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					ESOL GUIDANCE

To take the test you should understand English to ‘Entry level 3’ for the UK ESOL
core curriculum. ESOL means ‘English for Speakers of Other Languages’. At Entry
3 you should understand a number of areas of English grammar. The list below
shows only those areas which are used in the test.

SECTION 1 - IMPORTANT GRAMMAR ITEMS

1 Complex sentences

Divali is a festival which takes place in autumn.

2 Conjunctions

Of time – when, until
Of condition – if

3 Relative clauses

The car that/which I bought…
The person who saw me earlier…

4 Verb + infinitive

I saw the police arrive.
He went to France to learn French.

5 Questions

A wide range of ‘Wh’ questions
(These are very important for the test).


Who
What
Which
When
Where
Why

How
How long
How many
How often

At which
Of which
On which
In which
Between which
From which
By when
Up to what




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6 Tenses

Present simple – I sing
Past simple – I sang
Present perfect – I have sung

7 Modals

can
could
should
may
must
have to
must not

8 Comparatives

big, bigger, biggest
more, less
most, least

9 Prepositions

in, at, on, over, under, until, up to, before, after, between, of, from, to, into, by,
until (=till)


10 Modifiers


Adverbials of degree or frequency

usually, sometimes, generally, commonly, mainly, always, never, normally

Adverbials of manner

legally, sexually

Adverbials of time

still, yet, currently, now, immediately


Intensifiers

very, much, quite

(most other grammar items at Entry level 3 are not relevant to the test)

SECTION TWO - CHECK YOUR UNDERSTANDING

1 Modals

Can, could, will, should, may, must, have to, must not




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Look at these part-questions from the test. The modal verbs are highlighted. Do
you understand what they mean? If not, do the tasks.

In which TWO ways could you organise a visit …

Women can take maternity leave …

Anyone who does not pay enough National Insurance may have some benefits
reduced…

Who will help to find a solution …

How should you register for tax …

If a citizen wants to vote, to which office must they must send …

What must you have to drive …

TASK1

TASK1a

Modal verbs can express possibility, ability and obligation

Which meaning does each verb have? Match the meaning in column 1 with the
verb in column 2. One verb can be used in two places.

Column 1                                     Column 2
Possibility                                  must
                                             should
                                             can
Ability                                      have to
                                             will
Obligation                                   could
                                             may


Answers

Possibility – may, could, can
Ability – will, can
Obligation – must, have to, should

TASK1b

Which is stronger – must or should?

Answer

must

TASK1c

What is the difference between these sentences?

I do not have to take the pills.



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I must not take the pills.

Answer

I do not have to take the pills. = it is not important to take the pills. The pills are
not necessary.

I must not take the pills. = it is important not to take the pills. The pills are
dangerous.


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2 Modifiers

2.1 Adverbs about how much or how often

usually, sometimes, generally, commonly, mainly, always, never, normally.

Look at these part-questions from the test. The adverbs are highlighted. DO you
understand what they mean? If not, do the tasks after the list.

Which age can children usually work …

Workers from … were recruited to work in the UK. When did they mainly come?

Which of the following is always available when you …

Which organisation normally provides …?

Which of these are not commonly insured?


TASK 2

Put the adverbs in the right places in this table:

100%              75% (5 words)       25% (1 word)        0% (1 word)
(1 word)

xxxxxxxxxxx                           xxxxxxxxxxx         xxxxxxxxxxx
xxxxxxxxxxx                           xxxxxxxxxxx         xxxxxxxxxxx
xxxxxxxxxxx                           xxxxxxxxxxx         xxxxxxxxxxx
xxxxxxxxxxx                           xxxxxxxxxxx         xxxxxxxxxxx




                                             4
Answers

100%              60 - 90%           50%                10-40%             0%
Always            usually            xxxxxxxxxxx        sometimes          never
xxxxxxxxxxx       generally          xxxxxxxxxxx        xxxxxxxxxxx        xxxxxxxxxxx
xxxxxxxxxxx       commonly           xxxxxxxxxxx        xxxxxxxxxxx        xxxxxxxxxxx
xxxxxxxxxxx       Mainly             xxxxxxxxxxx        xxxxxxxxxxx        xxxxxxxxxxx
xxxxxxxxxxx       normally           xxxxxxxxxxx        xxxxxxxxxxx        xxxxxxxxxxx


Adverbs about time

Look at this question from the test:

Which is NOT one of the most common part-time jobs for pupils who are still at
school?

Still can mean quiet or silent, but it is usually an adverb representing an attitude
to time.


TASK 3
What is the difference between:

Why are you still here?

Why aren’t you here yet?

Answer

Still – the person is here but the speaker does not expect them to be there.

Yet – the person is not here but the speaker expects them to be there.

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3 Prepositions

Look at these part-questions from the test. The prepositions are highlighted. Do
you understand what they mean? If not, look at the information and do the tasks
after the list.

At which office …

In which countries …
Of which part of the UK …

On which day do Christians …

After which war did workers …

Between which ages must children …

By when must a person go to an employment tribunal …

If you are driving a car over three years old, what …?



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Up to what age can people get …?

How many children under 17 …

For which reason can an employer …

How can you arrange a visit to the …?

How many MPs sit in the …?

Where can you get advice and information about grants to …

Which is the government scheme that helps people with training for …

3.1 Information about prepositions

Time

By: Finish the job by 10 am = finish the job some time in the time from now to
10am

Up to: You have up to 10 o’clock to see the sights = you can use all the time
before 10 o’clock to see the sights

Between: You can catch the trains between 6am and midnight = the trains run
from 6am to 12 midnight.


Place

At = exact location – at the bus stop
In = somewhere containing a boundary – in the town




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Quantity

Over: The cost was over £20 – more than £20

Under: The cost was under £20 – less than £20

Between: The cost was between £20 and £50 – more than £20 and less than
£50

TASK 4

Fill in the gaps with the right prepositions:

___which office can you see names…

___ which countries did UK industries recruit many workers in the 1950s?

___ which part of the UK is …

___which day do Christians …

___ which war did workers …?

___ which ages must children …?



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___ when must a person go to an employment tribunal …

If you are driving a car ___ three years old, what …?

___ what age can people get …?

How many children ___17 are at school?

___which reason can an employer …

How can you arrange a visit ___ the …?

How many MPs sit __ the …?

Where can you get advice and information ___ grants …

Which is the government scheme that helps people ___ training …?

Answers

At/in which office can you see names…

In/from which countries did UK industries recruit many workers in the 1950s?

In/of which part of the UK is …

On which day do Christians …

In/after/before which war did workers …?

Between/from which ages must children …?

By/up to/from when must a person go to an employment tribunal …

If you are driving a car over/up to three years old, what …?

Up to/from/after/by what age can people get …?

How many children under/over/of/up to17 are at school?

For which reason can an employer …

How can you arrange a visit to the …?

How many MPs sit in the …?

Where can you get advice and information on/about/for grants …

Which is the government scheme that helps people in/with/for training …?

See the questions at the top of this section (Prepositions) for the actual words as
used in test questions - for example ‘By when’ – but the other words in the
answers are all grammatically correct - for example ‘Up to when’ or ‘From when’.
But they may have different meanings.
.




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4 Questions – inversion

There are no inversion questions in the test, because inversion questions always
expect the answers yes or no, and the test always gives you different answers to
select.

But inversion questions are easier to understand than the ‘wh’ questions in the
test, so look at some questions of this type first.

Can children usually work?
Do children work?
Must children work?
Should children work?
Could children work if they were ill?
Will children work in the future?
Have children worked in the past hundred years?
Did children work in the last century?
Does the Prime Minister live in Downing Street?

English makes questions by ‘inverting’ – changing round – the order of the words
in a statement.

So the statements that relate to these questions are:

Children can usually work.
Children work (the word ‘do’ is added in the question)
Children must work.
Children should work.
Children will work.
Children have worked.
Children worked (the word ‘did’ is added to make a question in the past)
The Prime Minister lives (the word ‘does’ is added to make the question if there is
a single subject (one Prime Minister) not a plural subject (many children)).


TASK 5

Now try making some statements from these questions:

Does England have St George as a patron saint?

Yes, England___________________________________________________

Do electors choose a new prime minister?

Yes, electors___________________________________________________

Do illegal drugs commonly cause mental illness?

Yes, illegal drugs_______________________________________________

Do credit cards charge a high rate of interest ?

Yes, credit cards _______________________________________________




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Answers

 England has St George as a patron saint.
 The electors can choose a new prime minister.
 Drugs can commonly cause mental illness.
 A credit card usually has a high rate of interest.
 Peers and prisoners CANNOT stand for public office.
 The ‘U’ classification of a film means that anyone
 can watch it.
 December 25th is the public holiday for Christmas.

Now go on to look at the ‘Wh’ questions page.

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5 ‘Wh’ questions

If you have not already looked at the inversion questions page, look there first.

The seven main question words are: what, which, when, where, who, why and
how. What and which are most frequent in the test, followed by when and where.

In the test, ‘which’ is the most common word. It is like ‘what’, but shows that the
choice is limited.

What

What would you like to eat?

Which

I have pears, apples, and bananas. Which would you like? (there are only three
choices).

So ‘which’ is the word in a test when you have to choose one of four, or two of
four answers if it is multiple match.

Remember it is easy to see when a question is multiple match because it always
has the word ‘two’ in big letters: TWO.

Often ‘which’ or ‘what’ can be used with the same meaning.

Which dialect comes from London? Cockney

What dialect comes from London? Cockney

Which is also used like ‘who’ for organisations.

Which can choose a new prime minister?
(Parliament, Cabinet, Government, or Church)

The other question words are for

People – who
Time – when



                                            10
Place – where
Method – how
Reason - why


TASK6

Now try matching these questions and answers:

Who is head of the government?            A festival
When is Christmas?                        In England
Where is London?                          Press the button
How do you turn on the radio?             The other colours pass through it
Why is the sky blue?                      London
Which is bigger, London or Berlin?        December 25th
What is Christmas?                        The prime minister

Answers

Who is head of the government?            The prime minister
When is Christmas?                        December 25th
Where is London?                          In England
How do you turn on the radio?             Press the button
Why is the sky blue?                      The other colours pass through it
Which is bigger, London or Berlin?        London
What is Christmas?                        A festival

Those are quite easy, but when you get complicated questions it is harder to see
the question word.


TASK 7

Find the question words here:

Until what age is school education compulsory (legally required)?

The United Nations is an association of countries. How many members are on the
Security Council?

Jewish people came to Britain to escape racist attacks. When did they mainly
come?

Non-British (and Irish) EU and Commonwealth citizens resident in the UK cannot
vote in all elections. Which ones can they NOT vote in?

The Commonweath is an association of countries. What is the main cause for its
existence?

Women with jobs may take maternity leave when they have a baby. How long
can this be for?

Answers

There are 2 ‘what’s, 2 ‘how’s, one ‘when’ and one ‘which’.




                                       11
Until what age is school education compulsory (legally required)?

The United Nations is an association of countries. How many members are on the
Security Council?

Jewish people came to Britain to escape racist attacks. When did they mainly
come?

Non-British (and Irish) EU and Commonwealth citizens resident in the UK cannot
vote in all elections. Which ones can they NOT vote in?

The Commonweath is an association of countries. What is the main cause for its
existence?

Women with jobs may take maternity leave when they have a baby. How long
can this be for?

TASK 8

Complete the answers.

Which citizens CANNOT stand for public office?

Peers and prisoners ___________________________________________

Which classification of a film means that anyone can watch it?

The ‘U’ classification____________________________________________

Which day is the public holiday for Christmas?

December 25th_________________________________________________

Other problems with ‘Wh’ questions

There are three other difficulties.

1. In complicated questions, the question word is at the front of the question but
there are often a lot of other words before you get to the important words:

Which TWO organisations can you ask for help and support if you are sexually
harassed at work?

The main meaning is right at the end – ‘sexually harrassed at work’ – but you
have to read a lot of other words first.

2. English often puts a preposition in front of the question word:

At which office can you see all the names on the local electoral register (list of
voters)?
Between which periods is a census of the UK population taken?

By when must a person go to an employment tribunal with a complaint about
losing their job?

Of which part of the UK is St George the patron saint?




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On which day do Christians hold services to remember the death of Jesus Christ?

So it is not so easy to see the question word. Make sure that you understand the
prepositions, too. They are all different!

3. With ‘how’ there are often other words which change the meaning:


How much – usually price or weight - £5, £10, 10 kilos

How many – number of people or things: 1, 10, 100

How long – period of time: six months, ten years

How often – frequency: every year, every ten years

How old – at what age (5 years old, 16 years old)


Note that sometimes you have to choose a percentage (%). The question always
shows the percentage sign, and says ‘What percentage (%)’.

Other kinds of questions also ask for numbers. If the question asks ‘what is the
population of England?’ it means ‘how many people live in England?’.

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