PowerPoint Presentation - Chapter 27 by wulinqing


									    Chapter 27

“The Great West and the
 Agricultural Revolution”
    Indians Embattled in the West
   After the Civil War the west was untamed with
    few white people other than the Mormons.
   It was the habitat of the Indian, the buffalo, the
    wild horse, the prairie dog and the coyote.
   As the White settlers began to populate the
    Great West, the Indians, caught in the middle,
    were increasingly turned against each other,
    infected with White man’s diseases, and stuck
    battling to hunt the few remaining bison that
    were still around
Great Plains
                 Sioux Warrior

Pawnee Warrior
   The Sioux also called the Dakota Indians
    came to North America from Asia 30,000
    years ago. The name Sioux means "Little
    Snake." This name was given to them by
    an enemy tribe, the Chippewa. Their
    straight black hair and other features
    seemed to relate them to the Chinese and
    Japanese. The Sioux first lived west of the
    Great Lakes in Minnesota. Most were
    pushed west into South Dakota by other
           Black Hills Reservation
   In 1874 General George A. Custer led an expedition to
    the Black Hills of Dakota. He reported that he discovered
    gold in the area. The following year the United States
    government attempted to buy the Black Hills for six
    million dollars. The area was considered sacred by the
    Sioux and they refused to sell. Custer's story attracted
    gold hunters and in April 1876 the mining town of
    Deadwood was established in the area. This provoked
    the Sioux and resulted in the war that led to the battle of
    Little Bighorn
Black Hills South Dakota
Dances With Wolves
Mount Rushmore
                 Mt. Rushmore Facts
   The carving of Mt. Rushmore actually began on August 10, 1927, and
    spanned a length of 14 years.
   Gutzon Borglum chose this mountain due to its height (5700' above sea
    level), the soft grainy consistency of the granite, and the fact that it catches
    the sun for the greatest part of the day.
   Work continued on the project until the death of Gutzon Borglum in 1941.
    No carving has been done on the mountain since that time and none is
    planned in the future.

   The presidents were selected on the basis of what each symbolized.
        George Washington represents the struggle for independence
        Thomas Jefferson the idea of government by the people
        Abraham Lincoln for his ideas on equality and the permanent union of the
        Theodore Roosevelt for the 20th century role of the United States in world
Air Force 1 Over Mt. Rushmore

    Gold Prospectors in Black Hills
               Sand Creek Massacre
   In one of the most sordid affairs
    between whites and American Indians,
    more than 200 Cheyennes, mainly
    women and children, lay dead
    following Col. John M. Chivington’s
    destruction of Black Kettle’s Southern
    Cheyenne village nestled along Sand
    Creek in southeastern Colorado, on
    November 29, 1864. The Chivington
    massacre included the mutilation of
    Indians, including severed genitals.
    Black Kettle’s village had camped near
    Fort Lyon with the understanding that
    they were friendly, an American flag
    flew from the village. The site is
    located on private land
              Battle of Little Big Horn
   Here on June 25, 1876, a large force made
    up mostly of Sioux and Southern Cheyenne
    warriors under Sitting Bull, Gall, and Crazy
    Horse overwhelmed Lt. Col. George A.
    Custer’s 7th Cavalry in one of the most
    complete defeats in American military
    history. Custer and approximately 210 men
    were slain in the famous "Custer’s Last
    Stand." Four miles away, up the Little
    Bighorn, along the bluffs overlooking the
    river, Maj. Marcus A. Reno and the rest of
    the regiment remained for two days until
    help arrived. Reno lost about 70 soldiers
    and Crow guides. The Indian victory was of
    short duration. By the spring of 1877, most
    of the Sioux and Cheyenne, including Crazy
    Horse, facing starvation and constant
    military pressure, finally surrendered and     Fort Davis National Park MT
    accepted reservation confinement.
             Great Plains Buffalo
   The Indians were so easily
    tamed due to the railroad,
    which shot through the heart
    of the West, the White man’s
    diseases, and the
    extermination of the buffalo
   In the early days, tens of
    millions of Bison dotted the
    American prairie, and by the
    end of the Civil War, there
    were still 15 million buffalo
    grazing, but it was the
    eruption of the railroad that
    really started the buffalo
"Wanton Destruction of Buffalo"
   By 1885, fewer than
    1000 buffalo were
    left, and the species
    was in danger of
    extinction, mostly in
    Yellowstone National
                            W. E. Webb, Buffalo Land, 1872
    Words of Nez Perce Chief Joseph
   Tell General Howard I know his heart.
    What he told me before, I have it in
    my heart. I am tired of fighting. Our
    Chiefs are killed; Looking Glass is
    dead, Ta Hool Hool Shute is dead. The
    old men are all dead. It is the young
    men who say yes or no. He who led on
    the young men is dead. It is cold, and
    we have no blankets; the little children
    are freezing to death. My people, some
    of them, have run away to the hills,
    and have no blankets, no food. No one
    knows where they are - perhaps
    freezing to death. I want to have time
    to look for my children, and see how
    many of them I can find. Maybe I shall
    find them among the dead. Hear me,
    my Chiefs! I am tired; my heart is sick
    and sad. From where the sun now
    stands I will fight no more forever.
   Chief Joseph - 1877
    Improvements in Indian Affairs
   A “Century of Dishonor “ - Book written by
    Helen Hunt Jackson chronicling the
    wrongs done to Native Americans
   Dawes Severalty Act – wiped out tribal
    ownership of land and gave Indian
    families 160 acres of land on a reservation
    as long as they agreed to farm it.
        Forced assimilation
     Carlisle Indian School
   Founded to teach
    Native American
    children how to
    behave like the
    White man,
    completely erasing
    their culture.
Carlisle School
           Mining the West

   Gold was discovered in California in the
    late 1840s, and in 1858, and at Pike’s
    Peak in Colorado, but within a month all
    the gold was gone.
   The Comstock Lode in Nevada was
    discovered in 1859, and huge amounts
    of gold and silver worth more than $340
    million was mined.
               Comstock Lode
   Virginia City, Nevada,
    the historic mining
    center where the
    Comstock Lode
    bought a bonanza in
               Cattle Herding
   People moved west to take advantage of the
    free government owned grazing land for cattle
   Huge demand for beef in the east
   Railroad brought the cattle to the east
   Had to find a way to get cattle in the Great
    Plains to the cow towns along the
    transcontinental Railroad
   Answer was the “Long Drive”
   Dodge City, Abilene, Ogallala, and Cheyenne
    became favorite cowtowns
Cattle Drive on the Chisholm Trail

Ogallala Nebraska

                           Dodge City Kansas
       End of the “Long Drive”
   Barbed Wire – Made travel to cowtows more
    difficult and time consuming which also led to
    skinnier cattle and hence less profit
   Railroad - Made the cattle herding business
    prosper, but it also destroyed it, for the
    railroads also brought sheepherders and
    homesteaders who built barbed-wire fences
    that were too numerous to be cut through by
    the cowboys.
   Sheepherders – Hooves cut the grass
   Homestead Act – Brought more settlers
Ansel Adams Photo of Barbed Wire
                  Homestead Act
   The Homestead Act of 1862 allowed settlers to get as
    much as 160 acres of land in return for living on it for
    five years, improving it, and paying a nominal fee of
    about $30.00.
   This act led half a million families to buy land and settle
    out West, but it often turned out to be a cruel hoax
    because in the dry Great Plains, 160 acres was rarely
    enough for a family to earn a living and survive, and
    often, families were forced to give up their homesteads
    before the five years were up, since droughts, bad land,
    and lack of necessities forced them out
    Difficulties of Farming the Great
   No trees
   Lack of rainfall
   Locusts
   Extreme weather
        Farming the Great Frontier
       Mechanization made farming easier
         McCormick Reaper, Twine binder and steel plow
       Dry farming - Using shallow cultivation
        methods to plant and farm, but over time, this
        method created a finely pulverized surface soil
        that contributed to the notorious “Dust Bowl”
        several decades later.
       Huge federally financed irrigation projects
        soon caused the Great American Desert to
        bloom, and dams that tamed the Missouri and
        Columbia Rivers helped water the land
John Deer 1st Steel Plow
McCormick Reaper
        Oklahoma Land Rush
   In Oklahoma, the U.S. government made
    available land that had formerly belonged to
    the Native Americans, and thousands of
    “sooners” jumped the boundary line and
    illegally went into Oklahoma, often forcing
    U.S. troops to evict them.
   On April 22, 1889, Oklahoma was legally
    opened, and 18 years later, in 1907,
    Oklahoma became the “Sooner State.”
Land Rush Map
                     Oklahoma Settlers

The starting line for the first Oklahoma Land
            Rush, April 22, 1889
            Library of Congress
 Frederick Jackson Turner’s Essay
on “The Significance of the Frontier
       in American History”
   Historian Frederick Jackson Turner presented
    this paper to a special meeting of the American
    Historical Association at the 1893 World's
    Columbian Exposition in Chicago, Illinois. His
    assessment of the frontier's significance was
    the first of its kind and revolutionized American
    intellectual and historical thinking
   Safety Valve Theory - Stated that the frontier
    was like a safety valve for folks who, when it
    became too crowded in their area, could simply
    pack up and leave, moving West.
              Frontier Farmers
   Cash crops
   Montgomery Ward catalogs brought modern
    goods to farmers
   Less jobs due to mechanization
   Blamed banks and railroads but real issue was
    lack of leadership and understanding of business
   Mechanization led to huge farms that produced
    an abundance of crops
Mail Order Catalogs
     Deflation Dooms the Debtor
   Overproduction by farmers caused deflation
   Paying back debts was especially hard in this
    deflation-filled time during which there was
    simply not enough money to go around for
   Farmers operated year after year on losses and
    thousands of homesteads fell to mortgages and
    foreclosures during this time.
             Unhappy Farmers
   In the late 1880s and early 1890s, droughts,
    grasshopper plagues, and searing heat waves hurt the
   City, state, and federal governments added to this by
    gouging the farmers, ripping them off by making them
    pay painful taxes when they could least afford to do
   The railroads, the middlemen, and the various
    harvester, barbed wire, and fertilizer trusts all
    harassed farmers.
   In 1890, one half of the U.S. population still consisted
    of farmers, but they were hopelessly disorganized.
National Grange of the Patrons
         of Husbandry
   Founded by Oliver H. Kelley to improve the lives
    of isolated farmers through social, educational,
    and fraternal activities
   Informal organization
   Attempted to form cooperative stories, grain
    elevators and warehouses to combat unfair
   Not formal enough to make a difference but it
    was a start
           Farmers Alliances
   More formal than Grange
   Coalition of farmers seeking the banks and
    railroads that took advantage of them.
   Its programs only aimed at those who owned
    their own land, thereby ignoring the tenant
    farmers, and it purposefully excluded Blacks
   Prelude to the Populist Party of the future

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