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					                   ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) -klasis sistemebi

ERP-s koncefcia: korporatiuli resursebis dagegmva

ERP – sistemebis damaxasiaTebeli Tvisebebi:

      nebismieri tipis warmoebis dagegmva erTi sistemis CarCoebSi;
      mravalrgoliani sawarmoo dagegmvis uzrunvelyofa;
      resursebis integrirebuli dagegmvis sferos gafarToeba;
      korporatiuli finansebis dagegmva da aRricxva;
      gadawyvetilebebis miRebis mZlavri saSualebebis sistemebSi CarTva;
      MRP-2 da ERP-sistemebs Soris sxvaoba

ERP-s koncepcia: korporatiuli resursebis dagegmva(Enterprise Resource Planning)

Tanamedrove ekonomikisaTvis damaxasiaTebel aSkarad gamoxatul Tvisebas warmoadgens -
bazris monawileTa integraciis intensiurad mimdinare procesi.

aRniSnuli tendenciis TvalsaCino asaxvas wrmoadgenen kompaniebis restruqturizaciis,
Serwymisa da STanTqvis, sawarmo da finansuri kapitalis urTierTSezrdis, koncentraciis,
specializaciis, kooperaciis, internacionalizaciisa da sxva procesebi. yovelive aRniSnulis
Sedegad izrdeba korporaciebis (maT Soris transnacionaluri), kompleqsebis da gaerTianebebis,
xoldingebis, konglomeratebis, konsorciumebis, safinanso-samrewvelo jgufebis da strategiuli
aliansebis ricxvi. internet-teqnologiebis ganviTareba, biznesis eleqtronulad warmoebisaTvis
Sesabamisi platformebis SemuSaveba kidev ufro amZafreben integraciul procesebs. mravali
eqspertis azriT, interneti bizness integraciis kidev erT - virtualuri korporaciis SesaZleblobas
miscems, rodesac ramodenime kompania da/an kerZo piri saerTo miznebis misaRwevad
droebiT erTiandebian Tanamedrove sakomunikacio saSualebebis gamoyenebiT.

integraciulma procesebma mniSvnelovani cvlilebebi ganapirobes kompaniebis Sida mowyobis
TvalsazrisiTac:

   1. organizaciuli struqturis garTuleba
    kompaniebis SigniT sakuTari logistikuri organizaciis mqone avtonomiuri sawarmoebis
      arseboba;
    aRniSnul avtonomiur obieqtebs Soris sakmaod rTuli sawarmoo da administraciuli
      kavSirebis sistema
   2. sawarmoo, sasawyobo, da/an gasaRebis qvedanayofebis geografiuli daqsaqsuloba;
   3. sxvadasxva tipis warmoebebis Tanaarseboba;
   4. saqmianobis diversificireba;
   5. makompleqtebeli mowyobilobebis da momsaxurebebis momwodebelTa saerTaSoriso
      qselis arseboba;
   6. produqciis miwodebis logistikuri jaWvis garTuleba, rogorc SigniT kompaniis avtonomiur
      qvedanayofebs Soris, aseve gareTac, kompaniasa da mis distribiutorebsa da damkveTebs
      Soris.

ERP-s koncefciis mTavari mizania – MRP2-is (Manufactory Resource Planning, sawarmoo
resursebis dagegmva) principebis gavrceleba Tanamedrove korporaciebis marTvaze. ERP-s
koncefcia warmoadgens MRP2-is meTodologiis zednaSens. sawarmoo resursebis dagegmvis
meqanizmSi raime cvlilebebis Setanis gareSe, igi kompaniebis struqturis garTulebiT
gamowveuli rigi damatebiTi amocanebis gadawyvetis saSualebas iZleva.


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ERP-s koncepcia dRemde ar aris standartizirebuli. rodesac Cndeba kiTxva konkretuli marTvis
sainformacio sistemis, ganviTarebuli MRP2- Tu ERP sistemebis klasisaTvis mikuTvnebasTan
dakavSirebiT, specialistebis mosazrebebi araerTgvarovania, vinaidan        ERP-sistemebis
klasisaTvis mikuTvnebis calmxrivad gansazRvruli kriteriumebi jer-jerobiT dadgenili ar aris.
miuxedavad amisa sxvadasxva midgomebis Sejerebis Sedegad SesaZlebeli xdeba ERP
sistemebisaTvis damaxasaiaTebeli ZiriTadi Tvisebebis Camoyalibeba.

ERP sistemebis damaxasiaTebeli Tvisebebi:

ERP klasis sistemebi gamoirCevian Tvisebebis Semdegi anakrebiT:

      universaluroba warmoebis tipebis TvalsazrisiT;
      mravalrgoliani sawarmoo dagegmvis mxardaWera;
      resursebis integrirebuli dagegmvis ufro gafarToebuli sfero (MRP2-Tan SedarebiT);
      dagegmvisa da korporatiuli finansebis aRricxvis mZlavri blokis arseboba;
      gadawyvetilebebis miRebis mxardaWeris saSualebebis arseboba.

erTi sistemis farglebSi yvela tipis warmoebis dagegmvis SesaZlebloba

Cveulebriv sawarmoSic ki (Tu arafers vityviT korporaciebze) SesaZlebelia erTmaneTisagan
gansxvavebuli tipis sxvadasxva sawarmoebis Tanaarseboba. magaliTad, uwyveti tipis ZiriTad
sawarmos     SesaZlebelia gaaCndes diskretul sawarmoo ciklze orientirebuli saremonto-
meqanikuri saamqroebis Semcveli damxmare sawarmo. garda amisa, SesaZlebelia, rom
sawarmom moaxdinos saproeqto dagegmvisa da marTvisaTvis gankuTvnili axali sawarmos
iniciireba. am SemTxvevaSi mocemul sawarmoSi warmodgenili iqnebian samive tipis
sawarmoebi – saproeqto, diskretuli da uwyveti. mTlianobaSi sawarmos erTianad dagegmvisa da
marTvis uzrunvelsayofad, sainformacio sistemas unda “SeeZlos” yvela aRniSnuli tipis
sawarmoebTan muSaoba.

amitomac ERP klasis sistemebi Seicaven sxvadasxva daniSnulebis modulebs, romlebic
specializirebulni arian warmoebis garkveul tipze.

mravalrgoliani sawarmoo dagegmvis uzrunvelyofa

teritoriulad ganawilebuli didi sawarmoo gaerTianebebi SesaZlebelia Sedgebodnen
gancalkevebuli struqturuli qvedanayofebisagan an filialebisagan (rgolebisagan). yovel filials,
rogorc wesi, gaaCnia gancalkevebuli, sruli sawarmoo procesi. miuxedavad amisa xSirad
qvedanayofebi erTmaneTTan dakavSirebulebi arian garkveuli saxis produqciis miwodebis
jaWviT. es garemoeba arTulebs rogorc calkeuli qvedanayofebis, aseve mTlianad sawarmoo
gaerTianebis saqmianobis dagegmvis process. imisaTvis, rom Tavidan iqnas acilebuli calkeuli
sawarmoebisaTvis detalebis drouli miuwodeblobiT gamowveuli Seferxebebi da gadatvirTvebi,
kompaniis sxvadasxva sawarmoo qvedanayofebis Sesyidvebis da warmoebis gegma-grafikebi
erTmaneTTan unda iyos SeTanxmebuli.

gegmebis agregirebisaTvis ERP sistemebSi gaTvaliswinebuli saSualebebis muSaobis logika
martivia. Tavdapirvelad xdeba erTiani organizaciuli struqturis Semadgeneli yoveli calkeuli
sawarmos (rgolis) Sesyidvebis/miwodebebis da warmoebis sakuTari gegmebis formireba.
amasTan miwodebebis Sidasawarmoo qselSi Semavali yoveli nomenklaturuli erTeulis
Sesyidvisa da warmoebis gegma-grafikebSi xdeba wyaros (momxmareblis) da am erTeulis
miwodebis prioritetulobis miTiTeba. Semdeg xdeba mravalrgoliani (agregirebuli) gegmis
Sedgena. amisaTvis ERP-sistema ganazogadebs sawarmoebis-rgolebis moTxovnilebebs Sida
miwodebebis qselSi Semaval nomenklaturul erTeulebze da axdens sawarmoo gegmebis

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generirebas yoveli rgolisaTvis, maT Soris miwodebebis gaTvaliswinebiT. aRniSnuli gegmebis
dasamtkiceblad wardgenamde, sistema axdens maTi Sesrulebadobis Sefasebas winaswar
gansazRvruli scenarebis mixedviT. iseve, rogorc Cveulebriv MRP2-sistemebSi, gegmebis
Sesrulebadobis Sefaseba xorcieldeba sistemis mier, damokidebul moTxovnaTa SekveTebis
nakadebis formirebis gziT mTliani sawarmoo gaerTianebis doneze. kritikuli situaciebis
aRmoCenis SemTxvevaSi, xdeba gegmebis koreqtireba da mxolod amis Semdeg xdeba maTi
wardgena dasamtkiceblad.

resursebis integrirebuli dagegmvis sferos gafarToeba

klasikur MRP2 sistemebSi resursebis integrirebuli dagegmva moicavda mxolod sawarmoebis
samewarmeo, sasawyobo, mommaragebis da gasaRebis qvedanayofebs. sawarmoo procesTan
mWidrod dakavSirebuli sxva qvedanayofebis da samsaxurebis (magaliTad saremonto,
satransporto) saqmianoba ar gaiTvaliswineboda dagegmvaSi. zustad aseve kadrs miRma
rCeboda saproeqto samuSaoebi. ERP-sistemebi saSualebas iZlevian resursebis integrirebuli
dagegmvis sferoSi Seyvanili iqnan sawarmos yvela qvedanayofebi, romlebic ase Tu ise
gamoiyeneben aRniSnul resursebs. es SesaZlebels xdis, rogorc sawarmos biznes-procesebis
optimizacias, aseve yvela samsaxurebisa da qvedanayofebis saqmianobis koordinacias, maTi
muSaobis efeqturobis uzrunvelsayofad.

aRniSnulTan dakavSirebiT ERP-sistemebSi Cndebian Semdegi damatebiTi qvesistemebi:
    samewarmeo proeqtebis realizaciis dagegmva da marTva. am qvesistemaSi
      xorcieldeba proeqtis analizi (misi struqturis SemuSaveba, qveproeqtebis gamoyofa,
      qveproeqtebis danawileba calkeul samuSaoebad), samuSaoebis qseluri grafikebis
      formireba, am samuSaoebis gansaxorcieleblad saWiro materialuri da SromiTi resursebis,
      mowyobilobebis, finansuri danaxarjebis dagegmva, maTi Sesrulebis mimdinareobis
      marTva.
    servisul-teqnikuri samsaxurebis muSaobis dagegmva. aRniSnuli qvesistema
      resursebis dagegmvis da sawarmoo obieqtebis teqnikuri momsaxurebis samuSaoebis
      Sesrulebis optimizaciis saSualebas iZleva. qvesistema Zlier zegavlenas axdens sawarmos
      dagegmvis modulis muSaobaze. Tu xorcieldeba sawarmoo simZlavreebis romelime
      erTeulis avariuli an gegmiuri remonti, qvesistemam unda acnobos sawarmos dagegmvis
      moduls aRniSnuli erTeulis garkveuli droiT blokirebis Sesaxeb da drois am periodisaTvis
      miuTiTos alternatiuli sawarmoo marSruti.
    ganawilebuli resursebis (Distribution Resources Planning) dagegmva da marTva.
      aseTi qvesistema gasaRebis qvedanayofebisa da sawyobebis rTul mravalrgolian
      struqturasTan muSaobis SesaZleblobas iZleva. kerZod mis kompetenciaSi Sedis
      satransporto samsaxurebis muSaobis dagegmvac. aRniSnuli qvesistemis saSualebiT
      SesaZlebelia:

       - nedleulisa da makopleqtebeli mowyobilobebis miwodebaze satransporto danaxarjebis
       minimizireba;
       - masalebisa da produqciis dabalansebuli ganawilebis organizeba kompaniis sawyobebs
       Soris;
       - sawyobebs Soris (rodesac ramodenime sawyobi arsebobs) an gamsaRebel
       qvedanayofebs Soris (rodesac arsebobs sadilero qseli) gadaadgilebebis ganxorcielebisas
       optimaluri satransporto marSrutebis SerCeva.

      gayidvebisSemdgomi da specialuri momsaxurebebis dagegmva da marTva. rogorc
       misi dasaxelebidan gamomdinareobs qvesistemis daniSnuleba mdgomareobs yvela saxis
       servisuli momsaxurebebis marTvaSi.


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aq unda aRiniSnos erTi mniSvnelovani detali. mraval Tanamedrove MRP2-sistemebSi
gaTvaliswinebulia “proeqti”, “servisi”, “transporti” da a.S. qvesistemebi. magram, miuxedavad
imisa, rom am qversistemebSi xdeba danaxarjebis da Semosavlebis aRricxva da biujetireba,
xSirad maTSi ar aris gaTvaliswinebuli mTeli sawarmos masStabiT resursebisa da simZlavreebis
moTxovnilebebis integrirebuli dagegmvis uzrunvelyofis mizniT ERP-sistemebisaTvis aucilebeli
SekveTebis nakadebis formirebasTan dakavSirebuli funqcionaluroba.

sakmaod farTo funqcionalurobis miuxedavad, ERP-sistemebi ar warmoadgenen marTvis srulad
integrirebul sistemebs: mraval sawarmoSi arseboben qveganayofebi romelTa saqmianoba
miuxedavad imisa, rom ukavSirdeba sawarmoo process, ver Tavsdebian MRP2/ERP-sistemebis
arsebul ideologiaSi. aRniSnuli qvedanayofebis muSaobis avtomatizaciisaTvis gamoiyeneba
specialurad maTTvis gankuTvnili sistemebi. aseT sistemebs warmoadgenen magaliTad
avtomatizirebuli proeqtirebis sistemebi (САПР), warmoebis sakonstruqtoro da teqnologiuri
momzadebis sistemebi (PDM –Product Data Management sistemebi) da a.S.. amitomac realurad
ERP-sistemebs (iseve, rogorc MRP2-sistemebs) praqtikulad yovelTvis iyeneben msgavs
qvesistemebTan erTad.

korporatiuli finansebis dagegmva da aRricxva.

ganStoebuli korporatiuli resursebis dagegmvis SesaZleblobis realizacia ERP-sistemebSi,
ganapirobebs finansuri blokis gaZlierebis, rTuli finansuri nakadebis marTvis da korporatiuli
konsolidaciis saSualebebis realizaciis aucileblobas. amitomac ERP-sistemebi Seicaven
korporatiuli finansebis    marTvis mZlavr sistemebs, romlebic xasiaTdebian Semdegi
TaviseburebebiT:

      marTvis mravalrgoliani struqturis mxardaWera - finansuri monacemebis analizis
       SesaZlebloba, rogorc calkeuli qvedanayofebis-rgolebis, aseve mTlianad kompaniis
       doneze;
      moqniloba - ramodenime saaTis sartyelis, enis, nacionaluri valutis, sabuRaltro aRricxvisa
       da angariSgebis sistemebis mxardaWera;
      safinanso dagegmvis warmoeba;
      debitorebTan da kreditorebTan angariSsworebis warmoeba;
      kreditebis dabrunebadobis sameTvalyureo aparatis arseboba, romelic uzrunvelyofs
       kreditorebTan urTierTobebis istoriis warmoebas, maTi saqmianobis mdgomareobis
       analizs da maT Sesaxeb cnobebis moZiebas;
      ERP-sistemebis sxva qvesistemebis monacemebTan sruli integracia.

gadawyvetilebebis miRebis uzrunvelmyofi mZlavri saSualebebis sistemebSi CarTva

mmarTvelobiTi gadawyvetilebebi miiReba adamianebis mier. Tavis Tavad ERP-sistema ar
warmoadgens mmarTvelobiTi gadawyvetilebebis miRebis instruments, igi mxolod iZleva
amisaTvis saWiro informacias. mmarTvelobiTi gadawyvetilebebis miRebis realur
SesaZleblobebs iZlevian ERP-sistemebSi CarTuli specialuri analitikuri saSualebebi. rogorc wesi
am saSualebebs uwodeben OLAP-s. qvemoT moyvanilia gadawyvetilebebis miRebis
mxardamWeri sistemebis zogierTi SesaZleblobebi:

      susti rgolebis aRmoCenisa da aRmofxvris, agreTve biznes-procesebis da saorganizacio
       erTeulebis struqturebis srulyofis mizniT sxvadasxva ubnebisa da samsaxurebis
       muSaobis efeqturobaze TvalTvali;
      calkeuli qveganayofebis saqmianobis analizi;
      sxvadasxva qveganayofebidan miRebuli monacemebis agregireba;


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      biznesis perspeqtiuli da wamgebiani mimarTulebebis gamosavlenad sawarmos safinanso-
       sameurneo saqmianobis sxvadasxva mimarTulebebis maCveneblebis analizi;
      rogorc sawarmos SigniT, aseve bazarze ganviTarebuli tendenciebis gamovlena.

MRP2 da ERP – sistemebs Soris arsebuli gansxvavebebi

amJamad MRP2 da ERP – sistemebis praqtikulad yvela momwodebeli TavianT sistemebs
miakuTvneben ERP-klasis sistemebs. “ERP”-Zalze modur abreviaturas warmoadgens, romelsac
ZaluZs iseTi sistemebis gayidvebis moculobebis gazrda, romlebic arsebiTad ar ganekuTvnebian
aRniSnul klas. saqme iqamdec ki midis, rom rogorc “srulyofili ERP – sistemebi” pozicionirebas
iwyeben susti sawarmoo blokis mqone safinanso-mmarTvelobiTi sistemebi, riTac
momxmareblebi SecdomaSi SehyavT. aRniSnuli gaugebrobas kidev ufro aZlierebs ERP-
standartis ar arsebobiT.

zemoT aRwerili iyo ERP-sistemebis damaxasiaTebeli Tvisebebi. isini ufro gasagebi gaxdeba, Tu
moviyvanT ori sxvadasxva klasis sistemebis MRP2-s da ERP-s maxasiaTeblebis Sedarebas.

aqve unda aRiniSnos, rom rogorc MRP2-sistemebisaTvis, aseve ERP-sistemebisaTvs ZiriTadi
gamoyenebis sferoa warmoeba. isini uTuod bazris moTxovnebis Sesabamisad viTardebian:
ematebaT axali funqciebi da gadadian axal teqnologiur platformebze. amasTan gansaxilveli
sistemebisaTvis sawarmoo qvesistemebi rCebian gamoyenebis mTavar sferod, xol
gansxvavebebi MRP2-sa da ERP-s Soris arseboben swored warmoebebis dagegmvis sferoSi.
aRniSnuli sxvaobebi ukavSirdebian dagegmvis realizaciis siRrmes, rac ganpirobebulia am
sistemebis orientaciiT bazris sxvadasxva segmentebze.

ERP-sistemebi iqmnebian didi mravalfunqcionaluri da teritoriulad ganawilebuli samrewvelo
korporaciebisaTvis (magaliTad, xoldingebi, transnacionaluri kompaniebi, safinanso-samrewvelo
jgufebi da sxva).
MRP2-sistemebi orientirebuli arian saSualo sawarmoebis bazarze, romlebsac ar sWirdebaT
ERP-sistemebisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli simZlavreebi.

MRP2 da ERP-sistemebs Soris gansxvaveba naTelia maTi dasaxelebebidanac: erTis mxriv,
korporatiuli resursebis dagegmva (Enterprise Resources Planning), meores mxriv – sawarmoo
resursebis dagegmva (Manufacture Resources Planning). MmniSvnelovani gansxvavebebi maT
Soris SesaZloa gamoisaxos Semdegi formuliT:

ERP=MRP2+nebismieri tipis warmoebis realizacia + resursebis dagegmvis integrireba
kompaniis saqmianobis sxvadasxva mimarTulebebis mixedvit + mravalrgoliani dagegmva.

ra Tqma unda MRP2-sistemebis umravlesoba viTardeba siRrmiseuli dagegmvis uzrunvelyofis
poziciebidan gamomdinare da zogierTi parametrebis mixedviT uaxlovdeba ERP-sistemebs.
magram “zogierTi parametrebis mixedviT” ar niSnavs “yvela parametrebis mixedviT”-s, amitom
termin “ERP”-s gamoyenebas mofrTxileba sWirdeba.

sainformacio mmarTvelobiTi sistemebis Tanamedrove        bazari Sedgeba lideri-sistemebis
sameulisagan (zogierTi SefasebebiT xuTeulisagan), romlebic sakuTriv ERP-klasis sistemebs
miekuTvnebian da mravali MRP2 klasis “gaumjobesebuli” sistemebisagan.

upirobo liderebs warmoadgenen germanuli kompaniis SAP AG-s sistemebi -SAP R/3, amerikuli
kompaniis Oracle-is sistema Oracle Applications da holandiuri kompaniis Baan-is mier
SemuSavebuli sistema Baan. xandaxan am “elitarul” nusxas umateben J.D. Edwards da
PeopleSoft kompaniebis mier warmoebul sistemas OneWorld-s.

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rac Seexeba MRP2 sistemebs, aq gadawyvetaTa didi raodenoba SeimCneva, romlebic
funqcionalurobisa da teqnologiuri Taviseburebebis unikaluri Tavsebadobis nimuSebs
warmoadgenen. isini erTmaneTisagan gansxvavdebian sawarmoo, finansuri da sxva funqciebis
damuSavebis sxvadasxva xarisxiT. amitomac konsultantebis daxmarebiT sawarmoebs SeuZliaT
SearCion iseTi sistemebi, romlebic yvelaze metad pasuxoben maT moTxovnebs. aqedan
gamomdinare, “MRP2”-es ar aris sistemis arasrulyofilebis niSani, aramed imis maCvenebelia,
rom sistema orientirebulia saSualo sawarmoebis bazarze.




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