SCIENCE EOG REVIEW QUESTION ANSWER 1. What is the chemical symbol for water? 2a-g: Use your periodic table to locate the following information for each of the 2 elements that combine to form water: 2a. Chemical symbol 2b. Atomic number 2c. Atomic mass 2d. Proton number 2e. Electron number 2f. Neutron number 2g. Valence electron number 3a-f. Answer the following questions based on the table of information below and your periodic table: Element Melting Point (C) Specific Heat (J/kg*K) Fe – Iron 1538 449 Ti – Titanium 1668 520 Cu – Copper 1084.62 384.4 Mg – Magnesium 650 1020 K – Potassium 63.38 757 S - Sulfur 115.21 705 3a. Which element has the highest melting point? 3b. Which element has the lowest melting point? 3c. Which element would change from a solid to a liquid first? 3d. Pressure increases the melting point for many metals. Which metal might be used to probe inside deep sea hydrothermal vents? 3e. Why are cooking pots and pans made from iron and copper? 3f. If magnesium is combined with sulfur, what would be the resulting mass of their new substance? 4. What type of bond do hydrogen and oxygen form to make water? 5. What type of bond do magnesium and sulfur form to make magnesium sulfide? 6. Which property of matter allows metals to be pressed into coins? 7. Which property of matter allows metals to conduct electricity? 8. What unique property of water allows it to dissolve many substances? 9. What unique property of water allows droplets to form on a plant? 10. What unique property of water influences the mild weather we have in coastal NC? 11. What 2 variables determine the buoyancy of an object in water? 12. Are objects more buoyant in fresh water or salt water? 13. (TRUE or FALSE) Water frozen in the polar ice caps is an example of a chemical change in the water molecules. 14. (TRUE or FALSE) Rust on a bicycle is an example of a chemical change in the metals. 15. (TRUE or FALSE) Many chemicals we use in medicines and foods are derived from plants. 16. Oxygen dissolves in water to form , which allows aquatic organisms to breathe. 17. Erosion of igneous rocks and volcanic activity add minerals to seawater, making it . 18. Sodium, Magnesium, Chlorine, & other dissolved solids form salts in seawater, which is typically around parts per thousand. 19. The salts dissolved in seawater make the oceans more on the pH scale. 20. When excessive nutrients, such as nitrates and phosphates, accumulate in the water system, can occur, often causing fish kills. SCIENCE EOG REVIEW QUESTION ANSWER 21. Earth is composed of many elements, from its crust to its core. Name 3 of the dominant elements found in earth. 22. Some of earth’s elements combined to form life. According to the fossil record, what was the first form of life on earth? 23. In which era did life begin on Earth? 24. Name 2 types of cores scientists analyze to make interpretations about Earth’s past. 25. What other evidence do scientists use to make interpretations about Earth’s past? 26. In which eon did Earth’s oceans begin to form? 27. What 2 dynamic processes create changes to Earth’s landmasses over time? 28. What agent of erosion creates the most change to Earth’s surface? 29. How are layers of sediment deposited? 30. What law is used to describe the relative dating of rock layers? 31. Some elements are radioactive and can be used to date rocks and fossils. This is referred to as absolute or dating. 32. Based on Earth’s rock and fossil evidence, how old do scientists think Earth is? Use the following table to answer questions 34a through 34d: Radioactive Isotope Half-life Uranium-238 4.51 billion Potassium-40 413 million Carbon-14 5730 years 34a. Which isotope has the longest half-life? 34b. Which isotope has the shortest half-life? 34c. Which isotope might be used to determine the absolute age of Earth’s oldest rocks? 34d. Which isotope might be used to determine the absolute age of a wholly mammoth from the last Ice Age? 35. describes the concept that changes in Earth’s past occurred gradually, just as we observe similar processes occurring today. 36. describes the concept that changes in Earth’s past occurred suddenly, often resulting in mass extinction events. 37. An fossil represents an organisms that existed for a specific period of time in Earth’s geologic history. 38. Some organisms inhabited Earth during the same time period. This is referred to as . 39. Various species from Earth’s early life are still living today and form the basis for an elaborate and food web that supports many tropic levels and ecosystems. 40. The primary producers in the aquatic food web are . 41. Primary producers are also referred to as , which are microorganisms that can produce their own food. 42. are microscopic consumers that often feed on Autotrophs. 43. Decomposers, such as and , also play a key role in recycling nutrients back into the ecosystem. 44. (TRUE or FALSE) Contaminants, such as DDT, that enter the hydrosphere through surface run-off will only affect aquatic life. 45. (TRUE or FALSE) Loss of an aquatic species may also result in population decreases in terrestrial species.
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