SCIENCE EOG REVIEW
                              QUESTION                                                  ANSWER
1. What is the chemical symbol for water?
 2a-g: Use your periodic table to locate the following information for each of the 2 elements that combine to
                                                   form water:
2a. Chemical symbol
2b. Atomic number
2c. Atomic mass
2d. Proton number
2e. Electron number
2f. Neutron number
2g. Valence electron number
    3a-f. Answer the following questions based on the table of information below and your periodic table:
                             Element              Melting Point (C)    Specific Heat (J/kg*K)
                            Fe – Iron                    1538                    449
                          Ti – Titanium                  1668                    520
                           Cu – Copper                 1084.62                  384.4
                       Mg – Magnesium                     650                   1020
                          K – Potassium                  63.38                   757
                            S - Sulfur                  115.21                   705
3a. Which element has the highest melting point?
3b. Which element has the lowest melting point?
3c. Which element would change from a solid to a liquid first?
3d. Pressure increases the melting point for many metals. Which metal
might be used to probe inside deep sea hydrothermal vents?
3e. Why are cooking pots and pans made from iron and copper?
3f. If magnesium is combined with sulfur, what would be the resulting
mass of their new substance?
4. What type of bond do hydrogen and oxygen form to make water?
5. What type of bond do magnesium and sulfur form to make
magnesium sulfide?
6. Which property of matter allows metals to be pressed into coins?
7. Which property of matter allows metals to conduct electricity?
8. What unique property of water allows it to dissolve many
9. What unique property of water allows droplets to form on a plant?
10. What unique property of water influences the mild weather we have
in coastal NC?
11. What 2 variables determine the buoyancy of an object in water?
12. Are objects more buoyant in fresh water or salt water?
13. (TRUE or FALSE) Water frozen in the polar ice caps is an example
of a chemical change in the water molecules.
14. (TRUE or FALSE) Rust on a bicycle is an example of a chemical
change in the metals.
15. (TRUE or FALSE) Many chemicals we use in medicines and foods
are derived from plants.
16. Oxygen dissolves in water to form                , which allows
aquatic organisms to breathe.
17. Erosion of igneous rocks and volcanic activity add minerals to
seawater, making it     .
18. Sodium, Magnesium, Chlorine, & other dissolved solids form salts in
seawater, which is typically around      parts per thousand.
19. The salts dissolved in seawater make the oceans more         on the
pH scale.
20. When excessive nutrients, such as nitrates and phosphates,
accumulate in the water system,         can occur, often causing fish kills.
                                             SCIENCE EOG REVIEW
                               QUESTION                                         ANSWER
21. Earth is composed of many elements, from its crust to its core.
Name 3 of the dominant elements found in earth.
22. Some of earth’s elements combined to form life. According to
the fossil record, what was the first form of life on earth?
23. In which era did life begin on Earth?
24. Name 2 types of cores scientists analyze to make
interpretations about Earth’s past.
25. What other evidence do scientists use to make interpretations
about Earth’s past?
26. In which eon did Earth’s oceans begin to form?
27. What 2 dynamic processes create changes to Earth’s
landmasses over time?
28. What agent of erosion creates the most change to Earth’s
29. How are layers of sediment deposited?
30. What law is used to describe the relative dating of rock layers?
31. Some elements are radioactive and can be used to date rocks
and fossils. This is referred to as absolute or          dating.
32. Based on Earth’s rock and fossil evidence, how old do scientists
think Earth is?
Use the following table to answer questions 34a through 34d:
                                    Radioactive Isotope            Half-life
                                    Uranium-238                  4.51 billion
                                    Potassium-40                 413 million
                                    Carbon-14                    5730 years
34a. Which isotope has the longest half-life?
34b. Which isotope has the shortest half-life?
34c. Which isotope might be used to determine the absolute age of
Earth’s oldest rocks?
34d. Which isotope might be used to determine the absolute age of
a wholly mammoth from the last Ice Age?
35.      describes the concept that changes in Earth’s past occurred
gradually, just as we observe similar processes occurring today.
36.     describes the concept that changes in Earth’s past occurred
suddenly, often resulting in mass extinction events.
37. An       fossil represents an organisms that existed for a specific
period of time in Earth’s geologic history.
38. Some organisms inhabited Earth during the same time period.
This is referred to as       .
39. Various species from Earth’s early life are still living today and
form the basis for an elaborate        and       food web that
supports many tropic levels and ecosystems.
40. The primary producers in the aquatic food web are          .
41. Primary producers are also referred to as       , which are
microorganisms that can produce their own food.
42.      are microscopic consumers that often feed on Autotrophs.
43. Decomposers, such as          and     , also play a key role in
recycling nutrients back into the ecosystem.
44. (TRUE or FALSE) Contaminants, such as DDT, that enter the
hydrosphere through surface run-off will only affect aquatic life.
45. (TRUE or FALSE) Loss of an aquatic species may also result in
population decreases in terrestrial species.

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