Internal Displacement in Colombia by MikeJenny


 in Colombia
   London Metropolitan University
 MA Human Rights and Social Justice
        Luz Andrea Medina

   A brief description about internal
    displacement in Colombia.

   Afro-colombian IDP women and girls
Colombian Stadistics
   Number of IDPs
    2,649,139 IDP (Colombian goverment by June 2008)
    4,361,355 IDPs (Non-state source).

    Colombia has the second largest displaced population
    in the world after Sudan. (IDMC Internal
    displacement Monitoring Centre)

    The highest rate of displacement in 23 years was
    recorded in the first semester of 2008‖.

   Number of refugees:
    70.120 (UNHCR June 2008)

   Total population: 45,60 million (Censo 2005)
   Almost 10 % of Colombian population is IDPs
Who is IDPs?
   ―A displace person is any person who has been
    forced to migrate within the national territory,
    abandoning his place of residence or customary
    economic activities, because his life, psysical
    integraty, personal freedrom or safety have been
    violated or are directly threatened as a result of
    any of the following situations internal armed
    conflict, civil tension and disturbances,
    general violence, massive Human Rights
    violations,    infringement       of   International
    Humanitarian Law or other circumstances arising
    from the foregoing situations that drastically disturb
    or could drastically disturb the public order‖. ( Art 1
    Law 387 of 1997)
How many? Pattern of displacement
   80 % of IDPs are women and children.

   56 % of IDPs population is between 0 and 29
    years of age.

   36% IDPs population is under 18 years of age.
    (IDMC June 2008)

   Afro-Colombian and indigenous people have
    been particularly affected. They make up 20%
    of the total population – are now 38% of the
    displaced ( Afrodes 2007)
Where? Internal Displacement zones
Where? Internal Displacement zones
   Almost 40 % of the IDPs have settled in and around
    the ten largest cities. Bogotá receives more IDPs
    than any other location in Colombia, they make up
    6.7 % of the city’s 6 million inhabitants and 18.6 %
    of the country’s IDP.

   The worst affected regions are Arauca, Cauca,
    Chocó, Córdoba, Guajira, Nariño, Putumayo and
    Valle del Cauca.
Why? Causes
 Most of the displacement is related to the country's
 four-decade-long internal armed conflict. This
 complex conflict fought primarily between left-wing
 guerrillas, right-wing paramilitaries and Colombian
 armed forces. But it also involves drug traffickers,
 landowners, and other legal and illegal interests.

      Is Internal Displacement a consequence
      of the war or is it a war strategy?
How is the Afro-Colombians IDP women and
girls situation?

    ―We women have been trampled over in our
     territory and anywhere by the different groups,
     the legal and illegal armed groups, who kidnap
     us, kill, rape and humiliate us … leaving as a
     consequence of these actions the deterioration of
     the social fabric around us. Therefore, there is no
     doubt that the armed conflict has harmed black
     women’s feelings, their ancestral legitimacy, their
     creativity to form and generate life, their cultural
     identity and their love for their territory‖

 Testimony submitted to the IACHR Rapporteur during her on-site
    visit to Colombia by the Foro Interétnico de Solidaridad del Chocó”
Afro-Colombians IDP women and girls situation

   The Afro-Colombian population has been subjected
    to a history of discrimination, exclusion, invisibility
    and social disadvantage, both economic and

   Afro-colombian territories are an attractive for the
    armed actors because it has one of the world’s
    highest biodiversity rates, coasts on both oceans,
    good conditions to grow coca and oil palm. For
    Afro-Colombians, this reality is particularly harsh
    because of their close connection with their
    territory, culture, identity and past.           The
    aggressions by the armed actors are an attack
    against their culture and their worldview.
Afro-Colombians IDP women and girls situation

   Afro-Colombian IDP women are the most
    vulnerable group and face the worst Human
    Rights violations.

   Without official registration and proper
    identity documents, IDPs often face difficulty
    in accessing basic government assistance,
    employment, healthcare and education.
   IDP Women face violence and sexual
    abuse, including forced prostitution,
    slavery, sexual or human trafficking for
    sexual exploitation.
Afro-Colombians IDP women and girls situation

   Domestic violence and communal violence based on

   The disregard and violation of their right to health
    and especially their sexual and reproductive rights
    at all levels, with particular severity in girls and
    adolescents but also for pregnant women and

   The assumption of the role of female heads of
    household without the material conditions of
    subsistence minimum required by the principle of
    human dignity, with special complications in cases
    of women with young children, women with health
    problems,    women      with     disabilities   or
Afro-Colombians IDP women and girls situation

   Aggravated obstacles in access to education.

   Aggravated obstacles in the insertion to the
    economic system and access to productive
    employment opportunities.

   Exploitation  and   domestic  labor,     including
    trafficking persons for purposes of      economic
Afro-Colombians IDP women and girls situation

   Aggravated obstacles in access to land ownership
    and the protection their heritage to the future,
    specially in those plans and return relocation.

   Violence against women leaders who purchase or
    public visibility for their social civic or human rights

   Discrimination in their insertion in political and
    public spaces.

   Their own ignorance of their rights as victims of
    armed conflict to access justice, truth, reparation
    and guarantees of non repetition.
Afro-Colombians IDP women and girls situation

   Denied access to the special requirements for
    care and psychosocial support for women
    displaced, who have been seriously dissatisfied.

   Difficulties to grant the extension of the
    Humanitarian Attention Emergency to women
    who fulfill the conditions to receive.
   Afro-Colombian women lose the ability to carry
    out their cultural practices.
   The       Asociación     de     Afro-Colombianos
    Desplazados (hereinafter ―AFRODES‖) has
    described the persistent belief of receiving
    communities that ―black women are dirty,
    thieves, or if they come to work in a house
    they are only useful in bed‖.
Who Protect them?
   National authorities has the primary responsability
    to provide protection and Humanitarian assistence
    to IDPs.
   Colombia was one of the first countries in the world
    to have a domestic IDP statute, which was adopted
    in 1997—one year before the Guiding Principles on
    Internal Displacement were adopted.
   Colombia has also various legal instruments such
    as: Agreement No. 59 of 1997, Decree 976 of
    1997, Agreement No. 85 of 1997, Agreement No.
    77 of 1997, Decree 173 of 1998 Decree No. 489 of
    1999, Decree No. 2007 of 2001 Decree No. 2569 of
    2000, Agreement No. 244 of 2003, Resolution No.
    5139 of 2005, Decree No. 250 of 2005
International responses
   United Nations Guiding      Principles   on   Internal
    Displacement (1998).

   Reflect and are consistent to the HR Law and IHL.

   UNHCR established a permanent presence in
    Colombia in 1998. Uniquely, the organization's
    mandate in the country is concerned with the
    protection of internally displaced people, as well as
    with refugees and others of concern.
   ICRC
   Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre. http://www.internal-

   Agencia de la ONU para refugiados.

   IDP Voices.

   Consultoria para los derechos humanos y el desplazamiento.

   Liga      de    Mujeres     desplazadas    en      Colombia.

   AWID. Women Rights.

   Inter-American Court of Human Rights.

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