Energy & Information a holistic approch

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					   Energy & Information
    a holistic approach
    Paul Borza & Mihai Sanduleac
Training School 8-10th of March 2011
      Poiana Brasov - ROMANIA
      Background of presentation
• The intelligent grids also called “Smart Grids” are becoming
  increasingly widespread and it shows similar structural
  features with information systems.
• Not only the structural shapes are similar but also the
  functionalities presents similitude. Is becoming increasingly
  clear that the two networks (entities) need to be increasingly
  deeper interconnected.
• The increase in efficiency of large scale distributed
  computation systems have to be related also with the
  improvement of the overall power grids efficiency and have to
  consider the new mechanisms where kWh reduction is
  exchanged with CO2 & waste generation and/or Euro per kWh
  reduction, through a holistic approach of information and
  energy use.

Energy (E)
 Capacity to make an action in a system!
Information (I)
  Novelty that appeared in a system at a time!
                                         (1942-Bertalanfi)
          Similarities between E&I
             at structure level
            ENERGY                             INFORMATION
           Generators                      Central processing units
         POWER LINES                              BUSES
     Transport /Distribution            system bus/ peripheral buses

Converters: AC/AC AC/DC or DC/AC                    Bridges:
DC/DC (act on energy parameters)       Digital information exchange of
      STORAGE/BUFFERS:                     STORAGE/BUFFERS:
      batteries, supercaps           memories (cache, main auxiliary,…)

 Converters from electric to other
energy form mechanic, thermal or
              radiant                Signal converters A/D or D/A Input /
   ACTING SYSTEMS: electric to                Output Interfaces
 Organization of the systems E&I
• Cellular / modular organization of power sources:
  the same function: power groups, pV cells, battery
  elements (cells), fuel cells
• Cellular/modular organization of information
  systems –similarities - : CPUs, GPUs, scalar / super-
  scalar CPUs, memories of the systems, I/O interfaces,
  computers, blade computers, etc.

         Create the premises for scalability of both system
• Energy systems
  Topologies in case of energetic systems are
  controlled by grid control algorithm as result of
  control implemented by switching commands
• Information systems
  Topologies are reconfigurable and controlled by
  specific applications
               Insulated versus Global
    In every case the topology of the system is important in
     assuraces of performances and optimal functionality
   Role of the switching elements
• In case of power systems:
  to configure the power systems as results of power flow
  optimization algorithms that take into account the
  demands and the generation and to minimize of power
• Role of switching elements (see switch fabrics) in case
  of informational systems is:
  to allow the optimal redirection of information flows in
  order to optimize the synchronization ,opportunity and
  usability of information collected and processed
  (minimize the waiting periods, maximize the feeding
  process of CPUs, maximize the usage coefficient of
  computation power)
    Time dimension of the Energy &
         Information systems
• Latencies in power generation are differentiated
  - function of type of electric power generation, transfer
  and consumption. Thus in case of thermal and
  cogeneration power plants the latency is big (24-72
  hours), PV cells (seconds), fuel cells (minutes), batteries
  (mseconds), hydro-power plants(minutes)
• Time constants in case of information systems means
  clock - frequency, access time, latencies, buses
  dimensions, instruction set architecture, opportunities
  of information provided
Laws and procedures that govern the
          transfer process

• Control of power flow transfer is govern by
  electric circuit laws (Kirchhoff I&II) & control
• Information transfer is govern by programs
  using redundant elements, signals or software
   What means efficiency in case of
    Energy / Information systems
• Efficiency in case of power systems that means
   adequates commutation of switching power devices
   in order to avoid the transformation of power
   generated in heat with direct consequence the
   decreasing of energy efficiency
• Efficiency: in case of information systems means to
   assures a maximum feeding functionality through
   CPU’s, memories and I/O interfaces, as consequence
   result a maximization of computation power
    Needs for standard or standard
• In energy systems need an uniform treating of
  power flow control using specific protocols
  starting from metering till station & power
  plant control assure the reliability of power
• In case of information systems the protocols
  play the essential role in assurance of
  reliability and security of the data processing
Methods for increasing efficiency of processing
  in case of Energy & Information systems
  • Virtualization involve development of a model able
    to aggregate the system’s elements in conceptual
    entities and endowing its with new functionalities in
    order to master the complexity of energy
    generation & consumption respectively in optimal
    loading of processing units for increasing
    computation performances.
    The market actors, play an essential role, because
    the virtualization process will allow to take into
    account a large amount of parameters, including the
    valorization of the activities regarding the demand
    and offer and assure the simplification of the
    controlling processes
     Intelligent control / Intelligent
What means? “Studying and understanding the
  underlying principles of natural computation, and
  how these principles can be adopted or modified
  to extend and enrich computer science and
Cybernetics is the science of intricate control loops.
  Assures the mastering of complex control
  processes. Models and algorithms, techniques
  and theories in these fields have been
  successfully applied to a wide range of complex
                              (International Journal of Intelligent Computing and Cybernetics)
 A possible hierarchy for the different
energy management implementations
Where we can find out solutions? Are the
 bio-systems the source of paradigms?
 • See the energy processes and the balance of
   resources, its efficient usage by:
   illustration of the means, and ways to increasing
   and complying at appeared opportunities
 • Using of services technologies as specific
   regulators and intelligent agents in both cases
   Energy Systems & Information systems
 • Internet (global processing) versus wide grids
     Are the bio-cell ideal energy source?
Being a collection of specialized cells, which obtain their
  own energy on the same way:

 •              ATP acid adesin -tri-phosphoric     (short term energy,
         locally stored)

 •               ADP acid adesin -di-phosphoric (intermediate term energy,
         locally stored)

     •             Glycogen (long term energy reserve,
         central                     stored into the liver)

                                                              Animations from Internet
   Several features of living cells
• A bio-cell represents a distributed energy
• A bio-cell has the ability to auto insulate in
  report with the whole system, without global
• A bio-cell assures a flat time response for
  energy & power delivered on demands (very
  short, short and long term)
• Is a redundant source (compensation
  phenomena can be identified in case of living
          Hybrid power supplies
Combination of different power supplies and
energy buffers having different proprieties:
  •different time constants;
  •different power and energy densities;
  •different behaviors, etc
  •using electronic power devices and intelligent
  embedded – in general - systems.

 In case of power distribution systems this feature
is deep-seated assured by the component of the
generator interconnected
Flow capacity (blood vessels ) in case
               of E&I
• The energy grid involves power installed, consumers
  connected, power line capacities settled by their
  nominal voltage that limits the power flow transmitted
  (110kV = 40 MW etc.) efficiency and performance
  reflected at level of consumers by opportunities
• In case of information systems the vessels are the buses
  (serial -2,5Gbps /parallel -533Mbps) but are differences!
• Semantics & data
• Power quality flows & Steady state (continuous) power
Opportunity of generation/processing

• Schedulers assure the long term balancing
  processes based of demands & generation
  potential “a priori” known –past experiences-
  distillated as paradigms!
• Means:        Monitors,     discovery,    dynamic
  reconfiguration, speculative execution, replacing
  strategies, redundancies, methods to classifying
  and prioritization of data processed
• Sacrifices      assumed:      disconnection    of
  “unimportant” users / delaying the task execution
Functional analogies between E&I
• Methods for the control of information flow:
  – Programmed
  – Event drive
  – Burst
• Methods for the control of energy flow:
  – Based on scheduling of generation function of
    consumption patterns
  – Based of events occurred into systems (triggering
    of circuit breakers/protections) short circuits
         Common features of energy /
            information systems

Motor                      Motor
Energy                    Energy
Buffer                    Buffer

  Stationary power flow

Motor                       Motor                      Local processor:
Energy                      Energy                      I/O processor
Buffer                      Buffer
             •Local versus global
             •Intricate loops
             •Steady state versus transitory regimes
 What we want to obtain by making the
fusion between energy and Information?

• Fusion between E&I role:
  – Facilitate each other (live by synergies)
  – Increase the reliability and availability
  – Comply to the specific constraints and reach
    specific goals
     => maximum energy efficiency
     =>maximum information flow rate
  Significant examples – energy
efficiency – in case of mobile and
      stationary applications
Real Implementation
Several facts about old/new starting
•   Capacity of battery   360Ah      150Ah
•   Type of battery       Traction   Regular
•   Control system        Non        Yes
•   Mean time start       7 sec      3.5sec
•   Energy consumed       600KJ      200KJ
•   Maximum current       1.9KA       the same
•   Start latency           0        max. 180s
A real example about power flow control


                                                        Time [10xms]

                                        Blue= Old drawings
                                        Red = New drawings
                             Time [s]
How evolve the power flow transfer?
     Virtual Power Plant Concept

 concept that integrate DER using a Large-Scale Virtual
Power Plant (LSVPP), that represent an aggregation of a
large number of DERs including different DER
technologies, responsive loads and storage devices
which, when integrated, have the flexibility and
controllability similar to large conventional power plants.

hat means:
istributed system control architectures
                Smart Grids
istributed Control System able to mastering the
distributed generation resources, adapted at the
deregulated & liberalized market and able to solve
the demand side management
                 Smart Market
     Smart                              Smart
                Smart Metering        Customers
    Storage                           Residences

                  Smart Grid
                                        Siemens concept 2007
What means Smart Grid in our conception?
 Usual Definitions:

 SmartGrids (EU): Power network that efficiently integrates the behavior
 and the actions of all users interconnected – generators, consumers
 (loads), different participants into the grid in order to offer a sustainable
 available and reliable functioning of it
 Smart Grid Strategic Group (IEC): a concept for modernization of power
 networks that integrate the energy and information technologies in any
 pont of the network from generation until consumption

      A generic definition means to offer for every body the
       synergic mean to be more efficient in the govern of
                         complex networks

                       Smart Grid means a Cyber Energy systems
Virtual power plants & Intelligent grid
         a possible laboratory
Smart grids!
Information systems – energy optimization

Traditional approach           Reduce energy consumption (kWh)

New approach                   Reduce CO2


                       Reduce Bill (Euro/kWh)
    Use of VPPs in Smart Grid environment
                                                       Cloud Computer
                                                   (flexible / controllable load)

                                                            Energy price            Energy
                                                             (contracts             Market
                                                              and spot)
     P         P          P
                                                                Load flexibility    services
                                                       VPP       (on demand)
             Virtual Power Plant                       agent                         Market
                                                                Load flexibility
                                                                (during green         Green
             Power network                                        production        production
                                                                  in excess)          Market

~        ~            ~       ~        ~
                                                Energy generation
G    G                G       DG       DG

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