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					    2011



AUSTRALIAN JOBS
    Contents


    National, state and territory labour markets                                       HOW CAN I USE
    Labour market overview                                                    4        AUSTRALIAN JOBS 2011?
    National overview                                                         5
    New South Wales                                                           6        Australian Jobs 2011 presents information for people exploring careers or
    Victoria                                                                  7        education and training options, as well as those currently looking for work
    Queensland                                                                8        or wanting assistance to enter or re-enter the labour market. The publication
    South Australia                                                           9        includes information about employment trends by region, occupation and
    Western Australia                                                        10        industry, together with projected employment growth and job prospects.
    Tasmania                                                                 11
                                                                                       The 2011 edition focuses on the variations in labour markets across regions
    Northern Territory                                                       12
                                                                                       of Australia. Regional labour markets vary markedly in terms of their industry
    Australian Capital Territory                                             12
                                                                                       composition, age and educational profiles. It is useful to know which are the
    Industries                                                                         key industries in your region and to understand the profile of the workforce,
                                                                                       as this information gives you an insight into where the jobs are, how strong
    Industry overview                                                       13
                                                                                       replacement demand will be, whether new jobs are being created and
    Australia’s changing industry structure                                 14
    Accommodation and Food Services                                         14         whether jobs are likely to require high levels of skill or qualification.
    Administrative and Support Services                                     15         Although the requirements for specific skills vary across regions and
    Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing                                       15         industries, overall, the demand for skilled workers is growing strongly
    Arts and Recreation Services                                            16         as the Australian economy continues to strengthen.
    Construction                                                            16
                                                                                       It is also true that no matter in which region or industry you work,
    Education and Training                                                  17
                                                                                       employers place very strong value on employability skills, that is, those
    Electricity, Gas, Water and Waste Services                              17
                                                                                       non-technical skills required to work effectively (information is on page 30).
    Financial and Insurance Services                                        18
                                                                                       When you are competing with many people for positions, it can be difficult
    Health Care and Social Assistance                                       18
                                                                                       to make yourself stand out from the crowd. Australian Jobs provides an
    Information Media and Telecommunications                                19
                                                                                       insight into the value of post-school education and training, as well as
    Manufacturing                                                           19
                                                                                       providing information about employability skills, to help you get the job you
    Mining                                                                  20
                                                                                       want, develop your career and support you to make informed choices.
    Other Services                                                          20
    Professional, Scientific and Technical Services                          21         The publication also highlights Government services available to assist you
    Public Administration and Safety                                        21         if you are looking for a job or want support for training or need help after
    Rental, Hiring and Real Estate Services                                 22         you have found a job (pages 32 to 34).
    Retail Trade                                                            22
                                                                                       While education and training is vital, one of the most difficult challenges, that
    Transport, Postal and Warehousing                                       23
                                                                                       even the most highly educated person can face, is breaking into the labour
    Wholesale Trade                                                         23
                                                                                       market with little or no workplace experience. It’s important to keep in mind
    Occupations and skills                                                             that an entry level job can provide you with the workplace skills and experience
                                                                                       that will be the vital first stepping stone to success in the labour market.
    Occupational overview                                                   24
    Occupational clusters and skill level                                   25         Although information contained in Australian Jobs 2011 is as up-to-date as
    Industry and occupational projections                                   26         we can make it, the labour market can change quickly and the skills needed
    Who is in-training?                                                     27         by employers vary across industries and geographic locations. Consequently,
    Education and employment                                                28         employment and training decisions need to be based on a range of
    Employability skills                                                    30         information including expectations about pay, working conditions, skills and
    Skills for sustainability                                               31         interests as well as training requirements and long term goals. Consider
    Employment, education and training services                             32         information from a wide range of sources. Useful sites include
    Regional assistance                                                     33
                                                                                       www.deewr.gov.au – education, training, employment and
    Job Prospects Matrix                                                               workplace information
    Guide to the Job Prospects Matrix                                       35         www.jobguide.deewr.gov.au – careers options and job requirements
    Job Prospects Matrix                                                    36
                                                                                       www.joboutlook.gov.au – occupational information
    Australian Jobs 2011 data sources                                       43
                                                                                       www.jobsearch.gov.au – current employment vacancies
                                                                                       www.myfuture.edu.au – get the facts and personalise your
       Inquiries about Australian Jobs should be directed to                           careers exploration.
       AustralianJobs@deewr.gov.au


      The content of Australian Jobs 2011 is based on information available at the time of publication. Over time, the reliability of the data and analysis may
      diminish. The Commonwealth, its officers, employees and agents do not accept responsibility for any inaccuracies contained in the report or for any
      negligence in the compilation of the report and disclaim liability for any loss suffered for any person arising from the use of this report. Labour market
      information must be used cautiously as employment prospects can change over time and vary by region. It is important in making and assessing career
      choices to consider all factors, including interests and aptitudes, remuneration and expectations, and the requirements of occupations.


2    AUSTRALIAN JOBS 2011
                                                                                                               Minister’s foreword




Australia has a strong labour market, and our continued low unemployment confirms the underlying strength of the Australian
economy. It is clear, though, that the natural disasters over early 2011 have taken a significant toll on the people and the economy
in Queensland, and we now have an unprecedented rebuilding task.
Many more skilled workers will be needed, not only to meet the challenges of this task, but also to meet employer needs
nationally as the economy continues to grow. The Australian Government is continuing to invest in skills, training and education.
This focus is important to ensure that employers have the skilled labour they need and to enable all Australians, no matter where
they live, to share in the enormous benefits and opportunities provided by a strong economy.
Developing a highly skilled and educated workforce is at the very heart of the Gillard Government’s plan to build an economy that
will meet the challenges of the future.
To meet the strong skills demand, the Gillard Government has made record investments in education and training. Our landmark
reforms have opened the doors of Australian universities to a new generation of students. In 2011 there are an extra 50 000
undergraduate students enrolled at Australian universities compared with 2009.
There are also now a record 448 800 apprentices and trainees in-training across the nation.
At every age and at every stage in life, Australians must have access to education and training to gain the skills they need to take
the high-paid, high-skilled jobs on offer in our economy.
The Australian Jobs 2011 publication supports this aim by providing a wealth of information about the labour market and about
Australian Government services which can assist you if you need help to develop your skills or find employment. It highlights the
industries in which employment is expected to grow most strongly over the next five years and provides an insight into regional
labour markets and the opportunities they provide.
I recommend this valuable resource to anyone interested in education, training and work.




Chris Evans




                                                                                                                    AUSTRALIAN JOBS 2011   3
    National, state and territory labour markets


    LABOUR MARKET OVERVIEW
    The changing labour market                                                       Unemployment Rate and Annual Employment
                                                                                     Growth, March 1991 to March 2011 (%)
    Over the last 20 years, the nature of the Australian labour market has
    changed considerably. Today’s workforce is different from the one that                                          Unemployment Rate (%)   Annual Employment Growth (%)
    existed several decades ago. Over this period, we have seen                                              12.0                                                          6.0
    • the ageing of the population                                                                                                                                         5.0
                                                                                                             10.0
    • a considerable increase in the participation of women in the workforce                                                                                               4.0
    • a much greater focus on skilled jobs and slower growth in lower skilled jobs




                                                                                                                                                                                  Annual Employment Growth (%)
                                                                                                                                                                           3.0




                                                                                     Unemployment Rate (%)
                                                                                                              8.0
    • a greater number of young people choosing to participate in education                                                                                                2.0
    • technological change, greater labour market flexibility and economic                                     6.0                                                          1.0
      reforms which have helped to transform peoples’ working arrangements.                                                                                                0.0
                                                                                                              4.0
    Following the end of the early 1990s recession up until the onset of the                                                                                               -1.0
    global recession in September 2008, the demand for workers in Australia                                                                                                -2.0
    was high.                                                                                                 2.0
                                                                                                                                                                           -3.0
    • Indeed, over the 15 years to September 2008, employment growth
                                                                                                              0.0                                                          -4.0
      was exceptionally strong, increasing by around 3.2 million (or an




                                                                                                                    Mar-91
                                                                                                                    Mar-92
                                                                                                                    Mar-93
                                                                                                                    Mar-94
                                                                                                                    Mar-95
                                                                                                                    Mar-96
                                                                                                                    Mar-97
                                                                                                                    Mar-98
                                                                                                                    Mar-99
                                                                                                                    Mar-00
                                                                                                                    Mar-01
                                                                                                                    Mar-02
                                                                                                                    Mar-03
                                                                                                                    Mar-04
                                                                                                                    Mar-05
                                                                                                                    Mar-06
                                                                                                                    Mar-07
                                                                                                                    Mar-08
                                                                                                                    Mar-09
                                                                                                                    Mar-10
                                                                                                                    Mar-11
      annual average rate of 2.3%).
    • Full-time employment rose by 1.9 million over the period (an annual            Source: ABS Labour Force Survey, trend data
      average rate of 1.9%), while part-time employment increased by
      almost 1.3 million (or an annual average rate of 3.6%), although the           Interesting facts about regional
      rise in part-time employment was clearly off a much lower base.
                                                                                     labour markets
    The global recession and the                                                     There are more than 4.1 million jobs in regional Australia. Five industries
                                                                                     employ more than 300 000 workers in regional Australia. These industries
    labour market                                                                    are Retail Trade (463 400 workers), Health Care and Social Assistance
    Following the onset of the global recession the Australian labour market         (461 500), Construction (395 800), Manufacturing (347 400) and
    slowed significantly.                                                             Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing (331 500).
    • Employment increased by just 0.4% between September 2008 and
                                                                                     Those job seekers who are mobile, or who are prepared to up-skill or
      September 2009, compared with an annual average growth rate of
                                                                                     retrain, particularly in occupations where there are shortages, will have
      2.8% over the five years to September 2008.
                                                                                     a great advantage in the labour market.
    • The unemployment rate increased, from 4.3% in September 2008 to
                                                                                     • The Government offers a broad range of assistance to help job seekers
      a peak of 5.8% in September 2009.
                                                                                       to train (see pages 32 to 34).
    • Unemployment rose significantly over the year to September 2009 (up
                                                                                     • There are also incentives available for eligible job seekers who are
      by 182 900 or 37.6%). However, this would have been much larger had
                                                                                       considering relocating for work or an apprenticeship (see page 33).
      employers not chosen, at least in the first instance, to reduce employee
      hours in an attempt to avoid redundancies.                                     Keeping in touch with local labour market conditions and what skills are in
    • Reflecting this, over the year to September 2009, the level of part-time        demand is also important.
      employment increased by 182 400 (or 5.9%) while full-time                      • If you are considering moving to find work, or just want to research your
      employment declined by 136 400 (or 1.7%).                                        local labour market, you can explore facts and figures about your region
    • A number of other factors also helped restrict the rise in unemployment          through the Labour Market Information Portal (www.deewr.gov.au/lmip).
      in Australia during the global recession, including significant investments     • Other resources such as www.deewr.gov.au/skillshortages will let
      in public infrastructure and resilient demand for our mining exports.            you know what skilled occupations are currently in shortage.
                                                                                     • Information on outcomes for university and vocational education and
    Recovery from the global recession                                                 training graduates can also be a valuable resource for informing your
                                                                                       career choices (see pages 28 and 29).
    Labour market conditions have strengthened considerably since the height
    of the global recession and have been particularly robust over the past year.    Jobs Services Australia providers are located in more than 2100 towns,
    • Employment increased solidly, by 309 500 (or 2.8%) between March               cities and rural sites across Australia. Job Services Australia provides
      2010 and March 2011, with more than 90% of total employment                    opportunities for training, skills development, work experience and tailored
      growth accounted for by full-time employment.                                  assistance. See page 32 for more information.
    • The unemployment rate fell from 5.3% to 4.9%.
    • The participation rate (the proportion of adults in Australia who are either
      employed or are looking for work) increased by 0.5 percentage points over
      the year to stand at a near record high of 65.8% in March 2011.




4    AUSTRALIAN JOBS 2011
                                                                                                        National, state and territory labour markets


NATIONAL OVERVIEW
Australia’s labour market                                                                                       the employment growth rate was strongest in the Northern Territory, the
                                                                                                                small size of its labour force means there was a relatively small number
Key labour market statistics
                                                                                                                of new jobs, 23 700 (or 2% of new jobs nationally) .
Employment (number)                                                                   11 390 100
Employment change (past 5 years) %                                                          13.1                Australia has an ageing workforce, with almost two out of every five
Working part-time %                                                                           30                workers (38%) aged 45 years or older, up from 33% a decade ago. Over
Female %                                                                                      45                the same period, the proportion of employed persons aged under 25 has
Aged 45 years or older %                                                                      38                fallen slightly from 18% to 17%.
Employment outside state capital cities %                                                     37
Education                                                                                                       Capital cities and regional areas
Without post-school qualifications %                                                                39           There are sound opportunities for employment in regional Australia. In
With VET qualifications (Cert III or higher) %                                                      30           November 2010, there were more than 4.1 million people employed in
With a Bachelor degree or higher %                                                                 26           regional Australia, more than one in three workers (37%).
                                                                                                                The labour market varies markedly across regions with a number of areas
Australia’s population is around 22.3 million and almost 11.4 million Australians
                                                                                                                experiencing strong employment growth and low unemployment rates.
are employed. The workforce is highly concentrated, with more than three in
                                                                                                                Even in those regions where unemployment is relatively high, some employers
every four workers employed in the three most populous states. New South
                                                                                                                experience difficulty recruiting, particularly in skilled occupations. This is
Wales is the largest employing state with around 3.6 million workers, followed
                                                                                                                largely due to a mismatch between the ‘pool of skills’ and those needed by
by Victoria, almost 2.9 million, and Queensland, 2.3 million. The smallest state,                               local employers. For example, many people looking for work may have limited
Tasmania, employs 237 400 workers, although the Australian Capital Territory                                    qualifications, but employers need highly skilled people.
and the Northern Territory have smaller workforces.
                                                                                                                Workers in regional areas are less likely to have studied after they have
Despite the impact of the global recession, particularly from late 2008 to                                      left school indicating there are real advantages for workers in these areas
late 2009, every state and territory recorded an increase in employment                                         to gain post-school qualifications to meet the skill needs of local employers.
over the five years to November 2010. The strongest growth was recorded                                          It is also interesting to note, that employment growth in New South Wales
in the Northern Territory, Western Australia and Queensland, which all                                          has been stronger in regional areas over the past five years than it has been
recorded growth in excess of 15% (compared with 13.1% nationally), due                                          in Sydney highlighting the demand for workers in these locations.
in large part to high levels of activity in the resources sector.
                                                                                                                The table below shows that, generally speaking, the workforce tends to be
However, the largest numbers of new jobs created over the five years were                                        older in regional areas than in metropolitan areas. This suggests there will
in the three largest states of Victoria (up by 362 400 or 14.5%), New South                                     be strong demand for workers in these areas to replace those who retire
Wales (348 900 or 10.7%) and Queensland (309 900 or 15.3%). Although                                            over the next decade.

Employment by state, city and region
                                                                                                                                                                                         % of employed
                                                                                                             Employ’t                     Employ’t                Aged
                                                                                                                                                                                Aged 45 persons (aged
                                                                              Employ’t                        change                        change             younger
                                                                                                                                                                                years or 15-64) without
                                                                              Nov 2010                       1 year to                   5 years to            than 25
                                                                                                                                                                                   older    post-school
                                                                                                             Nov 2010                    Nov 2010                years
                                                                                                                                                                                          qualifications1
                                                                                    ‘000                  ‘000   %                     ‘000         %                  %              %
New South Wales                                                                  3595.5                  127.6 3.7                    348.9       10.7                 16             38              36
Sydney                                                                            2299.1                   37.2 1.6                   167.0        7.8                 16             36              36
Regional NSW                                                                      1224.1                   34.2 2.9                   137.4       12.6                 16             43              43
Victoria                                                                         2856.8                    95.4 3.5                   362.4       14.5                 17             38              38
Melbourne                                                                         2102.9                   80.1 4.0                   245.4       13.2                 17             36              39
Regional VIC                                                                       707.4                   21.4 3.1                     85.3      13.7                 16             44              46
Queensland                                                                       2330.6                    74.4 3.3                   309.9       15.3                 18             38              42
Brisbane                                                                          1061.8                   21.5 2.1                   114.7       12.1                 19             35              43
Regional QLD                                                                      1240.9                   28.2 2.3                   192.6       18.4                 18             40              49
South Australia                                                                    815.6                   13.2 1.6                     67.8       9.1                 17             41              42
Adelaide                                                                           600.1                   19.4 3.3                     53.5       9.8                 18             40              44
Regional SA                                                                        209.4                   -6.0 -2.8                    13.0       6.6                 15             45              52
Western Australia                                                                1225.9                    45.0 3.8                   166.0       15.7                 18             38              42
Perth                                                                              907.7                   24.1 2.7                   138.2       18.0                 19             38              42
Regional WA                                                                        302.2                    5.5 1.9                     35.9      13.5                 15             41              50
Tasmania                                                                           237.4                    4.9 2.1                     14.4       6.5                 17             43              44
Hobart                                                                             102.0                    0.6 0.6                     -6.2      -5.7                 17             41              43
Regional Tasmania                                                                  134.2                    0.5 0.3                     23.5      21.2                 16             44              49
Northern Territory                                                                 122.9                    2.1 1.8                     23.7      23.9                 17             36              42
Australian Capital Territory                                                       205.1                    6.5 3.3                     20.3      11.0                 18             36              33
Australia                                                                       11 390.1                 369.0 3.3                   1316.8       13.1                 17             38              39
1
    Data for the states and Australia are from the ABS Survey of Education and Work, 2010. Data for state capital cites and regional areas are from the 2006 Census (latest available data).

                                                                                                                                                                            AUSTRALIAN JOBS 2011           5
    National, state and territory labour markets


    NEW SOUTH WALES
    New South Wales is the largest employing state, with almost one in every three                           Regional New South Wales
    Australian workers (3.6 million). Employment is concentrated in Sydney which
    accounts for almost two-thirds of the state’s employment. The largest                                    In regional New South Wales, around 60% of those employed work in three
    employing industries are Health Care and Social Assistance (404 900),                                    of the nine regions, Newcastle; Northern, North Western and Central West;
    Retail Trade (364 900) and Professional, Scientific and Technical Services                                and Richmond-Tweed and Mid-North Coast.
    (304 300), which collectively account for about 30% of the state’s employment.                           Over the year to November 2010, employment grew more strongly in regional
    Employment grew by 348 900 or 10.7% over the five years to November                                       New South Wales than it did in Sydney (2.9% compared with 1.6%). The
    2010, compared with national growth of 13.1%. Employment rose in 16 of                                   strongest growth was in Newcastle, up by 8.8% or 21 500, and Illawarra, up by
    the 19 industries, with the largest numbers of new jobs being in Health Care                             6.7% or 3900. On the other hand, employment in Far West NSW fell by 22.0%.
    and Social Assistance (92 500), Professional, Scientific and Technical                                    The largest employing industries in regional New South Wales are Health Care
    Services (54 800) and Education and Training (39 500). Over the past year,                               and Social Assistance (150 000), Retail Trade (136 200) and Construction
    employment has increased by 3.7% compared with national growth of 3.3%.                                  (104 800). Over the year to November 2010, the largest numbers of new jobs
    The New South Wales workforce is relatively highly skilled with 64% of                                   were in Education and Training (12 300), Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing
    workers holding a post-school qualification compared with 61% nationally. It                              (11 200) and Health Care and Social Assistance (11 100).
    also has a higher proportion of workers who hold a Bachelor degree or higher                             The proportion of workers who do not hold post-school qualifications is
    qualification than the national average (29% compared with 26%).                                          higher in regional areas than it is in Sydney (43% compared with 36%).
    More than 70% of New South Wales workers are employed full-time, and                                     Regional areas also have a lower proportion of people participating in the
    45% of workers are female. The proportion of workers aged 45 years or older                              workforce (60% compared with 66% in Sydney).
    is the same as the national average (38%).


    Employment by Region, Nov 2010 (% of total)                                                              Employment Growth, Year to Nov 2010 (%)




    Population and Employment
                                                Population                                                                       Employment
                                                     1 year                                                     1 year   Aged                                               Certificate
                                                                                                                                Aged 45     Bachelor
                                               June change                                                     change younger                                                     III/IV  No post-
                                                                                Nov 2010             % of                         years    degree or
                                               2009 to June                                                     to Nov than 25                                               or higher school qual
                                                                                  (‘000) 2          total2                      or older higher qual
                                             (‘000)1   2009                                                       2010   years                                               VET qual         (%) 3
                                                                                                                                    (%) 2       (%) 3
                                                        (%)1                                                       (%) 2
                                                                                                                          (%) 2
                                                                                                                                                                                   (%) 3
    Sydney                                   4504.5            1.9                   2299.1           65.3          1.6           16            36                 29                 26                 36
    Richmond-Tweed
                                                551.5          1.4                    223.3            6.3          2.6           13            47                 15                 31                 43
    and Mid-North Coast
    Murray-Murrumbidgee                        277.1           1.1                    135.9            3.9         0.7            17            47                 14                 29                 47
    Newcastle                                  540.8           1.4                    266.1            7.6         8.8            19            38                 17                 33                 41
    Hunter                                     103.5           1.3                     51.2            1.5         0.9            17            49                 11                 34                 45
    Wollongong                                 289.0           1.2                    124.6            3.5        -0.1            19            36                 19                 33                 38
    Illawarra                                  142.2           1.6                     62.8            1.8         6.7            20            46                 16                 34                 40
    South Eastern                              216.6           1.6                    106.8            3.0        -5.3            13            47                 17                 30                 43
    Northern, North Western
                                               486.5           1.2                    244.4            6.9          4.5           16            43                 14                 29                 46
    and Central West
    Far West                                    22.7         -0.5                      9.1            0.3        -22.0            11            57                 12                 27                  51
    New South Wales                           7134.4          1.7                   3595.5          100.0          3.7            16            38                294                294                 36 4
    Sources: 1ABS Regional Population Growth, Australia, 2009; 2ABS Labour Force Survey; 3ABS 2006 Census; 4ABS Survey of Education and Work, 2010 (data available at national and state levels only).




6     AUSTRALIAN JOBS 2011
                                                                                              National, state and territory labour markets


VICTORIA
Victoria is the second largest employing state, with one-quarter of the                                  Regional Victoria
nation’s employment (almost 2.9 million). Employment is highly
                                                                                                         The largest employing areas in regional Victoria are Barwon-Western District
concentrated in Melbourne which accounts for three-quarters of the state’s
                                                                                                         (195 100) and Goulburn-Ovens-Murray (143 300). Over the year to November
workforce. The largest employing industries are Retail Trade (317 300),
                                                                                                         2010, growth was strongest in All Gippsland, up by 10.9% or 13 300, and
Health Care and Social Assistance (313 100) and Manufacturing (305 800),
                                                                                                         Goulburn-Ovens-Murray, up by 5.9% or 8000. Central Highlands-Wimmera
which together account for about one in every three workers.
                                                                                                         recorded the only fall in employment (down by 3.3%).
State employment grew by 362 400 or 14.5% over the five years to November
                                                                                                         The largest employing industries in regional Victoria are Health Care and Social
2010, stronger than the national growth rate of 13.1%. Employment rose in 17
                                                                                                         Assistance (84 500), Retail Trade (80 900) and Manufacturing (80 300). A large
of the 19 industries, with the largest numbers of new jobs created in Health
                                                                                                         number of jobs were created in regional Victoria over the year to November 2010,
Care and Social Assistance (55 800), Construction (51 000) and Education
                                                                                                         particularly in Construction (10 700) and Other Services ( 6100).
and Training (45 900). The largest fall in employment was in Manufacturing
(down by 18 700 or 5.8%). Over the past year, employment in Victoria                                     Workers in regions outside Melbourne are less likely to hold post-school
increased by 3.5% compared with national growth of 3.3%.                                                 qualifications than their city counterparts (54% hold post-school
                                                                                                         qualifications compared with 61% in Melbourne). The proportion of workers
The Victorian workforce is relatively highly skilled with 30% of workers holding
                                                                                                         who hold Certificate III/IV Vocational Education and Training qualifications
a Bachelor degree or higher qualification compared with 26% nationally.
                                                                                                         varies little across metropolitan and regional areas. There is a marked
About 45% of workers are female, and 31% of workers are employed                                         difference though between Melbourne and regional locations in the proportion
part-time compared with 30% for Australia. The proportion of the Victorian                               of workers who hold a Bachelor degree or higher qualification (28% in
workforce aged 45 years or older is the same as the national average (38%).                              Melbourne compared with 15% in regional Victoria).
                                                                                                         Regional Victoria also has a lower proportion of people participating in the
                                                                                                         workforce (63% compared with 67% in Melbourne).

Employment by Region, Nov 2010 (% of total)                                                              Employment Growth, Year to Nov 2010 (%)




Population and Employment
                                               Population                                                         Employment
                                                       1 year                                          1 year   Aged                                               Certificate
                                                                                                                       Aged 45    Bachelor
                                               June change                         Nov                change younger                                                  III/IV or          No post-
                                                                                                % of                     years degree or
                                               2009 to June                       2010                 to Nov than 25                                                   higher        school qual
                                                                                               total2                  or older higher qual
                                             (‘000)1    2009                    (‘000) 2                 2010   years                                               VET qual                 (%) 3
                                                                                                                           (%) 2       (%) 3
                                                         (%)1                                             (%) 2
                                                                                                                 (%) 2
                                                                                                                                                                          (%) 3
Melbourne                                    3995.5           2.4                2102.9          74.8         4.0           17           36                28                25                  39
Barwon-Western District                        391.4          1.8                  195.1           6.9        0.2           15           42                17                30                  45
Central Highlands-Wimmera                      206.5          1.7                 100.8            3.6       -3.3           19           38                17                29                  46
Loddon-Mallee                                  278.4          1.5                  132.7           4.7        2.5           17           46                16                29                   47
Goulburn-Ovens-Murray                          310.0          1.1                 143.3            5.1        5.9           17           47                14                30                  48
All Gippsland                                  261.5          1.9                 135.5            4.8       10.9           16           48                14                32                  46
Victoria                                     5443.2           2.1               2856.8         100.0          3.5           17           38               30 4              28 4                 38 4
         1                                               2                          3                    4
Sources: ABS Regional Population Growth, Australia, 2009; ABS Labour Force Survey; ABS 2006 Census; ABS Survey of Education and Work, 2010 (data available at national and state levels only).




                                                                                                                                                                 AUSTRALIAN JOBS 2011                   7
    National, state and territory labour markets


    QUEENSLAND
    Queensland is the third largest employing state, with one in every five                                    Regional Queensland
    Australian workers (2.3 million). Employment is regionally dispersed with
    54% of employment outside Brisbane. The figures presented on this page                                     Over the year to November 2010, regional employment growth in
    do not reflect the effects of the natural disasters which occurred in early                                Queensland was stronger than metropolitan growth (2.3% compared
    2011 but clearly these have had, and will continue to have, a pronounced                                  with 2.1% in Brisbane).
    impact on the state’s labour market.                                                                      The largest employing regions outside Brisbane are the Gold Coast, where
    The largest employing industries are Retail Trade (262 500), Health Care                                  slightly more than one in eight Queensland workers is employed (12.7%) and
    and Social Assistance (252 200) and Construction (236 100), which                                         Mackay-Fitzroy-Central West which accounts for almost one in ten (9.1%).
    together account for almost one-third of employment in Queensland.
                                                                                                              Over the year to November 2010, employment growth was strongest in
    Employment grew by 309 900 or 15.3% over the five years to November                                        West Moreton, up by 6.6% or 2400, Northern-North West Queensland, up
    2010, compared with national growth of 13.1%. The largest numbers of                                      by 5.9% or 8300, and the Sunshine Coast up by 5.0% or 7400. Consistent
    new jobs were in Health Care and Social Assistance (64 300), Construction                                 with the state as a whole, the largest employing industries in regional
    (35 000) and Professional, Scientific and Technical Services (29 400). The                                 Queensland are Retail Trade (152 000), Health Care and Social Assistance
    only fall was in Information Media and Telecommunications (down by 4400                                   (132 900) and Construction (132 300). The largest numbers of new jobs
    or 12.3%). Over the past year, employment in Queensland rose by 3.3%,                                     over the past year were created in Health Care and Social Assistance
    the same rate as the national average.                                                                    (11 600) and Public Administration and Safety (10 500).
    Queensland has a slightly higher proportion of workers who do not hold                                    The proportion of workers who do not hold post-school qualifications
    post-school qualifications than the national average (42% compared with                                    is higher in regional areas of Queensland than it is in Brisbane (49%
    39%). It also has a lower proportion of workers who hold a Bachelor degree                                compared with 43%).
    or higher qualification than the national average (21% compared with 26%),
    but a slightly higher proportion of workers who hold Certificate III/IV or higher                          Regional areas also have a lower proportion of people participating
    Vocational Education and Training qualifications (32% compared with 30%).                                  in the workforce (66% compared with 69% in Brisbane).

    About 46% of Queensland workers are female compared with 45%
    nationally and 29% of workers are employed part-time compared with
    30% nationally. The workforce has the same proportion of workers aged
    45 years or older as the national average (38%).

    Employment by Region, Nov 2010 (% of total)                                                               Employment Growth, Year to Nov 2010 (%)




    Population and Employment
                                                   Population                                                                   Employment
                                                          1 year                                                 1 year         Aged                                         Certificate
                                                                                                                                       Aged 45    Bachelor
                                                   June change                          Nov                     change       younger                                            III/IV or   No post-
                                                                                                      % of                               years degree or
                                                  2009 to June                         2010                      to Nov      than 25                                              higher school qual
                                                                                                     total2                            or older higher qual
                                                (‘000)1 2009                         (‘000) 2                      2010        years                                          VET qual          (%) 3
                                                                                                                                           (%) 2       (%) 3
                                                            (%)1                                                    (%) 2        (%) 2
                                                                                                                                                                                    (%) 3
    Brisbane                                    1962.4      2.6                      1061.8          46.1           2.1           19        35          23                           26          43
    Sunshine Coast                                323.4     3.0                       154.4           6.7          5.0            21        41          15                           32          44
    West Moreton                                   80.2     4.3                        38.2           1.7          6.6            15        45           9                           27          56
    Wide Bay-Burnett                              293.5     3.1                       123.8           5.4          0.8            17        47          11                           29          51
    Mackay-Fitzroy-Central West                   398.4     2.4                       208.8           9.1         -0.3            16        35          12                           29          51
    Darling Downs-South West                      264.7     1.9                       138.2           6.0         -0.4            16        45          14                           26          52
    Northern-North West                           261.3     2.2                       149.3           6.5          5.9            20        36          15                           28          50
    Far North                                     269.7     2.6                       135.1           5.9           2.7           19        35          14                           30          47
    Gold Coast                                    571.4     3.2                       293.1          12.7           2.4           16        39          15                           30          46
    Queensland                                  4425.1      2.7                      2330.6         100.0          3.3            18        38         214                          324         424
    Sources: 1ABS Regional Population Growth, Australia, 2009; 2ABS Labour Force Survey; 3ABS 2006 Census; 4ABS Survey of Education and Work, 2010 (data available at national and state levels only).



8     AUSTRALIAN JOBS 2011
                                                                                                National, state and territory labour markets


SOUTH AUSTRALIA
South Australia is the second smallest employing state, with 7% of the                                   Regional South Australia
nation’s employment (815 600). Employment is highly concentrated in
                                                                                                         Regional South Australia has two labour force regions and they differ
Adelaide which employs almost three in every four of the state’s workers.
                                                                                                         markedly in terms of both geographic area and employment size. Southern
The largest employing industries in South Australia are Health Care and Social
                                                                                                         and Eastern SA accounts for almost 17% of state employment and Northern
Assistance (106 100), Retail Trade (91 700) and Manufacturing (80 800).
                                                                                                         and Western SA, which covers a much larger area, accounts for 9%. Over
Combined, these industries employ one in every three workers in the state.
                                                                                                         the year to November 2010, employment fell by 1.3% in Southern and
Employment across the state rose by 67 800 or 9.1% over the five years to                                 Eastern SA and by 5.5% in Northern and Western SA.
November 2010, lower than the national rate of 13.1%. Employment rose in
                                                                                                         The largest employing industries in regional South Australia are Agriculture,
15 of the 19 industries, with the largest numbers of new jobs being in                                   Forestry, and Fishing (31 000), Manufacturing (25 300) and Health Care
Construction (19 300), Health Care and Social Assistance (17 500) and                                    and Social Assistance (24 300). Over the past year, the largest numbers
Professional, Scientific and Technical Services (8200). Over the past year,                               of new jobs were in Construction (3200) and Manufacturing (1500).
employment grew by 1.6% compared with national growth of 3.3%.
                                                                                                         A smaller proportion of workers in regional South Australia hold post-school
South Australia has a slightly lower proportion of workers who hold                                      qualifications than their city counterparts (48% compared with 56%). The
post-school qualifications than the national average (58% compared                                        proportion of workers who hold Certificate III/IV Vocational Education and
with 61%), and a lower proportion holding a Bachelor degree or higher                                    Training qualifications varies little across metropolitan and regional areas.
qualification (23% compared with the national average of 26%).                                            There is a marked difference though between Adelaide and regional
South Australia’s workforce has a relatively old age profile, with 41% of                                 locations in the proportion of workers who hold a Bachelor degree or
                                                                                                         higher qualification (21% in Adelaide compared with 11% in regional
workers aged 45 years or older compared with 38% nationally. It also has
                                                                                                         South Australia).
a slightly higher proportion of its workers employed part-time than the
national average (32% compared with 30%) and slightly more of its                                        The proportion of people participating in the workforce is slightly lower
workers are female (46% compared with 45%).                                                              in regional areas than in Adelaide (62% compared with 64%).




Employment by Region, Nov 2010 (% of total)                                                              Employment Growth, Year to Nov 2010 (%)




Population and Employment
                                             Population                                                                       Employment
                                                        1 year                                              1 year   Aged                                               Certificate
                                                                                                                            Aged 45     Bachelor
                                            June       change                      Nov                     change younger                                                     III/IV  No post-
                                                                                                 % of                       years or   degree or
                                            2009       to June                    2010                      to Nov than 25                                               or higher school qual
                                                                                                total2                         older higher qual
                                          (‘000)1         2009                  (‘000) 2                      2010   years                                               VET qual         (%) 3
                                                                                                                                (%) 2       (%) 3
                                                           (%)1                                                (%) 2
                                                                                                                      (%) 2
                                                                                                                                                                               (%) 3
Adelaide                                  1187.5            1.3                   600.1          74.1          3.3            18            40                 21                 27                  44
Southern and Eastern SA                    273.0            1.2                   136.9          16.9         -1.3            15            44                 11                 28                  52
Northern and Western SA                    163.1            0.9                    72.5           9.0         -5.5            14            46                 11                 27                  53
South Australia                           1623.6            1.2                   815.6         100.0          1.6            17            41                234                304                 424
Sources: 1ABS Regional Population Growth, Australia, 2009; 2ABS Labour Force Survey; 3ABS 2006 Census; 4ABS Survey of Education and Work, 2010 (data available at national and state levels only).




                                                                                                                                                                   AUSTRALIAN JOBS 2011                    9
     National, state and territory labour markets


     WESTERN AUSTRALIA
     Western Australia is the fourth largest employing state, with around one in                              Regional Western Australia
     ten Australian workers (1.2 million). Employment is highly concentrated in
                                                                                                              In regional Western Australia, employment is spread fairly evenly across
     Perth which accounts for three-quarters of the state’s employment.
                                                                                                              the two regions, Lower Western WA and Remainder-Balance WA. About
     The largest employing industries in Western Australia are Construction                                   32 000 of Western Australia’s 82 400 Mining jobs are located in regional
     (128 800), Retail Trade (120 700) and Health Care and Social Assistance                                  areas. In addition to local employment, the labour market in regional
     (117 800). Together, these industries account for around 30% of state jobs.                              Western Australia is supplemented by workers employed in the Mining
                                                                                                              industry on a fly-in fly-out basis.
     Employment grew by 15.7% (166 000) over the five years to November
     2010, outstripping the national growth rate of 13.1%. Employment rose                                    Over the year to November 2010, most new jobs were created in Remainder-
     in 15 of the 19 industries. The largest numbers of new jobs were created                                 Balance WA, up by 12 800 or 9.9%. This was due mainly to mining projects
     in Mining (34 700), Construction (30 700) and Professional, Scientific and                                in the region which accounted for almost one-third of all new jobs.
     Technical Services (21 300). Over the past year, employment has increased                                Employment in regional Western Australia is driven mainly by Construction
     by 3.8% compared with national growth of 3.3%.                                                           (36 000), Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing (33 900) and Mining (31 800),
     Western Australia has a lower proportion of workers who hold a Bachelor                                  with some construction activity taking place in the mining sector. The
                                                                                                              largest numbers of new jobs over the past year were in Mining (7500)
     degree or higher qualification than the national average (23% compared
                                                                                                              and Other Services (5700).
     with 26%), although it has a higher proportion of workers who hold
     Certificate III/IV Vocational Education and Training qualifications or higher                              The proportion of workers who do not hold post-school qualifications is higher
     (32% compared with 30%).                                                                                 in regional areas of Western Australia than it is in Perth (50% compared with
                                                                                                              42%). The proportion of workers who hold Vocational Education and Training
     Western Australia has a slightly higher proportion of its workers employed
                                                                                                              qualifications varies little across metropolitan and regional areas. There is a
     full-time than the national average (71% compared with 70%). About 38%                                   marked difference though between Perth and regional locations in the
     of workers are aged 45 years or older, the same as the national average,                                 proportion of workers who hold a Bachelor degree or higher qualification
     and 43% of workers are female (compared with 45% nationally).                                            (22% in Perth compared with 12% in regional Western Australia).
                                                                                                              The regional areas also have a lower proportion of people participating in
                                                                                                              the workforce (67% compared with 69% in Perth).


     Employment by Region, Nov 2010 (% of total)                                                              Employment Growth, Year to Nov 2010 (%)




     Population and Employment
                                                 Population                                                                      Employment
                                                          1 year                                                1 year           Aged                                         Certificate
                                                                                                                                        Aged 45    Bachelor
                                                June change                           Nov                      change         younger                                               III/IV  No post-
                                                                                                    % of                                years or degree or
                                                2009 to June                         2010                       to Nov        than 25                                          or higher school qual
                                                                                                   total2                                  older higher qual
                                              (‘000)1      2009                    (‘000) 2                       2010          years                                          VET qual         (%) 3
                                                                                                                                            (%) 2       (%) 3
                                                            (%)1                                                   (%) 2          (%) 2
                                                                                                                                                                                     (%) 3


     Perth                                     1659.0            3.2                 907.7          75.0            2.7              19            38                22                 28                 42
     Lower Western WA                           324.2            3.5                 160.0          13.2           -4.4              17            42                12                 29                 49
     Remainder - Balance WA                     261.8            1.9                 142.2          11.8            9.9              13            40                12                 29                 50
     Western Australia                         2245.1            3.0                1225.9         100.0            3.8              18            38               234                324                424
     Sources: 1ABS Regional Population Growth, Australia, 2009; 2ABS Labour Force Survey; 3ABS 2006 Census; 4ABS Survey of Education and Work, 2010 (data available at national and state levels only).




10     AUSTRALIAN JOBS 2011
                                                                                                National, state and territory labour markets


TASMANIA
Tasmania is the smallest employing state with 2% of the nation’s                                         Regional Tasmania
employment (237 400). Tasmania has the most regionally diverse
                                                                                                         Regional employment in Tasmania is concentrated in the regions of Mersey-
workforce in Australia with around 57% located outside Hobart.
                                                                                                         Lyell and Northern which account for half the state’s employment. Employment
The largest employing industries in Tasmania are Health Care and                                         grew by 2.1% in Tasmania over the year to November 2010 (in trend terms).
Social Assistance (29 900), Retail Trade (27 600) and Education                                          Growth was strongest in Mersey-Lyell (1.1% in annual average terms - trend
and Training (19 400), which together account for almost one-third                                       data are unavailable for regions). This indicates that employment has grown
of the state’s employment.                                                                               more strongly in Tasmania over recent months. This is reflected by the trend
Over the five years to November 2010, Tasmania had relatively low                                         data which places greater emphasis on the most recent months.
employment growth, 14 400 or 6.5% compared with national growth of                                       In regional Tasmania, the largest employing industries are Health Care and
13.1%. Twelve of the 19 industries increased their employment, with the                                  Social Assistance (16 200), Retail Trade (15 800) and Agriculture, Forestry
largest numbers of new jobs created in Health Care and Social Assistance                                 and Fishing (14 300). The largest numbers of new jobs over the past year
(4800), Construction (3500) and Professional, Scientific and Technical                                    were created in Administrative and Support Services (1400) and Education
Services (2900). Over the past year, employment increased by 2.1%                                        and Training (1200).
compared with national growth of 3.3%.
                                                                                                         Workers in regions outside Hobart are less likely to hold post-school
Tasmania has a higher proportion of workers who do not hold post-school                                  qualifications than their city counterparts (51% hold post-school
qualifications than the national average (44% compared with 39%). A lower                                 qualifications compared with 57% in Hobart). The proportion of workers
proportion of workers hold a Bachelor degree or higher qualification (20%                                 who hold Certificate III/IV Vocational Education and Training qualifications
compared with 26% nationally).                                                                           varies little across metropolitan and regional areas. There is a marked
Tasmania has a particularly old age profile, with 43% of workers aged 45                                  difference though between Hobart and regional locations in the proportion
years or older, the highest of any state or territory. It also has a higher                              of workers who hold a Bachelor degree or higher qualification (22% in
proportion of its workers employed part-time than the national average                                   Hobart compared with 13% in regional Tasmania).
(35% compared with 30%) and more of its workers are female (47%                                          The proportion of people participating in the workforce is evenly spread across
compared with 45%).                                                                                      Tasmania with 61% participating in regional Tasmania and 62% in Hobart.



Employment by Region, Nov 2010 (% of total)                                                              Employment Growth, Year to Nov 2010 (%)




Population and Employment
                                      Population                                                                          Employment
                                                 1 year                                                                 Aged                           Bachelor         Certificate
                                                                                                     1 year                          Aged 45
                                    June        change                     Nov                                       younger                             degree               III/IV  No post-
                                                                                        % of      change to                            years
                                    2009        to June                   2010                                       than 25                           or higher         or higher school qual
                                                                                       total2     Nov 2010                           or older
                                  (‘000)1          2009                 (‘000) 2                                       years                                qual         VET qual         (%) 3
                                                                                                       (%) 2                             (%) 2
                                                    (%)1                                                                 (%) 2                              (%) 3              (%) 3
Hobart                              212.0            1.2                  102.0          43.2              0.6              17              41                 22                 27                  43
Southern                             37.5            1.5                   16.3           6.9             -1.8               8              56                 12                 28                  50
Northern                            141.4            0.7                   68.4          28.9              0.3              17              43                 15                 28                  48
Mersey-Lyell                        112.4            1.1                   49.6          21.0              1.1              18              42                 11                 30                  50
Tasmania                            503.3            1.1                  237.4         100.0              2.1              17              43                204                304                 44 4
Sources: 1ABS Regional Population Growth, Australia, 2009; 2ABS Labour Force Survey; 3ABS 2006 Census; 4ABS Survey of Education and Work, 2010 (data available at national and state levels only).




                                                                                                                                                                   AUSTRALIAN JOBS 2011                     11
     National, state and territory labour markets


     NORTHERN TERRITORY                                                                                      AUSTRALIAN CAPITAL TERRITORY
     Population                                                                                              Population
     June 2009 (‘000)1                                                                      225.9            June 2009 (‘000)1                                                          352.2
     1 year change to June 2009 (%)1                                                          2.5            1 year change to June 2009 (%)1                                              1.7
     Employment                                                                                              Employment
     Nov 2010 (‘000) 2                                                                      122.9            Nov 2010 (‘000) 2                                                          205.1
     1 year change to Nov 2010 (%) 2                                                          1.8            1 year change to Nov 2010 (%) 2                                              3.3
     Aged younger than 25 years (%) 2                                                          17            Aged younger than 25 years (%) 2                                              18
     Aged 45 years or older (%) 2                                                             36             Aged 45 years or older (%) 2                                                 36
     Bachelor degree or higher qualification (%) 3                                             23             Bachelor degree or higher qualification (%) 3                                  41
     Certificate III/IV or higher VET qualification (%) 3                                       30             Certificate III/IV or higher VET qualification (%) 3                            24
     No post-school qualification (%) 3                                                         42            No post-school qualification (%) 3                                            33
     Sources: 1ABS Regional Population Growth, Australia, 2009; 2ABS Labour Force Survey; 3ABS Survey of Education and Work, 2010 (data available at national and state levels only).


     The Northern Territory has Australia’s smallest labour market, accounting                               The Australian Capital Territory (ACT) accounts for slightly less than 2%
     for just 1% of the nation’s employment (122 900). However, the proportion                               of the nation’s employment (205 100). The largest employing industries
     of people participating in the workforce is higher in the Northern Territory                            are Public Administration and Safety (62 800), Professional Scientific and
     than any state and equal to the Australian Capital Territory. Close to                                  Technical Services (20 800) and Health Care and Social Assistance
     three-quarters of people are in the labour force in the Northern Territory                              (17 700), which collectively account for almost half of total employment.
     (73% compared with 66% nationally).
                                                                                                             Employment in the ACT grew by 20 300 or 11.0% over the five years to
     Employment grew strongly over the five years to November 2010,                                           November 2010, compared with national growth of 13.1%. Employment
     increasing by 23 700 or 23.9% compared with national growth of 13.1%.                                   gains were largest in Public Administration and Safety (14 700),
     Growth has been more subdued over the past year, increasing by 1.8%                                     Professional, Scientific and Technical Services (3500) and Education and
     compared with national growth of 3.3%.                                                                  Training (2300). Employment rose in 12 of the 19 industries. Over the past
     The largest employing industries in the Northern Territory are Public                                   year, employment increased by 3.3%, the same as the national average.
     Administration and Safety (18 500), Health Care and Social Assistance                                   The workforce is highly skilled with 67% of workers holding a post-school
     (13 300) and Construction (11 900), which together account for slightly                                 qualification compared with 61% nationally. A high proportion of workers
     more than one-third of the territory’s employment. Over the last five years,                             hold a Bachelor degree or higher qualification (41% compared with the
     employment gains were recorded in 17 of the 19 industries, with the largest                             national average of 26%), but a relatively small proportion hold Certificate
     numbers of new jobs being in Construction (3700), Health Care and Social                                III/IV Vocational Education and Training qualifications (24% compared with
     Assistance (3500) and Public Administration and Safety (3000).                                          30% nationally). This reflects the concentration of the ACT’s employment in
     The Northern Territory workforce has a relatively low skill profile. About                               industries which generally require university qualifications and the relatively
     42% of workers do not hold post-school qualifications compared with 39%                                  small proportion of its employment in Manufacturing and Construction.
     nationally. A relatively low proportion of workers hold qualifications at the                            The proportion of people participating in the workforce is higher in the ACT
     Bachelor degree or higher level (23% compared with 26%).
                                                                                                             than the national average (73% compared with 66%). A lower proportion
     About 46% of workers are female and just 20% of territory workers are                                   of the workforce is employed part-time than the national average (26%
     employed part-time (compared with 30% nationally). The workforce is                                     compared with 30%) and a smaller proportion of workers are aged 45
     relatively young, with 36% of workers aged 45 years or older compared                                   years or older (36% compared with 38%). Females represent 49% of
     with the national figure of 38%.                                                                         workers in the ACT compared with 45% nationally.

     Employment Growth, Year to Nov 2010 (%)




12     AUSTRALIAN JOBS 2011
                                                                                                                                                         Industries


INDUSTRY OVERVIEW
In which industries do Australians work?                                             Where are the new jobs?
There are 19 broad industries in Australia. The largest are Health Care and          Over the five years to November 2010, more than 1.3 million jobs were
Social Assistance and Retail Trade which employ 1.3 million and 1.2 million          created. The largest growth was in
workers respectively. Construction and Manufacturing are also large                  • Health Care and Social Assistance (up by 275 200)
employing industries, with around 1 million workers each. These four
                                                                                     • Construction (179 400)
industries combined, employ two in every five Australian workers.
                                                                                     • Professional, Scientific and Technical Servi ces (136 100)
It is interesting that, although the Mining industry experienced the largest
                                                                                     • Education and Training (120 800)
percentage rise in employment over the five years to November 2010, it
had only the eighth largest number of new jobs, reflecting its small                  • Transport, Postal and Warehousing (84 000).
employment size.
Employment in Manufacturing fell over the five years to November 2010,
                                                                                     Which industries had declining
but there are still nearly five times more workers employed in this industry          employment?
than there are in Mining. The decline in Manufacturing is part of a                  Employment declined in two industries over the past five years.
long-term trend reflecting structural adjustment in the Australian economy.           • Manufacturing (down by 33 800)
It is important to note, though, that both these industries create thousands         • Information Media and Telecommunications (23 700).
of jobs in other industries such as Transport, Postal and Warehousing,
Professional, Scientific and Technical Services and Construction.                     Which industries have the most jobs
For information about which industries are expected to have the most new             in regional locations?
jobs in the future, see page 26.                                                     Although Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing has the highest proportion of
                                                                                     its employment in regional areas (89%), followed by Mining (58%),
                                                                                     the following industries have the most jobs in regional areas.
                                                                                     • Retail Trade (463 400 employed in regional Australia)
                                                                                     • Health Care and Social Assistance (461 500)
                                                                                     • Construction (395 800).



Industry Employment
                                                                               Employ’t change                                                                   Projected
                                                       Employ’t
                                                                                5 years to Nov                                                                      growth
                                                       Nov 2010
                                                                                    2010                                                                        to 2015-16
                                                                                                           state capital



                                                                                                                           part-time %
                                                                  workforce
                                                                  % of total




                                                                                                                                          female %


                                                                                                                                                     years or
                                                                                                                           working




                                                                                                                                                     aged 45
                                                                                                           cities %




                                                                                                                                                     older %
                                                                                                           outside
                                                           ‘000




                                                                                   ‘000




                                                                                                                                                                 ‘000
                                                                                              %




                                                                                                                                                                          %
Industry
Accommodation and Food Services                        754.3           7         76.6      11.3                    39          57        55               22     47      6.2
Administrative and Support Services                    411.9           4         55.7      15.6                    34          41        51               39     48     11.7
Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing                      373.6           3         24.9       7.1                    89          27        32               58     27      7.3
Arts and Recreation Services                           189.1           2         12.4       7.0                    32          43        46               31      6      3.2
Construction                                          1047.9           9        179.4      20.7                    39          14        12               34    196     18.7
Education and Training                                 877.6           8        120.8      16.0                    37          37        70               50     96     10.9
Electricity, Gas, Water and Waste Services             153.8           1         49.0      46.7                    44           7        21               42     32     21.1
Financial and Insurance Services                       388.2           3         12.6       3.3                    19          18        52               29     24      6.2
Health Care and Social Assistance                     1298.7          11        275.2      26.9                    37          44        79               47    323     24.9
Information Media and Telecommunications               215.3           2        -23.7      -9.9                    22          20        44               31     13      6.0
Manufacturing                                          992.5           9        -33.8      -3.3                    35          15        26               41    -30     -3.1
Mining                                                 201.0           2         72.8      56.8                    58           3        16               37     69     34.5
Other Services                                         466.5           4         56.3      13.7                    38          29        41               36     48     10.2
Professional, Scientific and Technical Services         847.5           7        136.1      19.1                    23          22        43               36    150     17.7
Public Administration and Safety                       693.2           6         80.7      13.2                    43          16        47               45     41      5.9
Rental, Hiring and Real Estate Services                213.1           2         23.7      12.5                    34          27        50               38     21      9.9
Retail Trade                                          1234.4          11         55.9       4.7                    38          49        57               27     76      6.2
Transport, Postal and Warehousing                      583.4           5         84.0      16.8                    33          20        22               47     77     13.2
Wholesale Trade                                        406.0           4         37.3      10.1                    29          16        32               41     24      5.9
Total (all industries)1                             11 390.1       100         1316.8      13.1                    37          30        45               38 1260       11.1
Source: ABS Labour Force Survey
1.
   Trend data, totals do not add



For more information see www.skillsinfo.gov.au                                                                                           AUSTRALIAN JOBS 2011                  13
     Industries


     Australia’s changing industry structure                                                       Accommodation and Food Services
     Over the last century, Australia’s industry structure has undergone                           Employment                                    This industry All industries
     fundamental changes, moving from an economy that was highly                                   Employment (number)                                754 300 11 390 100
     dependent on agricultural produce and manufactured goods, to today’s                          Employment change (past 5 years) %                     11.3           13.1
     economy where service-based industries are becoming increasingly                              Working part-time %                                     57              30
     important for employment.                                                                     Female %                                                55              45
                                                                                                   Aged 45 years or older %                                22              38
     Two decades ago, Manufacturing was the largest employing industry in                          Employment outside state capital cities %               39              37
     Australia. Today, it is the fourth largest and accounts for 9% of total
                                                                                                   Education
     employment. The decline of Manufacturing has been caused by many
                                                                                                   Without post-school qualifications %                     59              39
     factors, including increased competition from overseas manufacturers,
                                                                                                   With VET qualifications (Cert III or higher) %            24             30
     who often have significantly lower production costs.                                           With a Bachelor degree or higher %                       12             26
     People are also less likely to be employed in the agricultural sector than they
     were two decades ago. In 1990, 6% of the workforce was employed in this                       Accommodation and Food Services employs 754 300 workers. Over the
     industry compared with 3% in 2010. This has been due to a combination of                      five years to November 2010, employment rose by 76 600 (or 11.3%).
     factors, including the effect of long droughts and labour saving technology.                  Employment in Food and Beverage Services increased considerably (up
     Nonetheless, the agricultural sector continues to employ thousands of                         by 84 200). Over the next five years, employment in Accommodation and
     Australians, particularly in regional areas, and to create jobs in other                      Food Services is expected to increase by 46 600 (or 6.2%), driven by
     industries including Manufacturing and Transport, Postal and Warehousing.                     growth in Food and Beverage Services.

     The importance of the services sector to the economy has expanded rapidly                     This industry has the highest proportion of young workers (aged younger than
     over recent years, offsetting the decline in Manufacturing. Today, more than                  25 years) of any industry (45%). The proportion of female workers is
     three out of every four Australian workers are employed in a service                          considerably higher than that for all industries, 55% compared with 45%,
     industry. The broad grouping of the services sector can be considered to                      and part-time employment is common, suggesting that many workers in
     include all industries with the exception of Manufacturing, Construction,                     Accommodation and Food Services are students combining work with study.
     Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing, Mining and Electricity, Gas, Water and                     This industry provides good entry-level opportunities to the labour market.
     Waste Services, although, even within these industries, there are clearly                     Almost three out of every five workers (or 59%) do not hold post-school
     ‘service’ components.                                                                         qualifications, compared with 39% for all industries.
     Much of the growth in the services sector has been driven by Health Care                      Accommodation and Food Services has a strong presence in regional
     and Social Assistance. This industry has shown strong and consistent                          Australia, employing 291 600 workers. These workers make up slightly
     growth in the past decade and with Australia’s ageing population requiring                    less than 40% of total employment in the industry.
     more care, this industry will continue to grow. The Professional, Scientific
     and Technical Services industry has also displayed strong employment                          Accommodation and Food Services accounts for 7% of national
     growth, assisted by higher levels of business investment in technology,                       employment, but in some regions this industry accounts for a higher
     as well as the outsourcing of industry services, particularly those                           proportion of the workforce. This is particularly the case in major tourism
     associated with Architectural, Legal and Accounting services.                                 destinations such as Far North Queensland where it accounts for almost
                                                                                                   12% of the region’s employment.


     Share of Total Employment, Selected Industries,                                               Accommodation and Food Services as a % of Total
     1990 and 2010 (%)                                                                             Employment in Each Region
                                       1990                 2010

                                                                                             75
           Services sector
                                                                                        70

                                               9
            Manufacturing
                                                       14

                                                   9
              Construction
                                               7

      Agriculture, Forestry            3
               and Fishing
                                           6

                                   2
                    Mining
                                   1


     Electricity, Gas, Water       1
      and Waste Services
                                   1

                               0               10           20     30   40   50   60   70     80

     Source: ABS Labour Force Survey                                                               Source: ABS Labour Force Survey, November 2010



14     AUSTRALIAN JOBS 2011                                                                                                 For more information see www.skillsinfo.gov.au
                                                                                                                                               Industries


Administrative and Support Services                                                 Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing
Employment                                       This industry All industries       Employment                                    This industry All industries
Employment (number)                                    411 900 11 390 100           Employment (number)                                373 600 11 390 100
Employment change (past 5 years) %                        15.6           13.1       Employment change (past 5 years) %                      7.1           13.1
Working part-time %                                         41             30       Working part-time %                                     27              30
Female %                                                    51             45       Female %                                                32              45
Aged 45 years or older %                                    39             38       Aged 45 years or older %                                58              38
Employment outside state capital cities %                   34             37       Employment outside state capital cities %               89              37
Education                                                                           Education
Without post-school qualifications %                         49                 39   Without post-school qualifications %                     57              39
With VET qualifications (Cert III or higher) %               27                 30   With VET qualifications (Cert III or higher) %           25              30
With a Bachelor degree or higher %                          17                 26   With a Bachelor degree or higher %                       10             26

Administrative and Support Services employs about 411 900 workers. Over             Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing is a relatively small employing industry with
the five years to November 2010, employment grew strongly, up by 55 700              373 600 workers. Over the five years to November 2010, employment rose
(or 15.6%). The strongest growth was recorded in the Building Cleaning, Pest        by 24 900 (or 7.1%). Employment in Fruit and Tree Nut Growing declined by
Control and Other Support Services sector (up by 26.3%). Administrative and         14 500, but this was offset by an increase in Sheep, Beef and Grain Growing
Support Services employment is expected to increase by 48 400 (or 11.7%)            (up by 8500), Other Crop Farming (4500) and Dairy Cattle Farming (4400).
over the next five years.                                                            Over the next five years, Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing employment is
                                                                                    expected to grow by 27 400 (or 7.3%).
Around 39% of workers in this industry are aged 45 years or older,
(compared with 38% for all industries) and the proportion of female                 The industry has a relatively old age profile (many in the industry continue
employment is higher than that for all industries (51% compared with                working beyond the usual retirement age). Females make up a relatively low
                                                                                    proportion of industry employment (32% compared with 45% for all industries).
45%). Part-time employment is common in this industry (41% of workers
are employed part-time compared with 30% for all industries).                       More than half the workers in the Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing industry
                                                                                    do not hold post-school qualifications, suggesting on-the-job training and
This industry’s workforce has a relatively low skill profile, almost half its
                                                                                    experience contribute significantly to skill development.
workers do not hold post-school qualifications. Accordingly, the industry
offers good entry-level opportunities to the labour market.                         Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing provides a significant number of regional
                                                                                    job opportunities, employing more than 331 500 workers in regional
Around 132 900 workers in regional Australia are employed in                        Australia. The vast majority of jobs in the industry are outside the state
Administrative and Support Services. This represents 34% of employment              capital cities (89%).
in the industry, well below the average of 37% for all industries. This
indicates that workers in this industry are more likely to be based in a            Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing accounts for a small proportion of
capital city, compared with other industries.                                       Australia’s employment (3%), but in many regional areas, it is a major
                                                                                    employer. For example, in Far West New South Wales, more than one in
The Administrative and Support Services industry accounts for around                every three workers is directly employed in this industry (35%), while in
4% of national employment. While some regions rely slightly more on this            West Moreton in Queensland, 22% of workers are employed in this
industry for employment than others, there is relatively limited variation          industry. This industry also creates jobs in industries like Transport, Storage
across Australia.                                                                   and Warehousing and Manufacturing.

Administrative and Support Services as a % of Total                                 Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing as a % of Total
Employment in Each Region                                                           Employment in Each Region




Source: ABS Labour Force Survey, November 2010                                      Source: ABS Labour Force Survey, November 2010



For more information see www.skillsinfo.gov.au                                                                                       AUSTRALIAN JOBS 2011             15
     Industries


     Arts and Recreation Services                                                      Construction
     Employment                                    This industry All industries        Employment                                    This industry All industries
     Employment (number)                                 189 100 11 390 100            Employment (number)                              1 047 900 11 390 100
     Employment change (past 5 years) %                       7.0          13.1        Employment change (past 5 years) %                     20.7           13.1
     Working part-time %                                      43             30        Working part-time %                                      14             30
     Female %                                                 46             45        Female %                                                 12             45
     Aged 45 years or older %                                 31             38        Aged 45 years or older %                                34              38
     Employment outside state capital cities %                32             37        Employment outside state capital cities %               39              37
     Education                                                                         Education
     Without post-school qualifications %                      41             39        Without post-school qualifications %                     39              39
     With VET qualifications (Cert III or higher) %            26             30        With VET qualifications (Cert III or higher) %           48              30
     With a Bachelor degree or higher %                       28             26        With a Bachelor degree or higher %                        8             26

     The Arts and Recreation Services industry employs 189 100 workers                 Construction is the third largest employing industry in Australia, with more
     (or 1.7% of total employment in Australia). There is little variation in          than one million workers. Over the five years to November 2010,
     employment share across Australia, with most regions having less than             employment grew relatively strongly, by 20.7% (or 179 400). This growth
     3% of their workforce employed in this industry.                                  was mainly driven by the Construction Services (up by 130 200) and the
     Arts and Recreation Services covers a diverse range of activities including       Heavy and Civil Engineering Construction sectors (19 100). Construction
     the operation of museums, parks and gardens, creative and performing              employment is expected to grow by 195 800 (or 18.7%) over the next five
     arts, and professional and recreational sports. Over the five years to             years, with the strongest growth expected in Building Installation and
     November 2010, employment rose by 12 400 (or 7.0%). The strongest                 Completion Services.
     employment growth was recorded in Heritage Activities (up by 5900)                The majority of workers in the industry are male (88%) and most workers
     and Gambling Activities (4500). Over the next five years, employment in            are employed full-time (86% compared with 70%).
     Arts and Recreation Services is expected to increase by 6000 (or 3.2%).
                                                                                       The educational profile for Construction shows the prominence of trades
     This industry’s workforce is relatively young with less than one-third of         employment, with almost half of its workers (48%) holding either a
     workers aged 45 years or older (compared with 38% in all industries).             Certificate III/VI, Diploma or Advanced Diploma.
     Many workers are employed part-time (43% work compared with 30% for
     all industries). The educational attainment profile for this industry is similar   The Construction industry employs almost 400 000 workers in regional
     to that for all industries.                                                       Australia, which accounts for 39% of total employment in the industry.

     Most employment in the Arts and Recreation Services is based in the capital       This industry accounts for 9% of national employment and generates
     cities. Around one-third of workers (32% or 61 100 workers) in the Arts           many jobs in regional Australia. For example, in Lower Western WA,
     and Recreation Services industry are employed in regional Australia.              around 14% of the workforce is employed in the Construction industry,
                                                                                       the highest of any region.




     Arts and Recreation Services as a % of Total                                      Construction as a % of Total Employment
     Employment in Each Region                                                         in Each Region




     Source: ABS Labour Force Survey, November 2010                                    Source: ABS Labour Force Survey, November 2010



16     AUSTRALIAN JOBS 2011                                                                                     For more information see www.skillsinfo.gov.au
                                                                                                                                              Industries


Education and Training                                                             Electricity, Gas, Water and Waste Services
Employment                                    This industry All industries         Employment                                    This industry All industries
Employment (number)                                877 600 11 390 100              Employment (number)                                153 800 11 390 100
Employment change (past 5 years) %                     16.0           13.1         Employment change (past 5 years) %                     46.7           13.1
Working part-time %                                      37             30         Working part-time %                                       7             30
Female %                                                 70             45         Female %                                                21              45
Aged 45 years or older %                                50              38         Aged 45 years or older %                                42              38
Employment outside state capital cities %                37             37         Employment outside state capital cities %               44              37
Education                                                                          Education
Without post-school qualifications %                      16             39         Without post-school qualifications %                     30              39
With VET qualifications (Cert III or higher) %            19             30         With VET qualifications (Cert III or higher) %           39              30
With a Bachelor degree or higher %                      63              26         With a Bachelor degree or higher %                      27              26

Education and Training is the fifth largest employing industry in Australia, with   The Electricity, Gas, Water and Waste Services industry accounts for just 1% of
877 600 workers. Over the five years to November 2010, employment grew              national employment. While some regions have a slightly higher share of their
relatively strongly, by 16.0% (or 120 800). This growth was mainly driven by       employment in this industry, such as the Gippsland region in Victoria (4.6%),
the Adult, Community and Other Education sector (up by 51 100 or 72.9%).           there are limited differences in employment share from region to region, with
Over the next five years, Education and Training employment is expected to          most regions having less than 1.5% of their workers in this industry.
increase by 95 700 (or 10.9%), with more than half the new jobs expected
                                                                                   Despite being the smallest employing industry (with just 153 800 workers),
to be generated by the Preschool and School Education sector.
                                                                                   Electricity, Gas, Water and Waste Services experienced relatively strong
The industry has a relatively older workforce with one in every two workers        employment growth over the five years to November 2010, up by 46.7%
aged 45 years or older compared with 38% in all industries. Seven in ten           (or 49 000). The largest numbers of new jobs were recorded in Electricity
workers are female. There are good opportunities for part-time work with           Supply (up by 19 100) and Water Supply, Sewerage and Drainage Services
37% of workers being employed on a part-time basis compared with 30%               (15 500). Over the next five years, employment in Electricity, Gas, Water
across all industries.                                                             and Waste Services is expected to increase by 32 400 (or 21.1%).

This is a highly skilled industry, with 84% of workers holding a post-school       This industry is male dominated and the majority of employment is full-time
qualification. More than three in every five workers (63%) hold a Bachelor           (93%). The industry also has a slightly higher proportion of older workers
degree or higher qualification, almost two and a half times higher than the         compared with all industries (42% are aged 45 years or older compared
                                                                                   with 38%).
national average (26%).
                                                                                   The industry is relatively highly skilled with just 30% of workers not holding
In regional Australia, the Education and Training industry employs around
                                                                                   post-school qualifications. Vocational Education and Training (VET)
319 000 workers, which is 37% of employment in the industry.
                                                                                   qualifications are particularly important, with more than one in three
Reflecting the core need for education and training services in every region,       workers holding either a Certificate III/IV, Diploma or Advanced Diploma.
the employment share does not vary considerably across regions, varying
                                                                                   This industry provides good job opportunities in regional areas. Around
from a low of 4% in the Hunter region (excluding Newcastle) to a high of
                                                                                   44% of workers in this industry (or 63 200 workers) are located in regional
around 10% in areas such as Wollongong.                                            Australia, above the average for all industries (37%).

Education and Training as a % of Total Employment                                  Electricity, Gas, Water and Waste Services as a % of
in Each Region                                                                     Total Employment in Each Region




Source: ABS Labour Force Survey, November 2010                                     Source: ABS Labour Force Survey, November 2010



For more information see www.skillsinfo.gov.au                                                                                      AUSTRALIAN JOBS 2011             17
     Industries


     Financial and Insurance Services                                                 Health Care and Social Assistance
     Employment                                    This industry All industries       Employment                                    This industry All industries
     Employment (number)                                388 200 11 390 100            Employment (number)                              1 298 700 11 390 100
     Employment change (past 5 years) %                      3.3           13.1       Employment change (past 5 years) %                     26.9           13.1
     Working part-time %                                      18             30       Working part-time %                                      44             30
     Female %                                                 52             45       Female %                                                 79             45
     Aged 45 years or older %                                29              38       Aged 45 years or older %                                 47             38
     Employment outside state capital cities %                19             37       Employment outside state capital cities %                37             37
     Education                                                                        Education
     Without post-school qualifications %                      32             39       Without post-school qualifications %                      23             39
     With VET qualifications (Cert III or higher) %            23             30       With VET qualifications (Cert III or higher) %            34             30
     With a Bachelor degree or higher %                       41             26       With a Bachelor degree or higher %                       39             26

     The Financial and Insurance Services industry is a relatively small employing    The Health Care and Social Assistance industry has experienced relatively
     industry, with 388 200 workers. Over the five years to November 2010,             strong growth over the past decade and is now Australia’s largest
     employment rose by 12 600 (or 3.3%). This growth was concentrated in             employing industry with almost 1.3 million workers. Over the five years to
     the Insurance and Superannuation Funds and Finance sectors. Employment           November 2010, employment rose by 275 200 (or 26.9%). This growth
     is expected to increase by 24 000 (or 6.2%) over the next five years, with        was relatively evenly spread across the industry, with the largest number
     all major subdivisions expected to expand.                                       of new jobs recorded in the Social Assistance Services (up by 98 200)
                                                                                      and Medical and Other Health Care Services (97 300) sectors. Over the
     Relatively few people in the industry work part-time (18%) compared with         next five years, employment in the Health Care and Social Assistance
     all industries (30%). More than half of the workforce is female (52%) which      industry is expected to increase by 323 300 (or 24.9%), with strong
     is higher than the all industries average (45%). The industry also has a         growth expected across all the major subdivisions.
     significantly younger age profile compared with all industries (29% of
     workers are aged 45 years or older compared with 38%).                           The workforce is female dominated (79%) and a relatively high proportion
                                                                                      of workers are employed on a part-time basis (44% compared with 30%).
     The higher education sector plays an important role in the provision of skills   The industry also has a relatively old age profile (47% of workers are aged
     for this industry, with around two in every five workers holding a Bachelor       45 years or older compared with 38% for all industries). The Health Care
     degree or higher qualification.                                                   and Social Assistance industry is highly skilled, with many of the large
                                                                                      employing occupations requiring tertiary qualifications. Almost two in
     The majority of large finance and insurance companies operate from capital
                                                                                      every five workers hold a Bachelor degree or higher qualification.
     cities resulting in employment in this industry being highly concentrated in
     metropolitan areas. Around 19% of workers (or 76 200 people) are                 This industry employs around 461 500 people in regional Australia, more
     employed in regional Australia, the lowest proportion of any industry.           than one-third (37%) of its workforce, the same as all industries. There are
                                                                                      good opportunities for health care professionals in regional locations,
     The Financial and Insurance Services industry employs around 3% of
                                                                                      with shortages particularly apparent in these areas.
     Australia’s workforce. Not surprisingly, Sydney has the highest concentration
     of employment in this industry of any region, with 6% of its employment being    The industry employs 11.4% of Australia’s workforce. Some regions, though,
     in Financial and Insurance Services, followed by Melbourne (5%).                 have a higher proportion of their workforce employed in this industry. For
                                                                                      example, Barwon-Western District in Victoria has 15% of its jobs in this industry.

     Financial and Insurance Services as a % of Total                                 Health Care and Social Assistance as a % of Total
     Employment in Each Region                                                        Employment in Each Region




     Source: ABS Labour Force Survey, November 2010                                   Source: ABS Labour Force Survey, November 2010



18     AUSTRALIAN JOBS 2011                                                                                    For more information see www.skillsinfo.gov.au
                                                                                                                                             Industries


Information Media and                                                            Manufacturing
Telecommunications                                                               Employment                                    This industry All industries
Employment                                    This industry All industries       Employment (number)                                992 500 11 390 100
Employment (number)                                215 300 11 390 100            Employment change (past 5 years) %                     –3.3           13.1
Employment change (past 5 years) %                     –9.9           13.1       Working part-time %                                      15             30
Working part-time %                                     20              30       Female %                                                 26             45
Female %                                                44              45       Aged 45 years or older %                                 41             38
Aged 45 years or older %                                 31             38       Employment outside state capital cities %               35              37
Employment outside state capital cities %               22              37       Education
Education                                                                        Without post-school qualifications %                     46              39
Without post-school qualifications %                     34              39       With VET qualifications (Cert III or higher) %           36              30
With VET qualifications (Cert III or higher) %           26              30       With a Bachelor degree or higher %                       14             26
With a Bachelor degree or higher %                       37             26
                                                                                 A decade ago, Manufacturing was Australia’s largest employing industry; now
                                                                                 it is the fourth largest. However, the industry still employs almost one million
Information Media and Telecommunications is a diverse industry including
                                                                                 workers. Over the five years to November 2010, employment fell by 33 800
newspaper, radio and Internet publishing and broadcasting and
                                                                                 (or 3.3%). This decline occurred across subdivisions, including Transport
telecommunication services. It is a small employing industry, with 215 300
                                                                                 Equipment Manufacturing (down by 18 900), Wood Product Manufacturing
workers. Over the five years to November 2010, employment fell by 23 700          (18 200) and Fabricated Metal Product Manufacturing (15 100), but other
(or 9.9%). Over the next five years, employment is expected to increase by        subdivisions, such as Food Product Manufacturing recorded large
13 000 (or 6.0%), largely driven by growth in the Telecommunications             employment gains (up by 32 000). Manufacturing is the only industry
Services sector.                                                                 expected to reduce its employment over the next five years, down by 30 400
                                                                                 (or 3.1%).
The majority of workers are employed full-time (80%) and 44% of workers
are female, much the same as the all industries average (45%).                   The workforce is dominated by males (74%) and most employment is
                                                                                 full-time (85%).
Information Media and Telecommunications has a highly skilled workforce,
with about two-thirds of workers holding post-school qualifications, compared     A relatively high proportion of workers in the industry do not hold post-school
with around 60% for all industries. Workers are less likely to hold Vocational   qualifications (46% compared with 39%). However, the largest occupations
Education and Training (VET) qualifications (26% compared with 30%), but          are the engineering trades and, as a result, Vocational Education and Training
are considerably more likely to have a Bachelor degree or higher (37%            (VET) is a vital source of skills to the industry (36% of workers have a
                                                                                 Certificate III or higher VET qualification compared with 30% for all industries).
compared with 26%) than the all industries average.
                                                                                 There are around 347 400 Manufacturing jobs in regional Australia.
Employment in the Information Media and Telecommunications industry is
concentrated in the state capital cities. That said, this industry employs       The Manufacturing industry accounts for around 9% of total employment
47 800 workers in regional Australia, around 22% of its employment.              in Australia, but in some regional areas the industry has a much higher
                                                                                 proportion of the local workforce. For example, in Goulburn-Ovens-Murray
People are most likely to be employed in this industry in Sydney (where          in Victoria, Manufacturing is the largest employing industry, with around
3% of total employment is in this industry) and Melbourne (also 3%) than         20 800 workers, accounting for almost 15% of the region’s employment.
in other regions.


Information Media and Telecommunications as a                                    Manufacturing as a % of Total Employment in
% of Total Employment in Each Region                                             Each Region




Source: ABS Labour Force Survey, November 2010                                   Source: ABS Labour Force Survey, November 2010



For more information see www.skillsinfo.gov.au                                                                                    AUSTRALIAN JOBS 2011              19
     Industries


     Mining                                                                             Other Services
     Employment                                    This industry All industries         Employment                                    This industry All industries
     Employment (number)                                201 000 11 390 100              Employment (number)                                466 500 11 390 100
     Employment change (past 5 years) %                     56.8           13.1         Employment change (past 5 years) %                     13.7           13.1
     Working part-time %                                       3             30         Working part-time %                                     29              30
     Female %                                                 16             45         Female %                                                 41             45
     Aged 45 years or older %                                 37             38         Aged 45 years or older %                                36              38
     Employment outside state capital cities %               58              37         Employment outside state capital cities %               38              37
     Education                                                                          Education
     Without post-school qualifications %                     33              39         Without post-school qualifications %                     39              39
     With VET qualifications (Cert III or higher) %           39              30         With VET qualifications (Cert III or higher) %           43              30
     With a Bachelor degree or higher %                       24             26         With a Bachelor degree or higher %                       14             26

     In employment terms, Mining is a relatively small industry with slightly more      Other Services is a diverse industry which includes personal services and
     than 200 000 workers. The industry recorded the strongest employment               selected repair and maintenance activities. The industry has 466 500
     growth of all industries over the five years to November 2010, up by 56.8%          workers. Over the five years to November 2010, employment grew by
     (or 72 800). Employment gains occurred across all subdivisions with the            13.7% (56 300). The largest numbers of new jobs were created in the
     largest being in Metal Ore Mining (up by 28 500) and Coal Mining (17 500).         Repair and Maintenance (up by 32 000) and Personal and Other Services
     Over the next five years, employment is expected to increase by 34.5%               (25 300) sectors. Over the next five years, employment in this industry is
     (or 69 200 jobs), the strongest growth of any industry. The largest contributor    expected to grow by 47 500 (or 10.2%). The growth is expected to be
     to new jobs is forecast to be the Metal Ore Mining (30 900) sector.                evenly spread between the Repair and Maintenance and Personal and
                                                                                        Other Services sectors.
     The majority of workers in Mining are males (84%) and most workers are
     employed full-time (97%).                                                          A slightly lower proportion of the workforce is female (41%) compared with
                                                                                        all industries (45%) and the workforce is relatively young (36% are aged
     Just one-third of workers do not hold post-school qualifications (compared          45 years or older compared with 38% for all industries).
     with 39% for all industries), making this a relatively highly skilled workforce.
                                                                                        Consistent with trades being the largest employing occupations, the Vocational
     Almost two in every five workers in Mining hold Certificate III or higher
                                                                                        Education and Training (VET) sector provides a significant contribution to skills
     Vocational Education and Training qualifications.
                                                                                        in this industry. About 43% of workers hold a Certificate III or higher VET
     Mining is an important driver of economic activity and it has a very high          qualification, compared with 30% for all industries.
     presence in some regional areas. Well over half of Mining workers
                                                                                        The Other Services industry employs around 176 800 people in regional
     (or 110 100 people) are employed in regional Australia.
                                                                                        Australia or 38% of its employment.
     Mining directly accounts for just 2% of total employment in Australia, but
                                                                                        Other Services employs around 4% of Australia’s workforce. The industry
     some regions are highly dependent on the industry for employment. For
                                                                                        covers a broad range of core services, and its share of total employment
     example, in the resource rich area of Remainder-Balance WA (which                  does not vary considerably between regions. Mackay-Fitzroy-Central West
     incorporates the vast majority of regional WA), around 14% of the                  in Queensland has 6% of its employment in Other Services but Far West
     workforce is employed in Mining, the highest of any region in Australia.           New South Wales has just 2% of its jobs in this industry.


                                                                                        Other Services as a % of Total Employment
     Mining as a % of Total Employment in Each Region                                   in Each Region




     Source: ABS Labour Force Survey, November 2010                                     Source: ABS Labour Force Survey, November 2010



20     AUSTRALIAN JOBS 2011                                                                                      For more information see www.skillsinfo.gov.au
                                                                                                                                            Industries


Professional, Scientific and                                                       Public Administration and Safety
Technical Services                                                                Employment                                    This industry All industries
Employment                                    This industry All industries        Employment (number)                                693 200 11 390 100
Employment (number)                                847 500 11 390 100             Employment change (past 5 years) %                     13.2           13.1
Employment change (past 5 years) %                     19.1           13.1        Working part-time %                                      16             30
Working part-time %                                     22              30        Female %                                                 47             45
Female %                                                43              45        Aged 45 years or older %                                45              38
Aged 45 years or older %                                36              38        Employment outside state capital cities %               43              37
Employment outside state capital cities %               23              37        Education
Education                                                                         Without post-school qualifications %                      28             39
Without post-school qualifications %                     22              39        With VET qualifications (Cert III or higher) %            28             30
With VET qualifications (Cert III or higher) %           22              30        With a Bachelor degree or higher %                      40              26
With a Bachelor degree or higher %                      54              26
                                                                                  Public Administration and Safety includes workers employed in government
Professional, Scientific and Technical Services employs 847 500 workers.           administration, providing services to the public and enforcing regulations.
Over the five years to November 2010, employment rose by 136 100 (or               Employment totals 693 200, or about 6% of the Australian workforce. Over
19.1%). Both major subdivisions within this industry experienced strong growth.   the five years to November 2010, employment grew by 80 700 (or 13.2%),
Employment is expected to grow by 149 800 (or 17.7%) over the next five            about the same rate as the all industries average. The largest number of
years, with the majority of new jobs expected in the Architectural, Engineering   new jobs were in the subdivisions of Public Administration (up by 60 400)
and Technical Services and Legal and Accounting Services sectors.                 and Public Order, Safety and Regulatory Services (29 900). In the next five
                                                                                  years, employment in Public Administration and Safety is expected to
A relatively low proportion of workers in the industry work part-time (22%        increase by 40 900 (or 5.9%).
compared with 30% for all industries). This industry also has a slightly
lower proportion of workers who are aged 45 years or older (36%                   This industry employs a slightly higher proportion of females than the all
compared with 38% for all industries). Professional, Scientific and Technical      industries average (47% compared with 45%) and has a considerably lower
Services includes industry activities requiring a high level of expertise and     proportion of part-time workers (16% compared with 30%).
formal training. Just 22% of workers do not have post-school qualifications
                                                                                  Around 70% of workers in Public Administration and Safety hold post-school
(compared with the average of 39% for all industries). More than half
                                                                                  qualifications, well above the all industries average of 60%. The proportion
(54%) have a Bachelor degree or higher qualification, twice the average for
                                                                                  holding a Certificate III or higher Vocational Education and Training
all industries (26%).
                                                                                  qualification is lower than for all industries (28% compared with 30%). About
There are 192 600 workers employed in the Professional, Scientific                 40% hold a Bachelor degree or higher, compared with 26% for all industries.
and Technical Services industry in regional Australia, 23% of the
                                                                                  The Public Administration and Safety industry employs almost 300 000
industry’s employment.
                                                                                  people outside the state capital cities or 43% of its employment. This is
Workers who live in a capital city are more likely to be employed in this         well above the average for all industries (37%).
industry than those in regional areas. Sydney has 11% of its employment in
                                                                                  This industry is particularly important in the ACT (where the Federal
this industry, the ACT has 10% and Melbourne 9%. This industry tends to
represent a relatively small proportion of most regional workforces, but          Government is primarily based). About 30% of the Territory’s workforce
shortages are evident in a number of professions in regional areas.               is employed in this industry, five times the national average (6%).


Professional, Scientific and Technical Services                                    Public Administration and Safety as a % of Total
as a % of Total Employment in Each Region                                         Employment in Each Region




Source: ABS Labour Force Survey, November 2010                                    Source: ABS Labour Force Survey, November 2010



For more information see www.skillsinfo.gov.au                                                                                     AUSTRALIAN JOBS 2011          21
     Industries


     Rental, Hiring and Real Estate Services                                          Retail Trade
     Employment                                    This industry All industries       Employment                                    This industry All industries
     Employment (number)                                 213 100 11 390 100           Employment (number)                              1 234 400 11 390 100
     Employment change (past 5 years) %                     12.5           13.1       Employment change (past 5 years) %                      4.7           13.1
     Working part-time %                                      27             30       Working part-time %                                     49              30
     Female %                                                 50             45       Female %                                                57              45
     Aged 45 years or older %                                 38             38       Aged 45 years or older %                                27              38
     Employment outside state capital cities %                34             37       Employment outside state capital cities %               38              37
     Education                                                                        Education
     Without post-school qualifications %                      36             39       Without post-school qualifications %                     62              39
     With VET qualifications (Cert III or higher) %            37             30       With VET qualifications (Cert III or higher) %           21              30
     With a Bachelor degree or higher %                       20             26       With a Bachelor degree or higher %                       11             26

     The Rental, Hiring and Real Estate Services industry employs around              Retail Trade is Australia’s second largest employing industry, with more than
     213 100 people, accounting for 2% of national employment, making it one          1.2 million workers. Over the five years to November 2010, employment rose
     of Australia’s smallest employing industries. Over the five years to              by 55 900, or 4.7%. The Food Retailing subdivision was the major driver of this
     November 2010, employment grew by 23 700 (or 12.5%). This growth was             employment growth, increasing by 57 700. Employment in Retail Trade is
     concentrated in the Property Operators and Real Estate Services sector (up       expected to increase by 76 400 (or 6.2%) over the next five years. Particularly
     by 19 100). Employment is expected to increase by 21 000 (or 9.9%) over          large employment gains are expected in Food Retailing (54 200).
     the next five years, with the strongest rise anticipated to be in Property
                                                                                      Female workers outnumber men (57% are female) and almost half of Retail
     Operators and Real Estate Services (19 700).
                                                                                      Trade employment is part-time (49%). This industry’s workforce also has a
     Half of all workers in the industry are female, higher than the all industries   young age profile, with 73% aged 15 to 44.
     average of 45%, and a slightly lower proportion of employment is part-time
                                                                                      Retail Trade has a relatively low skilled workforce (62% do not have
     (27% compared with 30%).
                                                                                      post-school qualifications, compared with 39% for all industries). This,
     Around 60% of workers in the Rental, Hiring and Real Estate Services industry    combined with the availability of part-time hours, makes Retail Trade an
     hold post-school qualifications, similar to all industries. A relatively high     ideal entry point to the labour market for school leavers, people re-entering
     proportion hold a Vocational Education and Training qualification (37% hold       the labour market and seeking part-time work, including students who are
     a Certificate III or higher qualification compared with 30% for all industries).   combining work and study.

     Around one out of every three jobs in the Rental, Hiring and Real Estate         The Retail Trade industry is a significant source of jobs in regional areas,
     industry is in regional Australia (34% or 65 600 workers), slightly lower        employing more than 463 000 people outside state capital cities (or around
     than the national average (37%).                                                 38% of the industry’s employment).

     The industry accounts for just 2% of national employment and it represents       The Retail Trade industry has about 10% of national employment, but it has a
     a relatively low proportion of employment in each region, varying from a         higher share in some regions. In November 2010, the three regions with the
     high of 3% in Far North Queensland, to a low of less than 1% in Far West         highest share of their employment in Retail Trade were all located in major
     New South Wales.                                                                 tourist areas in non-metropolitan Queensland. These were the Sunshine
                                                                                      Coast (16%), Wide Bay-Burnett and Far North Queensland (both 13%).

     Rental, Hiring and Real Estate Services as a % of                                Retail Trade as a % of Total Employment in
     Total Employment in Each Region                                                  Each Region




     Source: ABS Labour Force Survey, November 2010                                   Source: ABS Labour Force Survey, November 2010



22     AUSTRALIAN JOBS 2011                                                                                    For more information see www.skillsinfo.gov.au
                                                                                                                                             Industries


Transport, Postal and Warehousing                                                 Wholesale Trade
Employment                                    This industry All industries        Employment                                    This industry All industries
Employment (number)                                583 400 11 390 100             Employment (number)                                406 000 11 390 100
Employment change (past 5 years) %                     16.8           13.1        Employment change (past 5 years) %                     10.1           13.1
Working part-time %                                     20              30        Working part-time %                                      16             30
Female %                                                22              45        Female %                                                32              45
Aged 45 years or older %                                 47             38        Aged 45 years or older %                                41              38
Employment outside state capital cities %               33              37        Employment outside state capital cities %               29              37
Education                                                                         Education
Without post-school qualifications %                      52             39        Without post-school qualifications %                     47              39
With VET qualifications (Cert III or higher) %           29              30        With VET qualifications (Cert III or higher) %           28              30
With a Bachelor degree or higher %                       13             26        With a Bachelor degree or higher %                      20              26

Transport, Postal and Warehousing employs around 583 400 workers, or 5% of        The Wholesale Trade industry is one of the smaller employing industries
the workforce in Australia. Over the five years to November 2010, employment       in Australia, employing 406 000 workers. Over the five years to November
grew strongly, by 84 000 (or 16.8%). This growth was largely concentrated in      2010, employment increased by 37 300 (or 10.1%). Employment rose in
                                                                                  most subdivisions, with the largest increase being recorded in Machinery
the subdivisions of Transport Support Services (up by 27 900) and Postal and
                                                                                  and Equipment Wholesaling (up by 17 600). Employment is expected to rise
Courier Pick-up and Delivery Services (22 600). Rail Transport also contributed
                                                                                  by 23 800 (or 5.9%) over the next five years. Motor Vehicle and Motor
18 800 new jobs. Over the next five years, employment in Transport, Postal
                                                                                  Vehicle Parts Wholesaling is the only sector which is expected to experience
and Warehousing is expected to grow by 77 000 (or 13.2%), most of which
                                                                                  a decline in employment over the next five years (down by 3400).
is expected in the Postal and Courier Pick-up and Delivery Services (20 100)
and Road Transport (18 400) sectors.                                              A relatively high proportion of workers are male (68%) compared with all
                                                                                  industries (55%). The majority of workers are employed full-time (84%) and
The industry has an older profile (47% of workers are aged 45 years or             41% are aged 45 or older, higher than the average for all industries (38%).
older compared with 38%) than all industries. The majority of workers in
the industry are males (78%) and the vast majority of workers are                 Almost half the workers in this industry do not hold post-school qualifications,
employed full-time (80%).                                                         suggesting that there are good opportunities for entry level positions.

This workforce has a relatively low skill profile. More than one in every two      Employment is concentrated in the state capitals. Just 29% of workers in
                                                                                  the industry are employed in regional Australia (or 121 700 workers),
workers in this industry (52%) does not hold post–school qualifications,
                                                                                  which is well below the average for all industries (37%).
compared with 39% for all industries.
                                                                                  Some regional areas, such as West Moreton in Queensland and Northern
Transport, Postal and Warehousing employs around 188 500 people in
                                                                                  Tasmania have a relatively high proportion of their workforces in the
regional Australia, 33% of its employment. This is slightly lower than the
                                                                                  industry (7% and 5% respectively).
average for all industries (37%).
Overall, the industry employs 5% of the Australian workforce, however
about 8% of workers in Mackay-Fitzroy-Central West in Queensland are
employed in the industry and just 2% in the ACT.


Transport, Postal and Warehousing as a % of Total                                 Wholesale Trade as a % of Total Employment
Employment in Each Region                                                         in Each Region




Source: ABS Labour Force Survey, November 2010                                    Source: ABS Labour Force Survey, November 2010



For more information see www.skillsinfo.gov.au                                                                                     AUSTRALIAN JOBS 2011             23
     Occupations and skills


     OCCUPATIONAL OVERVIEW
     Largest occupations                                                                      Recent employment trends
     The four largest occupational groups in Australia are                                    Over the five years to November 2010, employment growth was strongest for
     • Professionals — more than 2.4 million workers or about one in five                      • Community and Personal Service Workers —up by 24%
       Australian workers.
                                                                                              • Professionals — 19%
     • Technicians and Trades Workers and Clerical and Administrative
                                                                                              • Managers — 15%.
       Workers — each around 1.7 million, or 15% of Australia’s workforce.
     • Managers — more than 1.4 million workers, or around 13% of employment.                 However, over the year to November 2010, employment growth was
                                                                                              particularly strong for
     Twenty five of the individual occupations listed in the Job Prospects Matrix,
     which begins on page 36, employ more than 100 000 people. The five                        • Sales Workers — up by 9.4%
     largest employing occupations are                                                        • Technicians and Trades Workers — 6.7%.
     • Sales Assistant (General) — 527 800                                                    This growth in demand for Technicians and Trades Workers reflects,
     • Manager, Retail — 238 600                                                              in part, recovery from the global recession and strong demand for trade
     • Nurse, Registered — 214 000                                                            skills from the Mining sector, which has a flow-on effect to other
     • Clerk (General) — 191 200                                                              industries.
     • Receptionist — 183 600.
                                                                                              Hours of work
     Employment growth over the last two                                                      There is quite a marked variation in hours of work across the major
     decades                                                                                  occupational groups. More than half of those employed as Sales Workers
     Over the last 20 years, employment growth for jobs that generally require                and Community and Personal Services Workers are employed part-time
     a qualification at the Diploma level or higher (or extensive on-the-job                   (56% and 52% respectively) and more than one-third of Clerical and
     experience) has clearly outstripped the growth in lower skilled jobs                     Administrative Workers (35%) work part-time. This suggests these
     (77% employment growth over this period compared with 28%).                              occupations offer good opportunities for people seeking shorter work
                                                                                              hours to balance employment with study or caring responsibilities.
     Twenty years ago, 29% of Australia’s workforce was employed in a
                                                                                              Females also make up a larger proportion of these workforces, more than
     professional or managerial occupation. Now, more than one in three
                                                                                              three in every five workers, than the national workforce average of 45%.
     workers (34%) in Australia is employed in these groups, highlighting the
     increasing demand for skilled workers. Workers are now less likely to be
     employed in lower skilled occupations. Labourers (currently 10% of total                 Age profile
     employment) and Clerical and Administrative Workers (15%) now have a                     The Manager group has the oldest age profile, with half of these workers
     smaller share of employment than they did in 1990.                                       aged 45 years or older reflecting, in part, the many years of experience
     Growth in the number of Community and Personal Service Workers has also                  generally required to become a Manager. Machinery Operators and Drivers
     been strong over the past 20 years with these workers now accounting for                 (46% aged 45 years or older) and Clerical and Administrative Workers
     almost one out of every ten workers in the Australian labour market.                     (42%) also have relatively old age profiles.


     Occupational Employment

                                                                             Employ’t change                  Employ’t change
                                                Employ’t Nov 2010
                                                                            1 year to Nov 2010              5 years to Nov 2010
                                                                                                                                           % working




                                                                                                                                                                    % aged 45
                                                               workforce
                                                               % of total




                                                                                                                                                         % female
                                                                                                                                           part-time




                                                                                                                                                                    years or
                                                                                                                                                                    older
                                                        ‘000




                                                                                       ‘000




                                                                                                                       ‘000
                                                                                                  %




                                                                                                                                %




     Occupation Major Group
     Managers                                     1449.4         13                  -8.1       -0.6               184.2      14.6            12         34              50
     Professionals                                2415.4         21                  58.0        2.5               386.9      19.1            24         53              40
     Technicians and Trades                       1702.3         15                 106.4        6.7               182.8      12.0            13         13              32
     Community and Personal Services              1082.3         10                  56.3        5.5               211.2      24.2            52         69              34
     Clerical and Administrative                  1681.7         15                  36.3        2.2               106.8       6.8            35         75              42
     Sales Workers                                1132.6         10                  97.4        9.4                86.6       8.3            56         62              25
     Machinery Operators and Drivers               723.3          6                  34.2        5.0                79.2      12.3            14          9              46
     Labourers                                    1190.4         10                  11.8        1.0                83.3       7.5            44         34              38
     Total (all occupations)1                   11 390.1        100                 369.0        3.3              1316.8      13.1            30         45              38
     Source: ABS Labour Force Survey
     1
       Trend data, totals do not add



24     AUSTRALIAN JOBS 2011                                                                                     For more information see www.joboutlook.gov.au
                                                                                                                                                Occupations and skills


OCCUPATIONAL CLUSTERS AND SKILL LEVEL
Occupational clusters                                                                                  Most new jobs are in skilled occupations
The previous page examined the occupational labour market by major                                     The Australian Bureau of Statistics classifies occupations into skill levels.
group. To assist you to explore career opportunities and compare                                       Generally, the higher the skill level, the greater the amount of formal
occupations, it is also useful to cluster ‘like’ occupations such as Carers                            education and/or training, previous experience and on-the-job training
and Aides, Drivers and Storepersons and Hospitality Workers.                                           required to competently perform the set of tasks for that occupation.
The top 20 growth clusters, based on the number of new jobs projected for                              The following table outlines the five skill levels, noting they are expressed
the next five years, are presented in the chart below. The growth clusters                              in terms of qualifications required for competent performance in an
are spread across all industries and skill levels, highlighting the range of                           occupation. These are indicative, and for many occupations, some years
opportunities available in the Australian labour market. Some clusters may                             of relevant experience can substitute for formal qualifications.
have stronger growth (in terms of percentage change) but the clusters
listed in the chart are expected to have the largest number of new jobs.                               Projected Employment Growth to 2015-16
                                                                                                       Skill Level (‘000)
Projected Employment Growth to 2015–16                                                                 Skill                                                                                5 Year
Top 20 Occupational Clusters (‘000)                                                                             Equivalent qualification level
                                                                                                       Level                                                                               Growth
                                                                                                       1        Bachelor Degree or higher qualification.                                     499.5
                                    Carers and Aides                                           112.6   2        AQF Associate Degree, Advanced Diploma or Diploma.                           179.9
                    Medical Practitioners and Nurses                                    85.5           3        AQF Certificate III (including at least two years of                          207.6
                                                                                                                on-the-job training) or IV.
                                 Construction Trades                             68.9
                                                                                                       4        AQF Certificate II or III.                                                     327.6
   Electrotechnology and Telecommunications Trades                               68.7                  5        AQF Certificate I or compulsory secondary education.                           111.0
                             Education Professionals                            63.8                   Source: DEEWR employment projections

             Hospitality, Retail and Service Managers                    43.9
                                                                                                       More than half the projected growth in jobs over the next five years is
                   Sales Assistants and Salespersons                 41.2                              expected to be in the highly skilled occupations, which includes those
    General-Inquiry Clerks, Call Centre, Receptionists              38.7                               at skill level 1 or 2.

                                           Engineers                37.5
                                                                                                       Projected Employment Growth to 2015-16
                                  Hospitality Workers               35.9
                                                                                                       Skill Level (% share)
              Legal, Social and Welfare Professionals               35.9

 Engineering, ICT and Science Technicians, Inspectors              35.7
                                                                                                                                                       Skill Level 5, 8.4
         Health Diagnostic and Therapy Professionals               35.3

                                    Numerical Clerks               33.5
                                                                                                           Skill Level 1, 37.7
                 Health and Welfare Support Workers                32.5                                                                                                            Skill Level 4, 24.7
Business, Finance and Human Resource Professionals                31.8

                            Drivers and Storepersons              31.1

                  Automotive and Engineering Trades               29.5

                                         Food Trades              28.2

                                 Corporate Managers               28.2

                                                         0   20    40       60     80      100 120
Source: DEEWR employment projections                                                                                                                                        Skill Level 3, 15.7


The occupational cluster with the largest projected employment growth is                                                         Skill Level 2, 13.6
Carers and Aides. Medical Practitioners and Nurses, Construction Trades,
Electrotechnology and Telecommunications Trades, and Education
Professionals also have strong projected growth.                                                       Source: DEEWR employment projections

Some clusters, such as Carers and Aides, and Medical Practitioners and                                 However, job opportunities are expected across all skill levels. The top five
Nurses, are employed mainly in one industry (Health Care and Social                                    occupations expected to provide the largest number of new jobs are
Assistance) while others, including Business, Finance and Human Resource
                                                                                                       • Electricians (58 900)
Professionals, have employment spread across many industries.
                                                                                                       • Registered Nurses (52 700)
This cluster approach is also used in Job Outlook www.joboutlook.gov.au.
                                                                                                       • Aged and Disabled Carers (46 700)
On this site, select the occupation in which you are interested then click the
‘Related Jobs’ tab to see graphs with data on employment characteristics,                              • General Clerks (31 500)
trends and prospects for the relevant clusters, including comparisons                                  • Child Carers (30 600).
between occupations within the cluster.


For more information see www.joboutlook.gov.au                                                                                                           AUSTRALIAN JOBS 2011                            25
     Occupations and skills


     INDUSTRY AND OCCUPATIONAL PROJECTIONS
     Most new jobs will be in a small number                                                            In which occupation groups will the
     of industries                                                                                      new jobs be?
     All industries are projected to increase their employment over the next five                        While all eight major occupational groups are expected to have larger
     years except Manufacturing, where employment is expected to decline                                employment in five years time, there are projected to be smaller
     (continuing a long-term trend). Over the five years to 2015-16, though, more                        employment gains for the lower skilled occupational groups of Sales
     than half of the new jobs in Australia are expected to be provided by just three                   Workers, Labourers and Machinery Operators and Drivers, highlighting the
     of the 19 industries. The pie chart below shows that one in four new jobs                          importance of undertaking post-school education and training to improve
     (323 300 or 24.5% of new jobs) are expected to be in Health Care and                               your job and career prospects.
     Social Assistance, with Construction and Professional, Scientific and Technical
                                                                                                        Over the five years to 2015-16, the largest jobs growth is expected to be for
     Services together also creating more than a quarter of new jobs (195 800
                                                                                                        Professionals (385 000), followed by Technicians and Trades Workers
     and 149 800 respectively).
                                                                                                        (240 100) and Community and Personal Service Workers (218 100). There
                                                                                                        are also expected to be large numbers of new jobs for Managers (143 600)
     Projected Employment Growth to 2015-16,                                                            and Clerical and Administrative Workers (115 900).
     Top 10 Industries (‘000)

                 Health Care and Social Assistance                                              323.3
                                                                                                        Projected Employment Growth to 2015-16
                                        Construction                          195.8                     Occupation Major Group (‘000)
     Professional, Scientific and Technical Services                     149.8
                              Education and Training              95.7                                                                Professionals                                             385.0
                Transport, Postal and Warehousing               77.0
                                                                                                                 Technicians and Trades Workers                               240.1
                                         Retail Trade           76.4
                                              Mining           69.2                                     Community and Personal Service Workers                               218.1
              Administrative and Support Services            48.4
                                                                                                                                         Managers                    143.6
                                      Other Services         47.5
               Accommodation and Food Services               46.6                                             Clerical and Administrative Workers                  115.9
                                                        0   50 100   150 200       250    300 350               Machinery Operators and Drivers             61.7
     Source: DEEWR employment projections                                                                                                Labourers          55.6
                                                                                                                                      Sales Workers         55.0
     Other industries which are expected to provide large numbers of new jobs
     include Transport, Postal and Warehousing (77 000), Retail Trade (76 400)                                                                        0   50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450
     and Mining (69 200).                                                                               Source: DEEWR employment projections


     Projected Employment Growth to 2015-16                                                             The graph below highlights the strong role that Professionals will play in
     Industry (% share)                                                                                 contributing to overall employment growth over the next five years, with
                                                                                                        around 31% of new jobs being in this group.

                                                                         Health Care and
           Other industries, 25.1                                        Social Assistance, 24.5        Projected Employment Growth to 2015-16
                                                                                                        Occupation Group (% share)

                                                                                                                                                  Labourers, 4.4
                                                                                                           Machinery Operators and Drivers, 4.8                       Managers, 11.3
                 Mining, 5.3                                                 Construction, 14.9
                                                                                                                       Sales Workers, 4.3
          Transport, Postal
           and Warehousing, 5.8                                                                         Clerical and Administrative
                    Retail Trade, 5.8                                                                                 Workers, 9.1
                                                                 Professional, Scientific and
                 Education and Training, 7.3                     Technical Services, 11.4
                                                                                                                                                                                     Professionals, 30.2
     Source: DEEWR employment projections
                                                                                                         Community and Personal
     At the more disaggregated level, the top ten industry                                                 Service Workers, 17.1
     subdivisions providing the most new jobs are expected to be
     •    Building Installation Services (78 100)
     •    Hospitals (71 500)                                                                                          Technicians and Trade Workers, 18.8

     •    Architectural, Engineering and Technical Services (68 200)
                                                                                                        Source: DEEWR employment projections
     •    Cafes, Restaurants and Takeaway Food Services (67 900)
     •    Residential Care Services (56 200)                                                            DEEWR prepares indicative projections of employment growth. The latest
     •    Other Social Assistance Services (54 700)                                                     projections are for the five years to 2015–16, and are based, in part, on
     •    School Education (49 400)                                                                     forecasts from economic forecasting organisations, especially Access
     •    Building Completion Services (47 300)                                                         Economics and the Centre of Policy Studies (CoPS) at Monash University.
     •    Allied Health Services (44 300)                                                               They also take account of recent employment trends and prospective
     •    Computer System Design and Related Services (42 000).                                         industry developments.


26       AUSTRALIAN JOBS 2011                                                                                                    For more information see www.joboutlook.gov.au
                                                                                                                                              Occupations and skills


WHO IS IN-TRAINING?
The number of Australian apprentices                                                                 There are more students studying
and trainees in-training is increasing                                                               at university
Over the ten years to June 2010, the number of Australian apprentices and                            There were 813 900 domestic students enrolled in university in 2009,
trainees in-training increased significantly, to about 440 600. The profile of                         an increase of 5.4% compared with 2008. Ten years earlier, there were
Australian apprentices and trainees has also changed, showing that there is                          603 200 domestic students at university.
an opportunity to undertake training regardless of your age or gender.
                                                                                                     In 2009, more than half (55%) of all domestic university students were
There is now a higher proportion of people aged 45 years or older                                    female and 70% of students were studying full-time.
in-training, around one in every eight (or 57 500) apprentices and trainees
is in this age group. The proportion of females in-training has increased as                         University Student Enrolments by Gender (‘000)
well. Ten years ago, females comprised about 31% of apprentices but now
they now account for around 34%.                                                                               Males        Females
                                                                                                     500                                                                                    472.2

Apprentices and Trainees In-Training by Gender (‘000)                                                                                                       405.7
                                                                                                     400
          Male       Female                                                                                                 336.9                                               341.7
                                                                                                                                                 310.7
350
                                                                                                     300          266.2
300                                                                           289.3
                                           263.1                                                     200
250

200          186.6                                                                                   100
                                                                                       151.3
150                                                 135.6
                                                                                                       0
                                                                                                                       1999                            2004                          2009
100                    84.6
                                                                                                     Source: DEEWR Higher Education Statistics
 50
                                                                                                     Opportunities to study at university are available no matter how old you are.
  0                                                                                                  In 2009, more than 100 000 domestic university students were aged 40
                 2000                           2005                              2010
Source: NCVER Apprentices and Trainees Collection                                                    years or older, a 42% increase over the past decade.

The rise in the number of females in-training has been significantly greater                          University Student Enrolments by Age (‘000)
than that for males over the past decade. The number of females rose by
about 79% and the number of males rose by 55%. Overall, the numbers                                            1999         2004       2009
of apprentices and trainees in-training rose by 62%.                                                 300.0
                                                                                                                                                    278.8

Apprentices and Trainees In-Training by Age (‘000)                                                   250.0                                  237.4
                                                                                                                            216.2                                           218.5
                                                                                                                                                                    205.3
                                                                                                     200.0                          187.7
          2000        2005        2010                                                                        176.6 181.1
                                                                                                                                                            168.0
160
                                                                                                     150.0
140           132.2 135.3                                             133.6

120                                        114.2              113.6                                  100.0                                                                                  92.7 100.4
        101.3                         105.2                                                                                                                                         70.9
100
                               80.9                                                                   50.0
 80
                                                       67.6
                                                                                              57.5
 60                                                                                                    0.0
                                                                                       47.7
                                                                                                             19 years and under       20 to 24 years          25 to 39 years            40 years or over
 40
                                                                                21.4                 Source: DEEWR Higher Education Statistics
 20

  0                                                                                                  A growing proportion of the Australian workforce holds qualifications at the
       19 years and under       20 to 24 years         25 to 44 years             45 years or over
                                                                                                     Bachelor degree or higher level, reflecting increased demand from
Source: NCVER Apprentices and Trainees Collection                                                    employers for highly skilled workers. In line with this, over the ten years to
                                                                                                     2009, the number of domestic students attaining this level of qualification
Over the past decade, the proportion of apprentices and trainees in-training                         increased by 28%.
who are aged 45 years or older has risen markedly, up from 8% of the total
in 2000 to 13% in 2010.                                                                              The increase in the number of students completing higher education studies has
                                                                                                     not, though, been distributed evenly among the fields of education. Over the
The level of qualification being attained has also risen. Almost 92% of                               past decade, the number of award completions in Health increased by 60%,
Australian apprentices and trainees in-training in September 2010 were                               while those in Engineering and Related Technologies increased by 13%. By
studying for a AQF Certificate III level Vocational Education and Training                            contrast, the number of award completions in Information Technology decreased
qualification or higher. This is well above the proportion recorded a                                 by 51% and those in Agriculture, Environmental and Related Studies decreased
decade ago (79%).                                                                                    by 7%, despite shortages being evident in some related occupations.

For more information see www.joboutlook.gov.au                                                                                                                 AUSTRALIAN JOBS 2011                        27
     Occupations and skills


     EDUCATION AND EMPLOYMENT
     The Australian workforce is becoming                                                                Higher qualifications increase your
     more skilled                                                                                        chance of getting a job
     The Australian workforce is becoming more educated and more highly                                  There is plenty of evidence to suggest your level of education has a
     skilled. Looking at the industries where employment growth is strongest,                            significant effect on your chance of getting a job. The May 2010 ABS
     like Health Care and Social Assistance where almost three-quarters of                               Education and Work survey shows that those with a Certificate III/IV or
     workers hold post-school qualifications, it is apparent that most of the new                         higher qualification have lower unemployment rates than workers who do
     jobs of the future will require post-school qualifications to meet employers’                        not hold post-school qualifications. The higher your qualification, the less
     demand for skilled workers. This means that you are at an increasing                                likely you are to be unemployed and data on page 29 also show higher
     disadvantage when looking for work if you have a low level of education, or                         qualifications generally mean higher pay.
     have not completed post-school study.
                                                                                                         In 2010, the unemployment rate for workers with Year 10 as their highest
     There has been a marked increase in the proportion of Australian workers                            qualification was 9.9%, compared with 6.4% for people who completed Year
     who hold post-school qualifications. Around half of those employed in 2000                           12, 3.8% for those with Certificate III/IV qualifications and 2.7% for people who
     had studied after leaving school but by 2010, this had risen to around 61%.                         completed a Bachelor degree.

     Educational Profile (% of total employed) May 2010                                                   Unemployment Rate by Qualification, May 2009 and
                                                                                                         May 2010 (%)
     Highest level of post-school qualification                                                       %
     Postgraduate Degree                                                                        5.1                                   2010         2009

     Graduate Diploma/Certificate                                                                2.5       Bachelor Degree                                 3.4
                                                                                                                                                    2.7
     Bachelor Degree                                                                           18.8
                                                                                                           Certificate III/IV                                     4.3
     Advanced Diploma/Diploma                                                                  10.1                                                         3.8

     Certificate III/IV                                                                         19.6                Year 12                                                          7.1
                                                                                                                                                                              6.4
     Certificate I/II                                                                            3.8                                                                                                   10.4
                                                                                                                   Year 10
     Certificate not further defined                                                              1.0                                                                                             9.9
                                                                                                                                0.0          2.0          4.0           6.0           8.0      10.0          12.0
     No post-school qualification                                                               39.1
                                                                                                         Source: ABS Survey of Education and Work
     Source: ABS Survey of Education and Work

     There are significant differences in the qualification profile of the workforce in                     Employment outcomes for university
     cities compared with regional areas. In cities, people are much more likely to                      and VET graduates are good
     have a university qualification, while in regional Australia, people are more
     likely to hold Vocational Education and Training (VET) qualifications. In part,                      For Bachelor degree graduates, Graduate Careers Australia’s (GCA) 2010
     this reflects the industry base of many regional locations, where Agriculture,                       graduate survey shows that 76% of surveyed graduates had found full-time
     Forestry and Fishing; Construction; Electricity, Gas, Water and Waste Services;                     work by 30 April 2010 after finishing their degrees in 2009.
     Transport, Storage and Warehousing; and Mining often represent relatively                           For VET graduates, the National Centre for Vocational Education Research’s
     high shares of local employment.                                                                    (NCVER) survey of VET students for 2010 found that 76% of surveyed
                                                                                                         graduates found work approximately six months after graduating. While this
     Highest Level of Educational Attainment, by                                                         figure also includes people employed on a part-time basis, these results are
     Remoteness Area, 2009 (% of total employed)                                                         similar to the outcomes for Bachelor degree students.

                           % with a VET Cert III/IV or higher    % with a university qualification       DEEWR projections (see the Job Prospects Matrix from page 36) show that
                                                                                                         employment growth over the next five years is expected to be strong and job
                                                                             24.9                        prospects are above average for most professions. Many trade occupations
          Major cities
          of Australia                                                                                   also have strong employment growth and above average job prospects.
                                                                                  26.8

                                                                                                         Bachelor Degree and VET Graduates Employed
                                                       13.7
        Inner regional                                                                                   After Graduation, 2008 to 2010
             Australia
                                                                                             31.3
                                                                                                                                         Bachelor Degree                      Vocational Education and
                                                                                                                                              Graduates                             Training Graduates
                                                     12.7
        Outer regional
             Australia
                                                                                                                                       Employed full-time                           Employed (full-time or
                                                                                    27.9                                              at 30 April following                          part-time) at 28 May
                                                                                                                                               graduation                            following graduation
                                                         14.6                                            2010                                          76.2                                           76.3
     Remote Australia                                                                                    2009                                          79.2                                           77.8
                                                                           24.1
                                                                                                         2008                                          85.2                                           80.7
                                                                                                         Source: Gradstats and NCVER Student Outcomes
                      0.0       5.0        10.0        15.0     20.0      25.0        30.0      35.0
     Source: ABS Survey of Education and Training



28     AUSTRALIAN JOBS 2011                                                                                                            For more information see www.joboutlook.gov.au
                                                                                                                                           Occupations and skills


EDUCATION AND EMPLOYMENT
Graduate demand is strong in                                                                       VET Graduates Employed (% of total) at 28 May after
regional areas                                                                                     Graduation, 2010

National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER) data also show                                                Architecture and Building                                      87.1
that Vocational Education and Training (VET) qualifications are particularly                                                            Education                                       84.8
sought after in regional and remote areas of Australia. VET graduates in                                   Engineering and Related Technologies                                        84.7
regional and remote Australia are more likely to find employment after                                                                     Health                                    83.1
graduation than those in major cities. This is particularly the case for                           Agriculture, Environmental and Related Studies                                  80.1
                                                                                                                             Society and Culture                                  77.4
graduates in remote areas (86% were employed after graduating compared
                                                                                                                   Management and Commerce                                      74.1
with 74% in major cities) and they are also more likely to command a higher
                                                                                                          Food, Hospitality and Personal Services                               73.1
income once they have found employment (average annual income of
                                                                                                                   Natural and Physical Sciences                           67.1
$53 900 compared with $47 500 in major cities).
                                                                                                                          Information Technology                         61.9
                                                                                                                                    Creative Arts                       60.0
Outcomes for Vocational Education and Training
                                                                                                                                                    0   10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Graduates in Regional and Remote Australia, 2010
                                                                                                   Source: NCVER Student Outcomes

                                               Average annual
                                                                              Employed at
                                                   income for                                      Starting salaries for graduates
                                                                                  28 May
                                                     full-time
                                                                                following
                                                    employed                                       In 2010, Graduate Careers Australia (GCA) figures show the median annual
                                                                               graduation
                                                    graduates                                      starting salary for all Bachelor degree graduates aged less than 25 years and
Major cities                                         $ 47 500                               74%    in their first full-time job in Australia was $49 000, up from $48 000 in 2009.
Inner and outer regional                             $ 47 400                               78%    The five highest starting salaries were for
Remote and very remote                               $ 53 900                               86%    •   Dentistry ($75 000)
Source: NCVER Student Outcomes                                                                     •   Optometry ($70 000)
                                                                                                   •   Engineering ($56 000)
Employment outcomes by field of study                                                               •   Medicine ($55 000)
Graduate employment outcomes by field of study are useful to see which                              •   Earth Sciences ($54 000).
graduates do best in the labour market but they need to be examined in the                         In 2010, NCVER data show the average annual salary for graduates with
context of other information. The information shown below is employment                            a qualification through VET who were in full-time work six months after
outcomes for Bachelor degree graduates, but the entry qualification for                             completing their training was
some occupations is commonly a Master’s degree. Graduate Careers                                   •   Diploma or higher ($54 600)
Australia figures show that in Architecture, for example, more than 40%                             •   Certificate IV ($54 400)
of 2009 Bachelor degree graduates were in further study at 30 April 2010.
                                                                                                   •   Certificate III ($45 500)
For Certificate III/IV graduates in Information Technology, around half were
                                                                                                   •   Certificate II ($42 200)
studying (some combining work and further study). For some other
occupations, there is a mandatory internship/registration year before a                            •   Certificate I ($42 000).
graduate is admitted to the occupation (for example, Medical Practitioner),                        In 2010, for graduates with a qualification through VET who were in
so a high proportion of these graduates are in full-time work.                                     full-time work six months after completing their training, the highest
                                                                                                   average salaries were in the fields of
Detailed information is at www.graduatecareers.com.au/Research/
GradJobsDollars/index.htm and www.ncver.edu.au/statistic/21065                                     • Education ($63 500)
                                                                                                   • Engineering and Related Technology ($50 400)
Bachelor Degree Graduates (% of those seeking                                                      • Health ($49 300)
full-time employment who were working full-time                                                    • Agriculture, Environmental and Related Studies ($47 600)
at 30 April), 2010                                                                                 • Management and Commerce ($47 500).

        Rehabilitation                                                                    88.8
                                                                                                   Useful links
              Building                                                               84.3
                                                                                                   www.graduatecareers.com.au – information for higher education graduates
                  Law                                                              82.1
          Accounting                                                           79.1                www.ncver.edu.au – information on Vocational Education and Training
          Architecture                                                        75.8                 graduate outcomes and research
           Agriculture                                                 69.3                        www.jobsearch.gov.au – graduate careers in the Australian Government
Chemical Engineering                                               67.7                            and State agencies – Click on ‘graduate links’
         Mathematics                                               66.8
                                                                                                   www.goingtouni.gov.au – more about studying at university
        Life Sciences                                           61.0
Visual/Performing Arts                                   53.3
                                                                                                   Further information is available at www.graduatecareers.com.au/
                                                                                                   Research/GradJobsDollars/index and www.ncver.edu.au/
                     0               20         40         60                 80             100
Source: Graduate Careers Australia, Gradfiles
                                                                                                   resources/sos_online


For more information see www.joboutlook.gov.au                                                                                                             AUSTRALIAN JOBS 2011               29
     Occupations and skills


     EMPLOYABILITY SKILLS
     What are employability skills?                                                    Problem solving
     Employability skills are non-technical or generic skills, such as                 Problem solving skills contribute to productive outcomes and include the
     communication, team work and problem solving, which contribute to your            capacity to develop creative, innovative and practical solutions, and to apply
     ability to be an effective and successful participant in the workplace. They      a range of strategies across a range of areas to solve specific problems.
     are sometimes referred to as key, core, life, essential, or soft skills. Unlike
     many technical skills, employability skills are transferable between jobs.        Initiative and enterprise
                                                                                       Initiative and enterprise skills contribute to innovative outcomes. They
     Given the value employers place on workplace experience, entry-level
                                                                                       include the ability to adapt to change, develop effective work practices,
     positions can be a great place for you to develop these skills. Employers
                                                                                       identify opportunities and translate ideas into action.
     place a strong emphasis on the need for both entry-level and ongoing
     employees to exhibit a broad range of attributes. As a result, employers          Planning and organising
     often reject applicants who are suitable in many other respects, even those
                                                                                       Planning and organising skills contribute to long-term and short-term
     who hold elevated qualifications because they do not have the required
                                                                                       strategic planning. They include the capacity to manage priorities by setting
     employability skills they desire.
                                                                                       timelines, coordinating tasks and working systematically.
     Employers look for employability skills particularly when there are large
     numbers of applicants, or when choosing between competing applicants              Self management
     that are suitable in other respects. This makes employability skills especially   Self management skills contribute to employee satisfaction and growth.
     important, with the most commonly reported difficulty in finding work               They include having a personal vision and clear goals, evaluating one’s own
     among unemployed persons in the past year being ‘Too many applicants              performance at work, seeking continuous self improvement to enhance
     for available jobs’1.                                                             performance, having clarity and confidence and taking responsibility.
     The importance of employability skills is highlighted further by the fact that
     it is now a requirement of nationally recognised Vocational Education and         Learning
     Training Packages to embed employability skills into course content. In           Learning skills contribute to ongoing improvement and expansion in employee
     order to find out what employability skills can be gained in a particular          and company operations and outcomes. They include proactive involvement
     training package or course, just enter the course code into the search            in training and learning opportunities while working in your current job.
     box on employabilityskills.training.com.au.
                                                                                       Technology
     There are eight identified employability skills and these are summarised
     below. While employers consider all eight to be important, particular jobs        Technological skills contribute to the effective execution of tasks. They include
     may require some more than others. For example, jobs in the retail industry       a basic understanding of word processing, spreadsheets and internet/email
     may require strong communication skills, whereas jobs in administration           and an ability to adapt to new and emerging technologies in the workplace.
     may require a good working knowledge of common computer software,
     such as Microsoft Word and Excel.                                                 Other attributes valued by employers
                                                                                       Employers also value a range of attributes relating to employability skills
     Communication                                                                     including: loyalty, commitment, honesty and integrity, enthusiasm,
     Communication skills contribute to productive and harmonious relations            reliability, personal presentation, commonsense, positive self esteem, ability
     between employees and customers. They include effective listening and             to deal with pressure, motivation and adaptability. These attributes enable
     understanding, speaking clearly and directly, being assertive and persuasive,     individuals to be successful both in and outside the workplace and to
     reading effectively, writing to the needs of the audience and being responsive    maintain a healthy work-life balance.
     in negotiations and requests.                                                     For many employers, employability skills and personal attributes are just as
     Communication skills are one of the most important employability skills as        important as the technical ability to do the job. For this reason it is
     they are the first skills an employer encounters. Their importance is borne        important for job seekers wishing to enter the workforce to incorporate
     out by two recent surveys. The ABS Job Search Experience survey found             these skills into job applications and demonstrate them at interviews.
     67% of new employees had written, phoned, or applied in person to an
     employer for work; and the DEEWR Survey of Employers’ Recruitment
     Experiences found that of all the employability skills, applicants were
     most lacking in communication skills.

     Team work
     Team work skills contribute to productive working relationships and
     outcomes. They include the capacity to work harmoniously with a
     wide range of people and understanding your role in the team as
     well as identifying the strengths of team members and using them
     to meet objectives.




     1.
          Source: ABS Job Search Experience, July 2010



30        AUSTRALIAN JOBS 2011                                                                             For more information see www.joboutlook.gov.au
                                                                                                                     Occupations and skills


SKILLS FOR SUSTAINABILITY
What are green skills and green jobs?                                               The four objectives of the Agreement are

Green skills, or skills for sustainability, are the professional and vocational     • developing national standards for skills for sustainability instruction
skills, as well as the generic skills (such as sustainable approaches,                within the requirements of the national regulatory framework
innovation and problem solving) required for new green jobs and the                 • upskilling VET teachers and instructors so they can provide effective
greening of existing jobs across all industry sectors as a response to                training and facilitation in skills for sustainability
climate change and sustainability imperatives.                                      • reviewing and revising Training Packages to incorporate skills for
There is no doubt that new green jobs will be created as we move to a                 sustainability, and
greener economy. This includes occupations in clean energy production and           • implementing strategies to reskill vulnerable workers in the transition
jobs in the manufacturing and production of clean and green consumer items.           to a low carbon economy.

However, as businesses and entire industries across the economy move to             In addition, the National Green Jobs Corps (NGJC) program is an
more sustainable ways of working, it is likely that a whole host of existing jobs   environmental work experience and training program for eligible young
will be made greener. Workers across a range of occupations will need new           Australians aged 17 to 24 years old. The program commenced on
skills to increase efficiency, reduce waste, conserve water and develop and          1 January 2010 and runs until 31 December 2011.
implement new technologies and practices for a more sustainable world.              NGJC helps young people develop valuable skills and experiences in the
Plumbers, for example, with the right skills and training will be able to install   environmental and climate change growth industries, ensuring they are
and maintain devices and systems for water and energy efficiency,                    ready for employment in these areas.
recycling, rain water harvesting and waste reduction. They will also be able        NGJC participants are involved in 26 weeks of environmental training,
to promote and advise customers on these products, while moulding                   where they undertake both practical work experience and accredited
business culture by contributing to the bottom line in a sustainable and            training towards a Certificate II level qualification.
environmentally-friendly way.
                                                                                    Young people doing NGJC work on projects focused on the conservation,
Green skills will be important to all industries and sectors, not just to the       protection and rejuvenation of Australia’s natural environment and
trades. For example                                                                 cultural heritage.
• lawyers, accountants and economists will need to respond to the
                                                                                    The types of projects they are involved in include
  demand for environmental reporting and accounting practices
                                                                                    • bush regeneration
• planners, architects and engineers will need to respond to demand
  for sustainable design and new green materials                                    • beach and dune rehabilitation
• business owners and operators will need to respond to rapidly                     • wildlife and fish habitat protection
  escalating energy, water and waste costs                                          • flora, fauna and land surveys and audits
• retailers, service providers and procurement managers will need to                • community consultation and surveys relating to the environment
  respond to increasing consumer and client demand for green products               • training and hands-on experience in the installation of energy
  and services, and                                                                   efficiencies (such as insulation for buildings) designed to reduce
• primary producers will need to respond to rising input costs and                    carbon emissions, and
  land degradation.                                                                 • developing community information and education products.
Green skills are about preparing all Australians in all parts of the country        In addition, each project gives participants the opportunity to develop
for the challenges of the future and the transition to a sustainable, low           teamwork and leadership skills while preparing for employment opportunities.
carbon economy.                                                                     Young people interested in participating in NGJC should talk to their local
                                                                                    Centrelink, Job Services Australia or Disability Employment Services provider.
What is the Government doing to                                                     Further information about NGJC can be found at www.deewr.gov.au/ngjc.
provide opportunities for Australians
to access green skills and green jobs?
The Australian Government is committed to ensuring that the education
and training system is capable of providing a workforce that has the skills
required to drive and promote sustainable outcomes in the workplace and
the community.
In particular, under the Green Skills Agreement, all new trade apprentices
commencing training from 2011 will graduate with a core set of skills,
knowledge and training in sustainable principles and practices.
The Green Skills Agreement, which was endorsed by the Council of
Australian Governments in December 2009, commits the Australian and
state and territory governments to working with training organisations
and business to ensure skills for sustainability are an integral part of all
Vocational Education and Training (VET) and are relevant to the needs
of industry.


For more information see www.joboutlook.gov.au                                                                                    AUSTRALIAN JOBS 2011               31
     Occupations and skills


     EMPLOYMENT, EDUCATION AND TRAINING SERVICES
     What help is available for me?                                                        Parents
     There is a wide range of Government assistance available to help you find              As a parent or carer, you may have additional responsibilities and needs that
     the right job, gain skills through training and understand your rights in the         affect your ability to secure employment. Job Services Australia can help you
     workplace. The following information is summary in nature and cannot fully            gain skills and improve your job prospects. All principal carer parents on
     explain the large number of policies and programs available to help you.              income support are eligible to access Job Services Australia services.
                                                                                           Assistance could also include support to access suitable child care.
     If you would like further information, the Department of Education,
     Employment and Workplace Relations’ website www.deewr.gov.au is
     the place to start. If you do not have access to the Internet, call DEEWR             Mature age employment
     on 13 17 64. Centrelink can help too. Go to www.centrelink.gov.au or                  If you are 50 years of age or older and looking for work, you can register
     phone 13 24 90.                                                                       to receive help from Job Services Australia. Your Job Services Australia
                                                                                           provider will work with you to develop your own combination of job search,
                                                                                           training and other assistance to address barriers to employment and to help
     EMPLOYMENT                                                                            you get and keep a job.
                                                                                           You may also want to explore the Experience+ website. This site contains
     Job Services Australia assistance                                                     information for employers, mature age job seekers and mature age workers.
     Job Services Australia is the Australian Government’s national employment             This service includes free career advice, a résumé appraisal service, on-the
     services system. Jobs Services Australia is a one stop shop for employment            job support and job transition support. Experience+ can be found on the
     services, and providers are located in more than 2100 towns, cities and               DEEWR website at www.deewr.gov.au/employment/programs/expplus.
     rural sites across Australia.
                                                                                           People with disability
     If you are a job seeker, you will be linked to a provider of your choosing who
     will work with you throughout the duration of your journey to employment.             The new Disability Employment Services provides improved services
     The provider will work with you to develop an Employment Pathway Plan,                for job seekers with disability, injury, or health condition and can support
     based on your needs and circumstances, which sets out the services and                their families and carers and employers. Disability Employment Services
     training that will help you to find and keep a job.                                    providers are organisations contracted by the Australian Government across
                                                                                           Australia in more than 2000 sites. They provide a wide range of services
     Details about Job Services Australia, including information for specialist services   and support to help you find and maintain sustainable employment.
     which are summarised below, and the location of Job Services Australia
     providers, are available at www.deewr.gov.au/jobservicesaustralia.                    Disability Employment Services providers will work with you to develop an
                                                                                           individual program that focuses on your strengths, abilities and the barriers
                                                                                           you face in getting a job. Once you are placed in a job your provider may
     Youth
                                                                                           also support you in the workplace if you need help to keep your job.
     Job Services Australia is also available to young people who are aged
     between 15 and 20, who are not employed for more than 15 hours per                    For more information, visit the DEEWR website, or JobAccess.
     week or in full-time education and not in receipt of income support. In               www.jobaccess.gov.au is a one-stop information shop providing help for
     addition, if you have significant issues preventing you from getting a job,            employers, employees, job seekers and service providers for the employment
     you may be able to register directly with a Job Services Australia provider           of people with disability.
     to get immediate help. Go to www.youth.gov.au for the answers you need.
                                                                                           New Enterprise Incentive Scheme
     People from non-English speaking                                                      Starting a new business is another employment option available to you as a
     backgrounds                                                                           job seeker. If you are considering setting up your own business, you may be
                                                                                           eligible for the New Enterprise Incentive Scheme, depending on your
     If you are a job seeker from a non-English speaking background, Job
                                                                                           personal circumstances. For more information see www.deewr.gov.au/
     Services Australia can help you to get a job. You may also be given the
                                                                                           Employment/JSA/EmploymentServices/Pages/NEIS.
     choice of attending a culturally and linguistically diverse specialist provider.

     Indigenous                                                                            Harvest Labour Services
                                                                                           Harvest Labour Services can help you find work as a harvest labourer in rural
     The Australian Government is committed to halving the employment gap
                                                                                           and regional areas across Australia. Harvest work is generally available
     between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians within a decade. If
                                                                                           throughout the year where there are not enough local workers to harvest fruit
     you are an Indigenous job seeker and are experiencing barriers to getting
                                                                                           and vegetable crops or assist wool growers. The National Harvest Labour
     a job, all Job Services Australia providers can deliver specific services for
                                                                                           Information Service can help you find information about fruit and vegetable
     you. You may also be given the choice of attending an Indigenous
                                                                                           harvest jobs across Australia. See jobsearch.gov.au/harvesttrail.
     specialist. They operate in many locations across Australia and will
     also have strategies for employing and retaining Indigenous Australians
     in their own organisations.




32    AUSTRALIAN JOBS 2011                                                                                     For more information see www.joboutlook.gov.au
                                                                                                                 Occupations and skills




Help if you have lost your job                                                  The Australian Government has introduced a number of initiatives to help
                                                                                ease the financial difficulties Australian Apprentices experience in the early
Any workers who are made redundant are eligible for employment support          years of their apprenticeship, particularly in trades experiencing a skills
with a Job Services Australia provider of their choice.                         shortage. If you are interested in an Australian Apprenticeship visit
In some circumstances, the Government is able to provide labour                 www.australianapprenticeships.gov.au for more information.
adjustment packages to assist employees in areas where large scale
closures may impact on the local labour market. Workers from eligible           Higher Education
companies in the automotive manufacturing industry and the textile,
                                                                                If you are considering studying at a university, the Australian Government
clothing and footwear industry have immediate access to intensive
                                                                                provides information about higher education, providers of higher education
assistance through Job Services Australia. For more information, see
                                                                                and student places, including information about enrolling and course costs,
www.deewr.gov.au/Employment/JSA/JobSeekerSupport.
                                                                                loans, scholarships and income support for students. www.goingtouni.gov.au
The General Employee Entitlements and Redundancy Scheme (GEERS)                 is a good starting point and it links to other useful resources.
(see below) may also be able to assist you if you are owed unpaid
wages or other entitlements because your employer has entered
liquidation or is bankrupt.                                                     REGIONAL ASSISTANCE

WORKPLACE RELATIONS                                                             Regional Development Australia Fund
                                                                                The Regional Development Australia Fund will provide around $1 billion to
What support is available after I have                                          boost economic development in the regions. The Government is calling for
a job?                                                                          applications for projects that will boost economic development, create local
                                                                                jobs and lift the quality of life in local communities and regions. Interested
Fair Work Australia (FWA) is the national workplace relations tribunal. It is   parties can register to receive guidelines for the Fund when they are
an independent body with power to carry out a range of functions including      released by sending an email to regionalgrants@regional.gov.au with
providing a safety net of minimum conditions, including minimum wages,          ‘RDAF Interest’ in the subject line.
protection from unfair dismissal, balance between work and family life,
and the right to be represented in the workplace. For more information
see www.fwa.gov.au.
                                                                                Local Employment Coordinators
                                                                                Local Employment Coordinators (LECs) work in 20 vulnerable areas across
General Employee Entitlements                                                   Australia. LECs identify opportunities and drive strategic responses to local
                                                                                needs by facilitating linkages across business, community, provider
and Redundancy Scheme (GEERS)                                                   organisations and all levels of government to help people into jobs and meet
Are you owed unpaid wages or other entitlements due to your employer            demands for skills and labour.
going bankrupt? GEERS is a payment scheme established to assist
                                                                                The LECs work with Keep Australia Working committees to harness local
employees who have lost their employment due to the liquidation or
                                                                                expertise and provide guidance to develop and implement Regional
bankruptcy of their employer and who are owed capped unpaid wages,
                                                                                Employment Plans that set out the employment priorities for the region.
annual and long service leave, capped payment in lieu of notice and capped
                                                                                LECs provide assistance to retrenched workers, develop and support local
redundancy pay. For more information see www.deewr.gov.au/geers.
                                                                                employment projects and industry events, connect employers with and
                                                                                increase awareness of available government assistance and how to access
EDUCATION AND TRAINING                                                          it, and work closely with Regional Development Australia to enhance the
                                                                                growth and development of Australia’s regions.
Skills are vital to the Australian economy and to improve your chances of
                                                                                LECs have good links in their regions and work at a grassroots level to
gaining the job you want. There are many training opportunities available,
                                                                                address labour market issues in local communities. By working closely with
from Australian Apprenticeships and university study to short courses
                                                                                their communities, LECs actively encourage participation to the benefit of
which can help you gain employability skills and skills for sustainability
                                                                                local communities and their economies. See www.deewr.gov.au for
(more information about employability and sustainability skills are on
                                                                                more information.
pages 30 and 31).
From more information see www.deewr.gov.au                                      Relocating for work
                                                                                Connecting People with Jobs helps eligible job seekers to relocate for
Australian Apprenticeships                                                      full-time work or an apprenticeship. Eligible job seekers can be reimbursed
An apprenticeship is a training contract between an employer and an             with between $3000 and $9000 to assist with the cost of moving. To find
employee in which the apprentice or trainee learns the skills needed for        out more, contact your local Job Services Australia provider. Call 13 62 68
a particular occupation or trade.                                               or visit www.deewr.gov.au/relocation.
Australian Apprenticeships are available to you if you are of working age.
They do not require any entry qualifications. You can be a school leaver,
re-entering the workforce or simply wishing to change careers. You may
even be able to start an Australian Apprenticeship while you are still at
school. No matter in what industry you might be interested, there is likely
to be an Australian Apprenticeship to meet your needs.

For more information see www.joboutlook.gov.au                                                                                AUSTRALIAN JOBS 2011               33
     Occupations and skills




     Rural Tertiary Hardship Fund                                                      Scholarships for the allied health field
     The Rural Tertiary Hardship Fund has been established to reduce barriers          If you live in regional Australia and are thinking about enrolling in an allied
     faced by rural and regional students, under the age of 25, who would              health related undergraduate or postgraduate degree, you may be eligible to
     experience financial hardship in undertaking higher education without this         apply for a scholarship under the Nursing and Allied Health Scholarship and
     assistance. The Fund will provide one-off grants of $3000 to eligible             Support Scheme. The allied health field includes occupations such as
     students. For information, including eligibility requirements, go to              audiologist, aboriginal health worker, dentist, medical diagnostic
     www.deewr.gov.au/rthf.                                                            radiographer, occupational therapist, optometrist, physiotherapist and social
                                                                                       worker. Scholarships are also available for professional development and
     Scholarships for higher                                                           clinical placements. See the Services for Australian Rural and Remote Allied
     education students                                                                Health website at www.sarrah.org.au for more information

     The Government has introduced scholarships as an entitlement for university
     students receiving student payments. Since 1 April 2010, university students      Thinking about a career in medicine?
     in receipt of Youth Allowance, Austudy or ABSTUDY have been eligible to           There is a range of schemes to promote careers in rural medicine and
     receive a new annual Student Start-Up Scholarship for each year they are          increase the number of doctors in rural and regional areas in the longer
     studying, valued at $2194 in 2011. If you are a student receiving Youth           term. These include the HECS Reimbursement Scheme and the Bonded
     Allowance or ABSTUDY and you need to move away from home to study you             Medical Places Scheme. See www.doctorconnect.gov.au for a range
     may also be eligible for the new Relocation Scholarship, valued in 2011 at        of helpful information.
     $4124 for the first year of study and $1031 for each year following. Both
     scholarships are indexed annually. See www.centrelink.gov.au for more             The Rural Australia Medical Undergraduate Scholarship Scheme (RAMUS)
     information on eligibility for scholarships.                                      aims to increase the number of medicine students with a rural background.
                                                                                       Scholarship holders receive $10 000 each year during the completion of a
     Indigenous initiatives                                                            standard medical degree at their chosen university. For information on
                                                                                       eligibility and how to apply go to ramus.ruralhealth.org.au.
     Are you an Indigenous student in regional or remote Australia who is
     interested in going to university? If so, there are a range of scholarships
     that you may wish to apply for. Contact the university at which you plan to
                                                                                       Assistance for Isolated Children
     study for more information.                                                       Children living in remote areas can often face significant problems attending
                                                                                       school on a regular basis. The Assistance for Isolated Children (AIC) Scheme
     If your studies are a mix of face to face contact and distance studies, you
                                                                                       helps the families of primary, secondary, and certain tertiary students who
     may also be eligible for the Away from Base program. This program covers
                                                                                       cannot attend an appropriate state school on a daily basis because of
     travel costs for eligible Indigenous Vocational Education and Training and
     higher education students who undertake accredited courses of study               geographical isolation. For information on eligibility and how to apply go to
     through a combination of distance education and ‘residential’ periods of          www.deewr.gov.au/schooling/AssistanceforIsolatedChildrenScheme.
     intensive face-to-face teaching. Speak with Centrelink about this program
     when you put in your ABSTUDY application, or ask your training provider if
     they are part of the program.


     Aged care nursing scholarships
     Interested in pursuing a career as a registered Aged Care Nurse in regional
     Australia? The Aged Care Nursing Scholarship Scheme is an Australian
     Government initiative aimed at encouraging more people to enter aged care
     nursing and increasing the skills of nurses working in the aged care sector,
     particularly in rural and regional Australia. Preference is given to applicants
     living and working in regional, rural and remote areas, although applicants
     living in metropolitan areas with an aged care background may apply. For
     information on eligibility and how to apply go to www.rcna.org.au.




34    AUSTRALIAN JOBS 2011                                                                                 For more information see www.joboutlook.gov.au
                                                                                                                      Job Prospects Matrix


GUIDE TO THE JOBS PROSPECTS MATRIX
How do I use the Job Prospects Matrix?                                            Median Age
In the Job Prospects Matrix, which starts on the next page, titles are            Data presented on age are the median age in years for workers in each
arranged in alphabetical order and some are duplicated to make them               occupation. That is, half the workers in the occupation are younger and
easier to find. For example, data for Carpenters and Joiners appear also as        half are older.
Joiners and Carpenters. Similar occupations may also be clustered together
with their titles reversed, for example Mechanical Engineer will be listed        Full-time Employment Share
under Engineer, Mechanical so it is adjacent to other Engineers to help you
                                                                                  Information provided shows the proportion of workers in the occupation
compare similar occupations. Descriptions of the data in each column of
                                                                                  who work full-time. The information is based on the ABS definition of
the Matrix are provided below.
                                                                                  full-time, which is workers who usually work 35 hours or more per week.

Summary Job Prospects                                                             Earnings
The Job Prospects Matrix provides a rating for each occupation for the
                                                                                  Data on weekly earnings are before tax earnings for full-time employees
period to 2015–16. There are three ratings: above average, average and
                                                                                  in August 2009, and are obtained from the ABS publication Employee
below average.
                                                                                  Earnings, Benefits and Trade Union Membership (Cat. no. 6310.0).
Job Prospects just mean ‘what are the chances of getting a job’. It is            They are median earnings, which means that half the employees in the
important to note, though, that ratings are indicative and may vary from          occupation earn less than the median weekly amount and half earn more.
region to region and according to the skills and attributes of individual job
                                                                                  Earnings information is presented as ‘deciles’ with the lowest earnings in
seekers. Clearly, if you have high level skills in a particular field your
                                                                                  the first decile and the highest in the tenth (about 10% of occupations are
chances of getting a job in that occupation are better than they are for          in each decile). The median earnings are for all ages and levels of
those who do not have relevant skills or experience. Do not be deterred           experience, so they are indicative only and cannot be used to determine
from training or looking for work in occupations which have ‘average’ or          what a worker will actually earn in a particular job.
‘below average’ job prospects as there are opportunities in all occupations,
and good candidates are always highly sought after.
                                                                                  Weekly Earnings—decile ranges
Summary Job Prospects ratings in the Matrix are based on several factors
including recent and projected job growth, main employing industries, skill       1     ≥ $669                          6     $1000-1059
shortages, unemployment, job turnover and vacancy trends. Job Prospects           2     $670-749                        7     $1060-1236
ratings are based on labour market conditions expected over the next five years.   3     $750-804                        8     $1237-1344
Job Outlook www.joboutlook.gov.au has more detailed information about Job         4     $805-901                        9     $1345-1563
Prospects for occupations, and a graph of key indicators for each occupation.     5     $902-999                        10    ≥ $1564

                                                                                  Future Employment Change
Employment and Employment Change
                                                                                  Employment growth projections for the period to 2015–16 are based on
The Employment column provides information about the number of people             several inputs: occupational employment projections prepared by Monash
employed in Australia in November 2010 for each occupation. It relates to         University; recent employment growth; future and actual industry
total employment so it includes both full-time and part-time workers.             employment growth; and qualitative information on occupational
Employment Change shows the change in the number of people employed               developments.
as well as the percentage change in employment over the five years to
November 2010.                                                                    Future Employment Change (% per annum)
                                                                                  1     ≤ –0.3        Decline
Unemployment                                                                      2     -0.2 to 1.4   Relatively stable employment or
The Unemployment Rate is the number of unemployed persons as a                                        slight growth
percentage of the labour force (employed plus unemployed). Unemployment           3     1.5 to 2.3    Moderate growth
is presented in five categories: low, below average, average, above average        4     2.4 to 3.3    Strong growth
and high.
                                                                                  5     ≥ 3.4         Very strong growth
An occupation may have high unemployment but also be experiencing
shortages for particular skills. This can occur when there is a geographic
mismatch between workers with skills and employers who are seeking
skills, but may also be a result of the skills held by unemployed people not
matching those required by employers.

Gender
This column shows the proportion of those employed in the occupation who
are female. Overall, females comprise 45% of employment in Australia.




For more information see www.joboutlook.gov.au                                                                                AUSTRALIAN JOBS 2011             35
     Job Prospects Matrix


                                                                                                                                    F-T
                                                                        Employ’t   Employ’t                                                 Median    Future
                                                            Job                                      Unemp          Gender Median Share of
     Occupation                                                           Nov Change 5 years                                               Earnings Employment
                                                         Prospects                                    2010         Females Age Employ’t
                                                                         2010    to Nov 2010                                                 2009     Change
                                                                                                                                   2010
                                                                         ‘000      ‘000      %                        %    years      %     decile
     A
     Accountants                                           average       157.6    16.3      11.5      average         47      38       83         9
     Actors, Dancers and Other Entertainers                average         5.1     -1.1    -17.8   above average      46      30       24         1
     Actuaries, Mathematicians and Statisticians        above average      4.9    -2.4    -33.3         low           37      36       89        10
     Advertising and Marketing Professionals            above average     49.5      9.3     23.1      average         54      33       84         6
     Agricultural Technicians                              average         1.3     -1.2   -48.2         low           33      47       92         4
     Agricultural, Forestry & Horticultural Operators   above average     15.4      2.7     21.5        high           9      40       86         2
     Air Transport Professionals                        above average     14.3      3.3    29.6         low            2      41       76         9
     Airconditioning and Refrigeration Mechanics        above average     23.6      4.3    22.4       average          0      32       91         3
     Aircraft Maintenance Engineers                     above average     15.8      2.6     19.7      average          4      38       97         9
     Ambulance Officers and Paramedics                   above average     13.3      2.8     27.2      average         27      40       93         8
     Anaesthetists                                      above average      5.2      1.4    36.3         low           22      39       84        10
     Animal Attendants and Trainers                        average        12.0    -0.7      -5.7   above average      70      33       53         7
     Aquaculture Workers                                   average         1.6       -        -         high           5      23       71         1
     Architects and Landscape Architects                above average     23.1      1.6      7.4   below average      23      39       84         9
     Architectural, Building & Surveying Technicians    above average     61.2      3.0      5.2      average         10      41       92         9
     Archivists, Curators and Records Managers          above average      7.1      2.8     64.1        low           79      37       77         6
     Auctioneers and Stock and Station Agents              average         4.7      0.2      4.7        low           11      41       88         9
     Audiologists and Speech Pathologists               above average      8.3      3.9    89.3    below average      94      34       61         8
     Auditors and Company Secretaries                      average        11.8    -0.2      -1.4   below average      31      38       89         7
     Authors, and Book and Script Editors                  average         5.5    -0.2      -3.2   above average      66      47       57         9
     Automotive Electricians                            above average      9.3      1.6     21.5        low            0      32       92         6
     B
     Bakers and Pastrycooks                             above average     34.2    11.3     49.0    above average      23      33       85         2
     Bank Workers                                       below average     53.2     0.3      0.5       average         73      34       66         4
     Bar Attendants and Baristas                           average        77.4    11.5     17.4         high          50      24       36         2
     Barristers                                         above average      9.0      -        -          low           28      44       87         -
     Beauty Therapists                                  above average     26.1     4.2     19.3    above average      99      28       54         1
     Binders, Finishers and Screen Printers             below average      5.1    -0.2     -4.0    above average      18      44       80         1
     Boat Builders and Shipwrights                      below average      6.1     1.3     26.0         low            0      34       90         6
     Bookkeepers                                           average       122.6   -11.7     -8.7    below average      94      45       29         5
     Bricklayers and Stonemasons                        above average     36.7     2.6      7.8    above average       1      39       90         4
     Butchers and Smallgoods Makers                        average        16.4    -1.9    -10.4         high           3      35       86         3
     C
     Cabinetmakers                                         average        27.9    -3.1    -10.0    above average       2      33       93         3
     Cafe Workers                                          average        15.7    -4.2     -21.1   above average      87      26       24         2
     Call or Contact Centre Workers                        average        36.0      5.8     19.3        high          65      30       74         4
     Canvas and Leather Goods Makers                    below average      2.3     -1.8   -44.0         high          29      41       83         2
     Car Detailers                                         average        20.5      5.0     32.0   above average      16      39       69         1
     Care Workers, Personal and Nursing Support         above average     85.2    15.2      21.7      average         79      44       43         3
     Care Workers, Special                              above average      2.6      0.7     34.9        low           78      47       72         5
     Carers, Aged and Disabled                          above average    130.6    66.2    102.7       average         83      46       36         2
     Carers, Child                                      above average    115.7    26.0      29.0   above average      96      32       48         1
     Caretakers                                            average         5.0      0.7     17.6   below average      11      56       56         5
     Carpenters and Joiners                             above average    122.1      6.3      5.5      average          0      31       94         5
     Cartographers and Surveyors                        above average     17.1      7.1     71.1   below average      15      39       89         7
     Checkout Operators and Office Cashiers              above average    147.0    24.8      20.3        high          75      20       17         1
     Chefs                                              above average     75.7    17.8      30.7   above average      25      34       83         4
     Chemists, and Food and Wine Scientists                average         7.7    -2.8    -26.7    below average      30      39       89         9
     Chiropractors and Osteopaths                       above average      3.5    -0.2      -6.7      average         53      36       40        10
     Cleaners, Commercial                                  average       156.4      2.1      1.3        high          60      46       35         2
     Cleaners, Domestic                                 above average     30.4      3.7     13.8        high          79      46       22         4
     Cleaners, Other                                    below average     11.6    -5.3    -31.5         high          14      41       59         3
     Clerical and Office Support Workers, Other          below average      8.1    -2.7    -24.8    above average      55      41       77         2
     Clerks, Accounting                                 above average    140.7    28.2      25.1      average         80      41       67         4
     Clerks, Betting                                    below average      4.4      1.0     29.8        high          72      49       26         3
     Clerks, Court and Legal                               average        11.3    -2.3     -17.1      average         80      37       71         3
     Decline                     Remain relatively stable                        Moderate                          Strong                   Very strong

36    AUSTRALIAN JOBS 2011                                                                                         For more information see www.joboutlook.gov.au
                                                                                                                        Job Prospects Matrix


                                                                                                                              F-T
                                                                   Employ’t   Employ’t                                                Median    Future
                                                       Job                                     Unemp          Gender Median Share of
Occupation                                                           Nov Change 5 years                                              Earnings Employment
                                                    Prospects                                   2010         Females Age Employ’t
                                                                    2010    to Nov 2010                                                2009     Change
                                                                                                                             2010
                                                                    ‘000      ‘000     %                        %    years      %     decile
Clerks, Filing and Registry                           average        24.5     3.5     16.9   above average     75      38       58         3
Clerks, General                                    above average    191.2    78.8     70.1      average        84      42       63         5
Clerks, Human Resource                             above average     14.3     5.9     70.7   below average     62      43       83         6
Clerks, Inquiry                                    below average     58.1    -9.5    -14.0        high         69      35       73         4
Clerks, Insurance, Money Market and Statistical       average        29.0     3.6     14.2      average        67      37       77         5
Clerks, Payroll                                       average        34.9     4.1     13.1      average        85      43       68         5
Clerks, Purchasing and Supply Logistics               average        84.1    -0.5     -0.6      average        43      39       86         5
Clerks, Transport and Despatch                        average        35.7     1.8      5.3      average        31      41       85         6
Clothing Trades Workers                            below average      8.2    -3.0    -26.8      average        77      52       58         2
Commissioned Officers (Management)                     average         1.2    -0.1     -8.6        low           0      43      100        10
Complementary Health Therapists                    above average      7.0    -0.3     -3.7   below average     74      48       35         1
Computer Network Professionals                     above average     24.4     4.3     21.1   below average     11      36       95         9
Concreters                                         above average     38.2     5.6     17.0        high          1      34       84         6
Conference and Event Organisers                    above average     22.2     9.3     72.3        low          77      31       76         5
Contract, Program and Project Administrators       above average    103.8    47.9     85.7   above average     55      42       87         8
Conveyancers and Legal Executives                  above average     10.5     1.2     12.4   above average     78      33       74         5
Cooks                                              above average     36.0     1.1      3.1        high         54      37       55         2
Counsellors                                        above average     16.9     2.0     13.5   below average     78      47       63         6
Couriers and Postal Deliverers                     above average     50.9    11.3     28.6   above average     16      45       78         4
Crane, Hoist and Lift Operators                    above average     13.9     1.5     11.8        high          1      41       97         9
Credit and Loans Officers                              average        27.4    -0.6     -2.3   below average     53      37       89         6
D
Dancers, Actors and Other Entertainers                average         5.1     -1.1   -17.8   above average     46      30       24         1
Debt Collectors                                       average        12.8      1.4    12.5   below average     60      36       85         4
Deck and Fishing Hands                                average         8.6      1.4    19.8   above average      4      38       82         7
Dental Assistants                                  above average     20.5      1.4     7.0   below average     96      29       56         2
Dental Hygienists, Technicians and Therapists      above average      5.8      0.8    16.0   below average     37      36       76         3
Dental Practitioners                               above average     11.2    -0.1     -1.0        low          37      46       66        10
Dietitians                                         above average      3.8    -0.8    -17.6        low          96      29       57         4
Directors (Film, Television, Radio and Stage)         average        11.8      2.5   26.8    below average     41      36       81         3
Directors, Artistic, and Media Producers
                                                   below average     13.6     4.7    53.4    below average      38     35       83         5
& Presenters
Diversional Therapists                             above average      6.8      -       -          low           97     54       49         2
Drillers, Miners and Shot Firers                   above average     43.5    15.7    56.5    below average       4     39       98        10
Drivers, Automobile                                above average     32.6    -1.9    -5.5    above average       6     45       69         3
Drivers, Bus and Coach                             above average     33.6     5.1    17.8       average         13     55       68         4
Drivers, Delivery                                  above average     42.5     4.1    10.6         high          10     38       62         3
Drivers, Forklift                                     average        63.5     4.7     7.9         high           3     40       92         4
Drivers, Train and Tram                            above average     11.1     2.2    24.2         low            8     48       95         8
Drivers, Truck                                     above average    166.0     9.6     6.1    above average       3     46       91         6
Driving Instructors                                   average         5.8     1.0    21.3       average         26     50       51         1
E
Economists                                         above average      7.1      3.1    77.3   above average      27     36       84        10
Economists, Land and Valuers                       below average      7.8    -4.6    -37.3        low           14     42       89        10
Education Advisers and Reviewers                      average        10.6     -1.3   -10.8   below average      80     49       76         8
Education Aides                                    above average     64.6      4.4     7.4      average         90     46       24         1
Electrical Distribution Trades Workers             above average     11.2      4.4    65.8        low            1     41       97         8
Electricians                                       above average    151.2    46.7     44.7   below average       1     33       94         7
Electronics Trades Workers                            average        40.2      3.9    10.6   above average       3     36       84         6
Engineering and Building Technicians, Other        above average     23.8    13.4    127.7      average         10     42       96        10
Engineering Draftspersons and Technicians, Civil   above average     13.6      4.9    56.5      average         14     37       89         9
Engineering Draftspersons and
                                                   above average      9.9     1.7    20.1        low             9     45       91         9
Technicians, Electrical
Engineering Draftspersons and
                                                   below average      4.7    -3.3    -41.5       low            11      47      90         5
Technicians, Electronic
Engineering Draftspersons and
                                                   above average      7.7     1.8    29.6      average           5     44       90        10
Technicians, Mechanical
Engineering Production Systems Workers             below average     24.2    -7.6    -24.0     average           4     42       95         6
Decline                      Remain relatively stable                       Moderate                         Strong                  Very strong

For more information see www.joboutlook.gov.au                                                                                  AUSTRALIAN JOBS 2011       37
     Job Prospects Matrix


                                                                                                                                  F-T
                                                                      Employ’t   Employ’t                                                 Median    Future
                                                         Job                                       Unemp          Gender Median Share of
     Occupation                                                         Nov Change 5 years                                               Earnings Employment
                                                      Prospects                                     2010         Females Age Employ’t
                                                                       2010    to Nov 2010                                                 2009     Change
                                                                                                                                 2010
                                                                       ‘000     ‘000       %                        %    years      %     decile
     Engineering Professionals, Civil               above average       49.8    11.9     31.4      average          13      37       90         9
     Engineering Professionals, Other                   average          9.2    -0.1      -1.0       low            13      36       90         9
     Engineering Professionals, Telecommunications above average        10.0     1.9     22.9      average          11      41       94         8
     Engineers, Chemical and Materials              above average        7.0     2.5     56.7        low            16      36       90         8
     Engineers, Electrical                          above average       18.9     4.6     32.2    below average       3      37       98        10
     Engineers, Electronics                         above average        6.4     1.0      17.6       high            0      44       87        10
     Engineers, ICT Support and Test                above average        7.9      -        -     below average      23      37       96         8
     Engineers, Industrial, Mechanical and Production above average     29.5     1.1      3.8      average           3      39       92        10
     Engineers, Mining                              above average       13.2     8.1    157.2      average          16      35       89        10
     Environmental & Occupational
                                                    above average       23.7     9.1     62.7        low            38      42       88         9
     Health Professionals
     Event and Conference Organisers                 above average      22.2     9.3     72.3        low            77      31       76         5
     F
     Factory Process Workers, Other                 below average       12.1    -0.3      -2.4        high          22      34       65         4
     Factory Workers, Food and Drink                   average          37.6    14.2      60.8   above average      24      40       85         4
     Factory Workers, Plastics and Rubber           below average        3.8    -4.6    -55.3         high          26      37       89         4
     Farm Workers, Crop                                average          28.0     -7.3   -20.6         high          28      37       68         2
     Farm Workers, Livestock                           average          30.2      3.7     14.0   above average      36      35       60         2
     Farm Workers, Mixed Crop and Livestock            average           3.4    -0.7     -17.2        low           33      44       68         7
     Farm, Forestry and Garden Workers, Other          average          11.4      3.3     40.5   above average       5      42       87         4
     Farmers, Aquaculture                              average           3.4      1.3    66.2         low           34      50       84         -
     Farmers, Crop                                     average          47.7    -5.4     -10.1   below average      19      51       83         3
     Farmers, Livestock                                average         105.1    10.3      10.9        low           31      57       77         4
     Farmers, Mixed Crop and Livestock                 average          42.2      3.9     10.2        low           23      54       84         3
     Fashion, Industrial and Jewellery Designers    below average        9.5      2.2     30.3   above average      60      38       81        10
     Fast Food Cooks                                   average          31.0      8.9     40.4        high          32      18       16         1
     Fencers                                           average          12.6      3.1     33.1   above average       2      39       84         1
     Financial Brokers                                 average          20.8     -1.9     -8.2   below average      26      42       92         9
     Financial Dealers                              below average       13.2   -13.3    -50.2    below average      31      40       83         8
     Financial Investment Advisers and Managers        average          36.1    -2.6      -6.7   above average      30      38       89        10
     Fire and Emergency Workers                     above average       15.0      5.0     50.3        low            3      44       97         8
     Fitness Instructors                            above average       22.8      6.1     36.7   below average      57      33       31         7
     Floor Finishers                                   average           8.7    -2.7    -23.5    above average       1      37       87         4
     Florists                                          average           5.7    -0.4      -5.8        high          96      42       65         1
     Food Trades Assistants                         below average        4.2    -0.5      -9.7        high          51      37       24         2
     Forestry and Logging Workers                   below average        2.9      1.0    48.8         high           7      44       90         2
     Freight and Furniture Handlers                    average          18.8      3.8     25.7        high           2      36       79         6
     Funeral Workers                                above average        5.0      2.3     87.8      average         57      47       83         4
     G
     Gallery, Library and Museum Technicians            average          8.5     2.3      37.6       low            88      50       41         5
     Gaming Workers                                     average          9.9     0.9      10.1     average          44      31       75         4
     Gardeners                                      above average       65.2     4.2      6.9    above average      12      37       74         3
     Geologists and Geophysicists                   above average        7.7    -0.3      -4.2       high           15      41       91        10
     Glaziers                                       above average        9.9     3.0     44.1    above average       1      35       93         5
     Graphic and Web Designers, and Illustrators    above average       52.2    13.5     34.9      average          47      34       74         7
     Graphic Pre-press Trades Workers                below average       3.6    -2.1    -36.9        low            33      39       77         1
     Greenkeepers                                       average         16.0     2.1     14.9    above average       3      41       83         3
     Guides, Gallery, Museum and Tour                   average          7.6     1.0     15.0      average          53      42       41         3
     Guides, Outdoor Adventure                      above average        2.9      -        -         low            18      28       75         1
     H
     Hairdressers                                   above average       55.3     1.0       1.9     average          86      30       61         1
     Handypersons                                      average          35.6    -0.5      -1.5     average           4      50       62         3
     Health Diagnostic and Promotion
                                                    above average        7.6     3.0    63.5       average          81      41       72         9
     Professionals, Other
     Hotel Service Managers                         above average       10.6      -        -     above average      65      30       77         3
     Housekeepers                                      average          24.7     4.6     22.7         high          85      43       34         2
     Human Resource Professionals                   above average       56.6    13.0     30.0       average         69      33       85         7
     Decline                     Remain relatively stable                      Moderate                          Strong                   Very strong

38    AUSTRALIAN JOBS 2011                                                                                       For more information see www.joboutlook.gov.au
                                                                                                                        Job Prospects Matrix


                                                                                                                              F-T
                                                                  Employ’t   Employ’t                                                 Median    Future
                                                      Job                                      Unemp          Gender Median Share of
Occupation                                                          Nov Change 5 years                                               Earnings Employment
                                                   Prospects                                    2010         Females Age Employ’t
                                                                   2010    to Nov 2010                                                 2009     Change
                                                                                                                             2010
                                                                   ‘000      ‘000      %                        %    years      %     decile
I
ICT Business and Systems Analysts                 above average     26.3     3.7    16.4     below average      25     39       94        10
ICT Sales Professionals                              average        16.0     7.7    93.5     above average      26     37       94         7
ICT Security and Database &
                                                  above average     32.5     3.8     13.4    below average      25     37       88         8
Systems Administrators
ICT Support and Test Engineers                    above average      7.9      -        -     below average      23     37       96         8
ICT Support Technicians                           above average     46.8     7.0     17.5    above average      19     33       86         6
ICT Trainers                                      below average      2.7    -1.4    -34.6       average         55     45       59         8
Importers, Exporters and Wholesalers                 average        24.3     5.3     27.8         low           20     47       86         6
Indigenous Health Workers                            average         0.1      -        -          low           97     40       98         -
Industrial Spraypainters                             average         8.4     2.6     45.5         high           4     37       93         3
Information and Organisation
                                                    average         18.2     7.2    65.9       average          56     35       83         8
Professionals, Other
Inspectors and Regulatory Officers                    average        35.9     9.7     36.9       average        53      41       86         6
Insulation and Home Improvement Installers           average        21.6     4.2     24.1         high          2      36       87         4
Insurance Agents                                  above average     14.2     4.0     39.7    below average     61      35       77         7
Insurance Investigators and Loss Adjusters           average         5.3    -1.2    -18.9         low          23      41       90         6
Intelligence and Policy Analysts                  above average     15.4     0.2      1.4         low          51      40       80         9
Interior Designers                                above average      9.0     1.6     22.4       average        70      38       63         8
Internal Medicine Specialists                     above average      5.4    -0.2     -3.1         low          34      37       84        10
J
Jewellers                                            average         6.4     0.2     3.8         low            35     44       63         7
Joiners and Carpenters                            above average    122.1     6.3     5.5       average           0     31       94         5
Journalists and Other Writers                        average        22.9     2.7    13.5       average          47     37       73         7
K
Keyboard Operators                                below average     79.8   -11.7    -12.8    above average     84      40       58         3
Kitchenhands                                         average       116.0    21.1     22.2        high          58      25       23         2
L
Labourers, Building and Plumbing                  above average     56.4     7.4     15.1         high           1     32       82         5
Labourers, Garden and Nursery                        average        43.4     8.0     22.5         high          13     42       68         2
Labourers, Other Construction and Mining          above average      7.7     0.1      1.9         high           2     30       91         7
Labourers, Paving and Surfacing                      average         9.3     1.8     23.6         high           0     40       95         4
Landscape Architects and Architects               above average     23.1     1.6      7.4    below average      23     39       84         9
Laundry Workers                                      average        19.6     3.1     18.9       average         74     49       52         1
Leather and Canvas Goods Makers                   below average      2.3    -1.8    -44.0         high          29     41       83         2
Legal Executives and Conveyancers                 above average     10.5     1.2     12.4    above average      78     33       74         5
Librarians                                           average        14.7     1.2      9.2         low           81     50       69         8
Library Assistants                                below average      5.7    -3.5    -38.1         high          89     48       32         2
M
Machine Operators, Clay Concrete, Glass & Stone   below average      2.5    -2.2    -47.6    below average       0     42       96         3
Machine Operators, Other                          below average     13.2     1.4     11.6    above average      29     36       69         4
Machine Operators, Paper and Wood Processing      below average      8.2     0.5      6.6       average          8     43       95         -
Machine Operators, Plastics and
                                                  below average     10.2    -1.3    -11.4        high            9      41      94         5
Rubber Production
Machine Operators, Textile and
                                                  below average      2.1    -3.1    -59.9        high           29     42       92         3
Footwear Production
Mail Sorters                                      below average     16.4      1.7   11.3          high         51      45       63         3
Management and Organisation Analysts              above average     48.1      9.2   23.6        average        40      40       84        10
Managers, Advertising and Sales                   above average    119.2     -7.9   -6.2     below average     31      41       93         9
Managers, Amusement, Fitness and Sports Centre       average        11.5      2.7   30.7     below average     36      40       84         4
Managers, Cafe and Restaurant                        average        65.3    12.4    23.4     above average     53      42       79         3
Managers, Call, Contact Centre and
                                                  below average     35.4    -0.2      -0.6   below average      42     40       92         5
Customer Service
Managers, Caravan Park and Camping Ground         below average      3.0     -1.7   -35.8         high          38     55       90         1
Managers, Child Care Centre                       above average      7.9      0.8    10.7    above average      91     38       75         6
Managers, Construction                            above average     82.0    33.0     67.2    below average       4     43       95         9
Managers, Corporate Services                         average         6.1    -3.3    -35.2         low           63     47       80         7
Managers, Engineering                             above average     15.5      2.7    20.9    below average       7     43       97        10
Managers, Finance                                    average        46.1      2.3     5.2    below average      40     44       89        10
Managers, General                                    average        42.1      2.0     5.0    below average      25     45       91         9
Decline                    Remain relatively stable                        Moderate                          Strong                  Very strong

For more information see www.joboutlook.gov.au                                                                                  AUSTRALIAN JOBS 2011       39
     Job Prospects Matrix


                                                                                                                                   F-T
                                                                       Employ’t   Employ’t                                                 Median    Future
                                                           Job                                      Unemp          Gender Median Share of
     Occupation                                                          Nov Change 5 years                                               Earnings Employment
                                                        Prospects                                    2010         Females Age Employ’t
                                                                        2010    to Nov 2010                                                 2009     Change
                                                                                                                                  2010
                                                                        ‘000      ‘000      %                        %    years      %     decile
     Managers, Health and Welfare Services             above average     18.4      5.3    40.7         low           73      50       91         8
     Managers, Human Resource                          above average     44.6      8.5    23.7    below average      53      43       90        10
     Managers, ICT                                     above average     41.9    -0.1      -0.3   below average      21      41       94        10
     Managers, Licensed Club                           below average      6.7      1.0    16.7    below average      40      40       91         5
     Managers, Nursing                                 above average     14.7       -        -         low           84      49       81        10
     Managers, Office                                      average       134.5    -2.6      -1.9   below average      81      44       67         5
     Managers, Other Accommodation and Hospitality     below average      6.4     -1.3    -17.1        low           53      56       62         7
     Managers, Other Education                            average         7.5    -3.5    -31.6    below average      59      52       87         9
     Managers, Other Hospitality, Retail and Service   above average     68.0    20.5     43.3         low           29      44       88         8
     Managers, Other Specialist                           average        38.7      6.5    20.1       average         33      45       89        10
     Managers, Policy and Planning                     above average     24.5      7.9     47.7        low           50      47       87        10
     Managers, Production                                 average        59.3    10.5     21.5    below average      14      44       94         9
     Managers, Research and Development                   average        12.3      1.4    12.4         low           46      42       87        10
     Managers, Retail                                     average       238.6    40.7     20.6       average         46      40       85         4
     Managers, Supply and Distribution                 below average     26.8      1.6      6.2        low           17      43       96         9
     Managers, Transport Services                      above average     22.1      3.8    21.0         low           14      48       91         6
     Managers,. Hotel and Motel                           average        20.1    -2.2      -9.8   below average      39      41       89         7
     Managers, Practice                                above average     13.0      1.8    16.3    above average      92      46       57         9
     Managing Directors and Chief Executives           above average     60.0    14.3      31.1   below average      17      51       90        10
     Manufacturers                                     below average     25.0    -0.4      -1.6   below average      13      45       88         4
     Marine Transport Professionals                    above average      7.7      1.0    15.2         low            4      44       92        10
     Massage Therapists                                above average     15.6      5.7     57.6   below average      71      42       24         1
     Mathematicians, Statisticians and Actuaries       above average      4.9    -2.4    -33.3         low           37      36       89        10
     Meat Boners and Slicers, and Slaughterers         below average     15.2      2.9    23.6    above average       9      32       93         5
     Media Producers & Presenters, and
                                                       below average     13.6     4.7     53.4    below average      38      35       83         5
     Artistic Directors
     Medical Imaging Professionals                     above average     13.4      1.1     9.0         low           66      36       81         8
     Medical Practitioners, General                    above average     49.0    10.8     28.3         low           45      42       81        10
     Medical Practitioners, Other                      above average     12.2      3.6    42.0         low           35      43       78        10
     Medical Technicians                               above average     28.0    10.2     57.7    below average      83      41       53         4
     Metal Casting, Forging & Finishing Trades         below average      1.8     -1.4   -44.2         high           0      41       73         5
     Metal Fitters and Machinists                         average       105.0      1.6     1.5       average          1      38       97         7
     Metal Trades Workers, Precision                      average         9.6      3.7    62.3       average          4      40       87         6
     Midwives                                          above average     12.9    -0.9     -6.4         low          100      46       37         8
     Miners, Drillers and Shot Firers                  above average     43.5    15.7     56.5    below average       4      39       98        10
     Ministers of Religion                                average        15.0      1.9    14.7         low           29      48       75         2
     Models and Sales Demonstrators                    below average      9.9    -0.3     -2.8         low           89      45       22         3
     Motor Mechanics                                   above average     98.0      4.4     4.7    below average       1      36       92         3
     Motor Vehicle Parts and Accessories Fitters          average        19.5      7.2    57.8    below average       0      30       93         3
     Multimedia Specialists and Web Developers         above average     10.8       -       -     below average      18      30       87         6
     Music Professionals                               below average      6.5     -7.0   -51.6    above average      27      37       37         1
     N
     Nurse Educators and Researchers                   above average      6.4     2.7     73.4    below average      97      44       45         2
     Nurse Managers                                    above average     14.7      -         -         low           84      49       81        10
     Nurse, Enrolled and Mothercraft                   above average     31.3    -2.5      -7.3        low           90      46       47         5
     Nurserypersons                                    below average      2.8    -3.9    -58.3         high          29      47       74         2
     Nurses, Registered                                above average    214.0    37.7     21.4         low           91      44       55         7
     Nursing Support and Personal Care Workers         above average     85.2    15.2     21.7       average         79      44       43         3
     O
     Occupational & Environmental
                                                       above average     23.7     9.1     62.7        low            38      42       88         9
     Health Professionals
     Occupational Therapists                           above average     10.2     3.2     45.7         low           89      33       59         6
     Optometrists and Orthoptists                      above average      3.3     0.4     12.6    above average      60      38       54         5
     Osteopaths and Chiropractors                      above average      3.5    -0.2     -6.7       average         53      36       40        10
     P
     Packers                                           below average     62.3   -14.8    -19.2         high          57      38       64         3
     Painting Trades Workers                              average        43.7    -1.0     -2.2    above average       5      41       86         7
     Panelbeaters                                      above average     15.3     -1.7   -10.1    above average       1      35       90         5
     Paramedics and Ambulance Officers                  above average     13.3      2.8    27.2       average         27      40       93         8
     Decline                    Remain relatively stable                        Moderate                          Strong                   Very strong


40    AUSTRALIAN JOBS 2011                                                                                        For more information see www.joboutlook.gov.au
                                                                                                                          Job Prospects Matrix


                                                                                                                                F-T
                                                                    Employ’t   Employ’t                                                 Median    Future
                                                        Job                                      Unemp          Gender Median Share of
Occupation                                                            Nov Change 5 years                                               Earnings Employment
                                                     Prospects                                    2010         Females Age Employ’t
                                                                     2010    to Nov 2010                                                 2009     Change
                                                                                                                               2010
                                                                     ‘000     ‘000       %                        %    years      %     decile
Pastrycooks and Bakers                              above average     34.2    11.3     49.0    above average      23     33       85         2
Performing Arts Technicians                         below average     11.2    -1.3    -10.4    above average      21     35       74         7
Personal Assistants                                 below average     52.7   -17.7    -25.1    below average      98     40       81         5
Personal Care Consultants                              average         4.3     0.1      1.4         low           75     49       19         1
Personal Service Workers, Other                        average        10.4     3.7     55.9    above average      71     45       44         4
Pharmacists                                         above average     20.5     5.7     38.1    below average      57     37       69         9
Photographers                                          average        10.9     2.8     35.4         high          29     42       69         1
Photographic Developers and Printers                below average      1.6    -2.5    -61.3         high          81     38       37         1
Physiotherapists                                    above average     22.9     7.5     48.4         low           61     40       74         8
Planners, Urban and Regional                           average        11.5     0.3      2.9         low           38     41       87         9
Plant Operators, Chemical, Gas, Petroleum
                                                      average          7.8    -1.5    -15.7      average           0     46       98        10
and Power
Plant Operators, Earthmoving                        above average     56.2    11.3    25.1     above average       2     43       95         7
Plant Operators, Other Mobile                       above average     11.5     2.3    25.3     above average       5     38       86         6
Plant Operators, Other Stationary                   above average     21.6     2.5    12.8     below average       8     45       94         8
Plasterers                                          above average     38.2     8.0    26.4     above average       1     35       91         7
Plumbers                                            above average     92.2    22.5     32.3       average          0     34       93         6
Podiatrists                                         above average      2.1    -0.1     -3.0         low           60     32       84         -
Police                                                 average        60.3      7.2    13.5         low           21     37       96         8
Policy and Intelligence Analysts                    above average     15.4      0.2     1.4         low           51     40       80         9
Postal Deliverers and Couriers                      above average     50.9    11.3     28.6    above average      16     45       78         4
Primary Products Inspectors                         below average      4.4      0.5    13.1         low           36     42       74         9
Printers                                            below average     16.9      3.0    21.8       average         15     40       91         4
Printers and Photographic Developers                below average      1.6    -2.5    -61.3         high          81     38       37         1
Printing Assistants and Table Workers               below average      7.0     -1.3   -15.6         high          30     42       69         2
Prison Officers                                         average        12.8      1.3    11.2         low           21     41       94         7
Process Workers, Meat, Poultry and Seafood          below average     15.1      0.6     4.0         high          25     36       91         3
Process Workers, Metal Engineering                  below average     14.2    -4.7    -24.9         high           4     41       92         4
Process Workers, Timber and Wood                    below average      6.9    -3.4    -32.9         high           8     32       85         2
Product Assemblers                                  below average     34.1   -14.7    -30.1         high          27     40       87         3
Product Quality Controllers                         below average     18.7      2.8    17.5         high          39     43       84         5
Psychiatrists                                       above average      1.9    -0.4    -16.4         low           66     45       65         -
Psychologists                                       above average     23.3    10.1     77.0         low           75     45       59         7
Public Relations Professionals                      above average     21.6      2.0    10.0    below average      62     36       78         9
R
Railway Track Workers                               above average      8.2      -        -        average         3      45       98         -
Real Estate Sales Agents                            above average     92.6    27.1     41.4    below average     46      42       84         4
Receptionists                                          average       183.6     8.8      5.0    above average     95      40       51         2
Recycling and Rubbish Collectors                       average         2.2    -2.1    -49.4    below average     15      40       63         3
Retail and Wool Buyers                                 average         9.5     1.9     25.2         low          41      34       93         5
Retail Supervisors                                  above average     40.4    10.3     34.2       average        57      32       75         3
S
Safety Inspectors                                   below average      2.8    -2.6    -47.9         high           4     52       85         7
Sales Assistants, (General)                         above average    527.8    16.0       3.1        high          70     24       28         2
Sales Assistants and Salespersons, Other            above average     17.7       -        -    above average      49     36       52         4
Sales Assistants, ICT                               above average     20.1      3.8    23.2    above average      32     27       69         5
Sales Assistants, Pharmacy                          above average     36.4      3.2      9.5   above average      91     26       31         1
Sales Professionals, ICT                               average        16.0      7.7    93.5    above average      26     37       94         7
Sales Representatives                               above average    105.4      1.7      1.6   above average      38     39       87         6
Sales Representatives, Technical                    above average     34.6    14.3      70.2      average         29     41       93         8
Sales Support Workers, Other                           average         4.3       -        -         low           32     34       67         1
Salespersons, Motor Vehicle and Vehicle Parts          average        35.1      3.1      9.7      average         16     36       91         5
Salespersons, Street Vendors and Related            below average     11.8    -2.2    -15.8         high          50     45       47         2
Salespersons, Ticket                                   average        14.9    -2.0     -12.1      average         68     31       58         5
School Principals                                      average        17.8    -4.3    -19.7         low           59     52       99        10
Science Professionals, Other Natural and Physical   above average     10.0      4.6     85.1   below average      18     38       87         9
Science Technicians                                 below average     13.5    -5.4    -28.4    below average      47     39       77         6
Scientists, Agricultural and Forestry                  average         6.0     -1.6   -20.9       average         30     42       83         6
Scientists, Environmental                           above average     22.3      6.6     42.0        low           40     37       87         8
Decline                      Remain relatively stable                        Moderate                          Strong                  Very strong


For more information see www.joboutlook.gov.au                                                                                    AUSTRALIAN JOBS 2011       41
     Job Prospects Matrix


                                                                                                                                      F-T
                                                                          Employ’t   Employ’t                                                 Median    Future
                                                              Job                                      Unemp          Gender Median Share of
     Occupation                                                             Nov Change 5 years                                               Earnings Employment
                                                           Prospects                                    2010         Females Age Employ’t
                                                                           2010    to Nov 2010                                                 2009     Change
                                                                                                                                     2010
                                                                           ‘000      ‘000      %                        %    years      %     decile
     Scientists, Food and Wine, and Chemists                 average         7.7    -2.8    -26.7    below average      30      39       89         9
     Scientists, Life                                     above average     10.0      3.2    48.0         low           52      37       78         6
     Scientists, Medical Laboratory                       above average     21.2      4.7    28.6         low           67      38       81         8
     Screen Printers and Binders & Finishers              below average      5.1    -0.2     -4.0    above average      18      44       80         1
     Secretaries                                          below average     68.5   -49.5    -42.0       average         98      45       46         4
     Security Officers and Guards                             average        52.5      2.4      4.9        high          19      41       74         6
     Service Station Attendants                              average         9.8    -0.8      -7.3        high          41      29       35         2
     Sewing Machinists                                    below average     13.8    -0.9     -5.9       average         88      51       67         1
     Shearers                                                average         4.2     -2.1   -32.9         low            0      40       94         6
     Sheetmetal Trades Workers                            above average     11.0      3.5    47.0    above average       2      36       98         5
     Shelf Fillers                                           average        70.8    -3.7     -5.0         high          42      22       23         2
     Signwriters                                          below average      5.4     -1.6   -22.5         high          11      41       88         2
     Social Professionals                                 above average     12.8      2.9    28.7    above average      74      48       52         8
     Social Workers                                       above average     21.5      8.6    67.0    below average      82      42       69         8
     Software and Applications Programmers                above average     70.0    -6.8     -8.8       average         16      37       93         9
     Solicitors                                           above average     63.0    22.4     55.2    below average      49      38       88        10
     Speech Professionals and Audiologists                above average      8.3      3.9    89.3    below average      94      34       61         8
     Sports Coaches, Instructors and Officials                average        27.5    -0.5      -1.7   above average      46      25       27         3
     Sportspersons                                           average         9.5      1.2    14.7    above average      27      23       59         1
     Stonemasons and Bricklayers                          above average     36.7      2.6      7.8   above average       1      39       90         4
     Storepersons                                         above average    106.0    18.4     21.0         high          18      38       79         3
     Structural Steel and Welding Trades Workers          above average     82.8    13.2     18.9    above average       1      36       95         5
     Structural Steel Construction Workers                above average     16.1     -1.1    -6.3         high           1      34       92         7
     Surgeons                                             above average      6.1      1.5    32.0         low           16      41       83        10
     Survey Interviewers                                  above average      4.5      1.4    46.1         high          70      28       29         1
     Surveyors and Cartographers                          above average     17.1      7.1    71.1    below average      15      39       89         7
     Switchboard Operators                                below average      5.3    -3.6    -40.4         high          84      48       56         2
     T
     Teachers of English to Speakers
                                                          above average      6.2     0.0      0.4    above average      68      45       41         9
     of Other Languages
     Teachers, Early Childhood (Pre-primary School)       above average     23.0     5.1     28.2    below average      99      38       55         7
     Teachers, Middle School                              above average      1.7      -        -          low           61      43       81         -
     Teachers, Primary School                             above average    153.4    12.7      9.1         low           84      41       68         8
     Teachers, Secondary School                           above average    156.1    13.3      9.3    below average      62      44       82         8
     Teachers, Special Education                          above average     15.8     2.7     20.2    above average      86      48       53         8
     Teachers, Vocational Education                       above average     36.9     4.4     13.7    below average      54      48       62         8
     Technicians and Draftspersons, Civil Engineering     above average     13.6     4.9     56.5       average         14      37       89         9
     Technicians and Draftspersons,
                                                          above average      9.9     1.7     20.1        low             9      45       91         9
     Electrical Engineering
     Technicians and Draftspersons,
                                                          below average      4.7    -3.3    -41.5        low            11      47       90         5
     Electronic Engineering
     Technicians and Draftspersons,
                                                          above average      7.7     1.8     29.6      average           5      44       90        10
     Mechanical Engineering
     Technicians, Agricultural                               average         1.3     -1.2   -48.2         low           33      47       92         4
     Technicians, Architectural, Building and Surveying   above average     61.2      3.0      5.2      average         10      41       92         9
     Technicians, Gallery, Library and Museum                average         8.5      2.3     37.6        low           88      50       41         5
     Technicians, ICT Support                             above average     46.8      7.0     17.5   above average      19      33       86         6
     Technicians, Medical                                 above average     28.0    10.2      57.7   below average      83      41       53         4
     Technicians, Other Building and Engineering          above average     23.8    13.4    127.7       average         10      42       96        10
     Technicians, Science                                 below average     13.5    -5.4    -28.4    below average      47      39       77         6
     Telecommunications Technical Specialists             above average      4.1      0.7     21.6        low           19      46       98         9
     Telecommunications Trades Workers                       average        22.3    -2.5     -10.1   above average       5      41       90         6
     Telemarketers                                        below average     10.5    -6.3    -37.6         high          63      27       49         3
     Tilers, Roof                                            average         7.6    -2.7    -26.3    below average       0      34       95         3
     Tilers, Wall and Floor                               above average     21.0      4.3     25.4        high           1      35       84         -
     Toolmakers and Engineering Patternmakers             below average      5.5    -2.2    -28.7       average          0      44       91         -
     Tourism and Travel Advisers                             average        25.3      5.1     25.3      average         78      34       82         3
     Trainers, ICT                                        below average      2.7     -1.4   -34.6       average         55      45       59         8
     Training and Development Professionals               above average     27.5      5.7     26.3        low           65      42       79         8
     Transport Professionals, Air                         above average     14.3      3.3     29.6        low            2      41       76         9
     Decline                      Remain relatively stable                         Moderate                          Strong                   Very strong


42    AUSTRALIAN JOBS 2011                                                                                           For more information see www.joboutlook.gov.au
                                                                                                                            Job Prospects Matrix


                                                                                                                              F-T
                                                                 Employ’t   Employ’t                                                  Median    Future
                                                     Job                                        Unemp         Gender Median Share of
Occupation                                                         Nov Change 5 years                                                Earnings Employment
                                                  Prospects                                      2010        Females Age Employ’t
                                                                  2010    to Nov 2010                                                  2009     Change
                                                                                                                             2010
                                                                  ‘000       ‘000      %                        %    years      %     decile
Transport Professionals, Marine                  above average      7.7       1.0    15.2         low            4         44         92          10
Travel Attendants                                   average        12.9       2.9    29.4       average         78         35         65           7
Tutors and Teachers, Private                     above average     34.6       9.5    37.7    below average      69         40         23           9
U
University Lecturers and Tutors                  above average     51.8       8.7    20.2    above average      48         48         68           9
Upholsterers                                     below average      2.9      -0.5   -14.2    above average      14         47         72           3
V
Valuers and Land Economists                      below average      7.8      -4.6   -37.3         low           14         42         89          10
Vehicle Body Builders and Trimmers                  average         4.1      -1.5   -26.5         low            2         37         91           1
Vehicle Painters                                    average        11.4       1.1     10.8   below average       5         35         96           4
Vending Machine Attendants                       below average      4.9      -0.5     -9.3        low           70         35         43           5
Veterinarians                                    above average      9.3       2.9    45.5         low           42         37         81           7
Veterinary Nurses                                   average         5.9      -0.3     -4.5        low           92         30         44           2
Visual Arts and Crafts Professionals             below average      8.5      -1.9    -17.9   above average      60         52         47           1
Visual Merchandisers                                average         7.4       2.2    40.9    above average      93         38         33           3
W
Waiters                                          above average    122.0     21.9     21.8         high          77         21         23           2
Web Developers and Multimedia Specialists        above average     10.8       -        -     below average      18         30         87           6
Welding Trades and Structural Steel Workers      above average     82.8     13.2     18.9    above average       1         36         95           5
Welfare Support Workers                          above average     53.3     12.5     30.6       average         73         45         69           4
Welfare, Recreation and Community Arts Workers   above average     20.7      3.4     19.7    above average      79         45         77           6
Wood Machinists and Other Wood Trades Workers    below average      6.9     -1.2    -15.0         high          13         45         79           2
Decline                     Remain relatively stable                       Moderate                          Strong                        Very strong


AUSTRALIAN JOBS 2011 DATA SOURCES
Data in Australian Jobs 2011 are based on the following sources.                       attainment. Accordingly, readers should not directly compare data at the
                                                                                       state level to data at the regional level. Educational attainment data refer
Australian Bureau of Statistics                                                        only to persons aged 15-64.
• ABS Labour Force, Australia (Cat. no. 6202.0)                                        • ABS Employee Earnings, Benefits and Trade Union Membership
• Labour Force, Australia, Detailed - Electronic Delivery                                (Cat. no. 6310.0)
  (Cat. no. 6291.0.55.001)                                                             • ABS Education and Training Experience, 2009 (Cat. no 6278.0)
• Labour Force, Australia, Detailed, Quarterly (Cat. no. 6291.0.55.003)
                                                                                       Department of Education, Employment
For many small occupations, standard errors are large relative to the size of
the employment estimates. Although trend data are used for employment                  and Workplace Relations
estimates, employment growth trends are variable for small occupations and             • Employment projections based on actual employment trends, economic
should be used with caution.                                                             trends and prospects, economic models, including Access Economics
                                                                                         and the Centre of Policy Studies at Monash University, and current and
For consistency, throughout the publication, employment data at the national
                                                                                         prospective industry developments.
and state level have been presented in trend terms. However, employment
data at the regional level are in original, 12 month or 4 quarter average terms.       • DEEWR Higher Education Statistics

The terms ‘regional’, ‘non-metropolitan’ and ‘outside the state capital cities’
have been used interchangeably throughout the publication. This is comprised
                                                                                       Graduate Careers Australia
of the Balance of New South Wales, the Balance of Victoria, the Balance of             • GradStats, various issues
Queensland, the Balance of South Australia, the Balance of Western Australia,          • Grad Careers & Dollars
the Balance of Tasmania, the Northern Territory and the Australian Capital
Territory. Boundaries are based on the 2006 Australian Standard Geographic             National Centre for Vocational Education
Classification (ASGC) (Cat. no. 1216.0). In simple terms, in this publication, all
of the Australian Capital Territory and the Northern Territory as well as any
                                                                                       Research (NCVER)
                                                                                       • Student Outcomes
other area outside the state capital cities is considered to be a regional area.
                                                                                       • Apprentices and Trainees Collection
• ABS Census of Population and Housing, 2006
                                                                                       • Miscellaneous statistics from the NCVER website
• ABS Education and Work (Cat. no. 6227.0)
Educational attainment data from the 2010 Survey of Education and Work
is only available at the state and national level. For regional areas, data from
the 2006 Census are the only available source of data on educational



For more information see www.joboutlook.gov.au                                                                                        AUSTRALIAN JOBS 2011            43
ISSN 1832-7230

				
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