2001-2002 Official Manual_ Chapter 1_ Pages 11-35 by fdh56iuoui


									                              CHAPTER 1
           Missouri Almanac

Dedication of the Simon Bolivar Memorial Statue, Bolivar, July 5, 1948.
President Harry S Truman, Governor Phil M. Donnelly, and Mayor Doyle C.
McCraw stand for the playing of the national anthem.
(Missouri State Archives, Commerce and Industrial Development Collection)

     The City of Jefferson:
        The Permanent Seat of
       Government, 1826–2001
                                                                  THE CITY OF JEFFERSON                    13

The City of Jefferson—1826 The First State House
“The appearance of the place [is]                        “`Tis a rough looking city indeed”
somewhat fatigueing”                                         The first state building erected in the new
     Ambivalence, uncertainty, and discomfort            capital city was a combination governor’s house
hung like clouds of gloom over the Missouri              and legislative hall, erected near the site where
General Assembly members who gathered in the             the Governor’s Mansion now stands. In a
City of Jefferson (more commonly known in later          November 18, 1826, article, Gunn described the
years as “Jefferson City”) for their first official      building as a ten-room structure, sixty by forty
meeting on the third Monday in November                  feet, “fronting the Missouri [River], on an emi-
1826. They had become accustomed to the rela-            nence of two hundred feet above the level of its
tive comfort provided by the much larger settle-         waters.” It was in this building fourteen months
ment of St. Charles, site of the temporary capital       later that Missourians came together for the first
since Missouri’s admission to the Union in 1821.         statewide political convention held in the new
     Indeed, calling the place named for the third       capital city. In January 1828 a number of the
president of the United States a “city” in 1826          state’s residents gathered to endorse the selection
reflected a quite liberal use of the term. Jefferson     of Tennessean Andrew Jackson as president of
City had thirty-one families in 1826 and no more         the United States. In addition to choosing
than a handful of businesses, including one hotel        Jackson as its candidate, the convention, chaired
(the Rising Sun), a general store, a gristmill, a dis-   by future governor Thomas Reynolds, also nomi-
tillery, several tan yards, and multiple dram shops      nated Daniel Dunklin to serve as Missouri’s chief
and taverns, most of them hastily opened to              executive. Although Jackson was elected in
accommodate the newly arriving lawmakers. So             1828, Dunklin had to wait until the 1832 elec-
ill prepared was the city to host the first meeting
                                                         tion to be chosen as governor of the state.
of lawmakers in the new state capital that a num-
ber of legislators were forced to stay in tents.             Old Hickory was honored, also, in an annu-
More fortunate members, such as Dr. William              al celebration held on January 8 of each year
Carr Lane, who was also mayor of St. Louis, found        outside the new state house. This gathering com-
housing with city residents. In a letter written in      memorated General Jackson’s decisive victory at
1826, Lane noted that he roomed with “Major              the Battle of New Orleans in 1815. One such
Ramsay” and that he paid “$4.50 per week                 celebration nearly ended in disaster when cele-
besides something for washing.” Lane’s pay for his       brants exploded five pounds of gunpowder in
legislative work was $2.25 per day. He noted that        front of the Capitol. As the local newspaper
“We lodge in a cabin containing 3 beds, such as          exclaimed: “Such a report was never heard
they are.” He concluded: “I will not detain you          before or since in the City of the Hills. It was dis-
with details, but sum up all in this—the business        tinctly heard at Fulton . . . the Legislature did no
of Legislating does not please over much.”               business for a week, for there was not glass
     One of the first institutions established in the    enough in the city to refill the windows of the
City of Jefferson as a consequence of its status as      capitol and wagons had to be sent to neighbor-
state capital was a newspaper and printing office        ing towns to make out a supply.”
owned by Calvin Gunn, who hoped to make                      Despite the assurances of Calvin Gunn in
money by serving the new government’s printing
                                                         1826 that “improvements” were the order of the
needs. Gunn called his newspaper the
                                                         day in the City of Jefferson, many people thought
Jeffersonian Republican, a title used to describe
the members of the political party that arose in         that converting this wilderness outpost into a
opposition to the Federalists during the last            functioning, urban, governmental center was
decade of the 18th century.                              nothing more than a pipe dream. No one cap-
                                                         tured this sentiment better than John Shriver, a
     In the first issue of his newspaper (June 24,
                                                         civil engineer from Baltimore, hired in the late
1826), Gunn wrote “a brief sketch of the City of
Jefferson” for “our distant subscribers.” Much of        1820s to survey a national highway from
Gunn’s description represented commentary on             Wheeling, Virginia, westward to Missouri’s new
the physical characteristics of the place, includ-       capital. In a letter dated August 9, 1829, Shriver
ing “a series of promontories,” where the Capitol,       wrote to his brother of his impression of the City
Governor’s Mansion, and prison would set subse-          of Jefferson: “`Tis a rough looking city indeed,
quently, and the “intervening dells” between             and one which does not bid fair to become of
them that “render the appearance of the place            much importance.” Two years later, James S.
somewhat fatigueing [sic].” Although the town            Rollins visited the City of Jefferson. Some years
was still aborning, Gunn assured his readers that        afterward, he recalled that the city “was at that
“improvements is [sic] the order of the day.”            time a small and insignificant village.”
14            OFFICIAL MANUAL

Sketch of Jefferson City, c1850
Missouri State Archives

                                                         making the capital city accessible to all
Choosing a Capital Site                                  Missourians would be a major concern of state
     How had it happened that this seemingly for-        legislators for the next 175 years.
saken place had been chosen to serve as the cap-             In addition to the requirement that the new
ital of the state of Missouri? The first Missouri leg-   permanent seat of government be on the
islature, elected in August 1820, in anticipation of     Missouri River and near the mouth of the Osage
the state’s admission to the Union, convened in          River, legislators decreed that the capital site
St. Louis in September 1820. Fourteen state sena-        should contain at least four sections (2,560 acres)
tors and forty-three representatives chose St.           of unclaimed public land, not yet distributed by
Charles as the state’s temporary capital and             the government of the United States. This last
appointed a five-member commission to choose             provision excluded a site that many Missourians
a permanent seat of government. Eager to ensure          thought might be chosen: the town of Cote sans
input from all Missourians, legislators specified        Dessein, where the commissioners met. Founded
that commissioners must be chosen, “one from             in 1808 by old stock migrants to the region, Cote
each part of the state, and one from the center.”        sans Dessein was in southern Callaway County,
     The five commissioners, James Logan of              on the north shore of the Missouri River, and was
Wayne County, John Thornton of Howard, Robert            in the midst of highly desirable agricultural land.
G. Watson of New Madrid, John B. White of                    The site ultimately chosen to be Missouri’s
Pike, and James B. Boone of Montgomery, met at           capital city was available largely because it was
Cote sans Dessein, in southern Callaway County,          deemed by many to be undesirable land: it was
on the first Monday in May 1821. Commissioners           rocky and hilly, thought by many to be unfit for
had been directed by the state constitution to           major agricultural production. The commission-
choose a site on the Missouri River, within forty        ers themselves had referred to this site as “too
miles of the mouth of the Osage River. Framers of        poor to support any considerable population or
the constitution hoped that by placing these geo-        extensive settlement.” Thus, almost no one had
graphic requirements on the site, they would             settled there, making it one of the few places
ensure the capital’s central location and its            along the Missouri River and near the mouth of
accessibility to all Missourians. Ironically, the        the Osage that could provide the required
Missouri River, which in the 1820s was a major           amount of unclaimed land.
artery for travel into the interior of the state,            Despite the criticism of Jefferson City as the
would become in less than a century an obstacle          site for Missouri’s permanent seat of government,
to gaining easy access to the capital. Indeed,           many people held out the hope that the new cap-
                                                             THE CITY OF JEFFERSON                   15

ital city would prosper. Among the supporters of    ed $5,000 and a new house was built just to the
Jefferson City as a capital site was Gov. John      south of the existing combination Capitol and
Miller, a native of Virginia who was elected as     governor’s home. Gov. Dunklin and his family
Missouri’s chief executive in 1826. Gov. Miller     occupied the building in 1834.
believed that constructing public buildings in          Three years later (1837), fire destroyed the
Jefferson City would increase the city’s chances    state house that had been built in 1826. State
of remaining the capital.                           government moved temporarily into the Cole
                                                    County Courthouse while a new Capitol was
                                                    being built on a high bluff west of the site of the
A New Residence for the                             original structure. The Jeffersonian Republican
                                                    noted in 1838 that “an appropriation for a State
Governor and a New                                  House has given entirely a new impulse to busi-
Capitol Building                                    ness of every description” in the capital. The
                                                    paper added, “for every thousand dollars appro-
“A new impulse to business of every                 priated for the improvement of the seat of gov-
description”                                        ernment, the State is benefited four thousand, by
                                                    the increase in value of unsold lots, of which the
    In 1831, Gov. Miller proposed that the state    state is yet a large holder.”
build a penitentiary in Jefferson City. Opponents
of the plan, many of whom preferred that the
penitentiary be built in or near St. Louis, from
where, it was assumed, a majority of the inmates    Controversies Surrounding
would come, delayed passage of a bill authoriz-
ing the Jefferson City site until 1833.
                                                    the Penitentiary
    Meanwhile, Gov. Miller, who was a bachelor      “Where are the many industrious
and could live comfortably in two rooms of the      mechanics that formerly gave our town
state house, was replaced by Gov. Daniel
Dunklin of Potosi. The new governor was a mar-      life and prosperity”
ried man with six children. Soon after his elec-        Meanwhile, also, the Missouri State Peniten-
tion in August 1832, he began a campaign to         tiary was ready finally to receive its first inmates
persuade legislators to appropriate money for a     in 1836. The placement of the penitentiary in
new governor’s residence. The legislature provid-   Jefferson City had a dramatic effect upon the

Entrance to Missouri State Penitentiary, c1910
Missouri State Archives

development of the capital city. Missouri legisla-
tors, committed to the Jeffersonian notion of the
                                                      Antebellum Growth of the
need for minimal government (“That government         Capital City
is best which governs least”) and a low rate of
taxation, tried to figure out a way to operate the    “Good living, clever fellows, and the
prison at the least possible cost to the state.       most lovely women in the world”
    In 1839, legislators placed the penitentiary          Despite the charge that “industrious mechan-
under a “lease system” that allowed private           ics” were bypassing the capital city, Jefferson
entrepreneurs to pay the state for the right to       City’s population grew steadily during the first
manage the prison, in exchange for which they         several decades of its existence, reaching a total
could hire out the prisoners for their own private    of 1,174 by 1840. A glimpse of what one visitor
gain. By 1841, an advertisement in the local          to the city thought of the capital and its residents
Jeffersonian Republican advertised the following      can be gleaned from a letter written in 1840 to
convict-made goods at the prison: plows, wag-         the editor of the Jefferson City Inquirer. The visi-
                                                      tor, who signed his letter “A Traveller,” noted that
ons, carts, drays, trace chains, harness, single-
                                                      he remained a guest at the City Hotel for more
trees, chairs, bureaus, bedsteads, tables and
                                                      days than he had anticipated because of the
other furniture, boots and shoes, bricks, cigars,     hotel’s “well filled cellars and larder and most
bacon and lard. In addition, the lessees adver-       bountiful table.” He praised the state house as a
tised prison labor for landscaping and grounds        “magnificent and stupendous pile of free stone,”
keeping, blacksmithing, house and sign painting,      and commented on the beauty of the court-
and for “Building of any kind, at a moment’s          house, the prison, and a number of private
notice.” Even the City of Jefferson used convict      dwellings. He commended the capital city to
labor. The 1842 minutes of the city’s Board of        “traveling bachelors,” in particular, because it
Aldermen reveal numerous expenditures for             featured “good living, clever fellows and the
convict labor on street repair, building construc-    most lovely women in the world.” Highlights of
tion and furniture. Women sentenced to the            “A Traveller’s” stay in Jefferson City included
Missouri State Penitentiary during the early          viewing a dramatic performance of William Tell
1840s were sometimes hired out to work as             and “dancing parties” at the courthouse.
domestic servants for local businessmen.                  Legislators tried to facilitate access to and
    Working inmates in this way had two unan-         communication with Jefferson City in a variety of
ticipated consequences. The first, and most obvi-     ways, none of which was more important than
ous, was that convicts working outside the prison     the promotion of the building of a cross-state
                                                      railroad. While other communities vied in a vari-
walls were more likely to escape. A “Report of
                                                      ety of ways for railroad service to their towns,
the Inspectors of the Penitentiary,” issued in
                                                      sometimes offering large grants of land and
1845, indicated that 50 inmates (28% of the total     money, Jefferson City earned access to the Pacific
number incarcerated) had escaped over the pre-        Railroad by virtue of its status as the capital city
vious 20 months. Often townsfolk joined prison        of Missouri. The law that authorized the expen-
guards in chasing and trying to recapture con-        diture of public funds to build a railroad across
victs. If the legislature happened to be in session   the state, passed in 1849, stipulated that the new
when an escape occurred, lawmakers often              form of transportation must pass through the cap-
adjourned, picked up weapons at the state             ital city. Two years later, in anticipation of the
armory on the Capitol grounds, and joined the         completion of the railroad to Jefferson City, the
chase!                                                state capital was connected to St. Louis by tele-
    The fact of frequent escapes unsettled legisla-   graph service. Thus, Missourians between St.
tors and local residents alike. Even more unset-      Louis and Jefferson City, at least, could know
tling, especially for its long-term implications,     what was going on in the capital.
was the challenge convict labor posed for the
free labor system upon which capitalism was
based. The editor of the Jeffersonian Republican      Political Division in the
posed the question this way in 1842: “Where are
the many industrious mechanics that formerly
                                                      Capital City
gave our town life and prosperity?” He                “Blood up to the armpits”
answered, of course, that they had been “driven           Political division became apparent in the City
away, for want of employment,” because of con-        of Jefferson during the 1830s and 1840s,
vict labor. The prison, its inmates, and the use of   although the anti-Jackson party known as the
their labor, would remain sources of controversy      Whigs, formed during the mid-1830s, was a
in the capital city into the twenty-first century.    decidedly minority party in the capital city. In a
                                                             THE CITY OF JEFFERSON                  17

late life reminiscence written in 1901, local       A key element of their community was to be “a
physician Dr. Robert E. Young recalled an occa-     first-class University,” where the Free Soil philos-
sion during the 1840 campaign when                  ophy could be promulgated. Controversy over
Democrats drinking at a local saloon decided to     the idea of a Free Soil community adjacent to the
confront Whigs drinking at another saloon.          state capital prompted a heated debate in the hall
According to Young, a fight that threatened to      of the House of Representatives, with Claiborne
leave combatants standing in “blood up to the       Fox Jackson, slave owner, Southern sympathizer,
armpits” was narrowly averted. Tension between      and future governor, leading the fight against
the two groups had been exacerbated by a            such a development. Although the Land
steamboat captain who displayed on his craft a      Company purchased a considerable amount of
log cabin, the symbol of the presidential cam-      property west of the Capitol, the idea of building
paign of Whig candidate William Henry               a new city never came to fruition.
    Politics became increasingly divided in
Missouri and the capital city during the decade     The Civil War
and a half leading up to the Civil War, especial-
ly after the debate over the expansion of slavery   “We are living in very stirring times”
crystallized in the wake of the Mexican War             The Civil War brought interest in and action
(1846). The issue of whether or not slavery         to the City of Jefferson. Union and Confederate
should be allowed in the territory acquired from    sympathizers alike hoped to persuade the state of
Mexico divided Missourians. Those persons who       Missouri to join their side. On the evening of
traced their ancestry to the South generally sup-   January 3, 1861, newly elected Gov. Claiborne
ported the expansion of slavery. Those whose        Fox Jackson minced no words in letting
ancestors came from the North tended to oppose      Missourians know how he felt on the issue. In his
it. Recent European immigrants, likewise, often     inaugural address, he proclaimed his belief that
opposed the expansion of slavery into new terri-    “The destiny of the slaveholding States of this
tories.                                             Union is one and the same. So long as a state
                                                    continues to maintain slavery within her limits, it
                                                    is impossible to separate her fate from that of her
The Fight Over Slavery                              sister States who have the same social organiza-
                                                    tion.” Gov. Jackson made it clear that he thought
“Free Soilers” v. “The Courthouse                   it was in Missouri’s best interest “to stand by her
Clique”                                             sister States, in whose wrongs she participates,
    The friction intensified when Missouri’s sen-   and with whose institutions and people she sym-
ior United States Senator, Thomas Hart Benton,      pathizes.”
defied a directive from the Missouri General            Gov. Jackson called for a state convention to
Assembly and took a stand against the expan-        be held in which delegates could debate and
sion of slavery. Benton’s actions divided           decide whether or not Missouri should join the
Missourians, including residents of the capital     aborning Confederacy. The General Assembly set
city, into pro- and anti-Benton factions and        February 18, 1861, as the date for electing dele-
resulted in Benton’s defeat in the 1850 Senate      gates to such a convention. By the time that date
race.                                               arrived, seven states had seceded from the Union.
    The fight over the expansion of slavery             The state convention met in Jefferson City on
prompted a group of capital city residents to try   February 28, 1861, but voted almost immediate-
to create a new city adjacent to the City of        ly to re-convene in St. Louis, where the atmos-
Jefferson during the 1850s. Led by German           phere was more favorable to the state of Missouri
immigrant and physician, Dr. Bernard Bruns,         remaining in the Union. After debate on the
and prominent local resident Thomas L. Price,       issue, delegates to the convention voted over-
the anti-expansionist group created the Jefferson   whelmingly not to secede. Perturbed but not per-
City Land Company and began to buy property         suaded by the vote, Gov. Jackson acted to move
just west of Jefferson City, from roughly modern-   Missouri into the Confederate camp anyway.
day Bolivar Street to Gray’s Creek.                 Included in his machinations was the establish-
    The Jefferson City Land Company subse-          ment of a pro-Southern military encampment in
quently launched a campaign to attract “Free        St. Louis that bore his name: Camp Jackson.
Soilers” to the region, hoping thereby to under-    German immigrants living in Jefferson City dur-
mine the power of the pro-expansionist “court-      ing the early months of the war, widely known
house clique” which they claimed had a stran-       for their loyalty to the Republican Party and to
glehold on local government. The Jefferson City     the Union cause, feared reprisal by the governor.
Land Company hoped to attract “especially           Henrietta Bruns, who lived a block south of the
mechanics and manufacturers with machinery.”        Capitol, where the governor flew “a tremendous-
18            OFFICIAL MANUAL

View of Jefferson City showing new fortifcations and the arrival and departure of troops, Harpers Weekly,
Oct. 19, 1861
Missouri State Archives

ly large secessionist flag,” watched state militia-       made possible because of the disfranchisement
men drill on the Capitol grounds and wrote war-           of a large number of Democrats who refused to
ily to her brother back in Germany, “We are liv-          take a loyalty oath to the Union as provided for
ing in very stirring times.”                              by the state provisional government.
    By June of 1861, federal General Nathaniel                Only once during the war was Jefferson City
Lyon, Commander of the West, had tired of what            seriously threatened by Confederate forces, and
he regarded as Jackson’s treasonous activities.           that was in October 1864, when General Sterling
He led a force of two thousand soldiers to                Price, former governor of the state, approached
Jefferson City to remove the governor from office         the city from the south, only days after his fight
and arrest him. Alerted to Lyon’s plan, Gov.              at the Battle of Pilot Knob, in Iron County.
Jackson escaped the capital city just ahead of the        General Price spent the night on the outskirts of
Union troops, taking with him the state seal,             the capital city, presumably planning his attack.
which he intended to use to certify as “official”         But the attack on the capital never came. The
documents created by his rump government.                 general and his soldiers bypassed Jefferson City,
Among the state officials accompanying Jackson            leaving the capital unscathed, and local citizens
on his hasty retreat out of town were B.F. Massey,        wondering why he had not attacked. Some spec-
secretary of state; Alfred W. Morrison, state treas-      ulated it was because he did not want to endan-
urer; William S. Moseley, state auditor; and, John        ger the many friends he had made while he lived
F. Huston, register of lands. In addition, at least       in the city as governor, from 1853–1857.
seven pro-Southern legislators fled with the gov-             One consequence of the war for Jefferson
ernor.                                                    City was that its population grew significantly as
    Jackson and his cabinet were replaced by a            a consequence of an in-migration of people who
provisional government, headed by Gov.                    sought to escape Union and Confederate soldiers
Hamilton R. Gamble. Federal troops occupied               and their sympathizers who roamed the country-
the capital city for the remainder of the war. In         side, pillaging and harassing the citizenry.
1862 residents of the City of Jefferson chose the         African Americans, in particular, sought safety in
German immigrant and Radical Republican                   Jefferson City, in large part, it seems, because of
Bernard Bruns, one of the founders of the                 the presence there of so many Union soldiers
Jefferson City Land Company, as their mayor.              and because the so-called “Radical Republi-
Bruns’s victory over Democrat C. Clay Ewing was           cans” controlled state government. Radical Gov.
                                                               THE CITY OF JEFFERSON                   19

Thomas Fletcher, elected in 1864, supported the       arriving in the capital. Over the next several years,
Radical position on a number of issues, includ-       State Superintendent of Schools Thomas A. Parker,
ing the abolition of slavery, access to public edu-   also a Radical Republican, tried to establish pub-
cation for freedmen, and the right to vote for        lic schools for blacks throughout the state. It soon
African American males. By January 1865, the          became apparent that a shortage of black teachers
black population of Jefferson City had grown to       was a major obstacle. Black parents did not want
565 persons, an increase of 70% over the num-         their children to be taught by whites.
ber present just five years earlier.                      A solution to this problem, proposed by
                                                      African American political leader James Milton
                                                      Turner, was to make Lincoln Institute a state sup-
Establishing Lincoln                                  ported facility for the training of black teachers.
                                                      Lincoln received its first state appropriation
Institute                                             ($5,000) in 1870 and the use of twenty-five
    The city’s African American population grew       Missouri State Penitentiary inmates to build the
even more over the next decade because of the         first building on what is now the Lincoln
establishment of Lincoln Institute there in the       University campus. The school was taken over
Fall of 1866. In September 1866, Richard B.           entirely by the state in 1879 and continued to be
Foster, a white minister from New England who         the only state supported institution of higher edu-
had served as an officer in the 62nd United           cation for African Americans in Missouri until
States Colored Infantry, a unit composed of           integration occurred in the wake of the U.S.
Missouri freedmen, arrived in Jefferson City with     Supreme Court’s famous Brown v. Board of Edu-
money pledged by the men of his unit to open a        cation decision in 1954.
school for blacks. Foster had gone first to St.           The tenure in office of the Radical
Louis, but had run into intense hostility there. He   Republicans was short-lived. Democrats com-
came to Jefferson City because he believed that       plained that Republicans had run up the state
the presence in power of Radical Republicans          debt to $36 million during the war and that they
would guarantee a warmer reception.                   had used the power of the central government to
                                                      encroach on local rights and privileges. A
    Although Foster encountered opposition
                                                      Democratic governor was elected in 1872 with a
among some townsfolk to the idea of establishing
                                                      promise of restoring fiscal conservatism to state
a school for blacks in their city, he was able to
                                                      government and returning much power back to
open the school as a private facility soon after
                                                      local communities.

                                                      The 1875 Constitution
                                                      Creation of a Prison Factory System
                                                          Fiscal conservatism and local rule were key
                                                      concepts enshrined in a new constitution adopt-
                                                      ed by Missouri citizens in 1875. One conse-
                                                      quence of the effort to cut down on the amount
                                                      of money needed to run state government was a
                                                      renewed effort to force convicts to finance their
                                                      own incarceration. Prison and governmental offi-
                                                      cials decided to have the state construct factories
                                                      inside the prison walls, and then negotiate multi-
                                                      year contracts with private entrepreneurs for the
                                                      use of convict labor. Gov. John S. Phelps summa-
                                                      rized the plan in his 1879 message to the
                                                      General Assembly: “[I]t would seem reasonable
                                                      to expect the prisoners would not only be able,
                                                      by their labor, to earn an amount sufficient to
                                                      support themselves, but also to pay the salaries
                                                      and wages of the officers and guards.”
                                                          This new prison factory system brought to
                                                      Jefferson City a number of entrepreneurs who
                                                      would not, under other circumstances, have cho-
                                                      sen the city as a place to set up business. One of
James Milton Turner                                   the first of these was August Priesmeyer, president
Missouri State Archives                               and founder of A. Priesmeyer Shoe Co., who

moved to Jefferson City in 1874 to open a facto-      receptions which were elaborate and character-
ry inside the prison walls. Priesmeyer managed        istic of a lavish bygone day.” The usual menu was
the business largely with the help of his nephew,     “chicken salad, oyster patties, olives, beaten bis-
Henry F. Priesmeyer, and a Scottish immigrant         cuits, ices, cakes, bonbons, and coffee, with
named John Tweedie Sr. Tweedie took over the          punch served in the sun room by young ladies.”
business during the early twentieth century, and      On one occasion, the Houchins’ daughter
he and successive generations of his family           Myrene recalled in 1944, her parents entertained
became pillars of the commercial and civic com-       two nights in succession, first for legislators and
munities of the capital city.                         then for their Jefferson City friends. A total of
     Another immigrant to the Jefferson City com-     seven hundred people attended these two
munity because of the prison factory system was       events. Mr. and Mrs. Houchin, their daughter
Lester Shepherd Parker, who came to Jefferson         Myrene, and her husband, Jack Hobbs, contin-
City in 1895 as superintendent and general man-       ued to be leading Jefferson City socialites and
ager of the Jefferson Shoe Company, a Chicago-        civic boosters of the capital city throughout the
based business that had been incorporated in          first half of the 20th century.
Illinois in 1885 and that operated a factory inside
the Missouri prison. Parker established his own
prison factory in 1896 and subsequently built         A New Governor’s
one of Jefferson City’s finest homes, a striking
Neo-Classical Revival house across the street         Mansion Creates a New
from the drab and sometimes dangerous prison.
Parker became a civic booster and city promoter,
                                                      Social Atmosphere in the
who as an avocational painter and poet, did           Capital City
much to promote the cultural and artistic health
                                                          In September 1867, a correspondent for the
of the community.
                                                      St. Louis Republican wrote an extensive piece for
     Yet another businessman who moved to             readers back home on “First Impressions of the
Missouri to operate a prison factory was James A.     Capital.” Although he acknowledged that many
Houchin, who came to Jefferson City from              people came to Jefferson City because “here are
Illinois in 1890 to take a job as a bookkeeper and    gathered and disbursed the public revenues
stenographer with the Charles R. Lewis Clothing       [and] here are held the reins of public authority,”
Manufacturing Company, also a prison factory.         he asserted, also, that “The first impressions that
In the mid-1890s, Houchin launched his own            the city of Jefferson make upon a stranger are
effort at establishing a prison industry. His Star    generally unfavorable.”
Clothing Manufacturing Company became one                 Why the negative feelings? Because, the
of the leading prison factories during the early      Republic correspondent asserted, “The town is
twentieth century. The Houchins, with the help        generally full, more or less, of strangers, attract-
of convict labor, erected a magnificent home in       ed here by the pressure of urgent business with
the 600-block of E. Main St. (later called Capitol    the departments and that over, they have no
Avenue). The Houchins’ home became an                 desire to remain.” The fact that so many tran-
important social gathering place for politicians.     sients visited the city led local residents to treat
Presumably because his business was so closely        them inhospitably, unless the stranger arrived
tied to state government, James Houchin became        “recommended or known,” in which case local
a political activist, deeply involved in              citizens were capable of exhibiting “generous
Democratic Party politics throughout the first        feeling . . . toward a guest.” Notwithstanding its
three decades of the twentieth century. He            deficiencies, the correspondent claimed,
served as the statewide coordinator of Joseph W.      “Society here is refined and cultivated, a large
Folk’s successful gubernatorial campaign in           mixture of which consists of the families of
1904. In 1912, Houchin sought the Democratic          retired officers of State, who have remained here
nomination for governor in his own right, but lost    attached to the place by its advantages of health,
to Elliott Major, who went on to be chosen gov-       culture and economy.”
ernor in the general election. Houchin tried              Many people thought that the capital city
again in 1916, this time losing to Frederick          became a more hospitable place after Gov. B.
Gardner.                                              Gratz Brown and his family moved into a new
     The Houchins entertained frequently. Soon        Governor’s Mansion on January 20, 1872. The
after their house was built, they began holding       new Mansion, designed by St. Louis architect
receptions for members of the legislature and         George Ingham Barnett in the fashionable
their families during each session. According to      Renaissance Revival style, replaced the older
a 1944 newspaper article about the Houchin            structure just to the south, whose dilapidated
house, written on the occasion of its sale, “three    condition had become an embarrassment to leg-
or four hundred people usually attended these         islators.
                                                                THE CITY OF JEFFERSON                  21

Governor’s Mansion
Missouri State Archives

     The new three-story Governor’s Mansion,               The opening ball at the Governor’s Mansion
with its Great Hall, Double Parlor, and thirteen       established the use of the great house as a place
bedrooms, was built to entertain and to impress.       of hospitality and entertainment in the capital
Among the first guests to visit the spacious new       city. Party conventions, inaugural balls and other
structure was the Grand Duke Alexis, the twen-         celebrations were held there. For many years
ty-two-year old son of the Russian Czar. The           during the late nineteenth-century the grandest
Grand Duke, who was returning by train to the          gathering in the capital city, at least during the
East coast after a buffalo hunting trip in the West,
                                                       winter months, was a New Year’s Day Ball,
was accompanied by General George Armstrong
                                                       supervised by the state’s adjutant general.
Custer. Grand Duke Alexis spoke briefly to the
Missouri General Assembly and then he and                  A less joyous occasion came in 1887, when
General Custer joined Gov. Brown and others for        Gov. John Sappington Marmaduke died in the
an “unostentatious . . . but brilliant” lunch at the   Governor’s Mansion on December 18 of that
Mansion. Later, the Grand Duke provided many           year after a bout with pneumonia. A former gen-
residents of the capital city with a rare opportu-     eral in the Confederate Army, and the son of an
nity to see a royal personage when he received         antebellum Missouri governor (Meredith Miles
local well-wishers and curiosity seekers at the        Marmaduke), the younger Marmaduke was a
Madison Hotel, across the street from the              popular chief executive. His funeral was the
Mansion.                                               most elaborate and well attended state funeral
     The day after the Grand Duke’s visit,             witnessed in Jefferson City prior to the funeral of
Governor and Mrs. Brown held a grand ball at           Gov. Mel Carnahan in October 2000. Gov.
the Mansion to celebrate its official opening.         Marmaduke lay in state in the main hall of the
Estimates of the number of guests in attendance        Governor’s Mansion from 10:00 a.m. to 2:00
ranged as high as two thousand, no doubt the
                                                       p.m. on the day of his funeral. The funeral was
largest crowd to gather in the capital city for a
                                                       conducted in the Mansion by Bishop Daniel S.
social event to that date. Although one journalist
praised the gathering as “one of the most mag-         Tuttle of the Episcopal Diocese of Missouri and
nificent entertainments which ever occurred            the Rev. John Gierlow of Grace Episcopal
west of St. Louis,” others present complained of       Church in Jefferson City. Newspaper accounts of
the gawking, pushing masses who, among other           the funeral reported that a procession extended
things, “jammed . . . into Mrs. Brown’s beautiful      more than a mile, from the Governor’s Mansion
rooms . . . particularly the supper room, and          on Madison Street to the State Cemetery on East
rifled things like a flock of locust.”                 McCarty Street, where Marmaduke was buried.

                                                       although the club history suggests that the orga-
Other Late Nineteenth-                                 nization’s members quickly learned that they
Century Visitors to the                                could serve the common good by applying the
                                                       power of their individual and collective intellects
Capital City                                           to a search for solutions to the social problems of
     Two years after Marmaduke’s death, the            their day. Denied access to the “normal” avenues
noted suffragist Susan B. Anthony visited the cap-     of power available to their spouses (voting and
ital city and delivered a lecture in the Hall of the   office-holding), club women wielded power
House of Representatives to Missouri legislators       informally, by influencing their husbands, who
and an overflow crowd of curiosity seekers and         were prominent leaders of the business and gov-
supporters on “the question of the enfranchise-        ernmental communities, to take action on the
ment of women.” Miss Anthony was accompa-              issues that concerned them. As the club’s history
nied by Mrs. Virginia L. Minor of St. Louis, one of    indicates, “Women did not have the right to vote
the earliest supporters of the franchise for           then but they became expert in getting results
women during the post-Civil War generation,            another way.” Among the club’s early projects
and a long-time president of the Missouri chap-        was an effort to help establish a local public
ter of the National Woman Suffrage Association.        library. Apparently from the beginning, the
In announcing Miss Anthony’s presence in the           Tuesday Club invited First Ladies of Missouri to
state capital, the editor of the local State Tribune   join their exclusive organization as honorary
commented that “She will not likely make many          members.
converts, but nevertheless the venerable lecturer
is entitled to a respectful hearing.”                      Arguably, the most popular national political
                                                       leader to visit the capital city during the 1890s
     Six years later, perhaps influenced by
                                                       was the three-time Democratic presidential can-
Anthony’s pleas for equality, capital city women
                                                       didate, William Jennings Bryan. The “Great
formed what, arguably, became the most presti-
gious women’s club of the twentieth century: the       Commoner,” as he was known, made multiple
so-called Tuesday Club. The Tuesday Club’s first       trips to Jefferson City as both a Chautauqua
meeting was held in the home of the Rev. and           speaker and as a political campaigner during the
Mrs. J.T.M. Johnston. Rev. Johnston was the pas-       1890s. In 1899, for example, he delivered an
tor of the local Baptist church. An election was       oration on the virtues of “Free Silver” to a crowd
held at the first meeting, with Mrs. George B.         of five thousand people from the steps of the
Macfarlane, wife of a Missouri Supreme Court           Capitol. According to a local newspaper account
judge, chosen as president. Mrs. Mourton               of the event, Bryan, whose speech had taken two
Jourdan, whose husband worked in the state             hours, “apologized somewhat for trespassing
attorney general’s office, was elected vice presi-     upon the time of the audience.” Rather than
dent. Early club by-laws indicate that the organ-      being offended or bored, the crowd responded
ization existed primarily “for literary purposes,”     with “many calls for him to proceed further.”

                                                                                      Missouri River Bridge
                                                                                      Opening, 1896
                                                                                      Missouri State Archives
                                                                THE CITY OF JEFFERSON               23

The Fight Over Removal of
the Capital Bridging the
Missouri River
Bridging the Missouri River
    The presence and popularity of the
Governor’s Mansion in Jefferson City and the
increase in social activities accompanying the
“Gay Nineties” notwithstanding, some Missouri
residents continued to question the wisdom of
retaining the permanent seat of government in
Jefferson City. One thing that especially both-
ered many of the state’s citizens was the absence
of a bridge across the Missouri River into the
capital city. The “Big Muddy,” which an earlier
generation had seen as a highway for travel to
the capital city, had become, in the age of the
railroad, an obstacle to access.
    Fearful of losing the designation as the capi-
tal city, a number of businessmen, including the
recently arrived entrepreneurs associated with
prison industries, launched an effort to build a     Hugh Stephens, Jefferson City Chamber of Commerce.
bridge across the river. Calling themselves the      Missouri State Archives
“Commercial Club” (later the name was
changed to “Chamber of Commerce”) these men
spearheaded an effort to erect a $225,000 toll       shop, known as the Tribune Printing Company,
bridge across the river. The completion of the       and later the Hugh Stephens Printing Company,
bridge in February 1896 diminished, if it did not    existed primarily to serve the printing needs of
end altogether, the criticism of Jefferson City’s    state government.
status as the capital city.                              With his place of business only two blocks
    The favorable climate for business created by    east of the Capitol, and engaged in a business
the Commercial Club, and the continuing              that took him to the Capitol often, Stephens
opportunities for doing business with state gov-     quickly became a key figure in state and local
ernment, made Jefferson City a community of          affairs. Ultimately, Stephens was elected to the
great hope as the twentieth century dawned. On       presidency of the Commercial Club and served
May 12, 1900, the Jefferson City Daily Press car-    for an unprecedented eight terms. Among his
ried an article written by a local reporter who      many contributions to his adopted city, and to his
offered an assessment of the capital city’s eco-     state, was his effort to promote the accessibility
nomic viability as it moved into the new centu-      of the state capital to all Missourians by means of
ry. For much of its existence, the reporter          better highways. He was a leading proponent of
charged, Jefferson City had the reputation of        building U. S. Highways 54, 63, and 50 through
being “an old fogy” town run by “old fossils who     Missouri, for example, and making sure that
had held the town down.” But then, the reporter      these important cross-state highways intersected
concluded, “the Jefferson City people got a          in Jefferson City.
move on themselves and galvanized a little life
into the old fossils.”
    In truth, the “life” came more from the out-     The Capitol Fire and its
siders (such as Priesmeyer, Parker and Houchins)
who moved to the capital city because it was the     Consequences
seat of government, rather than from the “old            Tragedy befell Jefferson City and the state of
fossils” who had been around a generation or         Missouri on the night of February 5, 1911, when
more. Among the most progressive of Jefferson        a lightning bolt struck the dome of the Capitol.
City’s early twentieth century business and com-     The ensuing fire could not be contained with fire
munity leaders was Hugh Stephens, who moved          fighting equipment available. Firefighters and cit-
from Columbia to Jefferson City at the turn of the   izens alike watched helplessly while the fire
century to manage a print shop purchased by his      raged out of control. When the heavily timbered
father, Edwin W. Stephens, a Boone County            dome collapsed into the interior of the Capitol,
printer and publisher. The Jefferson City print      all present knew that the structure was doomed.

A valiant, and largely successful, effort was         Adjutant General F.M. Rumboldt, and a number
made to retrieve historical documents from the        of prominent businessmen who operated facto-
burning building. Among the people pressed            ries inside the prison. According to a local
into service for this dangerous mission was a         Jefferson City newspaper of the time, it was com-
group of Missouri State Penitentiary inmates.         mon during the summer of 1911 “to see crowd-
Gov. Herbert S. Hadley commuted the sentences         ed excursion trains switched from the Missouri
of several of these inmates out of gratitude for      Pacific mainline tracks to the Bagnell Branch and
their efforts.                                        proceed gingerly over the uncertain roadbed to
    One consequence of the Capitol fire was a         the Country Club, where barbecues had been
re-emergence of the debate over whether or not        prepared.”
Jefferson City should remain the state’s perma-           Among the visitors to the Jefferson City
nent seat of government. Opponents of the idea        Country Club in 1911 was the Republican presi-
mounted an effort to oppose the passage of a          dent of the United States, William Howard Taft,
bond issue aimed at financing the rebuilding of       who had traveled to Missouri to attend the State
the Capitol. Supporters of retaining the city as      Fair. The president and his military aide, Major
the site of the capital, led by the city’s            Archibald Butt, joined Gov. Hadley and the Rev.
Commercial Club, countered with a campaign            Paul Talbot, rector of Grace Episcopal Church in
of self-promotion. The day after the fire, local      Jefferson City, in a round of golf.
banker Sam B. Cook took a train to St. Louis to           Ultimately, the proponents of keeping the
enlist the assistance of key legislative leaders in   capital in Jefferson City succeeded. Their victory
the quest to retain Jefferson City as the perma-      was solidified on August 1, 1911, when
nent seat of government. Cook, another “out-          Missourians voted by a three-to-one majority to
sider” who had a dramatic impact on the capital       authorize issuing $3.5 million in bonds to build a
city, had moved from Mexico, Missouri, to             new Capitol in Jefferson City. Late that night,
Jefferson City in 1900, after being elected as sec-   when victory appeared certain, a crowd of
retary of state. Although defeated for re-election    Jefferson City revelers went to Sam Cook’s home,
in 1904, Cook opted to remain in the capital          a half block south of the Capitol, aroused him
city, where, in 1905, he assumed the presidency       from his sleep, and persuaded him to march at the
of the Central Missouri Trust Company, a bank         head of an impromptu parade, celebrating the
whose first president was a former Democratic         event. Newspaper accounts of the incident indi-
governor of the state, Lon V. Stephens. Asked by      cate that Cook was clad only in his pajamas, a
a newspaper reporter why he had chosen to             lounging robe, and slippers, but that his head was
make Jefferson City his home, Cook replied, “I        adorned with a silk hat and he carried a cane.
have for some time been very favorably im-
pressed with the State capital, both in a business
and a social way. It is one of the most solid
towns in the State, and in my judgment there is
                                                      The New Capitol
no city of like population that has so bright and         The decision to build a new Capitol building
substantial a future.”                                in Jefferson City had at least one negative effect
                                                      on Sam Cook’s personal life. The Capitol grounds
                                                      were expanded greatly, resulting in the destruc-
                                                      tion of the home he shared with his wife and
Formation of the Jefferson                            three children in the 200-block of Washington
City Country Club                                     Street. It would be only one of many displace-
                                                      ments caused by the building of a new Capitol
    Sam B. Cook and others apparently used the
                                                      over the next century. Groundbreaking cere-
Jefferson City Country Club to lobby “leaders of
                                                      monies for the new structure occurred on May 6,
public opinion across the state” to support the
                                                      1913. Labor problems plagued work on the
effort against moving the capital. Organized at a
                                                      Capitol. Nonetheless, on June 24, 1914, the
meeting chaired by Gov. Herbert S. Hadley on
                                                      building’s cornerstone was laid before a crowd of
September 7, 1909, at the Monroe House
                                                      approximately 12,000 people and on August 12,
(dubbed by some contemporaries as “the
                                                      1914, a flag raising ceremony celebrated the
Republican hotel”), the country club opened on
                                                      completion of the building’s steel frame.
May 8, 1911, with a charter membership of one
hundred men. Penitentiary Warden Henry
Andrae, one of the charter members, had
“arranged a detail of inmates to help clear and       Era of World War I
construct the golf course.” Gov. Hadley was               Work on the new state Capitol neared com-
elected as the club’s first president. Other char-    pletion in the summer of 1917, just as the United
ter members, in addition to Hadley and Andrae,        States entered World War I. The decoration and
included Attorney General Elliott W. Major,           formal dedication of the new structure was
                                                               THE CITY OF JEFFERSON                       25

                                                                                 Completed Missouri
                                                                                 State Capitol, 1917
                                                                                 Missouri State Archives

delayed as Missourians joined other American          women in the country at the time, so the U.S.
citizens in gearing up for the war effort.            Department of Justice sought a place of confine-
     Emblematic of the city’s contribution to the     ment among the country’s state prisons.
war effort was a Fourth of July picnic held at        Missouri’s low bid netted it the dubious distinc-
McClung Park in 1917. McClung Park, also              tion of housing in the capital city the notorious
known as State Park Number One, was a state-          anarchist and Russian immigrant Emma
owned facility named for prison warden D.C.           Goldman, and Socialist Kate Richards O’Hare.
McClung who used idle convicts to clean up the            Goldman and O’Hare were confined in the
fifteen-acre piece of state property and turn it      state’s women’s prison, a building that fronted on
into a state park, complete with park benches,        Lafayette Street, inside the walls of the men’s
pavilions, and a dance floor where prison bands       penitentiary. From the perspective of state prison
played for dancing capital citians on weekends        officials, these women were anything but model
in the summer. According to the Daily Capital         prisoners. They complained widely and often,
News, special trains and caravans of automo-          largely through the medium of letters to newspa-
biles brought central Missourians from outlying       pers and magazines throughout the country, of
communities to the capital city for the July 4,       the prison’s shortcomings: its unsanitary living
1917, picnic. The gathering was designed as a         conditions, which included the lack of adequate
fundraiser sponsored by the newly established         bathing facilities, rancid food, and the presence
local Red Cross chapter to help in the relief         of rats; the drudgery and difficulty of work
effort. It attracted a crowd of approximately ten     assignments in stifling heat and bone chilling
thousand people.                                      cold; and, the general dehumanizing treatment
                                                      they received at the hands of poorly-trained
     Support for the war effort was modeled by        guards who owed their positions to political con-
Gov. Frederick Gardner and Mrs. Gardner, who          nections.
planted and worked in their “Victory Garden” on
                                                          Goldman and O’Hare’s time in prison was
the grounds of the Governor’s Mansion.
                                                      helped only slightly by the fact that O’Hare had
Likewise, Mrs. Gardner joined with other ladies
                                                      known and worked with Warden William R.
who belonged to the city’s prestigious Tuesday
                                                      Painter when he had been Missouri’s lieutenant-
Club in sewing pajamas and other clothing, as         governor. She had met Painter and his wife while
well as preparing bandages, for American sol-         she was living in St. Louis and working on behalf
diers in France.                                      of state minimum wage legislation. O’Hare used
     World War I and its aftermath brought            her acquaintance with Painter to gain access to
national, and no doubt unwanted, attention to         Gov. Frederick Gardner. Her pleadings to the two
Jefferson City in 1918, when the first of two of      men, as well as her complaints to U.S. Depart-
the most radical women in the country arrived in      ment of Justice officials, and her constant letter-
the capital city to serve a prison term for violat-   writing, led to slight improvements in conditions
ing the federal Sedition Act. This law prohibited     in the women’s prison. One of the bright spots
speaking out against America’s involvement in         for O’Hare and her fellow female convicts came
World War I. There was no federal prison for          in the summer, when they were allowed to walk
26            OFFICIAL MANUAL

Prominent men of Jefferson City with Gov. Major, center, at the country club, c1920
Missouri State Archives

to McClung Park for Saturday afternoon outings.          distilleries in and around Jefferson City. Illicit
In the winter, inmates were sometimes shown              alcohol was available even in the Capitol. One
silent movies on the weekends. No doubt the              former legislator recalled in a 1996 memoir that
warden and the governor were greatly relieved            when he arrived in the capital city in 1935, there
when the troublesome prisoners O’Hare and                was still talk about “a custom during the dry
Goldman were finally released from custody,              years of prohibition [that] members [of the legis-
Goldman in 1919 and O’Hare in 1920.                      lature] would bring [to the Capitol] a little home
                                                         brew, white lightening, and sometimes a little
                                                         chicken hooch, often called that because it was
The Roaring Twenties                                     so strong that if you took a good swallow it
                                                         would make you lay.”
    The Jefferson City Country Club continued to
be an important place of recreation and relax-               The decade of the 1920s had a dark side as
ation for Missouri politicians during the era of         well. For many, the decade was a time of fear, as
World War I and beyond. Like his predecessors            nativism, racism and religious bigotry permeated
Hadley and Major, Gov. Frederick Gardner                 the land. One of the most controversial and dis-
joined the country club and was selected its             turbing gatherings in Jefferson City during the
president in 1920. Mrs. Gardner later recalled           1920s occurred in the Missouri State Capitol in
how much the governor enjoyed the club: “Mr.             February 1924 when a Ku Klux Klan meeting was
Gardner found the Country Club a haven of                held in the Hall of Representatives.
refuge and nothing pleased us more than to go                The Klan was a powerful force in American
there for a bright soiree with our friends.” The         politics during the decade, when it promoted
former first lady of Missouri added, “Surely noth-       itself as a patriotic organization committed to
ing was impossible to the folks who gathered             “100% Americanism.” Unlike its counterpart of
there—gay and impudent, brave and reckless,              the post-Civil War period, the 1920s Klan was
impulsive and generous.”                                 not only anti-African American, but also
    Prohibition dominated the decade of the              opposed to immigrants, Jews, and Catholics.
twenties, although the Volstead Act was often                According to a statement by Heber Nations,
ignored in the capital city. Newspapers from the         editor of the Jefferson City Daily Post, he was
era are filled with accounts of raids upon illegal       contacted by Klan members who asked for his
                                                                THE CITY OF JEFFERSON                 27

help in gaining permission to use the Capitol for a    anti-Klan forces united to re-elect Mayor Cecil W.
Klan meeting. Local newspaper stories of the time      Thomas, who established himself as an opponent
claim that the capital city had a Klan membership      of the Klan during his first term in office.
of more than eleven hundred, with one Klan gath-
ering at the Merchants Bank Hall attracting a gath-
ering of 850 Klansmen.                                 The New Capitol Dedication
    Nations took the Klan’s request to Harry
Woodruff, Commissioner of the Permanent Seat           “It was a real big doins”
of Government, who, in turn, granted the                   The formal, belated, dedication of the new
request. Later asked to explain his actions,           Capitol came on October 6, 1924, in what one
Nations said, “I thought local people would be         contemporary newspaper referred to as “unques-
interested in the attitude of the Klan as expressed    tionably the greatest celebration ever held in the
by an official representative.” Nations added          Capital City.” People from all over the state
“that surmise proved correct when the largest          began arriving in Jefferson City days in advance
audience ever assembled in the legislative hall        of the celebration. The Missouri Pacific Railroad
greeted the [Klan] speaker Sunday afternoon.”          ran special trains at reduced rates to accommo-
    Both Nations and Woodruff defended the             date travelers and a housing committee of local
decision to allow the Klan to meet in the Capitol,     women coordinated an effort to find rooms for
with Nations calling the gathering “entirely patri-    them. Existing hotels could not begin to provide
otic and scholarly.” The unrepentant Nations stat-     enough rooms for all of the visitors. Churches
ed that if given the opportunity, he would do the      and civic organizations organized to serve
same thing over again, adding that “If the great       meals, with former prison warden, D.C.
membership of the Klan throughout the country          McClung, heading a committee to regulate food
is composed of citizens of the same high grade         prices “to guard against profiteering.” Two days
who shape its policies here, it is the greatest        before the event, a local newspaper sent out “An
patriotic organization in the world.”                  urgent appeal to all housewives of Jefferson City
    Not all agreed with Nations, of course. In fact,   to order enough groceries today [Saturday] to last
many people of both major political parties com-       over Sunday and Monday.” All owners of cars
plained bitterly of the decision to allow the Klan     were urged to leave their vehicles at home.
to meet in the Capitol. Indeed, the Klan became            The dedication ceremony began on the
an important issue in the 1924 gubernatorial           morning of October 6 as so many gatherings in
election, with the Republicans and their guber-        the capital city have always begun: with a
natorial candidate, Sam A. Baker, being widely         parade. A crowd estimated as high as 25,000
regarded as more anti-Klan than the Democrats.         watched as Grand Marshall Colonel Paul Hunt of
Baker was elected governor. In Jefferson City,         Jefferson City, a World War I veteran, led a two-

Capitol Dedication, St. Louis ballet dancers, 1924
Missouri State Archives
28            OFFICIAL MANUAL

Highway Department Building, 1931
Missouri State Archives

mile-long parade from the Capitol, east on
Capitol Avenue to Cherry Street, south to High,
                                                       Expansion of State
and then west, back to the Capitol. The parade         Government and Its Impact
included fifty floats, bands from all over the
state, airplanes and a U. S. Army dirigible, along     on the Capital City
with 114 county queens, one from each county               The splendor and beauty of the new Capitol
in the state. Ku Klux Klan members were among          made many Missourians want to show off the
the groups serving lunch along the parade route.       building. For years, for example, the Missouri
Their lunch stand was on Capitol Avenue, in            Pacific Railroad ran special excursion trains at
front of a sign that read “KKK, 100 percent.”          reduced rates to Jefferson City so that residents of
                                                       the state could view the Capitol. That desire to
    At 2:00 p.m. the throng of people assembled        put the Capitol on display, combined with the
on the south lawn of the Capitol for several           dramatic growth of state government during the
hours of speeches by dignitaries, including Gov.       1920s and 1930s, had consequences that would
Arthur M. Hyde and four past governors:                reverberate throughout the capital city into the
Alexander Dockery, Herbert Hadley, Elliott             twenty-first century.
Major, and Frederick Gardner. David M. Francis             A hint of what was to come was contained in
was the only living ex-governor unable to attend       the capital architects’ expression of regret that
the ceremony. Among the speakers, also, was            because of the city’s topography and built envi-
octogenarian Mrs. Theodosia Thornton Lawson,           ronment, the Capitol would be barely visible
a daughter of Colonel John Thornton of Clay            from southern and eastern approaches to the city.
County who more than a century before had              The architects’ suggestion was that a number of
chaired the commission to select a site for a per-     buildings on West High Street, south of the
manent seat of government.                             Capitol, be torn down and that the street be low-
    At 7:00 p.m. an elaborate historical pageant,      ered by several feet. This would, of course, have
written and directed by Mrs. Frank Leach of            necessitated the destruction of a number of
                                                       homes and businesses belonging to capital city
Sedalia, was presented on the south steps of the
                                                       residents, as well as the United States Post Office
Capitol. The pageant required 2,325 characters         and the state Supreme Court building, the latter
to depict the history of the state, back to the days   of which was erected in 1906.
of French and Spanish colonial rule.
                                                           While the idea of lowering West High Street
Unfortunately, the pageant was cut short near its
                                                       was not implemented, a great many homes and
end by a thunderstorm, which also caused the           businesses were destroyed by the rapidly
planned fireworks display to be cancelled. The         expanding state government during the 1920s
rain notwithstanding, the day’s activities were        and 1930s. The expansion of the Capitol
quite memorable. One newspaper summed up               grounds, as noted earlier, led to the destruction of
the event with this headline: “It Was a Real Big       a number of private residences south of the
Doins.”                                                Capitol. In addition, in the late 1920s, the State
                                                                 THE CITY OF JEFFERSON                  29

of Missouri acquired land east of the Capitol to            Missouri state government expanded at only
accommodate the building of a structure that            a slightly slower rate during the Depression years
housed one of the state’s fastest growing bureau-       of the 1930s than it had during the previous
cracies: the Missouri Highway Department. This,         decade. Among the large, new state bureaucra-
too, resulted in the destruction of a number of         cies created during the 1930s was the State
private residences. According to Missouri State         Social Security Commission and the Unem-
Archivist Kenneth H. Winn, the number of state          ployment Compensation Commission, both cre-
employees grew by more than 180% during the             ated in 1937. Even entry-level state government
decade of the 1920s.                                    jobs, some with a six day work week, were
    In 1929, after several years of discussion by       thought to be highly desirable during the difficult
civic and political leaders, the City of Jefferson      Depression years. In a 1998 interview, Bernard
hired the distinguished St. Louis planning firm of      Poiry recalled that sixty years earlier, he consid-
Harland Bartholomew to assist in its effort to con-     ered himself to be extremely fortunate when his
front what, arguably, has been the city’s major         father’s political connections landed him a job as
problem since solidifying its status as the seat of     a prison guard. He gladly moved from his
government during the early twentieth century:          Newton County farm to Jefferson City, where he
how to accommodate the expanding needs of an            earned $135 per month at the prison.
ever-growing government without unduly infring-
ing on the lives and property of local residents.           In the mid-1930s, with the number of state
                                                        employees continuing to grow, and most of the
    Asserting that “The Beautiful Capitol will
                                                        state’s business still being conducted out of the
form the nucleus of future public building devel-
                                                        Capitol, the state house’s resources were over-
opment,” the planners proposed that the state
                                                        taxed. Bill Barton, who came to Jefferson City in
acquire all of the land east of the Capitol to the
                                                        1935 as a Republican legislator, recalled that the
Governor’s Mansion, including the land occu-
pied by Tweedie Footwear Corporation, a shoe            Capitol building was so crowded with govern-
factory that was the largest non-governmental           ment workers that many state employees moved
employer in the city, and the Ott Lumber Yard,          to temporary office space in the basement so that
owned by prominent Jefferson City businessman           legislators could occupy their offices.
Louis Ott. In addition, the planners proposed               A new government office building, known
that the state should acquire also land to the west     initially as the “State Office Building” (later
of the Capitol, at least as far west as Walnut          named the Broadway State Office Building) was
Street, an area that planners also thought to be        erected during the late 1930s with the help of the
blighted by commercial and industrial develop-          federal government under the auspices of the
ment. Acquisition of these properties would             Works Progress Administration. Groundbreaking
allow the razing of a number of buildings, there-       for the 96,000 square foot building occurred on
by “eliminat[ing] a large amount of the undesir-        March 1, 1938, and the first department was
able development which now seriously detracts           moved into it on November 18, 1938. Many of
from the site and would also provide a large            the state offices housed in the Capitol, including
amount of open space . . . .”                           the Missouri State Highway Patrol, created in
    South of the Capitol, planners proposed the         1931, moved across West High Street to the new
creation of a memorial mall and boulevard               State Office Building.
approach to the state house, which, again, would            The capital city’s population grew by 67%
require the destruction of a number of buildings,
                                                        between 1920 and 1940, from 14,490 to
including the red brick Missouri Supreme Court
                                                        24,268, more than it has grown in any other
building, then only about twenty-five years old.
                                                        twenty-year period in its history since 1850.
The planners resurrected the Capitol architects’
                                                        With a great many of the immigrants to the city
proposal that “The grade on High Street between
Jefferson and Broadway should be reduced . . . so       coming to take jobs in state government, a need
as not to interfere with the view toward the            arose for affordable housing within walking dis-
Capitol.” Indeed, the planners went so far as to        tance of the government buildings. Among the
assert that “It would be desirable if eventually both   buildings erected in the downtown area was the
the Highway and [St. Peter Catholic] church build-      Bella Vista Apartment building just four blocks
ings could be removed.” The Highway Department          east of the Capitol. Another popular apartment
building at this time was less than a decade old        building of the era erected to accommodate the
and St. Peter Church was the spiritual home of lit-     large influx of state workers was the Wymore
erally thousands of capital city Catholics. City and    Apartment complex in the 300-block of
state governmental officials would revisit this early   Washington Street, just two blocks from the
plan time and again over the decades to come as         Capitol and one block from the State Office
they wrestled with the problem of regulating and        Building, and the Tergin Apartment Building in
shaping the growth of the capital city.                 the 300-block of West McCarty Street.
30            OFFICIAL MANUAL

                                                      registered at the hotel, including Michael
Background and Building                               Mulvoy, a St. Louis fireman, who was in Jefferson
of the Hotel Governor                                 City with Captain Egan of Kansas City, promoting
                                                      the interests of “the firemen’s pension bill.”
     Housing of legislators and the people who        Mulvoy directed the activities of the Jefferson
came to Jefferson City to do business with gov-       City fire department in its efforts to save the
ernmental officials became a serious concern of       building. Approximately $50,000 worth of dam-
the city’s Chamber of Commerce during the             age was done to the structure. Unfortunately,
1920s. One suspects, in fact, that the need for       another fire eight years later (on May 3, 1939)
such facilities was driven home by the presence       totally destroyed the Madison Hotel.
of such a large group of people at the 1924
                                                          A push for a new hotel to replace the
Capitol dedication.
                                                      Madison, even in the face of the Great De-
     The dominant hotel in the city that catered to   pression economy, was led by Chamber of
politicians during the early 1920s was the            Commerce president Hugh Stephens. Stephens,
Madison Hotel, located on the southwest corner        who was also Chairman of the Board of the
of the intersection of Capitol Avenue and             Exchange National Bank, had as one of his
Madison Street, just across from the Governor’s       strongest supporters Howard Cook, president of
Mansion. Among other uses, this hotel frequent-       the rival Central Trust Bank. Stephens, Cook, and
ly served as a state convention site for both of      their allies, understood that many Missourians
the state’s major political parties. Unfortunately,   representing a variety of special interests wanted
this hotel was severely damaged by fire in            to gather in the capital city because it was the
February 1931, the consequence of a traveling         seat of governmental power.
salesman, J.M. Schlitz, smoking in bed. Schlitz
                                                          On November 9, 1940, Cook wrote to a
died in the blaze. More fortunate was Missouri
                                                      potential developer of his belief that “because of
state representative William Hicks, who occu-
                                                      state conventions and for dozens of other excel-
pied a room adjacent to that of Schlitz.
                                                      lent reasons Jefferson City hotel facilities are not
Newspaper accounts of the fire indicate that the
                                                      nearly ample at the present time.” Cook believed
state representative “barely escaped with his
                                                      that “many other gatherings, large and small,
life.” Hicks was rescued by firemen who raised a
                                                      would naturally come here if comfortable hotel
ladder to the window of his room.
                                                      accommodations could be obtained.”
     According to local news reports, “Most of the
                                                          Ten days later, the developer, Bill Berberich,
guests of the hotel were members of the legisla-
                                                      wrote to Hugh Stephens, offering to “build and
ture.” In addition, a number of lobbyists were
                                                      operate a hotel of not less than 145 rooms”
                                                      whose minimum rates would be $2.00 a night.
                                                      Berberich also promised a “banquet room seat-
                                                      ing at tables not less than 400 persons.”
                                                          The deal was predicated upon the ability of a
                                                      committee headed by Stephens to acquire the
                                                      proposed site “free and clear of all encum-
                                                      brances.” Berberich wanted the group to donate
                                                      the land to him and to contribute a large amount
                                                      of cash ($90,000) toward the building project.
                                                      Stephens organized the campaign to raise the
                                                      money, but he cautioned Berberich that it was
                                                      probably best not to let people know that the
                                                      total project might cost as much as $500,000.
                                                      Thus, Stephens revealed his awareness of the fact
                                                      that many Jefferson Citians saw the hotel as a
                                                      benefit more to state government than to the
                                                      average City of Jefferson resident. Even many
                                                      local merchants and retail salesmen doubted
                                                      Stephens’ claims about the positive effect the
                                                      hotel would have upon their businesses.
                                                          Eventually, the money was raised and the
                                                      hotel was built. Among its most popular features
                                                      was a basement bar known as the “Rathskeller.”
                                                      Legislators and lobbyists flocked to the Rath-
                                                      skeller, dubbed by many as the “Third Chamber”
Walthall M. Moore, St. Louis Representative, 3rd      (in addition to the House and Senate). Much leg-
District, 1924                                        islative business was transacted at the Rathskeller
Missouri State Archives                               and even in the lobby of the Hotel Governor.
                                                                  THE CITY OF JEFFERSON                 31

Indeed, long-time hotel employee Bill Kromer
recalled in a 2000 interview that “many pieces of
legislation were written and passed right there in
the lobby.” Live music and dancing opportunities
attracted many area women to the Rathskeller. As
a consequence, the Rathskeller also became a
favorite place for romantic rendezvous, earning it
a second nickname—the “Passion Pit.”
    One group that was not welcome at the
newly built Hotel Governor, or any other place
of public accommodation in the capital city, was
the state’s African American population, includ-
ing blacks who happened to be state legislators.
The first African American General Assembly
member was Walthall Moore, elected as a
Republican from St. Louis City in 1920. From the
time that Moore began his term of office in
1921, until the City of Jefferson passed a public
accommodations law in the late 1960s, African
American legislators were forced to stay either in
private homes or in a dormitory on the Lincoln
University campus. Long-time Lincoln Univer-
sity employees remembered that legislators
would stay in a men’s dorm (Allen Hall) and
would take their meals with the school’s faculty
in the lower level of Schweich Hall. Dr. Thomas
D. Pawley III, Emeritus Professor at the universi-
ty, recalled in 2001 that in the 1940s, Rep-
resentative James McKinley Neal, a Democrat            James McKinley Neal, Representative, Jackson Co., 4th
from Kansas City, roomed with Professor James          District, 1951
Freeman in the latter’s home on Lafayette Street.      Missouri State Archives
Pawley remembered, also, that Neal would join
the faculty in Schweich Hall at lunchtime              and a chicken dinner cost sixty-five cents. Beer
because he could not obtain lunch in or near the       flowed freely in the bar and lots of local girls
Capitol building because of his race.                  showed up to dance with the G.I.’s to music from
                                                       the jukebox in the barroom corner.
                                                           Veit’s Restaurant, established as a roadhouse
World War II                                           along U. S. Highway 50 in 1941, was discovered
                                                       by politicians soon after it opened. For years, leg-
    World War II witnessed action in the capital
                                                       islators gathered to eat and drink at Veit’s and
city on behalf of the war effort, led by Mrs. Phil
                                                       hammer out the details of legislation. In a 2001
Donnelly, wife of Missouri’s governor. Mrs.
                                                       interview, Bernadine Veit, who lived in an apart-
Donnelly launched a chapter of the Red Cross
                                                       ment above the restaurant for more than 60
“Gray Ladies” who organized a “Motor Corps”
                                                       years, recalled that often during the restaurant’s
that traveled to Fort Leonard Wood once a week.
While at the fort, the Gray Ladies helped soldiers     early years, waitresses who were serving law-
with letter writing, provided them with cookies        makers would come into the kitchen where she
and other treats, and simply visited them. A num-      was preparing food and announce, “Well, I know
ber of the Gray Ladies were spouses of state offi-     what bills are going to be passed tomorrow.”
cials and government employees. In addition, by        More often than not, they were right. Legislators
1943, nearly 700 Cole County women were reg-           were not the only politicians who found Veits to
ularly providing services to the local Red Cross in    their liking: governors also dined there frequent-
the form of production of surgical dressings.          ly, especially Gov. Warren E. Hearnes, who
                                                       served as governor of the state from 1965–1973.
    GI’s at the recently completed Ft. Leonard
Wood, in return, often traveled to Jefferson City
to dance and drink at the Rathskeller, or at Veit’s
Restaurant and Motel on the western edge of the        The Post-World War II Years
capital city. Soldiers came by the busload on a           State government continued to grow during
Friday night, after being paid, and stayed             the post-World War II years. In March of 1952,
throughout the weekend. Two soldiers could             the City of Jefferson entered into an agreement
share a motel room at Veit’s for six dollars a night   with Harland Bartholomew and Associates to
32            OFFICIAL MANUAL

                                                       number of blocks southeast of the Capitol com-
                                                       plex, the Employment Security building, which
                                                       cost $500,000, was the first state office building
                                                       erected in the City of Jefferson away from the
                                                       downtown/Capitol area. Indeed, in its 1954
                                                       report to the city, Harland Bartholomew cited the
                                                       building of the Employment Security Building
                                                       away from the downtown area as a model for
                                                       future development: “Future state office buildings
                                                       should be located beyond the central area on
                                                       sites such as that chosen for the new Employment
                                                       Security Building.” Harland Bartholomew, in fact,
                                                       called for a 10 % reduction in the number of state
                                                       employees in the downtown area over the next
                                                       two decades in an effort to reduce the parking
                                                       problem and the general overcrowding in the
                                                       vicinity of the Capitol.

                                                       Emergence of the Capital
                                                       City’s Favorite Son
                                                           The 1950s also witnessed the rise to the pin-
                                                       nacle of state political power of a man whose
                                                       entire life had been shaped by happenings in the
                                                       capital city. James T. Blair Jr., was elected gover-
                                                       nor of the state of Missouri in 1956. Although
Construction of the Jefferson State Office Building,
                                                       born in Maysville, Missouri, in 1902, Blair
January, 1952                                          moved to Jefferson City as a child, after his father,
Missouri State Archives                                a former legislator, was chosen to serve on the
                                                       Missouri Supreme Court.
revise and update the City Plan of 1930.                   Blair attended the public schools of Jefferson
Although the city grew modestly (an increase of        City, lived in the shadow of the State Capitol, and
only 1,278 persons) between 1940 and 1950,             played in the Governor’s Mansion with the sons
government continued to grow greatly.                  of Gov. Herbert Hadley. Apparently his desire to
According to the report, 27.7% of the city’s labor     become Missouri’s governor emerged while he
force worked for state government.                     was still a child and was nurtured by his politi-
                                                       cian/jurist father.
    According to the Harland Bartholomew
                                                           After earning a law degree from Tennessee’s
report, a 1950 survey showed state government
                                                       Cumberland University in 1924, Blair returned to
occupying 453,000 square feet of office floor
                                                       Jefferson City to practice law. He entered politics
space, 117,000 of which was in rented quarters
                                                       in 1925 as a Democratic candidate for city attor-
and 33,000 of which was “in corridors and con-
                                                       ney. His victory in that contest laid the ground-
verted quarters and other space not adapted for
                                                       work for his election to the Missouri House of
office use.” According to the survey, 694,000          Representatives in 1928 and 1930. In 1931, Blair
square feet of office space was needed, more           was chosen as majority floor leader.
than twice the space owned by the state in
Jefferson City.                                            Blair returned to his law practice in 1932,
                                                       although he remained active in politics at the
    One attempt to respond to the need for new         local, state, and even national levels. Blair was
office space was the erection of a 14-story build-     elected mayor of Jefferson City in 1947, resigning
ing east of the Capitol and southwest of the           the next year to run for the office of lieutenant
Governor’s Mansion. A contract for construction        governor of Missouri. He served in that position
of the building was let on August 28, 1950.            for eight years prior to his election as Missouri’s
When completed in December 1952, this build-           forty-fourth governor.
ing (the Jefferson State Office Building) added            As governor, James T. Blair championed a
160,000 feet of floor space available to state         number of causes, including extending govern-
office workers. The building cost $5,500,000.          ment aid to disabled persons, improving the effi-
    A smaller, less expensive structure was built      ciency of the state’s welfare system, and champi-
at about the same time to house the Missouri           oning the needs of the elderly. Arguably, the
Division of Employment Security. Located a             crowning achievement of his years as governor
                                                                 THE CITY OF JEFFERSON                   33

was the creation of the Missouri Commission on          town area. State planners, drawing upon the vision
Human Rights, an organization whose aim was             of long-range planners from the early 1930s,
to end racial discrimination and segregation in         moved to acquire land and buildings owned by
the state. In lobbying for the creation of the com-     the Tweedie Footwear Corporation, raze the build-
mission before the General Assembly, Blair pro-         ings, and replace them with parking lots.
claimed that he would “Always and everywhere”               Three of the buildings, however, were early-
identify himself “with any victim of oppression         to-mid-nineteenth century structures that dated
or discrimination.” For a time, it appeared to          back to the days of the capital city’s importance
many that Blair might rise to national political        as a steamboat port. Led by Mrs. Elizabeth
office during the 1960 election. Instead, Blair         Rozier, a Jefferson City preservationist, the
retired to his home in the capital city. Sadly, Blair   daughter of a former state senator, and the wife
and his wife died of carbon monoxide poisoning          of a former state legislator, a group of Jefferson
in their home in July 1962. Among the                   Citians began to protest the planned destruction
Missourians who attended Blair’s funeral was for-       of the buildings at what came to be called the
mer President Harry S Truman, Gov. John M.              Lohman Landing Site.
Dalton, and U.S. Senator Stuart Symington.
                                                            The fight was long and oftentimes acrimo-
                                                        nious. Sen. John E. Downs, D-St. Louis, called
                                                        Lohman’s Landing “a stupid old unimportant
Urban Renewal                                           piece of masonry,” and Sen. A. Clifford Jones, R-
    The 1960s witnessed an intense battle               Ladue, argued that the site “has no historical sig-
between residents of the capital city who wanted        nificance.” Jones added that there were only two
to save the city’s historic structures and state gov-   historical sites worth saving in Jefferson City: the
ernmental officials who wanted to raze buildings        Capitol and the Governor’s Mansion. Eventually,
to provide more parking spaces for state govern-        however, the preservationists won, with the fight
ment workers. Harland Bartholomew had con-              in the Senate championed by Sen. Omer Avery,
cluded in the early 1950s that there were less than     D-Troy, and the fight in the House by Rep.
three hundred parking spaces in the Capitol area        Thomas D. Graham, D-Jefferson City. Instead of
and that all of those were needed for legislators       being replaced by parking lots, the three build-
and visitors. The planning firm concluded then          ings were saved and restored in time for the
that an additional eleven hundred parking spaces        Bicentennial Celebration of the Declaration of
were needed for government workers in the down-         Independence in July 1976.

Lohman’s Landing, c1955
Missouri State Archives
34            OFFICIAL MANUAL

Fireworks display at the Missouri State Capitol
Missouri State Archives

    Preservationists were less successful in their     by the Capitol West Urban Renewal Project was
efforts to save historically significant buildings     paved over for parking for state employees.
west of the Capitol, in an area that had long been
known as “The Millbottom” because of the pres-
ence there of multiple gristmills. To be sure, the     The Capital City in the
area, which had once been a respectable work-
ing-class German immigrant neighborhood, had           Twenty-First Century
become blighted by the mid-1960s.                          To many residents of the capital city, the
    Many state and city officials were eager to        Capitol West development seemed a fitting
clean up the area because of the negative image        reminder that their city was, in fact, both a ben-
they thought it projected to Capitol visitors. Their   eficiary and a victim of its destiny: a community
effort, they claimed, was aimed at retaining           that existed as a consequence of its status as the
Jefferson City as “the showcase of a proud             state capital, but a community whose growth
Missouri.” The Urban Renewal movement of the           and development were dictated by forces over
1960s promised a solution to the problem. By           which it had little or no control.
the early 1970s, federal, state, and city officials        In a very real sense, residents of the City of
combined to formulate a plan aimed at relocat-         Jefferson had spent the bulk of the nineteenth
ing two hundred residents and some sixty busi-         century trying to make certain that their town
nesses in a roughly one hundred acre area of the       would remain the capital city. They spent much
Millbottom. All of the buildings would be razed        of the twentieth century trying to reconcile them-
and replaced with a “Capitol West” development         selves to the results of their victory.
that would include a vibrant mix of state office           As the twenty-first century dawned, new
buildings, high-rise luxury apartments, new pri-       opportunities appeared. The Missouri General
vately operated businesses, and a convention           Assembly authorized the movement of the centu-
center. Ultimately, it became clear that the plan-     ry-and-a-half old penitentiary from the heart of
ners’ vision exceeded their resources and their        the city to an area just east of the city limits. This
capacity to execute their plan. Two new state          action created the exciting possibility of state,
office buildings and one hotel were built in the       county, and city officials working with private
area, dramatically increasing the demand for           business interests to redevelop the old prison site,
parking. The vast majority of the acreage cleared      a riverfront tract of more than one hundred acres.
                                                               THE CITY OF JEFFERSON                   35

    A second opportunity centered on the out-             Brugioni, Dino. The Civil War in Missouri As
come of a fifty-year-old debate about whether a       Seen From the Capital City. Jefferson City:
convention center should be built in the capital      Summers Publishing, 1987.
city and, if so, where it should be built and who         Carnahan, Jean. If Walls Could Talk: The Story
should pay for its erection. But with both of these   of Missouri’s First Families. Jefferson City: MMPI,
possibilities, a nagging question remained: how       L.L.C., 1998.
many of the capital city’s historic nineteenth and        Ford, James E. A History of Jefferson City.
early twentieth-century structures would have to      Jefferson City: New Day Press, 1938.
be sacrificed to achieve the dreams of the twen-          Giffen, Jerena East. First Ladies of Missouri:
ty-first century visionaries? The challenge for the   Their Homes and Their Families. Rev. Ed.
present and future remained, then, much as it         Jefferson City: Giffen Enterprises, 1996.
had been for the past: how to accommodate and
                                                          _____________ “Jefferson City: A Community
nurture the growth of state government while
                                                      Diminished by its Destiny.” Pioneer Times. Part
honoring the rich traditions, culture, and integri-
                                                      1, 7 (April 1983): 134-144; Part 2, 7 (July 1983):
ty of the capital city and its residents.             262-272.
    That challenge notwithstanding, the capital           History of Cole, Moniteau, Morgan, Benton,
city remained in the twenty-first century what it     Miller, Maries and Osage Counties, Missouri.
had always been: a place where Missourians            Chicago: The Goodspeed Publishing Co., 1889.
came to transact business and to celebrate the
                                                          Kremer, Gary R. Heartland History: Essays on
virtues and values of their state and nation. By
                                                      the Cultural Heritage of the Central Missouri
the year 2001, gatherings such as the annual 4th      Region. St. Louis: G. Bradley Publishing, Vol. 1,
of July celebration on the Capitol grounds rou-       2000; Vol. 2, 2001.
tinely attracted a crowd in excess of the city’s
                                                          _____________ “Politics, Punishment, and
entire population and Missourians who visited
                                                      Profit: Convict Labor in the Missouri State
the capital city boasted of the beauty of their
                                                      Penitentiary, 1875-1900,” Gateway Heritage. 11
state house. The old image of the City of Jefferson
                                                      (Spring 1991): 66-75.
as a “somewhat fatigueing” place that would
likely not amount to much was gone, replaced              _____________ “Jefferson City.” Marian M.
by a collective memory of 175 years of pride in       Ohman. Ed. Twenty Towns: Their Histories,
growth and achievement.                               Town Plans, and Architecture. Columbia:
                                                      University of Missouri–Columbia, Extension
    Gary R. Kremer, Professor of History, William     Division, 1985.
Woods University and former Missouri State
                                                          _____________ and Thomas E. Gage. “The
                                                      Prison Against the Town: Jefferson City and the
                                                      Penitentiary in the 19th Century.” Missouri
                                                      Historical Review. 75 (July 1980): 414-432.
For Further Reading                                       Ohman, Marian M. The History of Missouri
     This essay draws heavily upon my reading of      Capitols. Columbia: University of Missouri–
newspapers that are housed at The State               Columbia, Extension Division, 1982.
Historical Society of Missouri, especially those          Rader, Perry S. “The Location of the
papers that were published in the City of             Permanent Seat of Government.” Missouri
Jefferson during the nineteenth century and the       Historical Review. 21 (October 1926): 9-18.
first half of the twentieth century. In addition, I       Schroeder, Adolf E. and Carla Schulz-
have made use extensively of government               Geisberg. Eds. Hold Dear, as Always: Jette, A ger-
records compiled by the State of Missouri and         man Immigrant Life in Letters. Columbia:
the City of Jefferson, housed at the Missouri State   University of Missouri Press, 1988.
Archives. I have used, also, the interviews with          Stout, Laurie A. Somewhere in Time: A 160
former legislators that are a part of the “Politics   Year History of Missouri Corrections. Rev. ed.
in Missouri” project housed in The State              Jefferson City: Missouri Department of Correc-
Historical Society of Missouri’s Western              tions, 1991.
Historical Manuscript Collection.
                                                          Winn, Kenneth H. “It All Adds Up: Reform
     Readers who wish to pursue the topic of the      and the Erosion of Representative Government in
history of the City of Jefferson as the capital of    Missouri, 1900–2000.” Julius Johnson. Ed. Official
the State of Missouri will find the following pub-    Manual: State of Missouri, 1999-2000. Jefferson
lications useful:                                     City: Office of the Secretary of State, 1999.
     Barton, William. Some Stories and Incidents          Young, Dr. R.E. Pioneers of High, Water and
Under the Capitol Dome During the Last Sixty          Main; Reflections of Jefferson City. Jefferson City:
Years. Jefferson City. Self-published. 1996.          Twelfth State, 1997.

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