IX. SAFETY ELEMENT

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					                                                                 CHAPTER IX. SAFETY ELEMENT


 IX. SAFETY ELEMENT




                                                                                              CA/KB



OVERVIEW

The Safety Element, one of nine elements of      The first section provides an overview of
the General Plan, contains County policies       the scope and purpose of the Safety
on identified and potential hazards and          Element followed by the Constraints and
safety considerations, their mitigation (i.e.,   Opportunities section. Subsequently, the
reduction in damage and loss to real and         General Safety Element Implementation
personal property and minimization of            Programs, applicable to both Public Safety
adverse social and economic impacts) and         and Natural Hazards Components, are
implications for development.                    discussed.


The Safety Element text is organized in the      The remaining sections deal with topics
following order:                                 within the Public Safety and Natural
                                                 Hazards Components. Accordingly, the
    •    Purpose of the Element                  Public Safety Component includes Crime,
    •    Constraints and Opportunities           Fire, Hazardous Materials, and Aircraft
    •    General Safety Element                  Environment. The Natural Hazards
    •    Implementation Programs                 Component consists of Flood and
    •    Public Safety Component                 Seismic/Geologic Hazards. In addition to
    •    Natural Hazards Component               the general goals and objectives for each
                                                 Component, each topic presents its own


                                                                                                 IX-1
CHAPTER IX. SAFETY ELEMENT


         specific goals, objectives, policies and        requirements and are based on an
         implementation programs.                        assessment of safety-related needs, and the
                                                         identification of problems impeding the
                                                         resolution of hazards and safety concerns.
         PURPOSE OF THE ELEMENT
                                                         The policies and programs of the Element
         The State Government Code requires              form an effective implementation plan to
         general plans to include "a safety element      meet the established goals and objectives
         for the protection of the community from        of the Element. The Safety Element serves
         any unreasonable risks associated with the      to guide and direct local government
         effects of seismically induced surface          decision-making in safety-related matters
         rupture, ground shaking, ground failure,        and also foster coordination with regional,
         tsunami, seiche, and dam failure; slope         state, and federal policies and programs.
         instability leading to mudslides and
         landslides, subsidence and other geologic       As the County continues to grow, the
         hazards known to the legislative body;          demand for public safety will increase.
         flooding; and wildland and urban fires."        Services and programs designed to improve
                                                         the safety of Orange County residents as
         As such, the Safety Element is a primary        the urbanized areas expand will experience
         document for identifying hazards which          increasing pressure. This pressure will be
         must be considered in the physical              met through various methods. For example,
         development of a jurisdiction. While the        adequate methods of crime protection
         Safety Element is required to focus on fire,    already exist in the urbanized area, but it is
         flood, and geologic hazards, it may also        necessary that affirmative steps be taken to
         address other locally relevant safety issues.   inform the public of available services and
                                                         programs.
         A basic purpose of the Safety Element is to
         comprehensively inventory hazards which         The demand for other safety related
         primarily impact persons and property in        services, such as flood control, cannot be
         the unincorporated areas of Orange              met entirely within the borders of Orange
         County. The scope of the Element also           County. The County must ultimately
         allows for a countywide perspective for         depend on cooperation with other counties
         other safety-related matters. This hazards      and agencies for the provision of an
         inventory identifies information necessary      adequate supply of this service.
         for the development of goals, objectives,
         policies, and implementation programs.          One of the major purposes of the Safety
                                                         Element is to provide a clear statement of
         The goals and objectives of the Safety          County policy so that timely steps can be
         Element are consistent with state               taken to ensure that an adequate supply of


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                                                            CHAPTER IX. SAFETY ELEMENT


services and facilities will be available to   consequences. Their presence in the
meet the County’s growth needs.                environment can degrade air-quality
                                               and groundwater, severely damaging
                                               the food chain. Because of their
CONSTRAINTS AND                                affects, special care is required to
OPPORTUNITIES                                  transport, store, and dispose of these
                                               materials to ensure they do not enter
This section identifies existing and           the environment.
potential constraints to and opportunities
for satisfying the projected safety demands    Aircraft accidents are unpredictable.
for Orange County. While constraints do        Although many accidents occur due to
not always represent absolute barriers, they   pilot error or aircraft failure, accidents
may inhibit the timely achievement of          also occur due to the influences of
important safety objectives. The Element's     climatic changes and geography.
policies and implementation programs are       Mountains are natural barriers which
intended to minimize the constraints and to    establish certain aviator routes.
promote the identified safety opportunities.   Aircraft straying from established
                                               routes or flying in poor visibility
Constraints                                    conditions heighten the chances of an
                                                                                               “They that
                                               accident.
                                                                                             can give up
•   Environmental Constraints                                                                an essential
                                               NATURAL HAZARDS
                                                                                                 liberty to
    PUBLIC SAFETY
                                                                                            obtain a little
                                               Two natural hazard areas are discussed
    Public safety concerns addressed in                                                        temporary
                                               in this Element. They are flood hazards
    this Element include crime, fire,                                                               safety
                                               and seismic and geologic hazards. The
    hazardous materials, and aircraft. The                                                       deserves
                                               natural environment affects the ability
    timely achievement of public safety                                                           neither
                                               to predict the extent and magnitude of
    objectives may be negatively affected                                                      liberty nor
                                               a natural disaster.
    by geography, geology, and climate                                                            safety.”
    combined with the inability to predict                                                        Benjamin
                                               Flood hazard protection is planned and              Franklin
    an occurrence. Fire suppression, for
                                               implemented for major stream courses
    example, is constrained by topography
                                               within Orange County. Flood
    when it precludes or inhibits
                                               protection devices are normally
    firefighters from reaching a fire. Wind
                                               implemented to mitigate the effects of a
    shifts and other climate changes may
                                               predicted event. There is no certainty
    also negatively effect fire suppression.
                                               when such an event will occur and the
                                               extent of damage. The same
    Hazardous materials pose very
                                               predictability problems exist for seismic
    profound environmental

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CHAPTER IX. SAFETY ELEMENT


             hazards. Although fault traces have             Passage of the Gann Initiative in 1979
             been identified within Orange County,           placed constitutional limitations on the
             an earthquake is an unpredictable               annual appropriations that can be made
             occurrence.                                     by each state and local government
                                                             entity. The appropriations limit for
         •   Fiscal Constraints                              each fiscal year is based upon the prior
                                                             fiscal year increased by a factor for
             While operating and capital expenses            inflation and population growth.
             for many safety related operations              Excess revenues over appropriation
             have risen, many traditional revenue            limits must be returned to the taxpayers
             sources have been cut or impaired, and          within the next two years. The effects
             spending limitations have been                  of the Gann initiative are felt by the
             imposed on local governments, thus              Orange County Flood Control District,
             leaving them faced with reduced                 County General Fund, and Fire
             revenues for safety related planning at         Authority funds, and manifests itself in
             a time of growing need and public               restrictions and reductions in safety
             awareness.                                      related plans, programs, and facilities.

             Major fiscal factors constraining local         CITY REDEVELOPMENT
             governments today in the provision of           AGENCIES
             safety-related services, programs, and
             facilities include the following:               Redevelopment agencies within
                                                             Orange County rely heavily on tax-
             PROPOSITION 13                                  increment financing as a primary
                                                             revenue source. Under tax-increment
             The passage of Proposition 13 in 1978           financing, the redevelopment agency
             seriously limited local property taxes as       receives that portion of the property
             a major revenue source for local                tax levy for an area which exceeds the
             governments. The effects of                     levy for the base year. The increment
             Proposition 13 are strongly felt by             represents the property tax revenue
             safety services and programs provided           that otherwise would have been
             by the Orange County Sheriff-Coroner            allocated to each of the area's taxing
             Department, the Orange County Fire              agents (e.g., Orange County General
             Authority, the Orange County Flood              Fund, Orange County Fire Authority,
             Control District, and other County              and Orange County Flood Control
             General Fund users.                             District).

             PROPOSITION 4 (THE GANN                     •   Governmental Constraints
             INITIATIVE)
                                                             CONFLICTING OBJECTIVES AND


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                                                                   CHAPTER IX. SAFETY ELEMENT


    PRIORITIES                                       The amount of undeveloped land in
                                                     Orange County, particularly in the
    Competing public needs can result in                                                        “The desire
                                                     unincorporated area, can provide
    conflicting priorities and programs.                                                          for safety
                                                     unique opportunities to consider,
    Further, the maze of regulations and                                                              stands
                                                     address, and initiate improved safety-
    standards overseen by a myriad of                                                                against
                                                     sensitive planning through innovative
    agencies can result in conflicting                                                          every great
                                                     land use planning and developments
    purposes, confusion, and ineffective                                                         and noble
                                                     which promote maximum public
    programs.                                                                                   enterprise.”
                                                     protection.
                                                                                                     Cornelius
    INTERGOVERNMENTAL                                                                           Tactitus (Circa
                                                     ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY                         AD 56-120)
    COORDINATION
                                                     Statutory requirements protecting
    It is very important for the federal,
                                                     environmental quality (e.g., NEPA,
    state, county, cities, and special
                                                     CEQA, Federal 208 Water Quality
    districts to continue to communicate
                                                     Standards) aid in the early
    and to strive for greater coordination
                                                     identification and mitigation of safety-
    and cooperation in order to achieve
                                                     related impacts. Through the
    common goals and objectives relative
                                                     environmental documentation process,
    to safety-related planning.
                                                     appropriate mitigation measures or
                                                     planning alternatives can be
•   Economic and Market                              implemented to avoid or minimize
    Constraints                                      future impacts.

    HAZARDOUS WASTE DISPOSAL
                                                 •   Fiscal Opportunities
    Historically, hazardous wastes have
    generally been disposed in designated            INNOVATIVE FINANCING

    landfills. More recently, landfill closure
                                                     Despite the loss of conventional
    and costs associated with landfill
                                                     funding sources, there exists the
    disposal have forced hazardous waste
                                                     potential to expand existing financial
    producers to look elsewhere to dispose
                                                     resources and to identify and utilize
    of their wastes, including on-site
                                                     new resources to supplement existing
    treatment prior to disposal.
                                                     ones. These resources may include the
                                                     increased use of the following: user
Opportunities                                        fees; non-property based taxes and
                                                     miscellaneous revenues; developer
•   Environmental Opportunities                      financing for on-site and off-site
                                                     improvements which promote safety;
    LAND AVAILABILITY
                                                     benefit assessment bonds; revenue


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CHAPTER IX. SAFETY ELEMENT


             bonds; and joint funding of safety              preparedness, and flood control.
             improvements.
                                                             DISASTER COORDINATION
             FEDERAL AND STATE
                                                             The County of Orange recognizes the
             FINANCING
                                                             need for adequate disaster response
             The mandate for improved safety-                planning. The opportunities and
             related planning, management, and               organizational structure exist to further
             implementation is sometimes                     coordinate emergency response to all
             accompanied by federal and state                natural disasters. The "Emergency
             funds. Within the realm of hazardous            Response Plan" of the County consists
             materials planning, prioritized programs        of both a detailed summary of the
             are being earmarked for funding.                Countywide organization and a
             Under provision of AB 2948 (the                 detailed description of the
             Tanner Bill), the preparation of a              responsibility of each component
             hazardous waste management plan is              agency in time of a disaster.
             reimbursable from the state. Elsewhere,
             the federal government has established     •    Economic and Market
             funds for the implementation of the             Opportunities
             Santa Ana River Mainstem Project in
             Orange County and neighboring                   HAZARDOUS MATERIALS

             counties.
                                                             The closure of Class I landfills and the
                                                             increase in hazardous materials
         •   Governmental Opportunities                      disposal Restrictions is giving impetus
                                                             to new technologies. Combined with
             COORDINATED PLANNING
                                                             requirements of AB 2948 (Tanner Bill)
             OBJECTIVES AND STANDARDS
                                                             this may give added incentives to
             Orange County encourages long-range             private industry to develop additional
             planning for the coordination of state          technologies for the treatment and
             and local government and private                disposal of hazardous materials.
             sector aims with the objective of
             phasing development in accordance
             with the consideration and provision of    GENERAL SAFETY ELEMENT
             adequate safety measures. Orange           IMPLEMENTATION
             County has taken a leadership role to      PROGRAMS
             promote safety-related programs,
             including hazardous waste                  1.   GENERAL PLAN CONSISTENCY
             management planning, hazardous                  PROGRAM
             materials disclosure, earthquake


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                                                                 CHAPTER IX. SAFETY ELEMENT


     Action:                                       or influence Safety Element
     Continue review of public and private         implementation. For a list of related
     projects for consistency with the             planning agencies, see the General Plan
     Orange County General Plan as                 Appendix, Intergovernmental
     required by state law (Government             Coordination.
     Code Section 65400 et seq.).
                                                   Discussion:
     Discussion:                                   This program facilitates both intra- and
     This program satisfies the state law          intergovernmental coordination and
     requirement that private and public           citizen participation in order to promote
     projects must be consistent with the          a greater understanding of the County
     local government's general plan in            General Plan. Appropriate
     order to be approved. All public works        governmental agencies, organizations,
     projects, development projects,               and citizens are provided an
     discretionary permits, capital                opportunity to review documents and
     improvement plans, and other private          provide input during the General Plan
     and public agency proposals are               revision and amendment process.
     reviewed for consistency.                     Appropriate agencies are also
                                                   consulted and involved in many of the
     New or Existing Program: Existing             implementation programs defined in
                                                   this document.
     Implementation Schedule: Ongoing

                                                   New or Existing Program: Existing
     Responsible Agency: RDMD

                                                   Implementation Schedule: Ongoing
     Source of Funds:
     •   County General Fund                       Responsible Agency: CEO and RDMD
     •   Developer fees
                                                   Source of Funds: County General Fund
2.   INTERGOVERNMENTAL
     COORDINATION AND PUBLIC                  3.   EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT
     PARTICIPATION                                 PROGRAM

     Action:                                       Action:
     Intergovernmental and                         Continue to implement emergency
     intragovernmental coordination will be        mitigation measures as outlined in the
     improved through increased                    California Emergency Plan, the
     cooperation and contact with federal,         California Master Mutual Aid
     state, regional, countywide, and              Agreement, the Orange County
     Orange County agencies which impact           Emergency Plan, Orange County



                                                                                               IX-7
CHAPTER IX. SAFETY ELEMENT


            Operational Area Plan, S.O.N.G.S Plan,
            and other emergency management             EMERGENCY RESPONSE
            plans. Coordination and
                                                       The Orange County Operational Area
            implementation will be improved
                                                       Emergency Operations Center (OC
            through increased contact with all
                                                       OA/EOC) is used for managing disaster
            agencies and organizations which
                                                       response and recovery for County
            impact or influence emergency
                                                       Agencies and Departments and
            response planning.
                                                       constituents served by the operational
                                                       areas. The EOC coordinates disaster
            Discussion:
                                                       response and recovery for the
            This program focuses primarily upon
                                                       Operational Area, including all political
            the County's planned response to
                                                       subdivisions of Orange County, and
            extraordinary emergency situations
                                                       communicates Operations resource
            associated with natural disasters,
                                                       requirements and availability with the
            technological incidents, intentional
                                                       State Regional Operations Center.
            acts of terrorism and nuclear protection
            operations. Such disasters pose major
                                                       The Standardized Emergency
            threats to life and property and can
                                                       Management System (SEMS) is the
            impact the well-being of large numbers
                                                       state mandated framework for
            of people.
                                                       emergency response and recovery.
            To reduce the County's susceptibility
            and vulnerability to extraordinary         In accordance with SEMS, the EOC is
            emergency situations, continuing           to act as a central point for
            emphasis is placed on the following:       coordination of operational,
            mitigation, emergency planning;            administrative and support needs of
            training of full time, auxiliary, and      the emergency workers. Designated
            reserve personnel; public awareness        officials gather and process
            and education; and assuring the            information to and from County
            adequacy and availability of sufficient    agencies and departments, school and
            resources to cope with such                special districts, business and
            emergencies.                               industry, volunteer organizations,
                                                       individuals and State and Federal
            Normal day-to-day emergencies and
                                                       Governments.
            the well-established and routine
            procedures used in response to such
                                                       The Orange County and Operational
            emergencies are addressed in the
                                                       Area Emergency Operations Center is
            implementation programs found in this
                                                       staffed with trained personnel from all
            element and in the daily procedures of
                                                       agencies within the County of Orange
            the various responsible agencies.
                                                       and various operational area

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                                                                 CHAPTER IX. SAFETY ELEMENT


    jurisdictions and agencies to fill policy   Component
    decision-making positions to support
    EOC staff.                                  [NOTE: The following goals and objectives
                                                relate to the broader public safety topics.
    As there are various levels of              These broad-level goals and objectives are
    emergencies that can require the            in addition to those described in the crime,
    activation of the EOC, some emergency       fire hazards, hazardous materials and
    incidences do not necessitate               aircraft environment sections,
    activation or only necessitate              respectively.]
    operation of the facility with a limited
    emergency management staff to               Goal 1
    monitor the situation and make
    notifications.                              Provide for a safe living and working
                                                environment consistent with available

    Emergency management information            resources.

    can be obtained from the Orange
                                                •   Objective
    County Sheriff’s Department website at
    www.ocsd.org.                                   1.1 To identify public safety hazards
                                                         and determine the relative threat to
                                                         people and property in Orange
PUBLIC SAFETY COMPONENT                                  County.


                                                Goal 2
Introduction
                                                Minimize the effects of public safety
This Public Safety Component focuses on
                                                hazards through implementation of
four public safety concerns that affect the
                                                appropriate regulations and standards
physical and social development of Orange
                                                which maximize protection of life and
County. They include crime, fire hazards,
                                                property.
hazardous materials, and aircraft. The
information presented in the following          •   Objectives
Public Safety sections provides the
background for the goals, objectives,               2.1 To create and maintain plans and
policies, and programs which aim to                      programs which mitigate the
minimize and prevent adverse impacts.                    effects of public safety hazards.


                                                    2.2 To encourage the development
GENERAL GOALS AND                                        and utilization of technologies that
OBJECTIVES : Public Safety                               minimize the effects of public



                                                                                                IX-9
CHAPTER IX. SAFETY ELEMENT


                  safety hazards.                        arrested and prosecuted.


         Goal 3                                          By contrast, the traditional law enforcement
                                                         approach to crime is reactive. With the
         Raise the awareness of Orange County            exception of crimes committed in the
         residents, workers, and visitors to the         presence of an officer, the police usually
         potential threat of public safety hazards.      investigate major crimes after the fact.
                                                         Proactive police efforts are usually limited
         •   Objective
                                                         to narcotics and crimes of vice.

             3.1 To provide information, training,
                                                         There are two interrelated aspects of
                  and assistance to reduce loss of
                                                         prevention which deserve discussion. First
                  life and injury and to protect
                                                         is prevention of crime, a major concern of
                  private and public property from
                                                         policing and prosecution agencies. This
                  public safety dangers.
                                                         aspect focuses on offenses and is directly
                                                         related to crime reduction. Second is the
                                                         prevention of criminality which focuses

         CRIME                                           upon the offender. Responsibility for this
                                                         aspect of prevention is placed on society as

         Introduction                                    a whole, specifically on social and
                                                         correctional agencies and the courts.

         A basic ingredient of the quality of life       Orange County is a growing urban

         sought by existing and potential residents      community. As its population grows, the

         of an area like Orange County rests in the      incidence of crime is expected to increase.

         notion that a community is secure and safe
         from criminal activity. To a growing urban      The degree to which crime influences the

         place like Orange County, the concern of        growth and development of Orange County

         law enforcement is to devise measures for       is in part the responsibility of the Sheriff's

         reducing the level of crime activities and to   Department. The effectiveness of existing

         promote the idea that Orange County is a        and future programs will be a key ingredient

         safe place to raise families, conduct           in the communities' perception that Orange

         business and recreate.                          County is a safe and secure place.


         The two primary forms of crime deterrence
         most commonly used are suppression and
         prevention. Crime suppression may be
         defined as the application of proactive and
         investigative techniques by which law
         violators are aggressively identified,


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                                                           CHAPTER IX. SAFETY ELEMENT




Current Conditions                            local police emergencies. A detailed
                                              discussion of the Sheriff Patrol Service is
ORANGE COUNTY S HERIFF’S                      provided in Chapter V, Public Services and
DEPARTMENT                                    Facilities Element.

Since the 1940s, the Sheriff's Department
                                              CRIME STATISTICS
has grown from a small, rural, County
police force to a modern law enforcement      The Orange County Sheriff's Department
agency employing nearly 4,200 people.         maintains detailed records on crimes
Currently, the Orange County Sheriff-         committed within its service areas in
Coroner Department (OCSD) provides            Orange County. Up-to-date crime statistics
police patrol and investigative services to   can be obtained from the Sheriff Coroner’s
the unincorporated areas of Orange County     Web site at www.ocsd.org.
and the contracting cities of Aliso Viejo,
Dana Point, Laguna Hills, Laguna Niguel,      SPECIAL PROGRAMS
Laguna Woods, Lake Forest, Mission
                                              The Orange County Sheriff’s Department
Viejo, Rancho Santa Margarita, San
                                              is involved in the war on drugs at every
Clemente, San Juan Capistrano, Stanton,
                                              level. The Sheriff’s Narcotics Program
and Villa Park.
                                              (SNP) proactively investigates street level
                                              illegal narcotic users and dealers with focus
In addition, the OCSD has developed a
                                              on the deterrence and arrest of street level,
Mutual Aid Plan with each of the 23
                                              mid and upper level narcotic violators.
remaining law enforcement agencies in the
incorporated cities. Under the Mutual Aid
                                              The primary purpose of this program is to
Plan, formalized in March 1968 by the
                                              remove these individuals by arrest and
Orange County Chiefs of Police and
                                              conviction from the County’s
Sheriff's Association, law enforcement
                                              neighborhoods, thus, providing a safe
agencies agree to provide additional
                                              environment in which to live and raise a
necessary assistance during immediate


                                                                                              IX-11
CHAPTER IX. SAFETY ELEMENT


         family. Investigators from SNP are also           Sheriff’s primary and contractual
         assigned to John Wayne Airport, where             jurisdictions, as well as all private schools
         they operate an airport narcotic interdiction     countywide. Funding for this program is
         program utilizing various investigative           provided by the non-profit Drug Use is Life
         techniques and a narcotic detection canine.       Abuse Organization, as well as monies
                                                           seized pursuant to asset forfeiture by the
         In 1986, the Department was a co-founder          Orange County Sheriff Department’s
         of the Regional Narcotics Suppression             narcotic enforcement efforts.
         Program (RNSP) with three of the
         County’s municipal police departments.            The Department also houses “Project: No
         The program, commanded by the Sheriff’s           Gangs.” Founded by the Chief’s of Police
         Special Investigations Bureau captain, now        and Sheriff’s Association in 1992, this
         consists of officers fromten municipalities,      educational program is funded by the non-
         including state and federal narcotic agents,      profit Drug Use is Life Abuse
         and agents from three federal agencies.           Organization. This project targets
         RNSP targets major narcotic traffickers and       elementary level school children in an
         money launderers in an effort to interdict        effort to teach them about the consequences
         the flow of illegal drugs into the hands of       of gang membership and association.
         local dealers.


         The purpose of RNSP is the identification,        GOALS, OBJECTIVES AND
         apprehension and conviction of high-level         POLICIES: Crime
         drug traffickers and the seizure of assets
         derived from drug trafficking.                    The following goals and objectives are in
                                                           addition to the General Goals and
         In addition to traditional narcotic               Objectives for the Public Safety
         enforcement methods, the department               Component.
         participates in two task forces aimed at the
         stemming of methamphetamine                       Goal 1
         manufacturing within the County. These
                                                           Refer to the General Public Safety
         units implement proactive and reactive
                                                           Comp onent goals found in the General
         investigative strategies at a task force level.
                                                           Goals and Objectives section at the
                                                           beginning of the Public Safety Component.
         The Drug Awareness and Education
         Program was implemented in 1987. This
                                                           The objective below relates specifically to
         program, designed to educate the County’s
                                                           crime.
         youth regarding the dangers of illegal
         drugs, is provided to every child attending
                                                           •   Objective
         a public elementary school within the


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                                                              CHAPTER IX. SAFETY ELEMENT


     1.1 To maintain adequate levels of        PROGRAMS: Crime
         Sheriff patrol services through
         coordinated land use and facility     The following implementation programs
         planning efforts.                     are in addition to the General Safety
                                               Element Implementation Programs.
Policies
                                               1.   PUBLIC EDUCATION/
1.   To determine those areas of                    INFORMATION
     investigation where land use regulation
     can most effectively reduce incidence          Action:
     of crime.                                      Support the safety awareness efforts of
                                                                                                      Property
                                                    the Sheriff-Coroner's Department and
                                                                                               crimes are the
2.   To provide coordination to all agencies        other agencies through public
                                                                                                         most
     within the County to assist in the             information and educational activities.
                                                                                                   frequently
     prevention of crime.
                                                                                                      reported
                                                    Discussion:
                                                                                               crimes in this
3.   To monitor and evaluate studies of             This program is intended to increase
                                                                                                      country.
     crime prevention through land use and          the community's awareness of the need
                                                                                                Experts have
     development standards to determine             for crime prevention and provide
                                                                                               estimated that
     future regulations and programs.               educational assistance to residences
                                                                                                99 percent of
                                                    and businesses.
                                                                                                    us will be
4.   To encourage development of
                                                                                                    victims of
     programs and practices which                   New or Existing Program: Existing
                                                                                                some form of
     incorporate crime prevention methods,
                                                    Implementation Schedule: Ongoing             theft at least
     techniques, and experience into the
                                                                                                  once in our
     planning process.                              Responsible Agency: Sheriff-Coroner             lifetimes.
                                                    Department
5.   To continue to coordinate land use
     proposal reviews with the County               Source of Funds: County General
     Sheriff-Coroner Department to assure           Fund
     that Sheriff patrol services are
     adequately addressed.                     2.   NEIGHBORHOOD WATCH


6.   To maintain mutual aid agreements              Action:

     with incorporated cities to assure             The Neighborhood Watch Program

     efficient service delivery for the             prescribes three actions to be taken by

     County Islands.                                the Office of the Sheriff-Coroner:


IMPLEMENTATION                                      a)   Citizens and their neighbors work


                                                                                              IX-13
CHAPTER IX. SAFETY ELEMENT


                   in a program of mutual assistance.    Professional Services Reserves (PSR)
                                                         and Chaplains. The PSR program is
              b) Encourage citizens/neighbors to
                                                         comprised of professional members of
                   participate in training in order to
                                                         the community who donate their time
                   recognize and report suspicious
                                                         and expertise on a variety of projects
                   activities in their neighborhoods.
                                                         designed to enhance public safety and

              c)   Encourage citizens to also            expand law enforcement capabilities.

                   implement crime prevention            PSR provide support, analysis, and

                   techniques such as home security,     assistance with respect to emerging

                   Operation Identification, etc.        technologies in the private sector, and
                                                         contribute greatly to the Sheriff’s pro-
              Discussion:                                active law enforcement efforts.
              Neighborhood Watch is an                   Chaplains are trained personnel from
              organization involving citizens and        diverse backgrounds and
              neighbors within a community. This         denominations utilized to assist, aid,
              prevention program enlists the support     comfort, counsel, mediate, and provide
              of these citizens by having them work      spiritual, psychological, and social
              with law enforcement to reduce crime       services to the community and
              in their communities.                      departmental members. Chaplain
                                                         duties include death notifications, dead
              New or Existing Program: Existing
                                                         body calls, family disputes, missing
                                                         children, seniors with dementia,
              Implementation Schedule: Ongoing
                                                         welfare assistance, suicide attempts or
                                                         barricaded suspects, emotionally
              Responsible Agency: Orange County
                                                         disturbed citizens, officer involved
              Sheriff-Coroner Department
                                                         shootings, and other incidents where a
              Source of Funds: County General            Chaplain’s assistance is deemed
              Fund                                       warranted and requested by field
                                                         personnel.
         3.   SHERIFF'S RESERVE DIVISION
                                                         Discussion:
              Action:                                    The Reserve division consists of
              Sheriff's Reserve deputies will            volunteers who donate their time and
              continue to serve in 14 specialized        experience to the Sheriff-Coroner
              units, and eight details within these      Department as needed. Most Reserve
              units which are organized to provide       Division members are employed full-
              particular kinds of support for law        time in various civilian occupations
              enforcement activities. Also, integral     and professions.
              to the Reserve Division are the            New or Existing Program: Existing


IX-14
                                                              CHAPTER IX. SAFETY ELEMENT


    Implementation Schedule: Ongoing            programs/ordinances currently in effect
                                                which contribute to the success of fire
    Responsible Agency: Orange County           prevention activities are:
    Sheriff-Coroner Department
                                                a)   Closure of private lands in hazardous
    Source of Funds: County General                  fire areas to public access;
    Fund
                                                b) Uniform Building Code prohibition of

FIRE                                                 combustible roof covering materials;

                                                c)   Construction and maintenance of
Introduction                                         community and private fuel
                                                     modification programs;
This section of the Safety Element
examines the threat of fire to urban areas,     d) Vegetative Management Program;
wildlands, and the urban/wildlands
                                                e)   Weed Abatement Program; and
interface. Fire is a constant threat in all
                                                                                                        Young
parts of the County. Figure IX-1 depicts the    f)   Fire Prevention Education Programs.
                                                                                                 people, ages
fire hazard areas adopted by the Board of
                                                                                                  16 to 24, are
Supervisors. It is the responsibility of the    There are a number of natural conditions
                                                                                                    more than
Orange County Fire Authority to meet the        which might increase the possibility of
                                                                                                     ten times
fire threat challenge for present and future    wildland fires. Three such conditions are
                                                                                                 likely as their
development and residents.                      the type and condition of wildland
                                                                                                 grandparents
                                                vegetation, topography of the area, and
                                                                                                 to be victims
Some information pertinent to Orange            weather elements.
                                                                                                  of violence.
County Fire Authority services are
discussed in the latter part of this section.   Wildland fires are often difficult to control
However, a detailed discussion of the           for the following reasons:
OCFA facilities and services can be found
in the Public Services and Facilities           •    Adverse weather conditions
Element (Chapter V).                            •    Large quantities of combustible fuel
                                                •    Inaccessible terrain
Current Conditions                              •    Nonexistent or very limited water
WILDLAND FIRES                                       supply
                                                •    Large fire frontage-dispersing fire
The major objective of wildland fire                 forces
defense planning is to prevent wildland
fires from starting and, if unsuccessful, to    A relatively large portion of the County is
minimize the damage to natural resources        covered by natural (though modified)
and structures once a wildland fire starts.     vegetation. Of these different vegetation
Some of the more successful

                                                                                                IX-15
CHAPTER IX. SAFETY ELEMENT




         types, coastal sage scrub, chaparral, and      lost and 18,000 acres were burned, leaving
         grasslands reach some degree of                an estimated 16 million dollars in damage.
         flammability during the dry summer             The Santa Ana Winds during the time of
         months and, under the right conditions,        the fire were approximated at 50-55 mph,
         during the winter months.                      making the fire difficult to contain.


         Topography has considerable effect on          In 1993, aided by extreme fire weather
         wildland fire behavior and on the ability of   conditions, devastating firestorms swept
         firefighters and their equipment to take       the County during the period of October 24
         action to suppress those fires. A fire         through November 4. During this period, a
         starting in the bottom of a canyon may rush    total of 20 major fires in six Southern
         quickly to the ridge and become large,         California counties burned out of control.
         before initial attack forces can arrive,       Three fires burned in Orange County
         simply because of topography. Rough            during this time. They were the
         topography greatly limits road construction    Stagecoach, Laguna Beach and Ortega
         and road standards and accessibility by        fires. The Stagecoach fire burned 750
         ground equipment. Steep topography also        acres and destroyed 9 buildings. The
         channels air flow, creating extremely          Ortega fire burned 21,384 acres and
         erratic winds on slopes and in canyons.        destroyed 19 buildings. The Laguna
                                                        Beach fire burned 14,337 acres, destroyed
         Many wildland fires have been associated       441 homes and caused approximately
         with adverse weather conditions. In the        $528,000,000 in damage.


         1982 Gypsum Canyon fire, 17 homes were         In 1997, the Baker Canyon fire by Irvine


IX-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                              CHAPTER IX. SAFETY ELEMENT

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Figure IX-1




                                                                                     ORANGE FR EWA Y
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High                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        S
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             AN
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Very High                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          A
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Source: PDSD GIS, 1997




  FIRE HAZARD SEVERITY ZONES



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              IX-17
CHAPTER IX. SAFETY ELEMENT




         Lake burned 6,317 acres of vegetation,             c)   Plan check and inspection of new
         followed by two additional fires in 1998:               construction to ensure that all
         Blackstar/Santiago Canyons fire destroyed               construction features meet code
         8,800 acres, and the Carbon Canyon fire                 requirements; and
         burned 733 acres of brush.
                                                            d) Active participation in

         URBAN FIRES                                             Subdivision Committee and other
                                                                 planning activities.

         The Orange County Fire Authority places
         major emphasis on fire prevention in urban     Some of the most difficult fire protection

         areas. The Fire Authority objective is to      problems in the urban area are as follows:

         prevent fires from starting. Once a fire
                                                            •    Multiple story, wood frame, high
         starts, the object is to minimize the damage
                                                                 density apartment developments
         to life and property. Urban fire prevention
         programs that are designed to achieve this         •    Large contiguous developed areas
         fire prevention objective are as follows:               with combustible roof-covering
                                                                 materials;
             a)   Adoption and aggressive
                  enforcement of the most recent
                                                            •    Storage, handling, and use of
                  Uniform Fire Code;
                                                                 hazardous materials on site; and

             b) Development of a comprehensive
                                                            •    Natural disasters
                  master plan to ensure that staffing
                  and facilities keep pace with         The character of the existing built-up area
                  growth;                               and future land use determines the location


IX-18
                                                             CHAPTER IX. SAFETY ELEMENT




of fire stations, number of companies,          fire extinguishing systems provide an
manning of such companies, and future fire      effective and successful private fire
protection facility needs. Structural           protection system which can minimize loss
conditions also influence the quantity of       of life and property caused by fires. These
water needed for fire protection (fire flow)    systems operate with 94-97% efficiency
and hydrant distribution.                       thereby reducing the demands of public fire
                                                protection needs.
Features of structural conditions that affect
fire control include the following:             Other principal factors that can contribute
                                                to reduced fire protection include:
    •    Type of construction and use of
         buildings                                  •    Delayed detection of emergencies


    •    Area of building (ground floor             •    Delayed notification to emergency
         area)                                           agencies


    •    Number of stories                          •    Location and response time of
                                                         emergency equipment
    •    Type of roof covering material
                                                    •    Street structure (private, and gate
    •    Exposures to the building                       guarded, speed bumps/humps,
                                                         inadequate fire lanes)
The Uniform Building Code regulates all
of the above features and requires certain          •    Multiple-story, frame, apartment,
built-in fire protection devices when                    and condominium units
maximum allowable areas or heights are
exceeded, or the building use presents a life       •    Inadequate and unreliable water
or property protection problem. Automatic                supply with poor hydrant


                                                                                               IX-19
CHAPTER IX. SAFETY ELEMENT




             •    distribution                          offer protection primarily to structures with
                                                        direct exposure to the wildland. This
             •    Inadequate code revisions which       inequity in protection versus installation/
                  lag behind fire prevention            maintenance costs represents a very
                  knowledge                             important point regarding the natural
                                                        resource/urban development interface
         URBAN/WILDLANDS INTERFACE                      conflict.

         In an effort to alleviate fire dangers near
                                                        Fire prevention measures to reduce the
         the interface between urban development
                                                        level of risk to structures with wildland
         and wildlands, the construction of fuel
                                                        exposure must be developed within the
         modification zones (firebreak, fuelbreak, or
                                                        design of the residential development
         greenbelt) has been required. The
                                                        rather than in the natural resource.
         continued application of this method does
                                                        FIRE SERVICES
         have drawbacks and, therefore, is not the
         only acceptable solution
                                                        The Orange County Fire Authority serves
                                                        over one million residents in more than 22
                                                        member cities and the unincorporated areas
         In addition to the associated impacts
                                                        of Orange County. OCFA provides fire
         created by some fuelbreak installations,
                                                        protection and emergency service response,
         there are usually impacts on wildlife,
                                                        and participates in the California Mutual
         unique vegetation, and, in some cases, to
                                                        Aid Master Plan for use and assignment of
         the watershed cover as deep-rooted
                                                        resources for daily operations, and in the
         chaparral species are replaced by shallow-
                                                        event of major emergencies.
         rooted grasses. Fuelbreaks are costly to
         install, require expensive maintenance to
                                                        OCFA was formed March 1, 1995 and is
         insure their success during a wildfire, and


IX-20
                                                              CHAPTER IX. SAFETY ELEMENT


governed by a 24-member Board                  incidents without regard to jurisdictional
comprised of representatives from the 22       boundaries. The equipment used by the
cities it protects and the Orange County       department has the versatility to respond to            Why are
Board of Supervisors. In addition to the       both urban and wildland emergency                   Dalmatians
unincorporated area, OCFA serves the           conditions. The principal benefits of a             considered
cities of Aliso Viejo, Buena Park, Cypress,    regional system are reduced costs and                 firehouse
Dana Point, Irvine, Laguna Hills, Laguna       increased effectiveness.                           dogs? Dogs
Niguel, Laguna Woods, Lake Forest, La                                                           were helpful to
Palma, Los Alamitos, Mission Viejo,            OCFA responds to a wide range of incident            direct and
Placentia, Rancho Santa Margarita, San         types, some of these include:                     guard horses
Clemente, San Juan Capistrano, Seal                                                             during the era
                                               •   Medical: From single calls to mass
Beach, Stanton, Tustin, Villa Park,                                                               of the horse -
                                                   casualties with hundreds of victims.
Westminster, and Yorba Linda.                                                                       drawn fire
                                                   Each may or may not have a rescue
                                                                                                        engine.
                                                   component.
The OCFA provides fire and emergency                                                               Dalmatians
medical services with approximately 1,077      •   Fires: Structures, industrial processes,      were favored
full time personnel with 357 reserves who          vehicles, aircraft, trains, boats,                  probably
live in these communities.                         flammable liquids, wildland, explosion,          because of

                                                   high rise, hospitals, and many others             their size,
Known as the Orange County Fire                    from simple to complex.                              friendly
Department from 1980 to 1995, the Orange                                                         nature, ability
County Fire Authority is one of the largest    •   Rescues: Trapped victims (car                  to train, and
regional fire service organizations in             accidents, collapsed buildings,               ability to care
California with 60 fire stations and a             machinery accidents, cave-in-confined                     for
service area of 552 square miles. Front line       spaces).                                       themselves.
apparatus includes 56 fire engines, 10
                                               •   At Risk Victims: Swift water, high
paramedic vans, and 13 trucks, of which 30
                                                   angle, and wilderness injuries or falls.
are paramedic advanced life support units
and 25 are paramedic assessment units. The
                                               To formulate a deployment strategy, all
OCFA inventory also includes a helicopter,
                                               these factors must be considered in the risk.
a hazardous materials response unit, airport
                                               It would be extremely difficult to analyze
crash rescue units at John Wayne Airport,
                                               all these risks for each type of call.
swift water rescue, and a federally
                                               Therefore, Emergency Medical Services
sponsored urban search and rescue task
                                               and fire configurations are considered
force.
                                               primary. In most cases, if these are
                                               adequately covered, other incident types
Resources are deployed based upon a
                                               are well served.
regional service delivery system, assigning
personnel and equipment to emergency


                                                                                               IX-21
        CHAPTER IX. SAFETY ELEMENT


                 The OCFA protection area is diverse and
                 the delivery system must be as well. Four       Policies
                 demand categories exist within OCFA:
                                                                 1.   To encourage periodic updating of fire
                 •    Urban: Industrialized areas and high            hazard mapping and continue to
                      density housing areas;                          analyze existing fire hazard data as it
                                                                      pertains to Orange County.
                 •    Suburban: Communities with mostly
                      one and two story single family
                                                                 2.   To establish improved development
Cooking is            dwellings or moderate density with a
                                                                      standards for location of new
the leading           maximum of three story buildings; and
                                                                      construction, structural design,
cause of                                                              emergency vehicular access, and
                 •    Rural: Canyons and ranch area or
home fires in                                                         detection hardware.
                      portions of the protection area that
the U.S.
                      plan to remain less developed.
FEMA/United                                                      3.   To improve building code regulations
States Fire
                                                                      to provide increased built-in fire
Administration   •    Undeveloped: Area that is not
                                                                      protection.
                      accessible by paved road and contains
                      little or no physical improvements.
                                                                 4.   To improve mutual aid and inter-
                                                                      agency automatic aid programs to
                                                                      maximize utilization of existing
                 GOALS, OBJECTIVES AND
                                                                      facilities.
                 POLICIES: Fire
                                                                 5.   To continue to imp rove the minimum
                 This section of the Safety Element sets
                                                                      water system design requirements for
                 forth fire safety policies for Orange County
                                                                      fire protection.
                 and implementation programs to
                 implement these policies.
                                                                 6.   To provide technical and policy
                                                                      information regarding structural and
                 The following specific fire safety goal is in
                                                                      wildland fire hazards to developers,
                 addition to the General Public Safety
                                                                      interested parties and the general
                 Component goals and objectives found at
                                                                      public through all available media.
                 the beginning of this chapter.

                                                                 7.   To increase public awareness through
                 Goal 1
                                                                      educational programs which promote
                 Provide a safe living environment, ensuring          fire safe practices and fire prevention.
                 adequate fire protection facilities and
                 resources to prevent and minimize the loss      8.   To inform the public of Fire Authority
                 of life and property fire .                          emergency services with special


        IX-22
                                                                CHAPTER IX. SAFETY ELEMENT


     emphasis on prompt notification.            strategies. These implementation programs
                                                 are in addition to the General Safety
9.   To encourage improvement of fire            Element Implementation Programs.
     defense systems in hazardous areas.
                                                 1.   PUBLIC EDUCATION/
10. To encourage the continued training of            INFORMATION
     police officers and firefighters in arson
                                                      Action:
     detection to expand capabilities of the
                                                      Support the fire safety awareness
     agencies in their detection and
                                                      efforts of the Orange County Fire               Smoke
     investigation of incendiary fires.
                                                      Authority and other agencies through          detectors
                                                      public information and educational           should be
11. To maintain fire hazard information in
                                                      activities.                                     placed
     the County's Buyer Notification
                                                                                                outside each
     Program.                                         Discussion:
                                                                                                sleeping area
                                                      The Orange County Fire Authority
                                                                                                and on every
12. To plan for the lowest fire insurance             conducts programs and provides
                                                                                                  level of the
     rating based on fiscal considerations            information and assistance to promote
                                                                                                        home,
     and physical limitations (e.g.,                  public awareness concerning fire
                                                                                                including the
     topography, response time).                      hazards and fire safe practices.
                                                                                                   basement.
                                                      New or Existing Program: Existing             On floors
13. To improve emergency response times
                                                                                                      without
     for emergency responders through the             Implementation Schedule: Ongoing
                                                                                                  bedrooms,
     use of a computer-aided dispatch
                                                      Responsible Agency: Orange County             detectors
     system and "preempt traffic signal
                                                      Fire Authority                               should be
     control" system.
                                                                                                  installed in
                                                      Source of Funds: Structural Fire Fund     or near living
14. To promote increased volunteerism in              and Community Partnerships.                 room areas
     the various fire protection fields (e.g.,
                                                                                                     such as
     public education, reserve firefighters,     2.   PLANNING AND                               dens, living
     and support services).                           DEVELOPMENT                                  rooms, or
                                                                                                        family
                                                      Action:
                                                                                                      rooms.
                                                      Review and impose conditions of
IMPLEMENTATION                                        approval at the appropriate project
PROGRAMS: Fire                                        development level to assure that
                                                      adequate site design, fire safe
The implementation programs discussed                 construction materials, and fire
below implement the County's fire policies            detection and protection systems are
and promote fire safe practices and                   incorporated into the proposal in order


                                                                                                IX-23
         CHAPTER IX. SAFETY ELEMENT


                       to achieve maximum fire protection             state and federal law, requiring
                       and to minimize extent of loss                 companies to disclose the hazardous
                       associated with fire incidence.                materials they used and stored.
                                                                      Information from the disclosure and
                       Discussion:                                    business plan program is provided to
                       The Orange County Fire Authority               both emergency responders during
                       reviews all land use proposals                 hazardous materials incidents and the
                       including subdivisions and site                public upon request, and is used for
                       development permits for adequate site          regional emergency planning.
                       design and implementation.

                                                                      OCFA targets the greatest frequency
                       New or Existing Program: Existing
                                                                      and more in-depth inspection efforts to

                       Implementation Schedule: Ongoing               the highest hazard occupancies, to
                                                                      insure compliance with codes and
                       Responsible Agency: Orange County              recommended Best Management
                       Fire Authority                                 Practices (BMPs).

                       Source of Funds: Structural Fire               New or Existing Program: Existing
                       Fund and User Fees
                                                                      Implementation Schedule: Ongoing

                  3.   HAZARDOUS MATERIALS
                                                                      Responsible Agency: Orange County
                       SERVICES
                                                                      Fire Authority and the other city fire

                       Action:                                        departments

                       Continue to encourage the planning
                                                                      Source of Funds: Fees paid by
Nationally,            and enforcement of the provisions of
                                                                      persons reporting the presence of
direct                 disclosure ordinances adopted by cities
                                                                      hazardous materials. Fees are based
property loss          and the Orange County Fire Authority.
                                                                      upon the number and quantities of
due to fires
                       The Certified Unified Program Agency           materials reported.
is estimated
                       (CUPA) should continue to promote
at $8.5 billion
                       communication and coordination of         4.   CALIFORNIA ACCIDENTAL
annually.
                       the various hazardous materials and            RELEASE PROGRAM (CalARP)
FEMA/Uni ted
States Fire            hazardous waste programs.
Administration
                                                                      Action:
                       Discussion:                                    Continue implementation of CalARP,
                       In the wake of the 1985 Fricker                including updating of the hazardous
                       Chemical fire, Orange County enacted           materials ordinances for the new
                       the Hazardous Material Disclosure              requirements and emergency responder
                       Ordinance, which was followed by               coordination, as mandated by federal


         IX-24
                                                         CHAPTER IX. SAFETY ELEMENT


and state law.                             HAZARDOUS MATERIALS

Discussion:                                Orange County, among the most rapidly
CalARP is intended to result in an         growing counties in California, continues
increased level of safety for the public   to experience residential, employment, and
and environment surrounding facilities     economic growth. However, this growth
using certain highly toxic and             does have its costs. Virtually all sectors of
flammable materials. It is also            the County's economy are users of
intended to increase the level of          materials that, if improperly handled,
communication among hazardous              stored, or disposed of, can pose health and
materials uses, the public, and            environmental problems.
emergency responders.

                                           No master list of hazardous materials exists
New or Existing Program: Existing
                                           which can be agreed upon by all agencies

Implementation Schedule: Risk              that manage or regulate them. Lists which

Management Plans were submitted to         exist will change as more is learned about

U. S. Environmental Protection             the effects of hazardous substances or as       Each year, fire
Agency and local administering             new substances become part of our                    kills more
agencies on June 21, 1999 and were         technology. In addition, definitions of             Americans
updated June 21, 2004. Facilities with     hazardous materials also vary from source       than all natural
chemicals, subject to the California       to source. The current descriptions used in           disasters
amendments to the federal program,         Federal and State legislation include the           combined.
have from one to three years to submit     following:
                                                                                               FEMA/United
                                                                                                 States Fire
Risk Management Plans from the date
                                                                                              Administration
the plans are requested by the
                                           a)   A hazardous material is one which is
administering agency.
                                                either ignitable, reactive, corrosive,
                                                toxic, or any combination of these
Responsible Agencies:
                                                properties (Resource Conservation and
•   Orange County Fire Authority
                                                Recovery Act).
•   HCA
•   Fire departments which are
                                           b) A hazardous material is a substance or
    participating agencies for
                                                combination of substances which,
    CalARP.
                                                because of its quantity, concentration
                                                or physical, chemical, or infectious
Sources of Funds:       User Fees.
                                                characteristics may either:




                                                                                           IX-25
CHAPTER IX. SAFETY ELEMENT




              •   Cause, or significantly contribute     Recognizing, therefore, the importance of
                  to an increase in mortality or an      providing for the safe management of
                  increase in serious irreversible or    hazardous materials, it is the purpose of
                  incapacitating reversible illness;     this section of the Safety Element to
                  or                                     discuss five major aspects of the broad
                                                         hazardous materials environment:
              •   Pose a substantial present or
                                                         hazardous materials, hazardous waste,
                  potential hazard to humans or the
                                                         medical waste, and nuclear materials (San
                  environment (State Health and
                                                         Onofre Nuclear Generating Station).
                  Safety Code, Chapter 6.5).

         c)   A hazardous material is an injurious       These discussions also recognize the need

              substance, including pesticides,           for public access to general, unbiased

              herbicides, toxic metals and chemicals,    information concerning all aspects of

              liquified material gas, explosives,        hazardous materials. Related hazardous
                                                         materials issues involving siting of

         volatile chemicals, and nuclear fuels           management facilities or land planning

         (California Government Code).                   policy will be addressed as appropriate in
                                                         the General Plan Land Use and the Public

         Exposure to some hazardous substances           Services and Facilities (PSF) Elements.

         can result in acute or chronic health effects
         for the public such as respiratory problems     Description
         or carcinogenicity. For example, over a
         long period of time, ingestion of drinking      Hazardous materials are usable substances

         water contaminated by accidentally or           which, when put in contact with the

         illegally discharged hazardous waste can        environment, can adversely affect living

         result in adverse health effects.               organisms. Health effects can develop due


IX-26
                                                             CHAPTER IX. SAFETY ELEMENT


to short- or long-term exposure. Hazardous      routes are used daily to transport hazardous
materials, which can be ignitable, reactive,    materials from suppliers to users. On these
corrosive, or toxic, can also cause             routes, transportation accidents involving
contamination of the environment when           hazardous materials can occur. The threats
releases occur.                                 posed by a transportation accident
                                                involving hazardous materials include
Sources/Locations of Hazardous                  explosions, physical contact by emergency
Materials                                       response personnel, environmental
                                                                                                        Good
                                                degradation, and exposure to the public via
                                                                                               housekeeping
The Health and Safety Code-mandated             airborne exposure.
                                                                                                 is one of the
Hazardous Materials Area Plan developed
                                                                                                 best ways to
by the Orange County Fire Authority in          The Federal Department of Transportation
                                                                                               prevent fire or
1999 (with subsequent updates) contains a       (DOT) is the primary regulatory authority
                                                                                                     limit the
detailed hazard analysis of chemical            for the interstate transport of hazardous
                                                                                                  spread of a
hazards in much of the Orange County            materials. The DOT regulations establish
                                                                                                   fire in and
jurisdiction.                                   criteria for safe handling procedures (e.g.,
                                                                                                 around your
                                                packaging, marking, labeling, placarding,
                                                                                                home. Check
Hazardous materials are used in all             and routing). Criteria also exist regarding
                                                                                                           for
segments of our society. Hazardous              personnel qualifications and training,
                                                                                                 combustible
material users include manufacturing and        inspection requirements, and equipment
                                                                                                items around
service industries, agriculture, military       specifications. The California Highway
                                                                                                  your home,
bases, hospitals, schools , power plants, and   Patrol enforces the intrastate transport of
                                                                                                   and either
households.                                     hazardous materials and hazardous wastes.
                                                                                                recycle them
                                                                                                or store them
Hazardous materials used by these societal      Another major hazardous materials
                                                                                                    properly.
segments are normally stored in secured,        transportation mode in Orange County is
on-site areas, in small containers or large     that of underground pipelines. These
aboveground or underground storage tanks.       pipelines predominately transport crude or
There are 1,980 underground storage tanks       refined petroleum, gasoline, and jet fuel.
storing over 23 million gallons of              The major threats posed by this
hazardous materials at 747 facilities           transportation method include explosions,
regulated by the County of Orange.              fire, and contamination of surface and
                                                groundwater potentially used as a source of
Hazardous Materials                             drinking water.
Transportation
                                                The regulatory agency responsible for
The major transportation routes in Orange       enforcement as well as inspection of
County include the freeway system, surface      pipelines transporting hazardous materials
streets, pipelines, and railroads. These        is the California State Fire Marshal's


                                                                                               IX-27
CHAPTER IX. SAFETY ELEMENT


         Office, Hazardous Liquid Pipeline                  regulation of repair and closure of
         Division. Under mandate from Title 49 of           tanks; ensuring the mitigation of
         the Code of Federal Regulation, the agency         leaking underground storage tanks;
         is charged with compliance review:                 pursuing enforcement action; and
                                                            educating and assisting the industries
             1)   Inspection and enforcement
                                                            and general public as to the laws and
                                                            regulations governing underground
             2)   Pipeline failure and investigation
                                                            storage tanks.
             3)   Pipeline training and certification
                                                        b) Hazardous Materials Disclosure
         Locally the Orange County Fire Authority           Program:
         has emergency response authority.
                                                            The Hazardous Materials Disclosure
                                                            Program began as a direct result of two
         Hazardous Materials
                                                            major hazardous materials incidents:
         Management
                                                            the tragedy in Bhopal, India in
                                                            December 1984, and the three day fire
         a) Underground Storage Tank Program
                                                            at the Lorry Fricker pesticide
             The Orange County Health Care                  warehouse in Anaheim in June, 1985.
             Agency (OCHCA) has been
                                                            Under mandate from the California
             designated by the Board of Supervisors
                                                            Health and Safety Code, the Orange
             as the agency to enforce the
                                                            County Fire Authority is the
             Underground Storage Tank (UST)
                                                            designated Agency to:
             program. The OCHCA Underground
             Storage Tank Program regulates                 1)   Inventory the Storage and use of
             approximately 747 underground                       hazardous materials in
             storage tank facilities with 1,980                  commercial or industrial
             underground tanks within its                        occupancies;
             jurisdiction. This program does not
             regulate underground tanks in the              2)   Develop and implement area
             cities of Anaheim, Fullerton, Orange,               emergency plans to respond to a
             and Santa Ana which implement their                 hazardous materials incident; and
             own programs.
                                                            3)   Require businesses that handle
                                                                 hazardous materials to develop
             The comprehensive program,
                                                                 business emergency plans to deal
             implemented by OCHCA, includes
                                                                 with a fire or release of these
             conducting regular inspections of
                                                                 materials.
             underground tanks; oversight of new
             tank installations; issuance of permits;   The information disclosed by the industrial


IX-28
                                                            CHAPTER IX. SAFETY ELEMENT


community is stored in a computerized data
                                               •   Facilitate the coordination of various
base and is made available to fire and
                                                   parts of the County's hazardous
police response personnel, the Sheriff-
                                                   materials program; assist in
Coroner Department, the Health Care
                                                   coordinating County hazardous
Agency, all hazardous materials response
                                                   materials activities with outside
teams in the county, and the planning
                                                   agencies and organizations including
departments of the cities served by the
                                                   various state, federal, special districts,
Orange County Fire Authority.
                                                   industry and community agencies and
Title 4 of the Orange County Codified
                                                   groups that impact or are involved
Ordinances mandates an orderly program
                                                   with hazardous materials management
for the acquisition of basic information on
                                                   issues/activities.
the use and disposal of hazardous materials
in the County. By contractual agreement
                                               •   Provide comprehensive, coordinated
or resolution of the individual city, the
                                                   analysis of hazardous materials issues
Orange County Fire Authority administers
                                                   including the needs and priorities of all
the provisions of the State law, Heath and
                                                   the various organizations involved in
Safety Code Chapter 6.95 in the
                                                   hazardous materials activities.
unincorporated areas and in twenty two of
the incorporated cities of the County. The     •   Direct the preparation,
remaining cities have adopted their own            implementation, and modification of
ordinances and are administering similar           the County's Hazardous Waste
programs themselves.                               Management Plan as required by State
                                                   law (Tanner Bill, AB 2948).
Hazardous Materials Planning
and Coordination                               •   Act as a clearinghouse for information
                                                   and increase public awareness of
On February 7, 1984, the Orange County             hazardous materials issues/activities.
Board of Supervisors established the
Hazardous Materials Task Force (HMTF)          Hazardous Wastes
to review the County's hazardous materials
activities and make recommendations to         DESCRIPTION
ensure effective coordination and control of   The use of hazardous materials in the
countywide resources. The work begun by        manufacture and use of many products
the HMTF continues under the jurisdiction      considered essential to our economy result
of the Health Care Agency, Certified           in the production of hazardous wastes
Unified, Program Agency (CUPA).                which must be handled and disposed of in a
                                               safe manner to avoid harming human
The functions and responsibilities of the      health and the environment. Hazardous
HMTF include the following:                    wastes are commonly hazardous materials


                                                                                                IX-29
    CHAPTER IX. SAFETY ELEMENT


                for which no further use is intended.
                                                              More than 6,100 businesses under the
                Hazardous wastes can be solid, liquids,       County’s jurisdiction - from yacht repair
                gases, or sludges. A major issue              shops to defense contractors - produce
                concerning hazardous wastes is the            wastes that can pose dangers as immediate
                potential accidental release of these         as burns or as latent as cancer, if they are
                substances. These releases can occur          disposed of improperly. The majority of
                during any stage of handling, but             hazardous waste generators are located in
                particularly during storage and disposal.     three cities well-known for their industrial
                                                              activities - Santa Ana, Anaheim, and
                HAZARDOUS WASTE GENERATION                    Irvine.

                Orange County, considered part of the Los
                                                              However, all of the cities in Orange County
                Angeles region, is within the third highest
                                                              have a number of hazardous waste
                hazardous waste generation area in
                                                              generators, mostly small quantity
                California. The Department of Health
                                                              generators. Of the 6,100 hazardous waste
                Services (DOHS) rankings identify the
                                                              generators, approximately 5,900 of these
                Southern San Joaquin Valley as the second
                                                              are small quantity generators; for example,
                highest generator and the San Francisco
                                                              automotive body shops, dry cleaners, photo
                Bay area as the highest. Together, these
                                                              labs, etc. There is a growing need to
                three regions account for 90% of the
                                                              develop affordable treatment alternatives to
                statewide annual hazardous waste
                                                              avert the potential cumulative effects of
                generation. (See Figure IX-2.)
                                                              disposal by small quantity waste
                                                              generators.
                In 1983, 10.2 million tons of hazardous
     “Public    waste was estimated by the DOHS to be
                                                              HAZARDOUS WASTE DISPOSAL
calamity is a   produced in California each year, the Los
      mighty    Angeles region accounting for 2,110,457
                                                              a) Disposal Facilities
    leveler.”   tons per year (21.5%) with 489,041 tons
Edmund Burke    (5%) coming from Orange County alone.             Hazardous waste land disposal
                                                                  facilities are classified by the State
                In 1986, on passage of the Tanner Bill,           Water Resources Control Board as
                State and local agencies began a process          Class I or Class II-1, based on each
                aimed at developing concise statewide
                hazardous waste management. The Tanner
                process will help to create a more
                comprehensive means of recording
                hazardous waste generation and tracking
                hazardous waste disposal.


    IX-30
                                         CHAPTER IX. SAFETY ELEMENT



                                                                    Figure IX-2




               Mountain
                North

Coastal
 North
           Central
           Valley
            North




           Bay           Mountain
                          South
           Area



                           Central
                           Valley
                           South
               Central
               Coast


                                                  Southern
                                                  California
                                                   Inland
      Orange County
                                     Southern
                                     California
                                                                                     I
                                      Coastal
                                                  Source: California Integrated Waste Management Board




               HAZARDOUS WASTE FACILITIES
                   Needs Assessment Regions




                                                                                IX-31
CHAPTER IX. SAFETY ELEMENT


           site's hydrogeological characteristics         been identified in Orange County as
           and projected waste acceptance.                abandoned hazardous waste sites
                                                          which are eligible to be funded for
           Prior to the 1984 Resource                     cleanup pursuant to the State
           Conservation and Recovery Act                  Hazardous Substances Cleanup Bond
           (RCRA) amendments which call for a             Act of 1984 (Superfund). In addition
           phased ban on land disposal of                 to these nine sites, 800 additional
           untreated waste, Class I facilities could      abandoned sites are being examined by
           accept virtually all types of hazardous        the State DOHS as potentially
           waste, while Class II-1 facilities were        containing hazardous wastes.
           allowed to accept only specified types
           of hazardous waste.                            Furthermore, an OCHCA survey of all
                                                          dumps and landfills located in the
           Until November 30, 1984, California            County was conducted in 1980, this
           had seven operating Class I land               survey report identified 92 waste
           disposal facilities. Since that time, the      disposal sites in the County, the
           BKK Landfill in West Covina has                majority of which have been used for
           been closed due to increasingly                the disposal of municipal refuse and
           restrictive State regulations, the harsh       inert materials. A small percentage of
           economics of hazardous waste land              hazardous waste is suspected to be
           disposal and the threat of potential           present as a result of disposal of
           future liabilities.                            household hazardous waste.


           Much of the hazardous waste produced           Also of significance are 285 sites in
           in Orange County and the rest of               the County that have been identified as
           Southern California was transported to         hazardous waste sites as a result of
           the BKK site. Since the closure of the         underground tanks leaking and
           BKK site, Orange County's hazardous            contaminating either the soil and/or
           waste is transported to the nearest sites      groundwater. This number has been
           at Casmalia in northern Santa Barbara          increasing and is expected to continue
           County and at Kettleman Hills in               to increase in the foreseeable future.
           Kings County, as depicted in Figure
           IX-3, or to facilities in other states.     b) Illegal Dumping


           In Orange County there are a number            Illegal dumping takes on many forms

           of sites where hazardous waste has             including disposal on plant property,

           been disposed of both legally and              on vacant land, or to the sewers. In

           illegally which requires cleanup or            addition, the Orange County Water

           mitigation. Currently, nine sites have         District has identified incidences of


IX-32
                                                                                   CHAPTER IX. SAFETY ELEMENT



                                                                                                                        Figure IX-3

STANISLAUS               MARIPOSA
  COUNTY
                          COUNTY


      MERCED                MADERA
      COUNTY                COUNTY




                         FRESNO
                         COUNTY
  SAN BENITO                                                                      INYO
   COUNTY                                                                        COUNTY
                                                                                                      Ne
                                                                                                        va
                                                      TULARE                                              da
                             KINGS                    COUNTY
                            COUNTY
  MONTEREY
   COUNTY
                              Kettleman
                                Hills
       SAN LUIS OBISPO
           COUNTY                                         KERN
                                                         COUNTY




                                                                                                  SAN BERNARDINO
                                                                                                      COUNTY
                Casmalia
                 SANTA BARBARA
                    COUNTY
                                               VENTURA
                                               COUNTY
                                                                  LOS ANGELES
                                                                    COUNTY



                                                                                BKK West Covina
                                                                                   (Closed)
                                                                                                      RIVERSIDE




                                                                                                                                            Arizona
                                                                                                       COUNTY
                                    Pa
                                      cif
                                                                     ORANGE
                                         ic                          COUNTY
                                              Oc
                                                ea
                                                  n

                                                                                          SAN DIEGO                      IMPERIAL
                                                                                           COUNTY                         COUNTY




                                                                                                               Mexico


                                                                                                                                       I

                                     REGIONAL CLASS 1 DISPOSAL SITES




                                                                                                                                    IX-33
CHAPTER IX. SAFETY ELEMENT


            localized groundwater contamination         risks to the general population of
            resulting from inadvertent release of       prolonged exposure to toxic
            virgin hazardous materials.                 substances, stricter regulatory
                                                        standards and more sophisticated
            The number of hazardous waste sites         measuring techniques are being
            requiring cleanup is expected to            applied to old hazardous waste landfill
            increase due to the following: a            operations.
            possible increase in illegal disposal
            due to the phased closure of most of        As a result, significant contamination
            the hazardous waste landfills to            is being found. As a means of
            untreated hazardous waste and a             mitigation, the Environmental
            significant increase in costs to dispose,   Protection Agency (EPA) under the
            treat, or recycle; increased awareness      Comprehensive Environmental
            and reporting by the public; and            Response, Compensation and Liability
            greater implementation of programs by       Act (CERCLA), also referred to as the
            OCHCA and other agencies.                   Superfund, is actively pursuing a
                                                        program of uncontrolled hazardous
            In addition, the mitigation of such sites   waste site assessment; stabilization of
            is technically complex and can take         sites imminently threatening to public
            several years. This can result in costs     health; and remedial cleanup of sites
            to responsible parties, if they can be      receiving priority ranking.
            identified, that are prohibitive.
            However, monitoring of storm sewers         In anticipation of the shortage of
            by RDMD and the groundwater by the          hazardous waste disposal facilities in
            Orange County Water District has            Southern California, State and local
            indicated that any widespread illegal       elected officials initiated a Southern
            disposal of hazardous waste to the          California Hazardous Waste Facility
            groundwater has not endangered this         Study in 1981. By 1985, Orange
            resource to a significant extent.           County and six other counties
                                                        (Imperial, Riverside, San Bernardino,
         ORANGE COUNTY HAZARDOUS                        San Diego, Santa Barbara, and
         WASTE MANAGEMENT                               Ventura; plus representation from
                                                        cities in those counties) founded the
         a) Hazardous Waste Management Plan             Southern California Hazardous Waste
            Development                                 Management Authority. Los Angeles
                                                        County and Kern County attend
            Because past hazardous waste                meetings, but have not officially joined
            management practices failed to assess,      the Authority.
            in many cases, the long-range health


IX-34
                                                                    CHAPTER IX. SAFETY ELEMENT


The purpose of the Authority is to provide       use decisions for off-site, multi-user
local jurisdictions a framework within which     hazardous waste facilities and extending
to establish and implement an equitable          some "seed money" to assist in their
allocation of hazardous waste management         planning efforts were also established in this
facilities called for in the regional Action     bill.
Program. The role of the Authority is to
coordinate implementation of programs and        In accordance with the Tanner Bill time
siting of facilities sufficient to safely        frame and in order to offer an option to
manage hazardous waste in Southern               previous forms of hazardous waste disposal,
California.                                      the Orange County Hazardous Materials
                                                 Program Office established a two phase
As part of its participation in the Authority,   project. The first phase consisted of a series
Orange County drafted a hazardous waste          of one-day events called Toxic Roundups at
management plan to serve as a beginning          which residents disposed of unwanted
point for discussing and developing a            household toxins. The Toxic Roundups
comprehensive system of hazardous waste          were a means of providing public education
management for the County. At the same           to increase public awareness in segregation,
time the Draft Plan project was approved by      disposal, and proper handling of household
the Board of Supervisors, the Governor           hazardous waste and water quality issues.
signed the Tanner Bill, AB 2948. This bill
established a state policy on the use of         As an ongoing program, four to five
hazardous waste landfills and provided a         collection stations will be established
schedule for moving away from their use as       throughout the County by October 1987 for
disposal sites for raw, untreated chemical       the collection of household and small
wastes.                                          generator wastes. The program will be a
                                                 joint venture of the County, cities, and solid
This law created a set of programs and           waste haulers.
procedures to facilitate the siting and
permitting of treatment and residual             b) Orange County Health Care Agency
repository facilities through local level                (OCHCA) Hazardous Waste Program
hazardous waste management planning. The
Tanner Bill also provides for the                        In 1983, the County Board of
establishment of an Advisory Committee                   Supervisors established the OCHCA
comprised of members representing                        Hazardous Waste Management Program
different sectors of society. The Committee              to reduce the threat of exposure to the
is responsible for overseeing the Draft Plan             general public and to protect the
development and approval process.                        environment. The comprehensive
Provisions dealing with an expeditious                   program includes conducting routine
administrative process for appealing land                inspections of hazardous waste

                                                                                                   IX-35
CHAPTER IX. SAFETY ELEMENT


              generators; conducting investigations of          news media and the public.
              complaints of illegal hazardous waste
              storage and disposal; responding to         Medical Wastes
              emergency incidents involving both
              hazardous materials and hazardous           SOURCES/LOCATION OF WASTES
              waste; and oversight of cleanups from
                                                          Currently there are approximately 163
              leaking underground storage tanks and
                                                          regulated facilities in Orange County that
              hazardous waste.
                                                          generate in excess of 4,500 tons of medical
                                                          waste annually. These facilities include
              This program is also responsible for
                                                          hospitals, doctors' offices, the County
              pursuing enforcement action, where
                                                          Morgue, laboratories etc.
              warranted, and educating and assisting
              the industries and general public as to
                                                          Potential hazards at these locations range
              the laws and regulations governing
                                                          from improper identification of medical
              hazardous wastes. The laws and
                                                          waste to a spillage of liquid etiologic
              regulations governing hazardous waste
                                                          cultures in areas accessible to the public.
              are the California Health and Safety
                                                          Exposure to these types of waste could lead
              Codes Chapter 6.5 and the California
                                                          to the public contracting a disease depending
              Administrative Codes Title 22.
                                                          upon the agent and exposure.

         c)   Proposition 65 Program
                                                          Additionally, the public may be exposed to
                                                          human pathogens as a result of accidents in
              The Environmental Health Division of
                                                          the work place, streets and highways etc.
              the Orange County Health Care Agency
                                                          The County Fire Department has developed
              also oversees the implementation and
                                                          emergency procedures for contact and clean-
              enforcement of Proposition 65, the Safe
                                                          up.
              Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement
              Act of 1986. Section 4 of this law
                                                          MEDICAL WASTE MANAGEMENT
              requires designated government
              employees, as of January 1, 1987, to        The OCHCA Medical Waste Program was
              disclose illegal discharges or threatened   established in 1982 in response to a large
              illegal discharges of hazardous waste       increase in the number of incidents
              likely to cause substantial injury to       involving the illegal disposal of medical
              public health and safety. Information is    wastes in County landfills, on roadways etc.
              to be reported to the Health Officer and    This potential exposure to medical waste
              Board of Supervisors within 72 hours or     was recognized as a threat to landfill
              criminal, and civil penalties could be      workers and citizens of the County.
              faced. The Health Officer in turn
              makes the information available to the


IX-36
                                                                  CHAPTER IX. SAFETY ELEMENT


The Medical Waste Program, implemented           The specific outline of first responders can
by OCHCA, includes conducting regular            be found in the Orange County Emergency
inspections of medical waste generating          Plan.
facilities, investigating complaints regarding
illegal storage or disposal of medical waste,    Nuclear Materials (San Onofre
pursuing enforcement action where                Nuclear Generating Station-
warranted, and educating facilities and the      SONGS)
public as to the laws and regulations
governing medical wastes activities.             DESCRIPTION

                                                 Naturally occurring radiation is in the air we
Radioactive Material
                                                 breathe, the food we eat, in our homes, and
                                                 even in our bodies. This "natural
DESCRIPTION
                                                 background" radiation is the largest
Radioactive material, another form of            contributor to a person's average radiation
hazardous substance, is any material that        dose. Radiation can affect the body cells
emits ionization radiation spontaneously.        and, in excessive amounts, can be injurious.
The increasing volume and variety of high        The nuclear power industry contributes less
and low level radioactive materials that are     than 1% of the radiation to which we are
generated, stored, or transported in Orange      regularly exposed and yet is the one source
County create potential hazards due to the       that generates the greatest concern among
threat of accidental release of radiation.       the general public.


Ionizing radiation can damage living cells,      SOURCES/LOCATION
leading to somatic injury or harmful genetic
effects. Excessive amounts of radiation can      a)   Sources

contribute to or cause an increase in serious
                                                      Radioactive by-products are contained
illness and/or mortality. Sources of
                                                      within the plant, except for small
potential exposure range from a small spill
                                                      quantities of radioactive gases released
inside a facility to a radioactive plume of
                                                      into the air and liquids released into the
smoke from a major fire.
                                                      ocean. Such releases occur infrequently
                                                      and are monitored by the plant
Radioactive material incidents require
                                                      personnel in accordance with strict
specialized technical expertise that varies
                                                      government standards.
depending on the materials involved and the
type of incident. The resources and                   The two most likely sources of radiation
personnel required to react to a radioactive          contamination from SONGS are
materials incident may involve various local,         transportation accidents involving
special district, state, and federal agencies.        shipments of nuclear materials and


                                                                                                   IX-37
      CHAPTER IX. SAFETY ELEMENT


                       uncontrolled airborne releases from the        The San Onofre Nuclear Generating
                       plant site.                                    Station (SONGS), located next to San
                                                                      Onofre State Beach, is on the Camp
                       NUCLEAR MATERIALS/WASTES                       Pendleton U.S. Marine Corps Base in
                       AT SONGS                                       San Diego County. SONGS is
                                                                      approximately five miles south of the
                       Low-level wastes: The largest volumes
                                                                      City of San Clemente.
                       of such wastes are disposable protective
                       clothing (e.g., towels, gloves, shoe
                                                                   Nuclear Materials Management
                       covers), tools, and containers that have
                                                                   (SONGS )
                       been used by radiation workers inside
                       the plant and which usually exhibit very
                                                                   a) REGULATION/AGENCIES
                       little radioactivity. Also included are
  SONGS was
                       demineralizing and filtering materials         U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission
        built to
                       used to purify water in the reactor            (NRC): Before nuclear power plants are
  withstand a
                       coolant systems. These wastes contain          allowed to operate, their owners must
         major
                       very small to moderate amounts of              demonstrate to the NRC, an
earthquake of
                       radioactive materials.                         independent federal agency, that
7.0 magnitude
                       High-level wastes: These wastes                construction and operation of their
within 5 miles
                       generally consist of highly concentrated       nuclear plants will not present an undue
  of the plant.
                       radioactive fission and activation             risk to public health and safety by
        Southern
California Edison
                       products created during nuclear fission        meeting the most comprehensive set of
                       in a reactor. Generally, this consists of      standards and regulations of any
                       used nuclear fuel elements. Such               industrial activity.
                       wastes will eventually require long term
                       isolation from the environment, and,           U.S. Federal Emergency Management
                       until the Federal Government is ready          Agency (FEMA): The administration of
                       to accept them for permanent disposal,         the regulations, commonly referred to
                       they will be held at the plant site.           as NUREG 0654/FEMA-REPl, is the
                                                                      primary responsibility of the Federal
                       New fuel elements: New fuel elements           Emergency Management Agency.
                       are the source material used in a nuclear      Coupled with the regulation of on-site
                       fission reactor. They are not highly           operations, these regulations are
                       radioactive and do not present a serious       directed to the off-site protection of
                       radiation hazard. However, they must           public health and safety, in the event of
                       be shipped in accordance with strict           an accident, through extensive
                       federal standards.                             coordinated plans of the several primary
                                                                      local response agencies.
                    b) Location                                       California Office of Emergency


      IX-38
                                                          CHAPTER IX. SAFETY ELEMENT


  Services (OES): The OES is dedicated         In an effort to prepare those who live
  to coordinating State resources in the       and work in areas outside, but adjacent
  event of an accident and is primarily        to SONGS, the federal and state
  responsible for monitoring at SONGS          governments have established three
  or any other nuclear power generating        levels of emergency zones. Although it
  station. The OES is also responsible for     is very unlikely an emergency might
  recovery activities within a 50-mile         arise, these zones are devised to
  zone surrounding SONGS, known as             maximize protection of public health
  the Ingestion Pathway Zone (IPZ).            and well being.
  Radiation sources, if released in
  uncontrolled quantities within the IPZ,      Emergency Planning Zone: The U.S.
  could enter and contaminate the food         Nuclear Regulatory Commission has
  chain.                                       established an area surrounding every
                                               nuclear generating station identified as
  Inter-jurisdictional Planning                an Emergency Planning Zone (EPZ).
  Committee (IPC): While the local             (See Figure IX-4). At SONGS, the EPZ
  governments and agencies surrounding         encompasses portions of Orange and
  SONGS do not have authority to               San Diego counties, the cities and
  regulate plant operations, they have         communities of San Clemente, San Juan
  responsibilities for protecting the public   Capistrano and Dana Point, portions of
  health and safety of their constituents      the Camp Pendleton Marine Corps
  and, accordingly, are intimately             Base, and several beaches and parks
  involved in emergency planning and           operated by the State Department of
  response activities. The primary             Parks and Recreation (i.e. San Onofre
  response agencies include Orange and         State Beach, San Clemente State Beach
  San Diego Counties, the Cities of San        and Doheny State Beach). While a
  Juan Capistrano and San Clemente,            serious emergency at SONGS is
  Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton,            considered highly unlikely, extensive
  and the local office of the State Parks      planning efforts within the EPZ provide
  and Recreation Department. In 1983,          for emergency protective actions such
  these agencies established the Inter-        as sheltering or, in very extreme
  jurisdictional Planning Committee that       emergencies, evacuation.
  meets regularly to coordinate their
  emergency plans, train, exercise, and        Public information brochures are
  resolve matters of mutual concern.           distributed periodically to every
                                               resident and business owner within the
b) PROGRAMS                                    EPZ. Included is information on
                                               radiological emergencies, protective
  Emergency Zones Response Program:            action procedures, location of

                                                                                          IX-39
CHAPTER IX. SAFETY ELEMENT


           transportation assembly areas,                  Health Department from each of the
           evacuation routes, designated reception         affected counties.
           centers, and Emergency Broadcast
           stations.                                  Summary

           (PEZ): The State of California has         State and local efforts in hazardous waste
           defined an area outside and adjacent to    management will continue to lay
           the federal EPZ as the Public Education    foundations for development of
           Zone. At SONGS, the PEZ                    comprehensive legislation and
           encompasses the communities of             implementation programs. The Tanner
           Laguna Beach, Laguna Hills, Laguna         process will serve to direct these efforts
           Niguel, Lake Forest and Mission Viejo      toward reduction of interagency redundancy;
           in Orange County; portions of the          eventual creation of compatible State and
           Cleveland National Forest in Riverside,    local data; development of long-range,
           Orange and San Diego counties; and         focused plans; and development of
           additional portions of the Camp            technologies aiding in waste treatment and
           Pendleton Marine Corps Base and the        source reduction.
           communities of Oceanside, Fallbrook,
           Bonsall, Carlsbad and Vista in San         GOALS, OBJECTIVES, AND
           Diego County                               POLICIES: Hazardous Materials

           Ingestion Pathway Zone (IPZ): The          General goals and objectives may be found
           Federal Government has established an      in the beginning of the Public Safety
           area with a 50-mile radius around every    Component.
           nuclear generating station as an
           Ingestion Pathway Zone (IPZ). At           1)   To provide consultation, assistance, and
           SONGS, the IPZ encompasses all of               education to the public, industries, and
           Orange County and parts of San Diego            other agencies regarding the applicable
           Los Angeles, San Bernardino and                 laws and regulations of hazardous
           Riverside counties. This zone is                materials (including underground
           established for the purpose of                  storage tanks), hazardous waste,
           monitoring and decision-making                  medical waste, and nuclear materials.
           specifically to avoid the ingestion of
           deposited nuclear materials by humans      2)   To respond to all emergency incidents
           and livestock. The State of California,         to oversee and ensure that these
           Department of Health Services, has the          incidents involving hazardous waste,
           primary responsibility for operations in        and medical waste are properly
           the Recovery Phase of a nuclear power           mitigated.
           plant accident and is assisted by the


IX-40
                              CHAPTER IX. SAFETY ELEMENT



                                                 Figure IX-4




E.P.Z. & P.E.Z. FOR SAN ONOFRE NUCLEAR GENERATING STATION




                                                       IX-41
CHAPTER IX. SAFETY ELEMENT


                                                               stored in underground storage tanks)
                                                               hazardous waste, and medical waste.
         3)   To investigate all complaints involving
              hazardous waste, and medical waste and      9)   To implement the Orange County
              take enforcement action as needed.               Emergency Plan particularly sections
                                                               addressing hazardous waste, medical
         4)   To inspect, evaluate, and maintain an            waste, and nuclear materials incidences.
              adequate surveillance of hazardous               This will help to foster participation in
              materials, hazardous waste, and medical          countywide planning efforts.
              waste in order to ensure full compliance
              with the laws and regulations.              10) To encourage development of
                                                               emergency evacuation procedures for
         5)   To secure and maintain complete and              areas immediately surrounding facilities
              accurate information on the identity,            storing, handling, or processing nuclear
              volume, location, and management                 material.
              methods of all hazardous materials,                                ent
                                                          11) Evaluate new equipm and
              hazardous waste, and medical waste in            technology used in the handling,
              Orange County. This will aid in                  storage, transport, and disposal of
              management, planning, and emergency              nuclear materials.
              response.
                                                          12) To cooperate in providing coordinated
         6)   To implement and administer all                  emergency plans specific to the San
              mandated laws, regulations, and                  Onofre Nuclear Generating Station.
              ordinances relating to hazardous
              materials, hazardous waste, and medical     13) To participate in mechanisms for
              waste.                                           coordinated emergency planning and
                                                               response among the utility and other
         7)   To create and/or support legislation that        governmental jurisdictions.
              reduces the various levels of risk posed
              by hazardous materials, hazardous           14) To participate in and provide training to
              waste, infectious waste, and radioactive         Orange County emergency responders
              materials to the public and to industries        and decision-makers to ensure ongoing
              and businesses.                                  proficiency in managing all aspects of a
                                                               nuclear power plant emergency.
         8)   To provide training to designated
              personnel to keep them up-to-date,          15) To encourage and participate in public
              regarding new equipment and                      education in advance of need with
              technology, on the reduction of risks of         respect to notification of a nuclear
              hazardous materials (including those             power plant emergency and proper


IX-42
                                                                  CHAPTER IX. SAFETY ELEMENT


     public protective actions.                       community's awareness of the need for
                                                      proper disposal of hazardous waste and
16) Conduct plan checks of all new and                provide educational assistance to
     existing underground storage tank                residences and businesses.
     installations to assure compliance with
     construction and monitoring standards.           New or Existing Program: Existing

                                                      Implementation Schedule: Ongoing
17) To support regional efforts as needed to
     plan for and facilitate the establishment        Responsible Agency: Health Care
     of regional treatment facilities to              Agency’s Hazardous Material Program
     manage the hazardous, and medical
     waste which are generated within this            Source of Funds:
     County.
                                                      •   Hazardous Waste Generator Fees
18) To make available to the public and
     news media information on nuclear           2.   HOUSEHOLD HAZARDOUS
     waste discharges likely to cause                 WASTE COLLECTION PROGRAM
     substantial injury to public health or
     safety.                                          Action:
                                                      Continue to promote the efforts of the
                                                      Integrated Waste Management

     To implement the Tanner Process for              Department (IWMD) in organizing

Hazardous Waste Management planning.                  collection of household toxic wastes on
                                                      a regular basis.

IMPLEMENTATION
                                                      Discussion:
PROGRAMS: Hazardous
                                                      This effort is aimed at securing the
Materials
                                                      proper disposal of household chemicals
                                                      considered dangerous to the
1.   PUBLIC EDUCATION/
                                                      environment, particularly ground water
     INFORMATION
                                                      supplies.

     Action:
     Support the efforts of the Health Care           New or Existing Program: New

     Agency’s Hazardous Materials Program
                                                      Implementation Schedule: Ongoing;
     and other agencies through public
     information and educational activities.          Responsible Agency: Integrated Waste
                                                      Management Department
     Discussion:
     This program is intended to increase the         Source of Funds:


                                                                                                IX-43
           CHAPTER IX. SAFETY ELEMENT


                             •   Fees from the Waste Management             •   Facilitating the exchange or sharing
                                 Enterprise Fund                                of information, concerns and
                             •   Orange County Sanitation District              priorities between staff of different
                             •   User Fees                                      agencies;

                                                                            •   Establishing and maintaining
                        3.   HAZARDOUS MATERIALS
                                                                                regular contact and involvement
                             MANAGEMENT COORDINATION
                                                                                with regional, State and Federal
                             Action:                                            agencies and officials involved in
                             Continue to promote the efforts of the             hazardous materials issues.
 Follow these
        tips for             Hazardous Materials Program Office
                                                                            New or Existing Program: Existing
        storing              (HMPO) in reviewing the County's
      paint and              hazardous materials activities and in
          other                                                             Implementation Schedule: Ongoing
      chemicals              making recommendations to ensure
         safely:             effective coordination and control of          Responsible Agency: Health Care
---------------------
                             countywide resources.                          Agency
                                                                            Source of Funds:
1.   Don’t let
     leftovers                                                              •   County General Fund
                             Discussion:
     happen.                                                                •   Hazardous Waste Generator Fees
                             In furthering the efforts to adequately
2.   Not down
                             and effectively manage the hazardous
     the drain!                                                        4.   BUYER NOTIFICATION
                             materials/waste stream in Orange
                                                                            PROGRAM
3.   Store it                County, the Hazardous Materials
     upside
     down.                   Program Office (HMPO) of Health Care           Action:
                             Agency facilitates the coordination of         Continue the administration of the
4.   Reuse
                             various parts of the County's hazardous        Buyer Notification Program as
     thinners.
                             materials program both within the              designated by Board of Supervisors
5.   Keep it in              County and with outside organizations.         Resolution 82-1368. Land use maps
     its original
     container.              This organization is accomplished              and planning information required by
                             through the following:                         the guidelines shall be updated yearly
                                                                            by the sub-divider/developer, or more
                             •   Explanation and interpretation of
                                                                            often, if the Director of Planning and
                                 policies and priorities established
                                                                            Development Services is aware of
                                 by the State and the County;
                                                                            planning changes which affect the
                             •   Establishment and direction of both        subdivision and makes the update a
                                 ongoing and ad hoc committees of           condition of approval of the map.
                                 working level staff from many
                                                                            Discussion: The Buyer Notification
                                 agencies to address specific issues
                                                                            Program is intended to provide
                                 or procedures;
                                                                            prospective homebuyers with an


           IX-44
                                                                  CHAPTER IX. SAFETY ELEMENT


     appropriate overview of nearby                  Responsible Agency: Orange County
     planning and development. Information           Health Care Agency
     provided in the distributed packets
     includes the location of such facilities        Source of Funds: Completely funded

     as fire stations and critical utility           by fees collected from the generators of

     facilities.                                     hazardous waste.


     New or Existing Program: Existing          6.   PROPOSITION 65 COMPLIANCE
                                                     PROGRAM
     Implementation Schedule: Ongoing
                                                     Action:
     Responsible Agency: RDMD                        Continue to implement the Proposition
                                                     65 Compliance Program.
     Source of Funds: County Genera l
     Fund

                                                     Discussion:
5.   HAZARDOUS WASTE PROGRAM
                                                     This program is to inform the public of

     Action:                                         illegal or threatened illegal discharges

     Continue to implement the Waste                 of hazardous waste that are likely to

     Management Program. The program                 cause substantial injury to public health

     includes the Hazardous Waste                    or safety.

     Generator Program, the Emergency
                                                     New or Existing: Existing
     Response Program, and the
     Underground Storage Tank Program.               Implementation Schedule: Ongoing

     Discussion:                                     Responsible Agency: Orange County
     The purpose of the Hazardous Waste              Health Care Agency
     Program is to protect the public and the
     environment from exposure to                    Source of Funds: Completely funded
     hazardous waste and hazardous                   by fees collected from the generators of
     materials stored in underground storage         hazardous waste and by fees collected
     tanks. Maximization of protection is            from the underground storage tank
     accomplished through surveillance and           owners.
     enforcement of hazardous waste
     generators.                                7.   MEDICAL WASTE PROGRAM

     New or Existing: Existing                       Action:
                                                     Continue to implement the Medical
     Implementation Schedule: Ongoing                Waste Program.



                                                                                                 IX-45
      CHAPTER IX. SAFETY ELEMENT


                        Discussion:                                     the plans of other jurisdictions with
                        The purpose of the Medical Waste                which there are common
                        Program is to protect the public health         responsibilities. Inter-jurisdictional
                        by detecting and reducing the incidents         procedures have evolved to cover these
                        of illegal storage and disposal of              responsibilities.
                        medical waste.
                                                                        New or Existing: Existing
                        New or Existing: Existing
                                                                        Implementation Schedule: Ongoing
                        Implementation Schedule: Ongoing
                                                                        Responsible Agency:
                                                                        OCFA/Emergency Management
                        Responsible Agency: Orange County
                                                                        Division
                        Health Care Agency


                        Source of Funds: Completely funded
                        by fees collected from the generators of        Source of Funds: Reimbursable from
                        medical wastes.                                 utility-funded account administered by
                                                                        State Office of Emergency Services.


                   IMPLEMENTATION                                  9.   INTERJURISDICTIONAL
                   PROGRAMS: Nuclear Materials                          PLANNING COMMITTEE (IPC)

                                                                        Action:
                   8.   EMERGENCY PLANS
                                                                        Participate in the deliberations of the
                        Action:                                         Inter-jurisdictional Planning Committee
                        Continue to evaluate Orange County's            and encourage cooperative planning,
    “Your own                                                           decision-making, and response actions
                        Incident Response Plan for the San
    safety is at                                                        among all participating agencies.
                        Onofre Nuclear Generating Station
   stake when
                        (SONGS) and update annually, as
           your                                                         Discussion:
                        appropriate.
    neighbor’s                                                          The primary response agencies and
wall is ablaze.”        Discussion:                                     jurisdictions include Southern

         Horace         Southern California Edison and each             California Edison Company, Orange
                        primary response agency, including the          and San Diego counties, San Clemente,
                        County of Orange, is responsible for the        San Juan Capistrano, Camp Pendleton
                        preparation of its own emergency plans          Marine Corps Base, and the local office
                        concerning a nuclear power plant                of the State Parks and Recreation
                        accident. Orange County's Incident              Department. Other participating
                        Response Plan for SONGS is updated              agencies are the American Red Cross
                        regularly and must be coordinated with          and the California Highway Patrol.


      IX-46
                                                           CHAPTER IX. SAFETY ELEMENT


                                               Facility, the Emergency News Center,
   While local governments and agencies        and a dedicated decision-making
   surrounding SONGS do not have               communications network. These
   authority to regulate plant operations,     facilities are exercised regularly by the
   they do have responsibilities for           local jurisdictions and agencies who are
   protecting the public health and safety     evaluated periodically by the Federal
   of their constituents should there be an    Emergency Management Agency.
   extraordinary release of radioactivity.

                                               Significant local training activities
   Accordingly, the IPC meets regularly to
                                               include:
   coordinate their emergency plans, train,
   exercise, and resolve matters of mutual     1)   Periodic Drills : Simulated drills to
   concern.                                         test specific components of the
                                                    emergency plans;
   New or Existing: Existing
                                               2)   Regular Exercises: Full-scale
   Implementation Schedule: Ongoing
                                                    exercises of both on-site and off-
                                                    site emergency plans at least every
   Responsible Agency: OC Sheriff
                                                    two years, and more frequently if
                                                    required. On-site performance is
   Source of Funds: Reimbursable from
                                                    evaluated by the Nuclear
   utility-funded account administered by
                                                    Regulatory Commission and off-
   State Office of Emergency Services.
                                                    site response is monitored and
                                                    evaluated by the Federal
11. TRAINING
                                                    Emergency Management Agency;
   Action:                                          and,
   Provide training to emergency
                                               3)   Community Alert Siren/Emergency
   responders and others responsible for
                                                    Broadcast Systems Test: Annual
   making decisions that affect appropriate
                                                    full-scale activation of the
   public protective actions and participate
                                                    Community Alert Siren System
   in joint exercises of nuclear power plant
                                                    together with activation of the
   emergency plans.
                                                    Emergency Broadcast System.

   Discussion:
                                               New or Existing: Existing
   In any emergency situation, the utility
   only has the authority to advise local      Implementation Schedule: Ongoing
   governments of plant status and to make
   recommendations. Overall coordination       Responsible Agency: OC Sheriff
   is facilitated by agency representatives
                                               Source of Funds: Reimbursable from
   at the joint Emergency Operations

                                                                                            IX-47
       CHAPTER IX. SAFETY ELEMENT


                    utility-funded account administered by
                    State Office of Emergency Services.            Within the Public Education Zone
                                                                   (PEZ), every residential and business
                 12. PUBLIC EDUCATION                              address in the Public Education Zone is
                                                                   periodically mailed an Emergency
                    Action:                                        Information Handbook. The handbook
                    Provide information materials upon             provides information about the
                    request and participate in nuclear power       emergency plans, agencies involved, the
                    plant emergency education forums with          nature of radiation, and the
                    Southern California Edison and other           effectiveness of sheltering should public
                    primary response jurisdictions as              protective action ever be required. The
                    appropriate.                                   handbook is also mailed to new
                                                                   customers within the PEZ on a regular

                    Discussion:                                    basis.

                    Responding appropriately in an
“In flying, I                                                      New or Existing: Existing
                    emergency depends not only on
have learned
                    cooperation of the primary responders,         Implementation Schedule: Ongoing
that
                    but on an informed public.
carelessness
                    Accordingly, public education is               Responsible Agency: Southern
and over
                    required by federal regulators for the         California Edison Co mpany and, where
confidence are
                    10-mile Emergency Planning Zone                appropriate, OC Sheriff.
usually far
                    (EPZ) surrounding SONGS, and by
more                                                               Source of Funds: Reimbursable from
                    State regulators for the Public
dangerous                                                          utility-funded account administered by
                    Education Zone (PEZ) surrounding the
than                                                               State Office of Emergency Services.
                    EPZ.
deliberately
accepted            Education Resources: Within the
risks.”             Emergency Planning Zone, an                AIRCRAFT ENVIRONMENT
Wilbur Wright       Emergency Information Booklet is
                    mailed by Southern California Edison to    [Note: A comprehensive update to the
                    every residential and business address     Aircraft Environment section will be
                    within the EPZ containing information      completed as part of a future General Plan
                    on radiological emergencies. The same      Amendment.]
                    information is sent to every new utility
                    customer in the EPZ. Other resources       Introduction
                    include a Speakers' Bureau, school
                    programs, tours, telephone directory       Aircraft provide a valuable and necessary
                    instructions, beach posters, and hotel     service to Orange County residents and
                    and motel placards.                        businesses. Orange County is unique among


       IX-48
                                                                  CHAPTER IX. SAFETY ELEMENT


most counties in California because                   John Wayne obtain air service from
commercial, general, and military aviation            airports outside the County, 10.3
facilities are located within its borders.            million annual passengers.
These facilities generate a high level of air
traffic which is further influenced by aircraft   •   Los Angeles International Airport
transiting through the County en route to             (LAX) is a regional air transportation
destinations elsewhere. The sheer number              facility covering over 1,500 acres of
of aircraft operating within the County and           west Los Angeles. There are currently
the air routes covering the County heightens          over 550,000 flight operations a year at
the chances of aircraft accidents, yet aircraft       the airport; total average daily
accidents occur infrequently when compared            passenger traffic is over 81,000 people.
to the number of air operations.                      The cities and communities surrounding
                                                      LAX are largely built -out and consist
This section of the Safety Element explores           primarily of residential land uses. The
the aircraft environment of Orange County.            land uses immediately surrounding the
To do so, it focuses on commercial, general,          airport consist primarily of commercial
and military aviation operations either by            and industrial uses.
fixed-wing aircraft or helicopters. The
section does not discuss aircraft noise.          •   Ontario International Airport is a
Information pertaining to aircraft noise may          regional air transportation facility
be found in the Noise Element of the                  covering over 1,100 acres of the City of
General Plan.                                         Ontario. There are currently over
                                                      145,000 flight operations per year at the
Current Conditions                                    airport; total average daily passenger
                                                      traffic is over 17,000 people. At
COMMERCIAL AVIATION
                                                      present, the areas to the west and north

•   John Wayne Airport (JWA) is owned                 of the airport are largely built-out or

    by the County and the only commercial             approved for development, where the

    service airport in Orange County. It is           areas to the east and south are largely

    served by nine commercial air carriers            undeveloped.

    and five commuter airlines. In 2002,
    7.9 million passengers used the airport.      •   Long Beach Airport is a sub-regional

    It is estimated that the current level of         air transportation facility operated by

    demand for service exceeds 12 million             the City of Long Beach. The airport

    persons; however, the Airline Access              covers approximately 1,100 acres north

    Plan limits the maximum number of                 of the San Diego Freeway. In 2003,

    passengers through John Wayne                     there were approximately 4,000

    Airport. Those passengers not served at           passengers daily with an average of 18
                                                      daily commercial aircraft departures.

                                                                                                  IX-49
         CHAPTER IX. SAFETY ELEMENT


                                                                   runways, taxiways and fueling ramps.
                   •   Burbank-Glendale-Pasadena Airport is        Though helicopter pilots and airline pilots
                       a regional airport located south of the     are under the guidance of air traffic
                       Verdugo Mountain range. There are           controllers, they are, depending on the
                       currently over 37,000 annual flight         airport, generally communicating on
                       operations with an estimated projection     separate radio frequencies.
                       of over 50,000 by the year 2000. Total
                       average daily passenger traffic is          In Southern California, where an estimated
                       currently over 8,000 people. The fleet      167,000 helicopter flights occur each year,
                       mix at Burbank Airport includes the         finding locations for new heliports is a
                       following: B-737s; DC-9s; MD-80s;           growing concern. There are already 203
                       and B-727s. Anticipated is the              heliports within the region, including a
                       conversion of the noisier B-727, B-737,     growing number in Orange County, most of
                       and DC-9 to the quieter departing B-        which are privately owned and operated.
                       737-300, B-757, and BAe-146.                About 30 helicopters are based at JWA.


                   GENERAL AVIATION                                MILITARY AVIATION

                   John Wayne Airport serves as the home base
                                                                   •   Los Alamitos Armed Forces Reserve
“Mix               for approximately 1,000 personal and
                                                                       Center
ignorance with     business ("general aviation") aircraft.
arrogance at       During calendar year 1986 there were                Los Alamitos Armed Forces Reserve
low altitude       approximately 5,000 business jet departures.        Center (AFRC), twelve miles from
and the results                                                        JWA, is located in northwestern Orange
are almost         Within Orange County there are more than            County within the City of Los Alamitos.
guaranteed to      2,600 aircraft registered to personal and           On-site facilities presently include two
be                 corporate owners; yet, there is only one            runways and associated taxiways, ramp
spectacular."      other airport for these types of aircraft           space, and hangars. The AFRC is
Bruce Landsberg,   within the County besides JWA--Fullerton            primarily used for helicopter training
Aircraft Owners    Municipal, with 590 based aircraft. All other
and Pilots                                                             missions. There are approximately
Association        private aircraft flying to or through Orange        80,000 yearly flight operations at the
                   County are home based at airports outside           facility (SCAG, 1980).
                   Orange County.

                                                                       In the event of an extraordinary
                   The use of helicopters in business and              emergency situation requiring an
                   pleasure has grown enormously in the last           unusual emergency response, Los
                   decade. With no room to expand, urban               Alamitos Armed Forces Reserve Center
                   airports have had to fit helicopter takeoff         may be available to provide significant
                   and landing areas next to busy airliner             assistance. Los Alamitos AFRC may


         IX-50
                                                                   CHAPTER IX. SAFETY ELEMENT


    provide additional communication              Beach that is also used by planes preparing
    centers, medical facilities (Los Alamitos     to land at Long Beach Municipal Airport.
    houses an emergency field hospital),
    and evacuation equipment in the forms         In addition to Long Beach and John Wayne
    of helicopters, aircraft, and vehicles.       Airports commercial traffic coming and
    Military personnel can also be                going from Los Angeles International
    mobilized to augment the ranks of             Airport (LAX) adds to the aerial congestion
    emergency personnel. Also, this               above Orange County (40 percent of
    military installation maintains its own       departing LAX passenger jets are routed
    emergency response plan that addresses        south over Seal Beach and then east over
    on and off post emergency incidences          Lake Forest or further south to San Diego).
    which could be drawn upon in a County         However, many of the flights are flying at
    disaster situation.                           altitudes in excess of 10,000 feet.


•   MCAS Camp Pendleton                           AIR INSTALLATIONS ACCIDENT
                                                  POTENTIAL DESCRIPTIONS
    The air station within Marine Corp Base
    (MCB) Camp Pendleton is located 50            A concern of the general public living in the
    miles southeast of JWA. MCB Camp              proximity of an airport or under the aircraft
    Pendleton serves as the primary west          flight paths is the incident of an aircraft
    coast training facility for all elements of   accident resulting in ground damage.
    Marine Corps and Navy amphibious              Airports and air carriers share much this
    assault training and support missions.        same concern although their motivation is
    Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton              generally to promote positive public
    operates light assault aircraft, including    sentiment.
    the OV-10 Bronco, the AH-1J Cobra
    and the UH-lN Huey helicopters. Over          The air installations within Orange County
    120,000 operations were generated by          maintain records which detail the aviation
    this airfield in 1986.                        accidents that have occurred within the air
                                                  space surrounding the facility. They provide
Aircraft Accident Potential                       important information to evaluate the
                                                  relative air safety within Orange County.
Orange County is located in one of the            Below is information describing the accident
busiest aviation areas in the world (two of       potentials for the three primary air
the busiest 10 airports in the United States      installations within the County.
are within a 50-mile radius) along with a
multitude of transient traffic. Currently         1) John Wayne Airport (JWA): In early
incoming traffic to JWA crosses airspace              1985 the Board of Supervisors adopted
above Huntington Beach and Newport                    an Airport Master Plan for John Wayne


                                                                                                  IX-51
CHAPTER IX. SAFETY ELEMENT


              Airport. The plan was the subject of       Aircraft Safety Management
              extensive environmental
                                                         REGULATIONS
              documentation, including an evaluation
              of aircraft accidents. The                 Through the Federal Aviation Act of 1958,
              environmental document (EIR 508)           as amended, and numerous Grant-in-aid
              based on the only accident statistics      programs for airport development, the
              obtainable from the National               federal government has exercised a strong
              Transportation Safety Board for the        legal and practical preemption over state and
              period of 1972 to 1981 revealed that 54    local authority in the areas of airspace use
              accidents have occurred during 5.9         and management, air traffic control, aviation
              million operations (arrivals and           safety, and the regulation of aircraft noise at
              departures) or .9 accidents per 100,000    its source. The federal government als o
              operations.                                controls interstate and foreign air commerce.

         2) Fullerton Airport: The Airport's Noise       State and local governments that are not
              and Safety Committee has compiled          airport proprietors are largely limited to
              accident records for the period of 1960    protecting their citizens through land use
              through 1987. The records for this 26      controls or other police powers which do not
              year period reveals 28 accidents. The      affect aircraft operations directly or
              airport averages approximately 212,000     indirectly.
              operations a year with an accident rate
              of approximately .5 accident per           The airport proprietor has with certain
              100,000 operations. In no instance has     limitations, the right to determine the type of
              an accident resulted in the death of       service his airport will provide as well as the
              anyone on the ground.                      type of aircraft to utilize his airport facilities.
                                                         The actual scope of proprietor authority over
         3)   Los Alamitos Armed Forces Joint            airport and aircraft operations has been the
              Forces Training Center: Accident           subject of substantial litigation in recent
              records maintained by this facility are    years, yet, the scope of the proprietor's
              subject to Depart ment of Defense          authority remains imprecisely defined. The
              criteria in the same manner as the         dividing lines between federal, state, and
              records maintained by the two former       local government, and airport proprietor
              Marine Corps Air Stations. Though          responsibilities and authority, are not clear
              minor mishaps causing less than 10,000     and are subject to different interpretations.
              dollars in damage to aircraft have
              occurred on the air field premises, no     Certain standards are specified in Part 77 of
              accidents have occurred which have         the Federal Aviation Regulations to define
              resulted in loss of life or major ground   airspace around an airport that should be
              damage in the last ten years.


IX-52
                                                                                                  CHAPTER IX. SAFETY ELEMENT


                                                                                                                                                                        Figure IX-5




                                                                 FULLERTON



                                                                                                                                                           W   Y.
                                                                                                                                                      E FR
                                                                                                                                               RSID
LONG BEACH                                                                                                                              RIVE




                                                                                                      ORANGE FRWY.
                                                                                      SA
                                                                                        NT
                                                                                          A
                                                                                            AN




                                                                                                                     COSTA MESA FRWY.
                                                                                              A
                                                                                              FR
                                       LOS ALAMITOS




                                                                                                W
                                                                                                 Y.
                                                                       GARDEN GROVE FRWY.
                                                         BEACH BLVD.




                                                                                              JOHN WAYNE


                             Pa
                               cif                                                                                                              SA
                                  ic                                                                                                              ND
                                     Oc                                                                                                             IEG
                                                                                                                                                       OF
                                       ea                                                                                                                RW
                                                                                                                                                           Y.
                                         n




                 Los Angeles TCA
                 Orange County Area ATA
    Note: This map is for informational purposes only.

    Source: NOAA VFR Aeronautical Chart (US Dept.
    of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric
    Administration, National Ocean Service, 2002)
                                                                                                                                                                    0
                                                                                                                                                                        I
                                                                                                                                                                        1

                                                                                                                                                                            Miles
                                                                                                                                                                                    2    3




         ORANGE COUNTY TRAFFIC CONTROL AREAS




                                                                                                                                                                                        IX-53
       CHAPTER IX. SAFETY ELEMENT


                                                                    square-mile area including most of
                    free of obstructions to air navigation.         Orange County. TRACONS utilize
                    Ideally no obstructions should penetrate        computer-enhanced radar images to
                    these "imaginary surfaces" surrounding the      guide pilots through the Los Angeles -
                    airport as defined in Part 77.                  Orange County basin until airport tower
                                                                    controllers take over during final

                    PROGRAMS                                        approach.


                        Air Traffic Control Areas and               These facilities guide thousands of
                        Designated Authorities                      planes through various types of airspace
                        Orange County is crisscrossed by a          above Orange County. Among these
“When once
you have                complex system of air traffic corridors     types of airspace are the following:
                        and landing and take-off patterns.          Terminal Control Areas (TCAs),
tasted flight,
                        Much of Orange County commercial air        Airport Radar Service Areas (ARSAs),
you will
forever walk            traffic flies across complex air spaces     and Airport Traffic Areas (ATAs) (See
                        controlled by various Federal Aviation      Figure IX-5).
the earth with
                        Administration facilities. These
your eyes
turned                  facilities include the following: Los       The Los Angeles TCA is 52 miles long,
                        Angeles Terminal Radar Approach             24 miles wide and is separated into 12
skyward, for
                        Control (LA TRACON) Center; Los             zones. A pilot may not enter any part of
there you have
been, and               Angeles Air Route Traffic Control           the TCA unless he first receives a
                        Center (LA Center) at Palmdale; and         clearance from air traffic controllers. A
there you will
                        the Coast Terminal Radar Approach           pilot must also possess a two-way radio,
always long to
return.”                Control (Coast TRACON) located at           VOR (very high frequency
                        MCAS Miramar.                               omnidirectional radio) receiver, a
Leonardo da Vinci
                                                                    transponder and an encoding altimeter.
                        LA TRACON daily handles the
                        approach and departure routes for more      An Airport Radar Service Area (ARSA)
                        than 1,700 flights arriving and departing   consists of controlled airspace extending
                        from Los Angeles International (LAX).       upward from the surface or higher
                        The Los Angeles Air Route Traffic           elevation to specified altitudes, within
                        Control Center at Palmdale controls as      which all aircraft are subject to the
                        many as 300 aircraft at a time in an        operating rules and pilot and equipment
                        oblong 180,000-square-mile rectangle        requirement specified by Federal
                        of airspace covering southwest Utah,        Aviation Regulations (FAR Part 91).
                        southern Nevada, western Arizona,
                        Southern California and a stretch of the
                        Pacific Ocean reaching 200 miles out to
                        sea. Coast TRACON covers a 3,000-


       IX-54
                                                                     CHAPTER IX. SAFETY ELEMENT


GOALS, OBJECTIVES AND                                Airfield) as the basis for safety
POLICIES: AIRCRAFT                                   compatibility planning in the vicinity of
ENVIRONMENT                                          the facility.


Orange County is unique among California        2.   To refer projects, as required by Section
counties because commercial, general, and            21676 of the Public Utilities Code, to
military aviation installations are located          the Airport Land Use Commission for
within its boundaries. Air traffic generated         Orange County prior to their adoption
by these facilities, coupled with air traffic        or approval to determine consistency of
transiting through the County, presents an           the projects with the Airport Environs
image of crowded skies heightening the               Land Use Plan (AELUP). Said projects
chances of aircraft accidents. However,              include, but are not limited to, General
accidents occur infrequently compared to             Plan amendments, Zone Changes, or
the number of operations.                            other discretionary action for the
                                                     purpose of construction or alteration of
This section of the Safety Element presents          a structure more than 200’ AGL (Above
a specific aircraft safety goal and policies         Ground Level) and applicants seeking
intended to minimize existing aircraft               approval for the construction or
hazards and promote aviation safety.                 operation of a heliport or helistop.


Goals and Objectives                            3.   To support the creation of regulations
                                                     requiring aircraft detection equipment.
The following specific goal is in addition to
the General Public Safety Component Goals
                                                4.   To encourage the creation and updating
and Objectives found earlier in this chapter.
                                                     of detailed flight charts and publications
                                                     for the airspace in Orange County.
Goal 1

To protect the health, safety, and general      5.   To encourage cooperative agreements

welfare by ensuring the orderly expansion of         between the County and the air

airports and the adoption of measures that           installations to provide relief services in

minimize the public's exposure to safety             times of natural disaster.

hazards within areas around airports.


Policies

1.   To utilize the most recent adopted Air
     Installations Compatible Use Zone
     (AICUZ) studies for military air
     installations (i.e., Los Alamitos Army

                                                                                                   IX-55
CHAPTER IX. SAFETY ELEMENT


         IMPLEMENTATION
         PROGRAMS: Aircraft                                     Source of Funds:

         Environment                                            •   Federal Government
                                                                •   County General Fund

         The following section identifies existing              •   Airport Funds

         programs that promote aviation safety and
         enhance public awareness.
                                                           2.   AIR INSTALLATIONS

         1.   PUBLIC INFORMATION AND                            COMPATIBLE USE ZONES

              COMMUNITY LIAISON                                 (AICUZ) PROGRAM


              Action:                                           Action:

              Support expanded public information               Continue to utilize and maintain the

              and community liaison services as a               AICUZ to ensure compatible

              means to public awareness.                        development in airport areas and to
                                                                minimize public exposure to potential
              Discussion:                                       safety hazards associated with aircraft
              This program promotes community                   operations.
              awareness of aviation operations and              Discussion:
              safety. As an example, open houses                This program addresses compatibility
              held annually by Los Alamitos AFRC                problems arising between military air
              enhance community liaison. Public                 installation flight operations and urban
              information and public involvement in             development. The program strives to
              the planning and operation of air                 maintain the mission of an air
              installations are also promoted through           installation and to protect surrounding
              the Airport Land Use Commission,                  communities from potential aircraft
              Airport Commission, and liaison                   hazards.
              services to local jurisdictions' councils.
                                                                New or Existing Programs: Existing
              New or Existing Program: Existing
                                                                Implementation Schedule: Ongoing
              Implementation Schedule: Ongoing,
                                                                Responsible Agency: Department of
              expand as necessary
                                                                Defense

              Responsible Agencies:
                                                                Sources of Funds:
              •   John Wayne Airport/Airport
                                                                •   Department of Defense
                  Commission
                                                                •   County General Fund
              •   Department of Defense
              •   Airport Land Use Commission
              •   Federal Aviation Administration


IX-56
                                                          CHAPTER IX. SAFETY ELEMENT


3.   BUYER NOTIFICATION                       Action:
     PROGRAM                                  To continue to refer projects as defined
                                              by Section 21676 of the Public Utilities
     Action:                                  Code and within the planning areas of
     Continue the administration of the       the Airport Land Use Commission to
     Buyer Notification Program as            the commission to determine
     designated by the Board of Supervisors   consistency with the Airport Environs
     Resolution 82-1368. Land use maps        Land Use Plan.
     and planning information required by
     the guidelines shall be updated yearly   Discussion:
     by the sub-divider/developer or, more    This program aims to safeguard the
     often, if the Director of Planning,      general welfare of inhabitants within the
     Resources and Development                vicinities of airports and to ensure the
     Management Department is aware of        continued compatible operation of
     planning changes which affect the        existing and future airports including
     subdivision and make the update a        heliports and helipads and for proposed
     condition of approval of the map.        construction or alteration of a structure
                                              more than 200’ Above Ground Level
     Discussion:                              within Orange County. The plan seeks
     The Buyer Notification Program           to ensure that urban development and
     provides prospective home buyers and     air installation facilities are not
     businesses with an overview of nearby    concentrated in areas susceptible to
     planning and development. Information    potential aircraft hazards and to guard
     provided includes public facilities,     against structures or activities that
     demographics, and land use data          adversely affect navigable airspace.
     including the location of air
     installations.                           New or Existing Program: Existing

     New or Existing Program: Existing        Implementation Schedule: Ongoing

     Implementation Schedule: Ongoing         Responsible Agency: Airport Land Use
                                              Commission
     Responsible Agency: RDMD

     Source of Funds: County General          Source of Funds:
     Fund                                     •    John Wayne Airport
                                              •    County General Fund
4.   AIRPORT ENVIRONS LAND USE
     PLAN (AELUP)




                                                                                          IX-57
CHAPTER IX. SAFETY ELEMENT



         NATURAL HAZARDS
         COMPONENT                                        •   Objectives

                                                              2.1 To create and maintain plans and
                                                                   programs which mitigate the effects
         The Natural Hazards Component focuses on
                                                                   of natural hazards.
         two types of naturally occurring hazards that
         have the potential to significantly affect the
                                                              2.2 To support the development and
         County. Those hazards are flood and
                                                                   utilization of technologies which
         seismic/geologic hazards. Below are the
                                                                   minimize the effects of natural
         general goals and objectives for the Natural
                                                                   hazards.
         Hazards Component. Specific goals,
         objectives and policies for the natural hazard
                                                          Goal 3
         topics are provided later in this section.

                                                          Raise the awareness of Orange County
                                                          residents, workers, and visitors to the
         GENERAL GOALS AND                                potential threat of natural hazards.
         OBJECTIVES: Natural Hazards
         Component                                        •   Objective

         Goal 1                                               3.1 To provide information, training,
                                                                   and assistance to reduce loss of life
         Provide for a safe living and working                     and to protect private and public
         environment consistent with available
                                                                   property from environmental
         resources.
                                                                   hazards.

         •   Objective                                    FLOOD HAZARDS
             1.1 To identify natural hazards and
                                                          Introduction
                  determine the relative threat to
                  people and property in Orange
                                                          Orange County’s geography and climate
                  County.
                                                          increase its susceptibility to flooding.
                                                          Commonly, where a broad alluvial plain
         Goal 2
                                                          exists, such as the one created by the Santa
         Minimize the effects of natural safety           Ana River, there has been and is a continual

         hazards through implementation of                expansion of urban development.
         appropriate regulations and standards which
         maximize protection of life and property.




IX-58
                                                                CHAPTER IX. SAFETY ELEMENT




The change from agriculture to urban            impoundment volume is near capacity.
development increases the amount of             Disaster potential is high since flood
impermeable surfaces and raises flood           inundation could occur with minimal
potential. Whenever ground surfaces are         warning.
covered by pavement or other impermeable
surfaces, direct absorption of precipitation    Another type of flooding occurs from the
by the underlying soil is precluded and         blockage of a flowing stream by a landslide.
runoff increases and creates a potential        A natural dam may be created by the
threat of flooding. This condition is further   landslide temporarily impounding
aggravated during peak rain periods when
absorptive ground becomes saturated,            water. As a result of erosion, these flood
increasing the rate of storm runoff.            flows are released downstream. Seiching,
                                                an earthquake-induced wave within a lake,
The hazard of dam failure is another major      reservoir or harbor, may cause flooding,
flood threat. The threat is primarily one of    though its occurrence in Orange County
sudden downstream flooding, which could         would be considered rare.
be disastrous if it occurs when a dam's         Coastal flood inundation is another hazard.


                                                                                               IX-59
       CHAPTER IX. SAFETY ELEMENT


                  In response to the problems of planning,        in Southern Alaska. On occasion, they
                  designing, and construction of structures and   move far enough south to carry widespread
                  coastal flood control devices, Orange           precipitation across southern California.
                  County undertook a study of Coastal Flood
                  Plain Development.                              The second mechanism, also associated with
                                                                  general winter storms, is caused by
                  The study, completed in 1985, provides          orographic uplift. Mountain masses (i.e.,
   Between        technical criteria and guidelines for the       Santa Ana Mountains) present a natural
December 1,       review of structures and coastal protective     barrier to moisture laden air masses and
   1997 and       devices in Orange County. The                   deflect them upward increasing
May 1, 1998,      comprehensive study is intended to              condensation and precipitation.
     El Nino      supplement zoning, land use, specific plans,
storms cost       and Local Coastal Programs, and should be       The third mechanism causing intense
 the County       updated at appropriate intervals to remain      precipitation is convection. Thunderstorms,
$54,676,650       current in the face of shoreline position       which may produce intense rainfall for
in damages;       changes and sea level fluctuations.             relatively short duration are caused by the
$18,157,800                                                       rapid heating and cooling of moisture laden
      of it to    The primary flood effects caused by             air (i.e., convection).
    County-       inundation, erosion, and sedimentation are
     owned        potential loss of life and property damage.     General winter storms, which cause most of
   facilities.    There are other, less well-known effects that   the major floods in the Santa Ana River
   Bill Reiter,   may be equally threatening and damaging.        basin, usually occur between the months of
        RDMD
                  Among these are disruptions of commerce;        November through April. Flooding within
                  disruptions to emergency transportation;        the basin may be the result of one or
                  pollution of drinking water caused by           successive storms of differing duration and
                  broken sewage lines; and strains placed         intensity which compounds their effects.
                  upon the emergency services needed to           The heavy rainfall of the second or third
                  respond to a flood emergency.                   storm may create a severe flood condition.
                                                                  In this century, storm-caused flooding has
                  Orange County Flood History                     been reported in Orange County for the
                                                                  years 1903, 1916, 1922, 1927, 1938, 1943,
                  Periods of sustained or intense precipitation   1965, 1966, 1969, 1974, 1978, 1979, 1980,
                  are commonly associated with generating         1982, 1983, 1985, 1986, 1992, 1993, 1995
                  flood conditions. Precipitation within          and 1998. Eight of these storms, 1916, 1938,
                  Orange County is generally the result of        1969, 1974, 1980 1983, 1995, and 1998,
                  three distinct storm mechanisms. The most       have produced widespread flooding in the
                  important mechanism is convergence              County.
                  associated with general winter storms.
                  These storms originate as low pressure cells    Two measurements commonly used to


       IX-60
                                                                CHAPTER IX. SAFETY ELEMENT




describe floods are flood frequency and         most severe combination of meteorological
flood size. Flood frequency refers to the       and hydrological conditions considered
chance in any given year that a flood of a      reasonably characteristic of the geographic
given size could occur in a given watershed.    area. A probable maximum flood is
A 100-year flood, then, is a flood that has a   estimated to be two to two-and-one-half
one in 100 (or 1%) chance of occurring in       times greater than a standard project flood,
any year in a specific watershed.
                                                and generally used in designing dam
There are three measurements for                spillways.
determining flood size: base flood, standard
project flood, and probable maximum flood.
A base flood usually refers to the 100-year     Description of Potential County
flood, one percent chance of being equaled      Flood Threats
or exceeded in any year. A standard project
flood is a flood that would result from the     FLOOD INUNDATION


                                                                                               IX-61
CHAPTER IX. SAFETY ELEMENT




           Santa Ana River:
           The Santa Ana River basin is the largest     overflow area for a standard project
           watershed area in Southern California        flood included the following cities:
           encompassing approximately 3,200             Costa Mesa; Newport Beach; Santa
           square miles. The river, until it is fully   Ana; Orange; Anaheim; Garden Grove;
           improved under the current Federal           Fullerton; Buena Park; Cypress; Los
           Project, represents the greatest flood       Alamitos; Huntington Beach; Seal
           hazard west of the Mississippi River         Beach; and adjacent unincorporated
           because of the urban development             areas (see Figure IX-6).
           present within its expansive watershed.
           The watershed area is separated into an      According to a 1975 U.S. Army Corps
           upper and lower basin roughly divided        of Engineers’ report on the Santa Ana
           by Prado Dam and Reservoir near the          River Mainstem and Santiago Creek,
           City of Corona.                              under the most severe conditions likely,
           The Santa Ana River flows through the        floodwaters would cover over 100,000
           principal urban centers of San               acres to an average depth of 3 feet.
           Bernardino and Riverside counties in         Floodwaters of about six to seven feet
           the upper basin and most of the major        deep, could occur on land areas near the
                                                        Pacific Coast Highway, and in low-
           cities of Orange County in the lower         lying areas of Huntington Beach.
           basin. Within Orange County, the             Without implementation of the Federal


IX-62
CHAPTER IX. SAFETY ELEMENT


                                                Figure IX-6




                                  er
                            Riv
                                        C
                                         re
                                           ek
                                   go
                               ti a
                             an
                            S
                        a
                      An
                 ta
             Sa n




   100 Year Flood
   Standard Project Flood
                                                     I

              SANTA ANA RIVER OVERFLOW AREA




                                                      IX-63
                              CHAPTER IX. SAFETY ELEMENT



Figure IX-7




              SANTIAGO CREEK OVERFLOW AREA




IX-64
                                                        CHAPTER IX. SAFETY ELEMENT




Project, such a flood could affect as       southwestward through the cities of
many as 500,000 homes and 2,000,000         Villa Park, Orange, and Santa Ana. The
people.                                     creek joins the Santa Ana River just
                                            below the Garden Grove Freeway near
Santiago Creek:                             the borders of the cities of Orange,
Santiago Creek (see Figure IX-7), a         Santa Ana, and Garden Grove. Below
principal tributary of the Santa Ana        Villa Park, the creek flood plain is
River, rises on the western slopes of the   heavily urbanized; above this point, it
Santa Ana Mountains and receives            remains largely in its natural state.
intermittent flows from several smaller
canyons, including Black Star, Baker,       Other Orange County Creeks:
Silverado, Modjeska, and Harding.           In addition to the major water courses
                                            of the Santa Ana River and Santiago
The Creek cuts a course 28 miles long       Creek, other streams and creeks possess
from its headwaters near Santiago Peak      potential flood problems. These flood
to its confluence with the Santa Ana        potentials are of a more localized nature
River. It drains a total of 102 square      as opposed to the more extensive hazard
miles. Irvine Lake, also referred to as     presented by the Santa Ana River and
Santiago Reservoir, is formed behind        Santiago Creek.
Santiago Dam. From Santiago Dam,
Santiago Creek courses northwestward        In North County perhaps the greatest
through Irvine Regional Park to Villa       flood potential exists from the
Park Reservoir formed behind Villa          Huntington Beach/Fountain Valley
Park Dam. It then courses                   Channels; the East Garden Grove-


                                                                                        IX-65
       CHAPTER IX. SAFETY ELEMENT


                   Wintersburg Channel; Carbon Creek           future development of the watershed
                   Channel; Anaheim/Barber City                (typically a 200-year flood).
                   Channel; San Diego Creek; and Peter's
                   Canyon Wash (see Figure IX-8). Flood        Since Prado Dam was built, however,
                   control improvements for these              changes have occurred in the drainage
                   facilities were developed in accordance     area. Historical data on rainfall and
                   with earlier design criteria intended to    runoff, coupled with advances in
                   meet flood threats expected to occur        predicting future flood potential, have
                   within a predominately rural                shown Prado Dam to presently offer
                   agricultural county as it developed upon    only 70-year flood protection. In
                   the broad alluvial fan of the Santa Ana     addition, intensive urbanization within
                   River.                                      the drainage area has occurred, further
                                                               complicating this problem.
                   South Orange County is crisscrossed by
Across             creeks which are integrated with            Another serious concern is that the
California, El     existing and future development. The        existing Prado Dam and spillway could
Nino               most noteworthy creeks are: Aliso           not accommodate a probable maximum
damaged            Creek, Trabuco Creek, Oso Creek and         flood, resulting in overtopping of the
roads and          San Juan Creek (See Figure IX-8). The       dam. Figure IX-9 depicts the potential
freeways to        water courses are generally left in their   flood hazards that might occur from a
the tune of        natural condition because these creek       failure of Prado Dam.
$220 million.      channels and other lesser ones are
Gail Smith,        predominantly incised arroyos. As           Santiago Creek Dam:
Caltrans           necessary, various flood control            Santiago Creek Dam is an earthen dam
                   facilities to mitigate the flood threat     which impounds water forming Irvine
                   have been constructed in conjunction        Lake. The dam provides water
                   with urban development.                     conservation as a primary benefit, flood
                                                               control as a secondary function, and
                 DAM INUNDATION                                promotes recreational activities within
                                                               the lake. Flooding would be
                   Prado Dam:                                  exacerbated by the failure downstream
                   Prado Dam and Reservoir, completed          of Villa Park Dam. Figure IX-9 depicts
                   by the Corps of Engineers in 1941, are      the flood hazard potential that could
                   intended to provide flood protection to     happen should the dams fail.
                   the Lower Santa Ana River basin. The
                   earthen dam and its reservoir were          Villa Park Dam:
                   designed in the 1930s to control floods     Villa Park Dam is an earthen dam
                   of magnitudes that could be reasonably      located downstream from Santiago
                   expected to occur under anticipated         Creek Dam. This facility is the


       IX-66
CHAPTER IX. SAFETY ELEMENT


Figure IX-8




                    B01




                                                         er
                                                                                   ek


                                                     Ri v
                                                                                re




                                                                            C
                   C03                                                                                    Irvine
                                                                        o
                                                                  t iag                                   Lake
                                                              San




                                                                                            sh
                                                 a




                                                                                          Wa
                                              An




                                                                                                                                                             k
                                                                                                                                                   Cyn. Cre e
                                                                                                                                         Silverado




                                                                                          n.
                          C05


                                                                                        Cy
                                         ta
                                    Sa n




                              D05                                                  rs
                                                                              te
                        D02                                                 Pe


                                                          San                           F0
                                                                                          5
                  D01                                     Diego
                                                          Creek


                                                                                                                 k
                                                                                                            ee
                                                                                                           Cr



                                                                                                                          ek

                                                                                                                                    ek
                                                                                                                      C re

                                                                                                                                 Cre
                                                                                                                                                                  k
                                                                                                                     o




                                                                                                                                                               ee
                                                                                                                 Os


                                                                                                                             co


                                                                                                                                                          Cr
                                                                                                 Ali so




                                                                                                                           bu
                                                                                                                            a
                                                                                                                         Tr




                                                                                                                                        an
                                                                                                                                      Ju
                                                                                                                                  n
                                                                                                                                Sa




B01 - Carbon Creek Channel                                      D02 - Talbert Channel
C03 - Anaheim / Barber City Channel                             D05 - Fountain Valley Channel
C05 - East Garden Grove / Wintersburg Channel
D01 - Huntington Beach Channel
                                                                F05 - San Diego Creek

                                                                                                                                                                       I

                MAJOR ORANGE COUNTY WATERCOURSES




                                                                                                                                                                      IX-67
                                                                                                        CHAPTER IX. SAFETY ELEMENT



                                                                                                                                                         Figure IX-9




                                                     Ora nge Fre ewa y
                                                                                                                                PRADO
                                                                                                                                BASIN
                                                                                                                                                      RIVERSIDE
                                                                                                                                                       COUNTY



        Riverside Freeway
                                 Sa
                                   nta
                                       An
                                         aF
                                           ree
                                              wa
                                                y




           Garden Grov                                                                                         SANTIAGO
                       e Freeway                                                                              RESERVOIR
         Sa                                                                                                   (Irvine Lake)
           nD
             ieg
                o   Fre
                       ew
                         ay


                                                                                                          Fo
                                                         ay




                                                                                                            oth
                                                       ew




                                                                                                               ill T
                                                    Fre




                                                                                                                    ran
                                                                                                                       sp
                                                                                                                         ort
                                                                                                                            atio
                                                                                                    y



                                                                                                                                n
                                                                                                 ewa




                                                                                                                                    Co
                                                                                                                                      rrid
                                                                                                                                          or
                                                                                              Fre
                                         sa
                                       Me




                                                                                          una
                                   sta
                                 Co




                                                                                       Lag




                                                                              S
                                                                         Tra an Jo
                                                                            nsp       a
                                                                               orta quin
                                                                                   tion     Hil
                                                                                        Co ls
                                                                                          rrid
                                                                                              or




             Prado Dam Inundation Area                                                                                    Sa
                                                                                                                            nD
                                                                                                                              ieg
                                                                                                                                 oF
             Santiago Reservoir Inundation Area                                                                                    ree
                                                                                                                                      wa
                                                                                                                                        y

             waterbody polygon
                                                                                                                                                                 I
                                                                                                                                               Source: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 1985 &
                                                                                                                                               Orange County Flood Programs Division, 1973




                              PRADO DAM AND SANTIAGO RESERVOIR
                                      INUNDATION AREAS




IX-68
                                                               CHAPTER IX. SAFETY ELEMENT


    principal flood protection along           implementation of the Santa Ana River
    Santiago Creek. Failure of this dam        Mainstem Project (previously the All-River
    would pose a flood hazard impacting        Plan), over four other options, as the
    the downstream communities of Villa        preferred means of providing main-stream
    Park, Tustin, Orange, Santa Ana, and       physical control over potential Santa Ana
    Irvine.                                    River flood waters in the event of a Standard
                                               Project Flood (SPF). With the revisions to
    Other Dams :                               the plan as approved, the system will
    In addition to the flood control           provide flood protection to Orange County
    protection provided by Prado Dam on        from a 190-year event.
    the Santa Ana Rivers and Santiago
    Creek Dam and Villa Park Dam on            The plan calls for significant improvements
    Santiago Creek, there are additional       to the Santa Ana River system. The Santa
    dams within Orange County constructed      Ana River Mainstem Project (see Figure IX-
    for flood protection purposes. Fullerton   10), contained in the Water Resources
    Dam, Brea Dam and Carbon Canyon            Development Act of 1986 (PL 99-662), was
    Dam in North County are earthen dams       signed into law by the President Reagan on
    constructed and operated by the Army       November 17, 1986. As signed by President
    Corps of Engineers to provide flood        Reagan the Act authorized the following
    protection to urban development along      Santa Ana River improvements:
    Fullerton Creek, Brea Creek, and
    Carbon Canyon.                             •   Raise Prado Dam and increase reservoir
                                                   capacity;

Orange County Flood Control
                                               •   Construct a new dam to be called
                                                   "Seven Oaks Dam" on the Santa Ana
Actions to reduce flood potential in Orange
                                                   River northeasterly of the communities
County are shared by the federal
                                                   of East Highlands and Mentone;
government, the Orange County Flood
Control District, and local jurisdictions.     •   Implement flood plain management
                                                   between Seven Oaks and Prado dams;
FEDERAL GOVERNMENT
                                               •   Acquire the floodway in the Santa Ana
The federal government assists local               Canyon reach of the river to carry the
jurisdictions to implement major flood             water releases from Prado Dam,
control facilities. In Orange County, the          providing some structural protection
most significant of these flood control            along certain bends in the river, but
facilities is the Santa Ana River system.          maintaining the natural conditions as
The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers,                  much as possible as a floodway and for
beginning in 1975, recommended the                 environmental enhancement;

                                                                                               IX-69
                                                                                                                                                                                                              CHAPTER IX. SAFETY ELEMENT



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Figure IX-10




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      SEVEN
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      OAKS                  Rive r
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Sant a Ana
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       DAM
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Mill Cre
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          ek
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     San Bernardino




                                                                                                                                               k
                                                                                                                                           r ee
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Mentone

                                                                                                                                       no C
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Sa
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        nT
                                                                                                                                     Ch i                                                                                                 im
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               o te
                                                                                                                                                                                     COUNTY OF SAN BERNARDINO                                         o
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Cr
                                                                                                                                                                                        COUNTY OF RIVERSIDE                                                 ee
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 k




                                                                                                                                                                                                                Riverside
                                              COUNTY OF LOS ANGELES
                                                COUNTY OF ORANGE                                                                                                                Norco
                                                                                                                                     PRADO DAM
                                                                                                                                        AND
                                                               Orang e Freew ay




                                                                                                                                     RESERVOIR
                                                                                       Yorba Linda                                                         ((               Corona
                                                                                                                                                                 (




                                                                                                                             (
                                                                                                                                                     ( (




                                                                                                                                 ( ( ( ((((
                                                                                                                                 (




                Riverside Freeway                                                                                                                    (


                                              Anaheim
                                      Sa
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               SANTA ANA
              RIVER MOUTH
                 MARSH
              RESTORATION




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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         COUNTY OF RIVERSIDE

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         COUNTY OF SAN DIEGO

Legend
                                      Improvements
                                      Flood Plain Management
( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( (
                                      Open Space Preservation
                                      Other creeks
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     I
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Source: Santa Ana River Mainstem Project, US Army Corps of Engineers




                                                       SANTA ANA RIVER MAINSTEM PROJECT




IX-70
                                                             CHAPTER IX. SAFETY ELEMENT




•   Construct channel improvements in the      REGIONAL SYSTEM
    Coastal Plain reach of the river below
    Santa Ana Canyon, on Santiago Creek          Orange County Flood Control
    (in Santa Ana, Orange, and Villa Park),      District:
    improvements to the former gravel pits       Orange County Flood Control District
    including controlled outlet gate, and on     (OCFCD) is empowered to construct
    Oak Street Drain (in Corona); and Mill       and maintain flood control works to
    Creek and San Timoteo Creek in San           prevent or minimize loss of life and
    Bernardino County;                           property caused by flooding and to
                                                 conserve water. The Resources and
•   Reconstruct existing recreational            Development Management Department
    facilities (at local sponsor expense);       (RDMD) implements the Flood Control
                                                 District's flood control program which
•   Project includes reconstruction or
                                                 includes the design, construction,
    enhancement of a salt water marsh,
                                                 operation, and maintenance of regional
    open space and mitigation lands at
                                                 flood control facilities.
    Seven Oaks Dam for endangered plants
    and animals.
                                                 The Flood Control District’s capital
                                                 improvement program is generally with
                                                 assistance by the City Engineers Flood
                                                 Control Advisory Committee
                                                 (CEFCAC)-a committee composed of



                                                                                          IX-71
CHAPTER IX. SAFETY ELEMENT




           one City Engineer from each                District augmentation funds have also
           Supervisorial District appointed by the    been received.
           Orange County Division, League of
           California Cities and Manager,             Orange County Floodplain
           RDMD/Public Works Division.                Management:
                                                      Floodplain management is a key
           Project proposals from all sources are     component to effective flood control
           analyzed by Flood Control District staff   within Orange County. The Federal
           and submitted to CEFCAC to prioritize      Emergency Management Agency
           construction and studies. The              delineates through official maps, Flood
           recommendations are utilized by            Insurance Rate Map (F.I.R.M) and
           RDMD in preparing the annual Flood         Flood Boundary and Floodway Map,
           Control District budget request.           areas of special flood hazard, the risk
                                                      premium zones, and floodways
           Flood Control District revenue is          applicable to a community. These maps
           obtained mainly from property taxes.       form the basis for Orange County's
           Under the provisions of Section 97 and     flood plain management program
           98 of the Revenue and Taxation Code,       implemented through zoning
           the amount of Flood Control District       regulations. These zoning regulations
           revenue derived from property taxes is     (Section 7-9-113 of the Orange County
           based on the average percentage            Zoning Code) are intended to be applied
           received during the three years prior to   to those areas which are subject to
           the passage of Proposition 13, plus a      periodic flooding and accompanying
           proportionate share of the subsequent      hazards.
           tax base growth. Subsequent to the
           passage of Proposition 13, State Special   Three levels of floodplain protection are


IX-72
                                                            CHAPTER IX. SAFETY ELEMENT


identified. The FP-1 designation is             include prevention of loss of life and
applied to the "floodway," the channel          property and to minimize economic loss        Flood safety
of a river or other watercourse and that        caused by flood flows; establishment of       precautions:
                                                                                           -----------------------
part of the floodplain reasonably               criteria for land management and land
                                                                                           1) Do not walk
required to safely discharge the base           use in flood-prone areas that are
                                                                                                through
floods as shown on the federal Flood            consistent with the criteria promulgated        flowing
Boundary and Floodway Maps or areas             by the Federal Insurance Administration         water;
the County has identified as a floodway.        for the purpose of providing flood         2) Do not drive
The FP-1 designation permits private            insurance eligibility for property              through a
flood control facilities, general open          owners; regulation and control of use of        flooded
                                                                                                area;
space uses and public/private utility           land below the elevation of the design
                                                                                           3) Stay away
structures.                                     flood flow within the floodplain; and
                                                                                                from power
                                                compliance with the Cobey-Alquist               lines and
The FP-2 designation is applied to areas        Floodplain Management Act                       electrical
identified on Federal Flood Insurance           requirements for floodplain                     wires;
Rate Maps or areas identified by the            management regulations.                    4) Turn off
County to be within a special flood                                                             your
                                                                                                electricity
hazard area. Development is permitted           Adherence to the Act's provisions
                                                                                                when you
within FP-2 areas in compliance with            entitles a local jurisdiction to receive
                                                                                                return
specific development standards,                 state financial assistance for flood            home;
including construction and design               control project rights-of-way costs.       5) Look before
elements that minimize flood damage,                                                            you step;
and raising the lowest floor of a               Local Drainage Program:                    6) Be alert for
building including a basement or cellar     Storm drains are normally smaller facilities        gas leaks;
                                                                                           7) Carbon
one foot above the flood level.             or underground pipes which collect drainage
                                                                                                monoxide
                                            fro m local streets. In new developments,
                                                                                                exhaust
The FP-3 designation is applied to areas    local drainage facilities are constructed by        kills;
shown on the Flood Insurance Rate           developers in accordance with master plans     8) Clean
Maps or designated by the County to be      of drainage. However, in many older parts           everything
susceptible to coastal flooding by the      of Orange County, local systems were not            that got wet;
"Coastal Flood Plain Development            built due to lack of major systems to accept        and
                                                                                           9) Take good
Study." Development is permitted            their discharge. Limited funding from the
                                                                                                care of
within the FP-3 areas subject to            County General Fund or the Road Fund is
                                                                                                yourself.
satisfaction of design criteria contained   used to implement local storm drains.
in the "Coastal Flood Plain                                                                American Red
                                                                                           Cross
Development Study."                         Future Prospects

The purposes of floodplain zoning           The implementation of the Santa Ana River
regulations as applied by the County        Main Stem Federal Project and other Santa

                                                                                           IX-73
        CHAPTER IX. SAFETY ELEMENT


                 Ana River improvements along with                        development.
                 regional and local flood control facilities
                 should provide Orange County with              Policies
                 appropriate flood protection safeguards.
                 Construction of the project began in 1992      1.   To phase improvements to Flood

                 and is anticipated to be completed by 2005.         Control District facilities consistent
                                                                     with funding capabilities:

                                                                     a)   Implement them within the time
       “The      GOALS, OBJECTIVES AND                                    frame of the Santa Ana River Main
  American       POLICIES: Flood Hazards                                  stem Project for equivalent
  Red Cross                                                               capacities;
 helped 251      The goals and objectives of this section are

people from      in addition to the general Natural Hazards          b) Provide as a goal 100-year flood
111 different    Component Goals and Objectives described                 protection for residences and other
 families [in    in the beginning of the Natural Hazards                  non-flood-proof structures; and
     Orange      Component. Together, these provide a
                 strategy for addressing and mitigating              c)   Complete links in the system that
    County]
                 potential flood hazards.                                 have not been provided by new
  during the
                                                                          development.
    [El Nino]
       storm     Goals and Objectives
                                                                2.   To encourage and promote coordination
season at a
                 Goal 1                                              between regional/local flood control
     cost of
                                                                     agencies and the State/Federal agencies
   $87,895.”     Provide effective and efficient flood
                                                                     for optimum flood prevention programs
American Red     protection throughout Orange County.
       Cross                                                         and protection devices.

                 •   Objective
                                                                3.   To regulate development of major
                     1.1 To implement the improvements               watercourses and floodplains through
                          for the Santa Ana River Mainstem           application of appropriate land use
                          Project.                                   measures.

                     1.2 To develop and enhance
                                                                4.   To identify areas subject to inundation
                          intergovernmental relations for
                                                                     due to base flood runoff.
                          flood protection programs in
                          Orange County.
                                                                5    To identify areas subject to inundation
                                                                     due to dam failure.
                     1.3 To implement flood control
                          facilities which protect both
                                                                6.   To limit erosion and sediment transport
                          existing and proposed
                                                                     from development areas to bays and


        IX-74
                                                                CHAPTER IX. SAFETY ELEMENT


     harbors.                                   1.   INTERGOVERNMENTAL
                                                     COORDINATION
7.   To permit reasonable movement of
     sediment to the open ocean for beach            Action:

     sand replenishment through remedial             Continue to develop intergovernmental

     measures.                                       relations toward achieving flood
                                                     protection goals and objectives.

8.   To provide technical and policy
     information regarding flood hazards to          Discussion:

     developers, interested parties, and the         The Orange County Flood Control

     general public.                                 District (OCFCD) currently cooperates
                                                     with various levels of government

9.   To disseminate information regarding            including federal, state and local

     hazards and mitigating measures                 agencies. For instance, local projects

     through all available media.                    are analyzed and prioritized by various
                                                     agencies for budget and implementation

10. To monitor and evaluate studies of the           purposes requiring effective agency

     use of non-structural alternatives,             coordination. In addition, the primary

     including mo re compatible land use             regional project, the Santa Ana River

     planning adjacent to watercourses for           Mainstem Project which received

     flood control purposes.                         Congressional approval, is dependent
                                                     upon OCFCD coordination with the

11. To provide guidance during and after             U.S. Army Corps of Engineers for

     flood disasters and promote interagency         project development and

     assistance for persons affected.                implementation and local funding.

                                                     Cooperation among affected counties
12. To create design criteria which
                                                     (Riverside, San Bernardino and Orange
     minimizes or mitigates impacts
                                                     Counties) will also be important for
     associated with crossing of flood plains
                                                     project phasing and implementation.
     by development.
                                                     Continued and expanded cooperation
                                                     among agencies will provide a
13. To appropriate funds for the Santa Ana
                                                     coordinated effort toward achieving
     River Mainstem Project and expedite
                                                     flood protection funding phasing and
     construction.
                                                     implementation goals and objectives.

                                                     New or Existing Program: Existing
IMPLEMENTATION
PROGRAMS: Flood Hazards                              Implementation Schedule: Ongoing



                                                                                               IX-75
        CHAPTER IX. SAFETY ELEMENT


                        Responsible Agency: RDMD                   3.   SANTA ANA RIVER MAINSTEM
                                                                        FEDERAL PROJECT
                        Source of Funds: Various Funding
                        Sources                                         Action:
                                                                        Expedite to the greatest extent feasible
                   2.   COASTAL FLOOD PLAIN                             the implementation of the Santa Ana
                        DEVELOPMENT                                     River Mainstem Project as an integral
                                                                        flood control management program.
                        Action:
                        Utilize the Coastal Flood Plain                 Discussion:
                        Development Study to evaluate projects          Construction of the project began in

“But, despite           in areas prone to coastal flooding and          1992 and is anticipated to be completed

these [El Nino]         update the report as often as warranted.        by 2005. To expedite funding, Prado

tragedies, we                                                           Dam is being considered as a separate
                        Discussion:                                     element which would provide for a 50-
saw potential
                        The Coastal Flood Plain Development             50 cost share between the federal
damage
                        Study, approved in 1985, addressed              government and the three counties.
minimized
                        Orange County's requirement for
because of
                        technical criteria and standards for the        New or Existing Program: Existing
prior
                        review of structures and protective
awareness.”                                                             Implementation Schedule: Ongoing
                        devices on coastal property designed to
Judy Iannaccone,
                        mitigate and minimize coastal flooding.
American Red                                                            Responsible Agencies:
Cross
                        The report serves as a working base to          •   U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
                        be expanded and improved upon                   •   Orange County Flood Control
                        through periodic updating, new coastal              District
                        data, and new methods to analyze                •   San Bernardino County Flood
                        coastal flooding.                                   Control District
                                                                        •   Riverside County Flood Control
                        New or Existing program: Existing                   and Water Conservation District

                        Implementation Schedule: Ongoing                Source of Funds:
                                                                        •   Property tax
                        Responsible Agencies: RDMD                      •   State Subvention
                                                                        •   Various other funding sources
                        Source of Funds: County General
                        Fund




        IX-76
                                                                CHAPTER IX. SAFETY ELEMENT


4.   ORANGE COUNTY FLOOD                       SEISMIC AND GEOLOGIC
     CONTROL DISTRICT SYSTEM                   HAZARDS
     Action:                                   Introduction
     Continue to provide efficient and
     effective flood control protection for    Orange County, like most regions that
     Orange County residents.                  border the Pacific Ocean, is a region of high
                                               seismic activity and, therefore, is subject to
     Discussion:
                                               potentially destructive earthquakes.
     The Orange County Flood Control
                                               Earthquakes are the result of an abrupt
     District is empowered to construct and
                                               release of energy stored in the earth. This
     maintain flood control works for water
                                               energy is generated from the forces which
     conservation and to prevent or minimize
                                               cause the continents to change their relative
     loss of life and property caused by
                                               position on the earth's surface; this process
     flooding. The Resources and
                                               is called "plate tectonics."
     Development Management Agency
     (RDMD) is responsible for
                                               Large earthquakes are caused by the
     implementing the Flood Control
                                               rupturing of great rock masses under strain
     District's program that includes the
                                               within the earth's crust. This usually takes
     design, construction, operation, and
                                               the form of abrupt slipping or sliding along a
     maintenance of regional flood control
                                               rupture plane (fault). Each time two
     facilities.
                                               segments of the earth's crust suddenly shift

     New or Existing Program: Existing         past one another along a fault, an earthquake
                                               occurs. Major earthquakes are commo nly
     Implementation Schedule: Ongoing          accompanied by foreshocks and aftershocks
                                               that are usually less intense and represent
     Responsible Agencies:                     local yielding and adjustments of rock           “Trouble brings
     •    O.C. Flood Control District          masses along the main zone of faulting.          experience, and
     •    RDMD                                                                                  experience
                                               Earthquakes create two types of hazards:         brings wisdom.”
     Sources of Funds:
                                               primary and secondary. Primary seismic           Unknown
     •    Property Tax
                                               hazards include ground shaking, ground
     •    Various other funding sources
                                               displacement, subsidence, and uplift due to
                                               the seismic episode. Primary hazards can, in
                                               turn, induce secondary hazards. These
                                               include the following: ground failure (lurch
                                               cracking, lateral spreading, and slope
                                               failure), liquefaction, seismically induced
                                               water waves (tsunamis and seiches),

                                                                                                 IX-77
CHAPTER IX. SAFETY ELEMENT


         movement on nearby independent faults            of Conservation, “Guidelines for Evaluating
         (sympathetic fault movement), and dam            and Mitigating Seismic Hazards in
         failure.                                         California” (1997) and “Fault -Rupture
                                                          Hazard Zones in California” (Special
         Orange County residents are exposed to           Publication 42) contain detailed information
         other geologic hazards not necessarily           about liquefaction and geo-technical issues
         associated with earthquakes. Landslides          in Orange County and are available without
         result from the movement of slope-forming        charge through the website.
         earth or rock materials downward under the
         influence of gravity. A landslide may take       Existing Conditions
         the form of a flow, slide, fall, or a
         combination of the three. This form of earth     SEISMIC
         movement is the most costly of the non-
                                                          Orange County is more fortunate from a
         seismic geologic hazards. Two other
                                                          seismic safety standpoint than some of its
         geologic hazards, subsidence and uplift, are
                                                          neighboring counties. Two potentially
         caused by vertical mass movements of earth
                                                          hazardous, active fault zones run along the
         materials with little or no lateral movement.
                                                          coastal and inland edges of the County. (See
                                                          Figure IX-11.) The best known of the two
         Erosion of fields, cliffs, and stream channels
                                                          faults is the Newport-Inglewood Fault,
         has been of concern to man for centuries.
                                                          which angles from offshore near Dana Point,
         The process of erosion occurs naturally in
                                                          inland through what is now the City of
         nature; however, it can be induced and
                                                          Newport Beach, on into Los Angeles
         encouraged by man's activities. One
                                                          County through the cities of Long Beach
         example is river channelization which
                                                          and Torrance. This fault zone produced the
         impedes transportation of sediments to the
                                                          catastrophic 1933 Long Beach earthquake
         coast. Since beaches depend on sediments
                                                          with a Richter scale magnitude of 6.3. It is
         to replenish sand supply, sediment reduction
                                                          believed this fault is capable of generating a
         leads to beach and cliff erosion, a major
                                                          maximum 7.5 magnitude earthquake.
         County safety concern. A final non-seismic
         hazard described in this section is associated
                                                          Paralleling this fault zone across the
         with soil characteristics.
                                                          northeasterly edge of the County is the
                                                          Whittier Fault, a westward continuation of
         Additional, up-to-date information on
                                                          the longer Elsinore Fault which trends along
         seismic and geologic hazards in Orange
                                                          the northeast side of the Santa Ana
         County can be obtained through the State
                                                          Mountains into Mexico. Most recorded
         Department of Conservation, California
                                                          shocks in this zone range from 4.0 to 5.0
         Geological Survey, Website:
                                                          magnitude, which is considered moderately
         www.conservation.ca.gov/cgs/ Specifically,
                                                          active. However, in 1910 an earthquake
         two publications from the State Department


IX-78
CHAPTER IX. SAFETY ELEMENT


Figure IX-11




                        FAULT MAP




                                    IX-79
CHAPTER IX. SAFETY ELEMENT


         registering 6.0 on the Richter scale hit         State as Earthquake Fault Zones (called
         Riverside County in the vicinity of Lake         Special Studies Zones prior to January 1,
         Elsinore. It is estimated that the maximum       1994).
         credible earthquake capable from the
         Whittier-Elsinore Fault Zone is 7.0              Due to the proximity of active and
         magnitude.                                       potentially active faults in and around
                                                          Orange County and its degree of
         Earthquakes on faults located outside the        urbanization, the risk of structural damage
         County can cause damage within the               and loss of life due to ground shaking is
         County. Depending on their magnitude,            considerable. The risk of secondary hazards
         earthquakes generated within a fifty-mile        is also great. According to various geologic
         radius of a given point are considered           experts, much of Orange County is highly
         noteworthy and could cause minor to              susceptible to slope failure (activated by
         moderate damage.                                 ground shaking), lurching and displacement.
                                                          Another secondary hazard of particular
         The blind thrust faults including the Elysian    concern to some portions of Orange County
         Park Blind Thrust Fault and Compton Blind        is that of liquefaction.
         Thrust Fault extend into and underneath
         northwestern and southwestern Orange             Liquefaction is a change in condition of
         County, respectively. The plain of another       saturated granular soil or coarse silt from
         blind thrust fault that is associated with the   solid state to liquefied state. When these
         Elysian Park Blind Thrust, underwent             materials are vibrated, they often behave as
         displacement during the Whittier Narrows         a heavy liquid. Liquefaction occurs when
         Mw 6.0 Earthquake of 1987 that caused 360        saturated soil changes from a solid to a fluid
         million dollars in damage and killed 3 to 8      condition.
         people. The Elysian Park and Compton
         Blind Thrust Faults are believed to be           Figures IX-12 and IX-13 show the areas of
         capable of maximum earthquake magnitudes         liquefaction and degree of ground shaking
         of Mw 6.7 and Mw 6.8 respectively.               for various areas around Orange County in
         For Orange County, these perimeter faults        the event of a maximum credible earthquake
         are: San Andreas; San Jacinto (including         on the San Andreas or Newport-Inglewood
         Imperial and Superstition Hills); Malibu-        faults. Table IX-1 describes the effects
         Coast-Raymond; Palos Verdes; San Gabriel;        experienced during varying degrees of
         and Sierra Madre-Santa Susana-Cucamonga          ground shaking. The numbers down the left
         faults (including "San Fernando"). The           hand side (l to 12) represent the Mercalli
         Norwalk, Peralta Hills and El Modeno             Scale while the numbers in parentheses
         Thrust Faults, located within Orange             represent comparable ground shaking as
         County, between the Whittier and Newport-        recorded on the Richter scale. The Mercalli
         Inglewood fault zones are not shown by the       and Richter scales are two means of


IX-80
                                                                   CHAPTER IX. SAFETY ELEMENT


measuring ground shaking during an                communities. If failures occur on main
earthquake. Earthquake magnitude is               trunk lines, entire regions of Orange County
currently reported as a Moment Magnitude          may be without public services. These types
(Mw). Additional information regarding            of failures could result in situations ranging
areas of potential liquefaction is contained in   from contamination of drinking water to an
quadrangle maps called Seismic Hazard             inability to successfully fight fires which
Zone Maps.                                        may be caused by other linear system
                                                  failures, such as gas or oil lines or electrical
Another potential secondary source of             transmission lines.
damage is from the generation of seiches
and tsunamis. A seiche is the oscillation of      NON-SEISMIC

sloshing of water caused by seismic activity
                                                  In addition to the safety hazards posed by
or landsliding. It may occur in a lake, bay,
                                                  seismic activity, other types of geologic
or other enclosed body of water. It may
                                                  features also occur which pose a potential
result in damage to peripheral shore
                                                  threat to the well-being of County residents,
development or to downstream development
                                                  their homes, and businesses. These geologic
if water tops a dam.
                                                  features include landslides, subsidence and
                                                  uplift, natural erosive forces, and potentially
Tsunamis or seismic sea waves may be
                                                  detrimental soil characteristics (expansive,
generated by an undersea earthquake,
                                                  peat, sulfate, gaseous and corrosive soils,
landslide, or by volcanic activity. The
                                                  and soils subject to hydroconsolidation).
Orange County coastline is shielded to the
west by the Channel Islands and to the north      Landslides: Landslides may be divided
by Point Conception from most sources of          principally into three overlapping categories:
tsunamis thereby reducing the threat of           surficial failures, rotational slides, and
damage.                                           planar slides. Surficial failures the most
                                                  common failures, occur generally within
There is a potential for damage along the         four to five feet of ground surface. In
coast from a tsunami resulting from ocean         rotational slides the failure surface takes an
floor displacement along some of the              arcuate shape both in horizontal and vertical
numerous active fault in the off-shore            profile. Planar slides result when natural
Southern California borderline from large         planes of weakness within a rock formation
submarine landsliding.                            are exposed either by the natural process of
                                                  erosion or during grading operations.
Another serious secondary water damage
hazard emanates from linear systems failure.
This condition involves the bursting of
underground water pipes and mains. Its
effects may be widespread, crippling entire

                                                                                                     IX-81
CHAPTER IX. SAFETY ELEMENT


                                       TABLE IX-1.


                       MODIFIED MERCALLI INTENSITY SCALE

        MAGNITUDE                               Effects At Different Levels of Intensity
        ON RICHTER                                Intensity Scale of 1931 (abridged)
        SCALE
           Below 3.0       I.    Not felt by most people, only instruments detect the earthquake.


            3.0-3.9        II.   People lying down might feel the earthquake.
         Distance Felt:
         (approx. miles)   III. People on upper floors of building will feel it, but may not know it is an
               15               earthquake. Hanging objects swing.
            4.0-4.9        IV. People indoors will probably feel it, but those outside may not. Houses may
         Distance Felt:        creak.
         (approx. miles)
               30          V.    Nearly everyone feels it. Sleepers are awakened. Doors swing, pictures move,
                                 things tip over.
            5.0-5.9        VI. Everyone feels the earthquake. It is hard to walk. Windows and dishes broken.
         Distance Felt:        Books fall from shelf.
         (approx. miles)
               70
            6.0-6.9        VII. It is hard to stand. Plaster, bricks, and tiles fall from buildings. Small land slides.
         Distance Felt:
         (approx. miles)   VIII. People will not be able to drive cars. Poorly built buildings may collapse and
              125                chimneys may fall.
            7.0-7.9        IX. Most foundations are damaged. Masonry heavily damaged. Pipes are broken. The
          Distance Felt:       ground cracks.
         (approx. miles)
              250          X.  Most buildings are destroyed. Water is thrown out of rivers and lakes. Large
                               landslides.
            8.0-8.9        XI. Rails are bent. Bridges and underground pipelines unusable.

                           XII. Large rock masses displaced. Large objects may be thrown into air. Most things
                                are leveled.




           Source: Orange County Fire Authority, Emergency Management Division, 1986.




IX-82
    CHAPTER IX. SAFETY ELEMENT


    Figure IX-12




                                       6


                    7



              8                                                                                      5
                                                                                6
9
                                              7
                                                           6
                                                  Ne




                                                                                         6
                                                    wp
                                                      or
                                                        t-In
                                                            gle




            Liquefaction Area -
                                                               wo




            Granular Sandy Soil with
                                                                 od




            High Water Content
                                                                    :
                                                                   Of




                                                                                                                   I
                                                                     fsh




            Modified Mercalli Intensity Scale -
                                                                        or




            Scenario based on earthquake
                                                                          e




                                                                                             5
            magnitude 6.9 in Seal Beach

                                                                        Source: TriNet.Net (CalTech, USGS, Cal Geological Survey), 2003




                      7.5 NEWPORT-INGLEWOOD FAULT




                                                                                                                      IX-83
                                                  CHAPTER IX. SAFETY ELEMENT



                                                                                        Figure IX-13




                      6




                                                                          5
                                              6
        5




                                                       5
        Liquefaction Area -
        Granular Sandy Soil with
        High Water Content
        Modified Mercalli Intensity Scale -
        Scenario based on earthquake
        magnitude 7.4 near Palm Springs
                                                                                             I
                                                  Source: TriNet.Net (CalTech, USGS, Cal Geological Survey), 2003




                              8.3 SAN ANDREAS FAULT




IX-84
                                                                  CHAPTER IX. SAFETY ELEMENT




A major factor contributing to these three       117 homes and 35 businesses and totaled an
types of slides is the process of grading.       estimated 5 million dollars in damage.
The lack of precautionary measures to
stabilize slopes or cutting into the failure     During February 1998, debris flow caused
plane of an existing landslide can result in     two deaths and destroyed several homes in
the failure of material or slopes.               the City of Laguna Beach. In June 2005, the
                                                 Bluebird Canyon area was again struck by a
Another common thread of similarity among        landslide that damaged or destroyed 28
all three categories of slides is that as the    homes. In May 1963, several private homes
water saturation of soil occurs, the soil’s      in Silverado Canyon were severely damaged
bearing capacity is decreased. This              by rock and debris flow. These residences
weakening, coupled with gravitational            were evacuated and the public road use was
factors and the various characteristics of the   restricted to local residents and essential
soil material, leads to destructive outcomes.    traffic. In February 2005, another rockslide
                                                 occurred in Silverado Canyon killing one
Other types of sliding that occur are            resident and damaging four structures.
mudflows, debris avalanches, rockfalls,          Because of recurring rockfall and debris
rockslides, and gravity sliding. These           flows endangering life and property of
landslides are either variations between or      residents in Silverado Canyon, the Board of
gradations within the three individual           Supervisors authorized, on May 18, 1983, a
categories.                                      geotechnical review of the mud/debris flow
                                                 and rockfall hazards. The study “Silverado
Devastation and economic setback from            Canyon Geologic Hazards Report” dated
landslides were exhibited in the October         October 1983 may be reviewed by the
1978 Laguna Beach/Bluebird Canyon slide          public at the County of Orange
in which 25 homes were lost and 15 million       Development Processing Center, 1st Floor,
dollars in damage was done. The slide area       300 N. Flower Street, Santa Ana.
covered 3.5 acres--part of a five-acre ancient
slide area. In February 1980, Laguna Beach       San Clemente--dubbed by geologists as
was struck by mudslides which damaged            physically "least stable of Orange County



                                                                                                IX-85
CHAPTER IX. SAFETY ELEMENT


         cities due to its propensity for unstable       landslide potential and unstable soils.
         slopes” was hit on September 4, 1986, by a
         landslide. This slide caused five homes in      The lead department in this effort is the
         the Shore cliffs development to be evacuated    Resources and Development Management
         after they were left teetering on an 80 foot    Department (RDMD). This Department is
         high precipice. Many other incidences of        responsible for the following: 1) the critique
         landslides have been recorded and other         of consultant work on various construction
         areas identified as ancient landslide sites     projects including the review of grading
         which are dormant but can become active         plans and review of soil and geologic
         again, much like volcanoes.                     reports; and 2) the implementation of
                                                         corrective measures to mitigate adverse
         The California Geological Survey, also          geologic hazards (i.e., landslides,
         known as Division of Mines and Geology          liquefaction, etc.).
         (CDMG) reported that the winter storms of
         1997 and 1998 increased movement on a           A major policy that aids the efforts of the
         landslide in Laguna Niguel that resulted in     grading section is the Orange County
         the loss of four homes on Via Estril and        Grading and Excavation Code, adopted by
         several condominiums located at the toe of      the Board of Supervisors for the purpose of
         the slope.                                      safeguarding life, land, property, and public
                                                         welfare by regulating grading on private
         It was also reported that these rainstorms      property in the unincorporated areas of
         accelerated the movement of a landslide in      Orange County. The Grading and
         the City of Orange near Vista Summit Way        Excavation Code sets forth rules and
         that damaged homes within a three city          regulations to control excavation, grading,
         block area. Mudslides also caused damage        and earthwork construction, including fills
         to homes and roads in Silverado Canyon,         and embankments, and establishes
         Modjeska Canyon and within the cities of        administrative requirements for issuance of
         Brea, Dana Point and Newport Beach.             permits and approval of plans and inspection
                                                         of grading construction in accordance with
         Orange County, as much as the State of          the requirements for grading and excavation
         California, contains some active faults along   as contained in the Uniform Building Code.
         which earthquakes occur, and contains some
         rocks representing ancient volcanic activity.   The Grading Manual, supplements the
         Mary areas are covered by soils deposited       Grading Code with detailed information
         by surface waters, landslides and wind.         regarding rules, interpretations, standard
         Many of these deposits are unstable and they    specifications, procedures requirements,
         expand and contract with the addition and       forms, and other information applicable to
         removal of moisture, respectively. Orange       control excavation, grading, and earthwork
         County is committed efforts to examine          construction in unincorporated Orange


IX-86
                                                                     CHAPTER IX. SAFETY ELEMENT


County.                                            are monitored every year with some being
                                                   every three to five years. Surveys are
Other documents utilized in the review of          performed to detect any horizontal or
grading plans and geo-technical (soil and          vertical movement in the structure. Dam
geology, currently California Geological           movement can result from various causes
Survey and Division of Mines and Geology           such as subsidence, earthquake, water
Special Publication 42 on Alquist-Priolo           pressure, faulty construction, etc.
Earthquake Fault Zones ) reports include the
Uniform Building Code and special                  Erosion: Erosion is the process by which
Publication 117-Guidelines for Evaluating          earth and rock materials are worn away and
and Mitigating Seismic Hazards in                  transported by the action of water, wind or
California, issued March 1997 by the               ice.
Division of Mines and Geology.
                                                   Beach erosion has damaged or destroyed
Land Subsidence and Uplift: Subsidence             both functional structures and appurtenant
and uplift are terms used to describe changes      erosion protection devices. Topsoil loss due
in elevation occurring over reasonably large       to erosion in agricultural areas led to the
areas. Subsidence can be either caused by          formation of the Federal Soil Conservation
forces within the earth's crust or by              Service, which conducts research and
withdrawal of fluids such as oil or water, or      provides consultation to minimize this loss.
solids such as soil or rock. Oil extraction        Stream erosion and siltation have long
differs from groundwater extraction ma inly        constituted major hazards to cities and to
because much greater depths, greater               man-made facilities situated alongside or
pressures, and a greater danger of                 straddling watercourses. Soil loss and
subsidence are involved. Uplift on the other       stream erosion are addressed in Chapter VI
hand, is the result of the injection of water or   (Resources Element) of the Orange County
another liquid, into the ground to replace         General Plan. Beach erosion problems,
material removed.                                  however, are discussed in this element.


RDMD-Geomatics/Land In formation                          Beach and Cliff Erosion:
Systems (LIS) Division performs an annual                 Beach and cliff erosion problems are a
GPS (Global Positioning System) Vertical                  major concern in Orange County. This
Control Survey. This Survey covers the                    process is influenced to the greatest
entire County on a 6 km grid. The data,                   degree by man-made changes and
when compared to the previous annual                      obstructions in the ocean affecting the
survey, is used to detect subsidence.                     coastline. Other factors are wind,
                                                          interference with stream processes,
The Ge omatics/LIS Division also monitors                 wave height and direction, tides, and
eight dams within the County. Most dams                   sand lost to deep ocean basins.

                                                                                                    IX-87
CHAPTER IX. SAFETY ELEMENT


           Whenever waves are present, sand           devised to specifically control beach
           moves on or off beaches. Major             cliff erosion.
           movements often occur during wave
           storms. Waves are more energetic           Technical criteria and guidelines were
           during this time, and these storm-         prepared for Orange County EMA (now
           induced, longshore, and offshore-          RDMD) Flood Control by Moffat and
           directed currents provide a means to       Nichol Engineers. This study, "Coastal
           transport the wave-mobilized sand away     Flood Plain Development, Orange
           from or towards the beach. This            County Coastlines" was created for the
           movement is wholly or partially            review of structures and coastal
           reversible in that the sand volume lost    protection devices at five coastal
           from the beach during the storm may be     reaches in Orange County. Using 1984
           partially or completely returned to the    coastal design data, Moffat and Nichol
           beach after the storm.                     developed three recommendations for
                                                      improving beach erosion protection:
           In general, seasonal changes in the
           beach profile will be much greater than    1)   Establish a methodology to update

           the net yearly change that occurs over a        and improve the coastal design data

           period of many years. The sand supply           sets as new information becomes

           is also renewed by the sediment load of         available;

           rivers and streams emptying into the
                                                      2)   Establish a procedure to obtain
           ocean. This latter process does not
                                                           local information using a
           occur at a constant rate. Although
                                                           combination of trained County staff
           influenced by such factors as the lining
                                                           and beach-resident volunteers; and
           of flood control channels, the damming
           of rivers and streams is a much more       3)   Establish a geotechnical data bank
           important factor in reducing the amount         for coastal design review purposes.
           of sediment carried to the ocean.
                                                      The implementation of recommendation
           Beach cliff erosion is a major concern     (1) has occurred through the creation of
           to development along coastal Orange        floodplain zones and other appropriate
           County. The erosion of cliffs causes       policy. The implementation of the
           landslides and subsequent problems to      remaining recommendations would
           hillside development. The erosion rate     ensure an improved data set will be
           in Orange County is considered             available for future design purposes,
           moderate countywide (approximately l       including beach restoration and
           inch per year). Although various           maintenance.
           development and zoning standards have
           been devised, no programs have been        Soil Characteristics:


IX-88
                                                        CHAPTER IX. SAFETY ELEMENT




Expansive Soils: These are soils which           swelling at one side of the
incorporate water into their mineral             residence than at the other.
structure. This process causes swelling
                                            2)   Concentric Swell: Water migration
of mineral grains and an increase in soil
                                                 beneath a foundation causes
volume. The degree of soil expansion
                                                 swelling in its center.
is determined by the percentage and
types of minerals in the soil. In           3)   Slope Yielding: The soil shifts
addition, the amount of water a soil can         downslope, tilting the foundation.
incorporate depends on the stress on the
grains created by the combined weight       Problems attributed to expansive soils
of soil and man-made structures.            are usually related to improperly
                                            designed or constructed foundations.
Much of Orange County is covered by         Due to the diversity of soil conditions in
soil that experts say may cause cracking    Orange County, experts agree that no
in concrete foundations. The most           residence is completely safe from
prevalent problems stem from clay or        cracking, slipping, or sinking to some
"expansive" soil which expands and          degree, regardless of the residence's age
contracts with moisture, causing            or location. Currently, problems
building foundations, sidewalks, and        attributed to expansive soils are being
swimming pools to lift and crack.           mitigated through structural and design
Geologists indicate that three              regulations as well as through soil
predominant soil conditions exist in        treatment techniques.
residential areas of Orange County.
Possible effects of "expansive" soil        Peat Formations: In the process of coal
conditions exist in each of the three       formation from masses of vegetation,
predominant soil conditions:                peat is the earliest stage of conversion.
                                            It consists of mats of partly decayed
1)   Differential Swell: The thicker zone
                                            vegetable matter which may or may not
     of expansive soil causes more
                                            be covered by sediment. Accumulation
                                            of peat can occur in various ways


                                                                                         IX-89
CHAPTER IX. SAFETY ELEMENT


           including sand beach bars blocking         Without repairs to replace the concrete
           coastal streams; generation of sag ponds   slab, the entire structure of the houses
           by faulting; and, historically common in   can be endangered.
           Orange County, abandonment of stream
           meanders by a river cutting a new path.    Many reasons have been offered by
                                                      various engineers as to why there are
           The hazards are created when structures    high sulfate soils in some areas and not
           are placed on a land surface underlain     others. These experts cite explanations
           by a peat deposit. The structure may be    which range from factors associated
           damaged by collapse of the peat mat or     with previous usage of the property
           by fires generated by accumulation of      (e.g., dairy operations which have large
           methane gas beneath the structure.         volumes of animal droppings), to usage
           Currently, hazards caused by peat          of cement additives which react
           deposits are mitigated through initial     negatively with the soil. Engineering
           consolidation or removal of the            geologists know that naturally high
           peat material prior to construction.       sulfate conditions correspond to the
                                                      Monterey Formation and Clayey
           Sulfate Soils: Soil containing an          Siltstone Facies of the Capistrano
           unusually high sulfate content can cause   Formation, and they know the
           the concrete slab upon which houses are    geographic distribution of these rock
           built to crack, crumble and break apart.   units. Presently regulations and design
           This is due to the presence of             standards in the Uniform Building Code
           destructive sulfates - a salt-like         describe specific cement types and mix
           substance derived from sulfuric acid. It   designs to be used in construction
           is most notably detected by telltale       which is directly exposed to soil or
           cracks in the concrete which is            water containing sulfate concentrations.
           accompanied by a characteristic white,
           powdery substance. The powder is           Gaseous Soils: In March 1985, a fire
           composed of the sulfate minerals           and explosion in the Fairfax area of Los
           gypsum and ettringite that grow in the     Angeles occurred, drawing attention to
           concrete and cause expansion, cracking     a potential safety hazard caused by the
           and deterioration.                         natural accumulation of gas within the
                                                      soil. Naturally occurring gas within the
           In Orange County this problem is           soil is often caused by bacterial activity
           particularly prevalent in La Palma         (i.e., biogenic gas) and is not associated
           where 50 to 100 homes in a single tract    with petroleum.
           were affected in late 1985. As many as     In an effort to preclude further
           100 additional homes may have cracked      occurrences, the State legislature
           and, in some cases, crumbling floors.      enacted Senate Bill SB 1458 (Roberti)


IX-90
                                                            CHAPTER IX. SAFETY ELEMENT


directing the Department of                     structure of the soil contributes greatly
Conservation, Division of Oil and Gas           to the failure of the soil. When built
to select and survey areas suspected of         upon or covered over with fill, this
containing the greatest potential for           weakly supported soil collapses
hazardous gas accumulations.                    immediately when put in contact with
                                                water.
Three criteria were utilized to identify
suspected areas: 1) the areas must be       Seismic and Geologic Hazard
urban; 2) the areas must have oil and       Management
gas wells that were abandoned prior to
1930; and 3) the areas must have a          ALQUIST-PRIOLO EARTHQUAKE
history of natural oil and/or gas           FAULT ZONING ACT (FORMERLY
seepage.                                    SPECIAL STUDIES ZONES ACT)


Based upon the three criteria, eight high   The State legislature enacted the Alquist-
risk areas were identified within           Priolo Special Studies Zones Act in 1972 to          The most
Southern California. Three sites were       assure that homes, offices, hospitals, public       expensive
identified within Orange County:            buildings, and other structures for human         landslide in
Newport oil field (City of Newport          occupancy are not built on active faults.         U.S. history
Beach); Brea-Olinda oil field (City of      The act includes special study zone criteria      occurred in
Brea); and Huntington Beach oil field       and requires a geological investigation          Thistle, Utah
(City of Huntington Beach).                 before a local government can approve most          in 1983. It
                                            development projects in a special study            reached ½
Corrosive Soils: Soils become corrosive     zone.                                            mile from top
to metals when they are abnormally                                                          to bottom and
acidic (low PH) or saline (high chlorine    As required under the Act, the State                ranged in
content with low resistance to electrical   Geologist initiated a program early in 1973        width from
current). Metallic pipes and structures     to delineate Special Study Zones which            1,000 feet to
can be protected by various coatings,       encompass potentially and recently active        about 1 mile.
wrappings, and cathotic devices.            traces of four major faults (San Andreas,          Total costs
Without this protection, the life of the    Calaveras, Hayward, and San Jacinto) as         attributable to
metallic structures are greatly shortened   well as other "sufficiently active and well      the landslide
with resulting cost increases.              defined" faults. Although there are eight       exceeded $500
                                            Special Studies Zones which partially                 million.
Hydro-consolidation: Hydro-                 include areas bordering Orange County,
                                                                                                     FEMA
consolidation is a condition that occurs    only six of the maps identify faults within
closer to the ground surface as             the County. Earthquake Fault Zones are
compared to the similar condition of        shown on the quadrangle maps; Prado Dam,
subsidence. The honeycomb -like             Seal Beach, Newport Beach, La Habra, Los

                                                                                             IX-91
          CHAPTER IX. SAFETY ELEMENT


                      Alamitos, and Yorba Linda.                       include Anaheim Quadrangle (revised
                                                                       April 1998); La Habra Quadrangle
                      Modifications were made to the study zone        (April 1998); Los Alamitos Quadrangle
                      surrounding the Newport-Inglewood Fault          (March 1999); Newport Beach
                      extending into the Newport Beach                 Quadrangle (April 1997 Liquefaction-
                      quadrangle. This modification, made by           April 1998 Landslide); Orange
                      CDMG, July 1, 1986, narrowed the study           Quadrangle (April 1998); Seal Beach
                      zone from several thousand feet to 700 feet      Quadrangle (March 1999); Tustin
                      and shortened the zone which now stops just      Quadrangle (April 1998) Yorba Linda
Groundshaking         north of Atlanta Avenue in Huntington            Quadrangle (April 1998); Whittier
causes 99% of         Beach. Revisions were also made to the           Quadrangle (March 1999); San Juan
the earthquake        Seal Beach and Los Alamitos Quadrangles          Capistrano Quadrangle (Dec. 2001);
damage to             in 1986 and the La Habra quadrangle in           Laguna Beach Quadrangle (April
California            1991. The Yorba and Prado Dam                    1998); Dana Point Quadrangle (Dec.
homes.                quadrangles have not been changed from the       2001); Santiago Peak Quadrangle (June
                      date issued in 1980.                             2002); Prado Dam Quadrangle (Jan.
National Earthquake
Information Center                                                     2001); Black Star Canyon Quadrangle
                      Areas within unincorporated Orange County        (Jan. 2001); and, El Toro Quadrangle
                      that are impacted by the “Earthquake Fault       (Jan. 2001).
                      Zones” (formerly Special Studies Zones)
                      maps are located within the Bolsa Chica       b) Additional Seismic and Geologic
                      area, Tonner Canyon area and island areas        Mapping Data:
                      adjacent to the cities of Yorba Linda and        The California Division of Mines and
                      Brea. County programs and policy for             Geology (CDMG) has produced a series of
                      implementation of Alquist-Priolo                 maps depicting the environmental geology
                      requirements are found in the Bolsa Chica        of Orange County (1976). This ten plate
                      Local Coastal Plan.                              set depicts faulting; recency of faulting;
                                                                       earthquake epicenters; liquefaction
                      a) Seismic Hazards Zones Maps:                   potential; relative seismic shaking; massive
                          In 1990 the Legislature passed the           bedrock landslides; mud-debris flows and
                          Seismic Hazard Mapping Act. Under            rock-fall; expansitivity potential of soils
                          this Act, the Division of Mines and          and rock units; distribution of peat
                          Geology has produced a series of             deposits; and tsunami risk. These maps
                          official maps that identify areas prone      can be reviewed at the Orange County
                          to liquefaction and earthquake induced       Resources and Development Management
                          landslides. At the present time, nine        Department, Building and Safety Division.
                          official maps have been released that
                          are located within the County. The        BUYER NOTIFICATION PROGRAM
                          official Seismic Hazards Zones Maps


          IX-92
                                                                 CHAPTER IX. SAFETY ELEMENT


The County Buyer Notification Program,               within the foothills; as of yet, the
established by the Board of Supervisors, is          program has not been implemented;
intended to provide prospective home
                                                d) In-channel Sediment Control:
buyers with appropriate information about
                                                     Sediment control is enhanced through
future development and public facilities                                                               Common
                                                     deposition of sediment in the Lower
planned for the area surrounding a                                                                   earthquake
                                                     San Diego Creek;
residential subdivision project. Information                                                             myths:
concerning locations of key facilities are      e)   Upper Bay Control: Sediment is               ---------------------
provided on a community project map.                 captured before it migrates to the Upper     1). Big
                                                     Bay; and                                          earthquakes
EROSION CONTROL                                                                                        happen in
                                                f)   Localization: Sediment is actively                the early
Erosion control measures in Orange County            managed locally to minimize wide-
                                                                                                       morning.
are not confined to beach and cliff erosion,         spread project administration areas.
but extend to agricultural lands and
                                                                                                  2). It’s hot and
bay/estuary protection. Such control            These programs/elements are monitored by
                                                                                                       dry –
measures can be found in the comprehensive      the Environmental Resources Section of
                                                                                                       earthquake
erosion control program in effect in the        RDMD.                                                  weather!
Newport Bay watershed area. This program
is voluntary and incorporates a variety of      Other methods of controlling erosion in
                                                                                                  3). Beachfront
individual elements aimed at specific           Orange County exist, including the County's            property in
erosion concerns:                               Grading Ordinance which strictly regulates
                                                                                                       Arizona.
                                                hillside grading with regard to soil stability.
a)   Agricultural Best Management               It provides for erosion control measures at       4). We have
     Practices (BMP): This program              the time of development. The U.S. Army
                                                                                                       good
     instructs farmers in various land          Corps of Engineers addresses shoreline
                                                                                                       building
     management practices to reduce soil        erosion through participation in shoreline             codes so we
     loss. Because agricultural practices are   facility construction, management efforts,
                                                                                                       must have
     considered a non-point source of soil      beach erosion studies, and other shoreline
                                                                                                       good
     erosion, complete reduction of             issues.                                                buildings.
     agricultural soil loss is extremely
                                                                                                  Southern California
     difficult;                                 Future Prospects                                  Earthquake Center

b) Construction Activities: This Element
                                                In view of the County's susceptibility and
     acts in conjunction with the County's
                                                vulnerability to natural hazards, both
     grading ordinance to reduce soil
                                                seismically and geologically induced,
     erosion;
                                                continuing emphasis will be placed on
c)   Foothill Basins Program: This              emergency planning; training of full-time,
     program is aimed at controlling erosion    auxiliary, and reserve personnel; public


                                                                                                  IX-93
CHAPTER IX. SAFETY ELEMENT


         awareness and education; and securing                mitigation, preparedness, response, and
         sufficient resources to cope with such               recovery through the Emergency
         hazards. Emphasis will also be placed on             Management Council and Orange
         mitigation measures to reduce losses from            County Operational Area.
         hazards.
                                                         3.   To promote public awareness and
         Planning for these interrelated elements will        preparedness in the area of seismic
         necessitate coordination on the part of              safety in Orange County.
         County, City, and State agencies charged
         with the protection of life and property.       4.   To implement ordinances, regulations,
         County agencies will continue to coordinate          and procedures which mandate the
         their efforts through mitigation measures            review, evaluation, and restriction of
         and hazard plans aimed at maximizing this            land use due to possible undue geologic
         protection.                                          threat.


                                                         5.   To encourage establishment of seismic
                                                              design criteria and standards for county
         GOALS, OBJECTIVES AND                                facilities (e.g., transmission lines, water
         POLICIES: Seismic Safety and                         and sewage systems, and highways),
         Geologic Hazards                                     any structures housing necessary mobile
                                                              units and support equipment, and other
         Goals and Objectives                                 vital resources which would be needed
                                                              following an earthquake (e.g., "back-
         Refer to the General Natural Hazards                 up" power generation facilities and
         Component goals and objectives found at              water storage).
         the beginning of the Natural Hazards
         Component of this chapter.                      6.   To periodically update maps of existing
                                                              faults, slide areas, and other
         Policies                                             geographically unstable areas in and
                                                              around Orange County.
         1.   To provide emergency planners with
              ongoing and up-to-date information         7.   To monitor, evaluate, and analyze
              about private utilities' emergency              existing seismic and geological data as
              planning to accommodate and maintain            it pertains to Orange County to
              resource sharing between the public and         determine future regulations and
              private sector.                                 programs.

         2.   To continue the development and            8.   To establish development standards for
              implementation of earthquake                    land use, new construction, and


IX-94
                                                                   CHAPTER IX. SAFETY ELEMENT


     proposed improvements to ensure                   This program is intended to increase the
     proper design and location of structures.         Community's awareness of the need for
                                                       disaster preparedness and provide
9.   To provide coordination to all agencies           educational assistance to residences and
     within the county to assist in the                business.
     mitigation of geologic and seismic
     hazards and to educate those agencies in          New or Existing Program: Existing

     preparedness, response and recovery
                                                       Implementation Schedule: Ongoing
     from a major earthquake.

                                                       Responsible Agency: Orange County
10. To provide technical and policy                    Sheriff-Coroner/Emergency
     information regarding geological and              Management Division
     seismic hazards to developers,
     interested parties, and the general public        Source of Funds: County General
     through the Orange County Buyer                   Fund
     Notification Program.
                                                  2.   COMPREHENSIVE EROSION
11. To ensure coordination and consistency             CONTROL PROGRAM
     between the Orange County General
     Plan and the County Emergency Plan                Action:

     and Orange County Operational Area                Support the comprehensive erosion

     Plan.                                             control program efforts of RDMD to
                                                       preserve Orange County beaches, cliffs,
                                                       bays and estuaries, and agricultural
                                                       lands.

IMPLEMENTATION
                                                       Discussion:
PROGRAMS: Seismic and
                                                       Individual erosion control programs
Geologic Hazards
                                                       include Agricultural Best Management
                                                       Practices aimed at instructing farmers in
1.   PUBLIC EDUCATION/
                                                       land management practices;
     INFORMATION
                                                       construction activity guidelines; the

     Action:                                           Foothill Basins Program, aimed at

     Support the safety awareness efforts of           controlling erosion within the foothills;

     the Orange County Sheriff-Coroner                 in-channel sediment control; upper bay

     Department/ Emergency Management                  control; and localized sediment control.

     and other agencies through public
                                                       New or Existing Program: Existing
     information and educational activities.
     Discussion:                                       Implementation Schedule: Ongoing

                                                                                                   IX-95
CHAPTER IX. SAFETY ELEMENT


                                                                  Source of Funds: County General
              Responsible Agency: RDMD                            Fund

              Source of Funds: County General                4.   ORANGE COUNTY/SOUTHERN
              Fund                                                CALIFORNIA EARTHQUAKE
                                                                  PREPAREDNESS PROJECT
         3.   ALQUIST-PRIOLO PROGRAM                              (SCEPP)

              Action:
              Continue to administer Alquist-Priolo               Action:
              requirements in designated special                  Continue to administer and expand
              study zones as dictated in Orange                   implementation of the Orange
              County policy.                                      County/SCEPP plan through the Public
                                                                  Information Office Committee and
              Discussion:                                         other organizations and agencies.
              As required Under the 1972 Alquist-                 Implementation should include public
              Priolo Special Studies Zone Act, the                education awareness and response
              Office of the State Geologist delineated            motivation.
              Special Study Zones which encompass
              potentially and recently active traces of           Discussion:
              four major faults (San Andreas,                     Guided by the California Seismic Safety
              Calaveras, Hayward, and San Jacinto).               Commission (SSC), SCEPP is
              The Alquist-Priolo Special Study Zone               concerned with a broad range of issues
              is enforced to assure that homes,                   related to earthquake preparedness.
              offices, hospitals, public buildings, and           There are two concepts associated with
              other structures for human occupancy                SCEPP:
              are not built on or nearby active faults.
              Subsequently, numerous active and                   a)   The project works directly with
              potentially active fault traces in the state             local governments, private
              have been catalogued by and shown by                     industry, and volunteer groups in a
              the State on published maps.                             cooperative planning effort; and

              New or Existing Program: Existing                   b) The SCEPP approach addresses the
                                                                       full range of earthquake strategies
              Implementation Schedule: Ongoing
                                                                       including mitigation, short-term
                                                                       prediction response, emergency
              Responsible Agency:
                                                                       response, and recovery.
              •   California Division of Mines and
                  Geology
                                                                  New or Existing Program: New
              •   RDMD



IX-96
                                                                  CHAPTER IX. SAFETY ELEMENT


     Implementation Schedule: Ongoing
                                                      Responsible Agency: RDMD
     Responsible Agency: Orange County
     Sheriff-Coroner /Emergency                       Source of Funds: County General
     Management Division                              Fund.

     Source of Funds: County General             6.   INTERGOVERNMENTAL                           Investing in
     Fund                                             COORDINATION                                   landslide
                                                                                                  preventative
5.   BUYER NOTIFICATION                               Action:                                      steps such
     PROGRAM                                          Continue to develop intergovernmental        as planting
                                                      relations toward achieving seismic and           ground
     Action:                                          non-seismic protection goals,                 covers on
     Continue the administration of the               objectives, and policies.                     slopes, or
     Buyer Notification Program as
                                                                                                     installing
     designated by Board of Supervisors               Discussion:
                                                                                                  flexible pipe
     Resolution 82-1368. Land Use maps                With regards to handling seismic and
                                                                                                     fittings to
     and planning information required by             non-seismic matters, Orange County
                                                                                                  avoid gas or
     the guidelines shall be updated yearly           cooperates with various levels of
                                                                                                  water leaks,
     by the subdivider/ developer, or more            government including federal, state, and
                                                                                                      will help
     often if the Director of Planning,               local agencies. For instance, SCEPP is
                                                                                                   reduce the
     RDMD is aware of planning changes                a state and federally funded effort to
                                                                                                     impact of
     which affect the subdivision and                 spur local jurisdictions to prepare for
                                                                                                         future
     requires the update as a condition of the        predicted and unpredicted
                                                                                                   landslides.
     map’s.                                           "catastrophic" earthquakes in the Los
                                                      Angeles metropolitan area. Continued                FEMA
     Discussion:                                      and expanded cooperation among
     The Buyer Notification Program is                agencies will provide a coordinated
     intended to provide prospective home             effort toward achieving seismic and
     buyers with an appropriate overview of           non-seismic protection funding,
     nearby planning and development. Key             phasing, and implementation.
     information denoted on Buyer
     Notification maps includes location of           New or Existing Program: Existing
     service facilities and life-sustaining
     infrastructure (e.g., fire stations,             Implementation Schedule: Ongoing

     hospitals, utilities).
                                                      Responsible Agency: RDMD
     New or Existing Program: Existing
                                                      Source of F unds: County General
     Implementation Schedule: Ongoing                 Fund


                                                                                                 IX-97

				
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