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Phrasal verbs

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					Phrasal verbs


     Designed by
 Olzhabaeva Raushan
     Form 10 «А»
School-gymnasium#38
         Actuality of the theme
    Phrasal verbs are very important parts of the English
    language. They are used not only in spoken and informal
    English, but they are also a common part of written and
    even formal English. Nowadays the role of
    communication in English grows up. The developing of
    international cooperation supposes the good capability of
    communication in English with the usage of the phrasal
    verbs. Especially it concerns those persons who are
    going to connect their life with the English language at
    the international level. We think the theme of the work is
    very actual because it is very important for everyone
    who learns and speaks a foreign language to be able to
    understand any English speaking person correctly and
    properly.
    Criteria for analysis and including
    this or that phrasal verb on the list
              are the following
 the phrasal verbs must have analogies in
  the Russian language which are
  understood and used correctly;
 they must represent different spheres of
  life;
 they must have some educative meaning
  for the students of the language
      Research project goal

 to study the English language from the
  point of view of the usage of the phrasal
  verbs;
 to study the Russian language from the
  point of view of the availability of their
  analogies.
     Investigation objectives

to study
 the phrasal verbs of the English language;
 what Russian analogies of the phrasal verbs are
  known, understood and used by the
  respondents;
 how the usage of the English phrasal verbs
  enriches our speech;
 how the usage of these phrases helps to
  communicate with the English speaking people.
         Research methods

 analysis of different sources in English and
  Russian;
 comparing English phrasal verbs and their
  analogies in Russian;
 Questionnaire.
      What is a phrasal verb?
A phrasal verb is a combination of a verb and preposition, a verb
and adverb, or a verb with both an adverb and preposition, any of
which are part of the syntax (of the sentence), and so are a
complete semantic unit. Its sentences may, however, contain direct
and indirect objects in addition to the phrasal verb. Phrasal verbs
are particularly frequent in the English language. A phrasal verb
often has a meaning which is different from the original verb.

Alternative terms for phrasal verb are 'compound verb', 'verb-adverb
combination', 'verb-particle construction (VPC)', AmE "two-part
word/verb' and 'three-part word/verb' (depending on the number of
particles), and multi-word verb (MWV).[2]

'Preposition' and 'adverb' as used in a phrasal verb are also called
 'particle' in that they do not alter their form through inflections (are
 therefore uninflected, they do not accept affixes, etc.).
 The usage of the phrasal verbs.
  Phrasal verbs in informal speech
 "He walked across the square."
 "She opened the shutters and looked
  outside."
  Idiomatic usage
 "I hope you will get over your operation
  quickly. ».
 "Work hard, and get your examination
  over."
        Phrasal verb patterns
1 Particle verbs

2 Prepositional verbs

3 Phrasal-prepositional verbs

4Phrasal verbs and modifying adverbs

5 Phrasal verbs combined with special verb forms
  and clauses
      Phrasal verb patterns

 "When I entered the room he looked up.“
 Switch off the light.
 Switch the light off.
 The gas gave off fumes, (not *The gas
  gave fumes off.)
 They let the man through, (not *They let
  through the man.)
          Intransitive Phrasal Verbs

   That old Jeep had a tendency to break down just when I needed it the most.
   Popular songs seem to catch on in California first and then spread eastward.
   Father promised that we would never come back to this horrible place.
   They tried to come in through the back door, but it was locked.
   He was hit on the head very hard, but after several minutes, he started to come to again.
   The children promised to come over, but they never do.
   We used to just drop by, but they were never home, so we stopped doing that.
   When we visited Paris, we loved eating out in the sidewalk cafes.
   Uncle Heine didn't have much money, but he always seemed to get by without borrowing money
    from relatives.
   It's hard to imagine that we will ever go back to Lithuania.
   We would finish one Dickens novel and then just go on to the next.
   The cops heard all the noise and stopped to see what was going on.
   Charles grew up to be a lot like his father.
   The judge warned the stalker to keep away from his victim's home.
   He tried to keep on singing long after his voice was ruined.
   Whenever he sat down at the piano, we knew he was going to show off.
   Day after day, Efrain showed up for class twenty minutes late.
   I woke up when the rooster crowed.
          Separable phrasal verbs
   The terrorists tried to blow up the railroad station.
   They called off this afternoon's meeting.
   Fill out this application form and mail it in.
   She filled up the grocery cart with free food.
   My sister found out that her husband had been planning a surprise party for her.
   The filling station was giving away free gas.
   My brother borrowed my car. I have a feeling he's not about to give it back.
   The students handed in their papers and left the room.
   She hung up the phone before she hung up her clothes.
   I hate to hold up the meeting, but I have to go to the bathroom.
   Three masked gunmen held up the Security Bank this afternoon.
   You left out the part about the police chase down Asylum Avenue.
   You've misspelled this word again. You'd better look it up.
   She knew she was in trouble, so she made up a story about going to the movies with her friends.
   There were three men in the line-up. She picked out the guy she thought had stolen her purse.
   As we drove through Paris, Francoise pointed out the major historical sites.
   These are your instructions. Take them down before you forget.
   It was so hot that I had to take off my shirt.
   We have serious problems here. Let's talk them over like adults.
   That's a lot of money! Don't just throw it away.
   She tried on fifteen dresses before she found one she liked.
   I tried out four cars before I could find one that pleased me.
   He applied for a promotion twice this year, but he was turned down both times.
   Grandpa couldn't hear, so he turned up his hearing aid.
   We turned off the lights before anyone could see us.
   It was a disgusting movie. It really turned me off.
   Turn on the CD player so we can dance
          Prepositional verbs

   On Fridays, we look after our
    grandchildren.

   We look after them, (not *look them after)
          Inseparable Phrasal Verbs
                 (Transitive)
   The teacher called on students in the back row.
   The old minister continued to call on his sick parishioners.
   I got over the flu, but I don't know if I'll ever get over my broken
    heart.
   The students went over the material before the exam. They should
    have gone over it twice.
   My mother promised to look after my dog while I was gone.
   The police will look into the possibilities of embezzlement.
   I ran across my old roommate at the college reunion.
   Carlos ran into his English professor in the hallway.
   My second son seems to take after his mother.
    The verb can have its own object,
       which usually precedes the
              preposition:

   She helped the boy to an extra portion of
    potatoes.

   with pronouns: She helped him to some.
       Prepositional verbs with two
        prepositions are possible:

   We talked to the minister about the crisis.

   I was talking to Mom on the phone when
    the operator broke in on our call.

   After our month-long trip, it was time to
    catch up with the neighbors and the news
    around town.
          Three-Word Phrasal Verbs
                 (Transitive)
   I was talking to Mom on the phone when the operator broke in on our call.
   The boys promised to check up on the conditions of the summer house from time to time.
   After years of giving nothing, the old parishioner was able to come up with a thousand-dollar
    donation.
   We tried to cut down on the money we were spending on entertainment.
   The citizens tried to get rid of their corrupt mayor in the recent election.
   When will you ever get through with that program?
   It's hard to keep up with the Joneses when you lose your job!
   I always look forward to the beginning of a new semester.
   It's typical of a jingoistic country that the citizens look down on their geographical neighbors.
   We were going to look in on my brother-in-low, but he wasn't home.
   Good instructors will look out for early signs of failure in their students.
   First-graders really look up to their teachers.
   Make sure of the student's identity before you let him into the classroom.
   The teacher had to put up with a great deal of nonsense from new students.
   The runners ran out of energy before the end of the race.
   My oldest sister took care of us younger children after Mom died.
   The star player talked back to the coach and was thrown off the team.
   I often think back on my childhood with great pleasure.
   Her husband walked out on her and their three children.
    Phrasal-prepositional verbs

   no direct object: The driver got off to a
    flying start.

   direct object: Onlookers put the accident
    down to the driver's loss of concentration.
     Phrasal verbs and modifying
               adverbs
   "He unhappily looked round."
   "He looked unhappily round."
   "He looked round unhappily.“
   "He cheerfully picked the book up."
   "He picked up the book cheerfully." (not *picked
    cheerfully up the book)
   "He picked the book up cheerfully.“
   "He cheerfully looked after the children.
   "He looked after the children cheerfully.
   "He looked cheerfully after the children.
   Phrasal verbs combined with
  special verb forms and clauses
Phrasal verbs combined with wh-clauses and that-clauses
Sentences which include verb + particle + object(s) + wh-clauses
 "The teacher tried to dictate to his class what is the right thing to do“
 = transitive verb + preposition (dictate to) + direct object (his class) +
    wh-clause (what is the right thing to do).
 "My friends called for me when the time came"
 transitive verb + preposition (called for) + pronoun (me) + wh-clause
    (when the time came).
 "Watch out that you don't hit your head on the low beam.
- intransitive verb + adverb (watch out) + that-clause (that you don't hit
    your head on the low beam).
  Phrasal verbs combined with verb-ing forms
 "You can't prevent me from seeing her"
= transitive verb + pronoun (prevent me) + preposition (from) + verb-ing
    form (seeing) + pronoun (her).
                Questionnaire.
   1.Do you know English phrasal verbs?
   2. Do you think they help in communication?
   3. Do you like to use the phrasal verbs?
   4. Do you want to enrich and improve your
    English?
   5. Do you consider the phrasal verbs enrich and
    improve your English?
   6. Do you think it is possible to avoid the usage
    of the phrasal verbs in your speech?
   7. Do you understand the meaning of a
    sentence with many phrasal verbs?
Answering the l question, 35% of the respondents have
said that they know phrasal verbs well 0nlу 10% of the
respondents don't know these phrases at all. This fact
speaks that phrasal verbs are difficult to learn though
some of them can be easily understood in the context.
    Answering the 2 question 55% of the respondents have said
that they consider the phrasal verbs help in communication, 40%
of the respondents find this fact as negative and 5 %- have doubts
of this help. But the conclusion is -English phrasal verbs help in
communication.
Answering the 3 question, 30% of the respondents have
                said that they like to use
 phrasal verbs, 50%- don't like, 20%- have doubts and
                      can't answer.
    Answering the 4 question, 70% of the respondents
has said that they want to enrich and improve their
English, 20%- don't want and 10%- don't know. So, I can
say that most of the respondents take the learning of the
English seriously
    Answering the 5 question, 98% of the respondents consider the
phrasal verbs enrich and improve their speech, nobody answers
"NO" and only 2% have doubts of this fact. So, I can say that the
phrasal verbs enrich and improve their speech.
Answering the 6 question, 30% of the respondents think it is not
possible to avoid the usage of the phrasal verbs in their speech,
60% consider it is possible to do and 10% have doubts of it.
This fact speaks for the respondents' good knowledge of the
English language.
    Answering the 7 question, 35% of the respondents has said that
they understand the meaning of a sentence with many phrasal verbs,
58%- don't understand and only 7% -have doubts. So this result
confirms the previous conclusions as well.
The difficulties of the translation.
 Such phenomenon in the English grammar has always caused the problems
 with understanding and translation into Russian due to some reasons:
  First the meaning of the phrasal verb is always different from the meaning
 of the original verb and if we don’t know the exact Russian equivalent, it’s
 sometimes impossible to guess the meaning of the whole phrase. Though
 some of them can be recognized in the context by the meaning of their
 particles and adverbs, most of them require memorizing and frequent using
 in speech to be transferred from passive vocabulary into active usage.
 The second problem is the abundance of the particles and adverbs after the
 certain verb which it is combined with, so for a foreigner it is a slow and
 hard process to memorize them. It takes time and much practice.
 Moreover, the phrasal verb can’t be translated by the meanings of its
 constituencies and it’s impossible to guess its meaning without looking up
 the verb in the dictionary.
  It is when the combined meaning of verb plus adverb, or verb plus
 preposition is totally different from each its component parts, that the
 semantic content of the phrasal verb cannot be predicted by its constituent
 parts and so becomes much more difficult for a student learning English to
 recognize.
            Conclusion.
However, phrasal verbs can seem difficult
to learn. Often it is impossible to guess
their meanings from the verb and the
particle. But English is the most widely
used language in every field of life, that's
why the learners of the English should
know it well and can use and understand
phrasal verbs perfectly. The results of the
questionnaire speak for it.
                         Thus:
    the first
   English phrasal verbs are known, understood, realized
    and used by most of the respondents;
    the second
   learning English is important for every educated person;
    the third
   the usage of the phrasal verbs and understanding of
    their analogues in Russian enrich and improve our
    English speech; it gives an opportunity to learn English
    perfectly and helps to communicate people at the
    international level.

				
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