • 10. Juliet is due to wake up in about three hours. Act V , scene 3 • Answers • 1. Paris has come to Juliet’s tomb to bring flowers and weep. • 2. As he dies, Paris’ last request is to lie beside Juliet. • 3.Paris believes that Romeo has come to the tomb to do damage to the bodies of Tybalt and Juliet. • 4. Romeo kills Paris. • 5. If Romeo had not been so hasty in drinking the poison, he would have understood why Juliet’s lips and cheeks were crimson. She was beginning to wake up from the potion. • 6. Paris, Lady Montague, Romeo, and Juliet have all died in this scene. • 7. When Juliet wakes up, Friar Laurence is there and wants to take her to a “sisterhood of holy nuns.” • 8. Juliet kills herself with Romeo’s dagger. • 9. Friar Laurence is suspected the most because he is carrying tools for digging and opening tombs. • 10. When the Prince wants to know what has happened, Friar Laurence, Balthasar, the Page, and the contents of the letter in Balthasar’s possession all give the same account of the events.