fICTION ELEMENTS Wikispaces by MikeJenny


									       Literary Terms
 We will be using these literary terms
      throughout the school year.
There WILL be literary terms used
      on your End-of-Course !!
You need to keep up with your notes.
 Don‟t lose your terms! Study them as
   we go through the short stories.
          BE RESPONSIBLE!!
      We will use the following terms:
Character         Antagonist      Protagonist
Diction           Denotation      Connotation
Imagery           Mood            Plot
Exposition        Rising Action   Climax
Falling Action    Resolution      Conflict
Flashback         Foreshadowing   Suspense
Point of View     Setting         Style
Theme             Tone            Figures of Speech
Metaphor          Simile          Oxymoron
Personification   Alliteration    Onomatopoeia
A character is a person or
 an animal that takes part
 in the action of a literary
Medusa: Clash of the Titans

  •The Antagonist is a
     character or force in conflict
     with a main character, or
                         Calibos and Hades: Clash of the Titans
Do you know your Antagonists???

• On your paper take a few minutes to write
  down some Antagonists that you can
  recall from movies, television shows, and
  video games
• Remember the Antagonist is in conflict
  with the Protagonist or, main character!
• Helpful hint – you should now know why
  people use the saying “Don‟t antagonize
Hancock                          The Lottery Ticket
• The Protagonist is the main
  character in a literary work
• Can you name some famous
  Protagonists that are found in
            The Secret Lives of Bees
• Diction is the manner in which
    we express words; the wording
•   Diction = enunciation
•   Some easy examples are:
     Don‟t say „goin‟ – say „going‟, Don‟t say
    „wanna‟ – say „want to‟
The denotation of a word
 is its dictionary meaning,
 independent of other
 associations that the
 word may have.
The connotation of a word is the set of
 ideas associated with it in addition to
 its explicit meaning. The connotation
 of a word can be personal, based on
 individual experiences. More often,
 cultural connotations – those
 recognizable by most people in a
 group – determine a writer‟s word
Denotation versus Connotation

Some examples –
Cheap is “low in cost” (denotation)
 but “stingy” or “poorly made” are
 the connotations of cheap
Let‟s use the word HOT
The denotation (or dictionary definition –
  remember d in denotation = dictionary) of HOT
  is: having a temperature higher than that of a
  human body.
However, when you say “Man! He/She is hot!”,
  are you saying “Man! He is having a
  temperature higher than that of a human
  body!”? No!!
You are saying the CONNOTATION of HOT – which
  could mean a variety of things – man he/she is
  cute, attractive, beautiful, and many other
  meanings – those come from personal
  experiences and cultural meanings, etc.
Imagery is the use of words or
 phrases that appeal to one or
      more of the five senses.
        Writers use imagery to
   describe how their subjects
  look, sound, feel, taste, and
Mood, or atmosphere, is the feeling
  created in the reader by a literary
work or passage. Writer‟s use many
  devices to create mood, including
 images, dialogue, setting, and plot.
Often, a writer creates a mood at the
    beginning of a work and then
   sustains the mood throughout.
  Sometimes, however, the mood of
   the work changes dramatically.
Plot is the sequence of events. The first
  event causes the second, the second
  causes the third, and so forth.
In most novels, dramas, short stories,
  and narrative poems, the plot involves
  both characters and a central conflict.
Plot (Continued)

Exposition                 Resolution

The Exposition is the
 introduction. It is the part
 of the work that introduces
 the characters, setting, and
 basic situation.
      Rising Action
Rising Action is the part of the
 plot that begins to occur as
 soon as the conflict is
 introduced. The rising action
 adds complications to the
 conflict and increases reader
The Climax is the point of
 greatest emotional intensity,
 interest, or suspense in the
 plot of a narrative. The climax
 typically comes at the turning
 point in a story or drama.
      Falling Action

Falling Action is the action that
 typically follows the climax and
 reveals its results.
The Resolution is the part of
 the plot that concludes the
 falling action by revealing or
 suggesting the outcome of
 the conflict. It is also called

Conflict is the struggle
 between opposing forces in
 a story or play. There are
 two types of conflict that
 exist in literature.
           External Conflict
External conflict exists when a character
  struggles against some outside force, such
  as another character, nature, society, or

Man vs. Man

                The Karate Kid
External Conflict:

Man vs. Nature


The Day After
External Conflict

• Man vs. Society

   The Four
   Brothers         The Secret Life
                       of Bees
External Conflict

              True Blood The Prawns
External Conflict (Continued)

                        Terminator    War of the Worlds

                Transformers         Transformers
     Internal Conflict
Internal conflict exists within the mind of a
  character who is torn between different
  courses of action.

Man vs. Himself
               Charlie St.Cloud

                                  Seven Pounds
A flashback is a literary device in
 which an earlier episode,
 conversation, or event is inserted
 into the sequence of events.
 Often flashbacks are presented as
 a memory of the narrator or of
 another character.
 Flashback continued…
The movie Titanic is told almost
 entirely in a flashback.

What are some other films that contain
 flashback to help tell stories?

Willy Wonka
Think of some more…
Foreshadowing is the author‟s use of clues
  to hint at what might happen later in the
  story. Writers use foreshadowing to build
  their readers‟ expectations and to create
  suspense. This is used to help readers
  prepare for what is to come.
Can you think of an
    element of
Suspense is the growing interest and
  excitement readers experience while
  awaiting a climax or resolution in a work
  of literature. It is a feeling of anxious
  uncertainty about the outcome of events.
  Writers create suspense by raising
  questions in the minds of their readers.
             Point of View
Point of View is the perspective, or
  vantage point, from which a story is
  told. It is the relationship of the
  narrator to the story.
First-person is told by a character who
  uses the first-person pronoun “I”.
Third-person limited point of view is the
  point of view where the narrator uses
  third-person pronouns such as “he”
  and “she” to refer to the characters.
The setting of a literary work is the time and place
  of the action.
The setting includes all the details of a place and
  time – the year, the time of day, even the
  weather. The place may be a specific country,
  state, region, community, neighborhood, building,
  institution, or home.
Details such as dialect, clothing, customs, and
  modes of transportation are often used to
  establish setting.
In most stories, the setting serves as a backdrop – a
  context in which the characters interact. The
  setting of a story often helps to create a particular
  mood, or feeling.
Style is the distinctive way in which
  an author uses language.
Word choice, phrasing, sentence
  length, tone, dialogue, purpose,
  and attitude toward the audience
  and subject can all contribute to
  an author‟s writing style.
The theme of a literary work is its central
 message, concern, or purpose. A theme
 can usually be expressed as a
 generalization, or general statement,
 about people or life. The theme may be
 stated directly by the writer although it is
 more often presented indirectly. When
 the theme is stated indirectly, the reader
 must figure out the theme by looking
 carefully at what the work reveals about
 the people or about life.
Tone is a reflection of a writer‟s or speaker‟s
  attitude toward a subject of a poem,
  story, or other literary work. Tone may be
  communicated through words and details
  that express particular emotions and that
  evoke and emotional response from the
For example, word choice or phrasing may
  seem to convey respect, anger,
  lightheartedness, or sarcasm.
      Figures of Speech
A figure of speech is a specific device or
  kind of figurative language, such as
  hyperbole, metaphor, personification,
  simile, or understatement.
Figurative language is used for descriptive
  effect, often to imply ideas indirectly. It is
  not meant to be taken literally. Figurative
  language is used to state ideas in vivid
  and imaginative ways.
A Metaphor is a type of speech that
  compares or equates two or more things
  that have something in common. A
  metaphor does NOT use like or as.

Example: Life is a bowl
         of cherries.
A Simile is another figure of speech that
  compares seemingly unlike things.
  Simile‟s DO use the words like or as.

Example: Her voice was like nails on a
An Oxymoron is a figure of speech that is a
 combination of seemingly contradictory

Examples:      Same difference
               Pretty ugly
               Roaring silence
       Personification is a
         figure of speech in
         which an animal,
         object, force of
         nature, or idea is
         given human qualities
         or characteristics.

       Example: Tears began
         to fall from the dark
Alliteration is the repetition of sounds, most
  often consonant sounds, at the beginning
  of words. Alliteration gives emphasis to
Example: Peter Piper picked a peck of
            pickled peppers
Onomatopoeia is a word that
 imitates the sound it represents.
 splash, wow, gush, kerplunk
Holy onomatopoeia, Batman!

                             Buzzzzzzzzzzz!!   Boooommm!!!

To top