Phrasal verbs Designed by Olzhabaeva Raushan Form 10 «А» School-gymnasium#38 Actuality of the theme Phrasal verbs are very important parts of the English language. They are used not only in spoken and informal English, but they are also a common part of written and even formal English. Nowadays the role of communication in English grows up. The developing of international cooperation supposes the good capability of communication in English with the usage of the phrasal verbs. Especially it concerns those persons who are going to connect their life with the English language at the international level. We think the theme of the work is very actual because it is very important for everyone who learns and speaks a foreign language to be able to understand any English speaking person correctly and properly. Criteria for analysis and including this or that phrasal verb on the list are the following the phrasal verbs must have analogies in the Russian language which are understood and used correctly; they must represent different spheres of life; they must have some educative meaning for the students of the language Research project goal to study the English language from the point of view of the usage of the phrasal verbs; to study the Russian language from the point of view of the availability of their analogies. Investigation objectives to study the phrasal verbs of the English language; what Russian analogies of the phrasal verbs are known, understood and used by the respondents; how the usage of the English phrasal verbs enriches our speech; how the usage of these phrases helps to communicate with the English speaking people. Research methods analysis of different sources in English and Russian; comparing English phrasal verbs and their analogies in Russian; Questionnaire. What is a phrasal verb? A phrasal verb is a combination of a verb and preposition, a verb and adverb, or a verb with both an adverb and preposition, any of which are part of the syntax (of the sentence), and so are a complete semantic unit. Its sentences may, however, contain direct and indirect objects in addition to the phrasal verb. Phrasal verbs are particularly frequent in the English language. A phrasal verb often has a meaning which is different from the original verb. Alternative terms for phrasal verb are 'compound verb', 'verb-adverb combination', 'verb-particle construction (VPC)', AmE "two-part word/verb' and 'three-part word/verb' (depending on the number of particles), and multi-word verb (MWV). 'Preposition' and 'adverb' as used in a phrasal verb are also called 'particle' in that they do not alter their form through inflections (are therefore uninflected, they do not accept affixes, etc.). The usage of the phrasal verbs. Phrasal verbs in informal speech "He walked across the square." "She opened the shutters and looked outside." Idiomatic usage "I hope you will get over your operation quickly. ». "Work hard, and get your examination over." Phrasal verb patterns 1 Particle verbs 2 Prepositional verbs 3 Phrasal-prepositional verbs 4Phrasal verbs and modifying adverbs 5 Phrasal verbs combined with special verb forms and clauses Phrasal verb patterns "When I entered the room he looked up.“ Switch off the light. Switch the light off. The gas gave off fumes, (not *The gas gave fumes off.) They let the man through, (not *They let through the man.) Intransitive Phrasal Verbs That old Jeep had a tendency to break down just when I needed it the most. Popular songs seem to catch on in California first and then spread eastward. Father promised that we would never come back to this horrible place. They tried to come in through the back door, but it was locked. He was hit on the head very hard, but after several minutes, he started to come to again. The children promised to come over, but they never do. We used to just drop by, but they were never home, so we stopped doing that. When we visited Paris, we loved eating out in the sidewalk cafes. Uncle Heine didn't have much money, but he always seemed to get by without borrowing money from relatives. It's hard to imagine that we will ever go back to Lithuania. We would finish one Dickens novel and then just go on to the next. The cops heard all the noise and stopped to see what was going on. Charles grew up to be a lot like his father. The judge warned the stalker to keep away from his victim's home. He tried to keep on singing long after his voice was ruined. Whenever he sat down at the piano, we knew he was going to show off. Day after day, Efrain showed up for class twenty minutes late. I woke up when the rooster crowed. Separable phrasal verbs The terrorists tried to blow up the railroad station. They called off this afternoon's meeting. Fill out this application form and mail it in. She filled up the grocery cart with free food. My sister found out that her husband had been planning a surprise party for her. The filling station was giving away free gas. My brother borrowed my car. I have a feeling he's not about to give it back. The students handed in their papers and left the room. She hung up the phone before she hung up her clothes. I hate to hold up the meeting, but I have to go to the bathroom. Three masked gunmen held up the Security Bank this afternoon. You left out the part about the police chase down Asylum Avenue. You've misspelled this word again. You'd better look it up. She knew she was in trouble, so she made up a story about going to the movies with her friends. There were three men in the line-up. She picked out the guy she thought had stolen her purse. As we drove through Paris, Francoise pointed out the major historical sites. These are your instructions. Take them down before you forget. It was so hot that I had to take off my shirt. We have serious problems here. Let's talk them over like adults. That's a lot of money! Don't just throw it away. She tried on fifteen dresses before she found one she liked. I tried out four cars before I could find one that pleased me. He applied for a promotion twice this year, but he was turned down both times. Grandpa couldn't hear, so he turned up his hearing aid. We turned off the lights before anyone could see us. It was a disgusting movie. It really turned me off. Turn on the CD player so we can dance Prepositional verbs On Fridays, we look after our grandchildren. We look after them, (not *look them after) Inseparable Phrasal Verbs (Transitive) The teacher called on students in the back row. The old minister continued to call on his sick parishioners. I got over the flu, but I don't know if I'll ever get over my broken heart. The students went over the material before the exam. They should have gone over it twice. My mother promised to look after my dog while I was gone. The police will look into the possibilities of embezzlement. I ran across my old roommate at the college reunion. Carlos ran into his English professor in the hallway. My second son seems to take after his mother. The verb can have its own object, which usually precedes the preposition: She helped the boy to an extra portion of potatoes. with pronouns: She helped him to some. Prepositional verbs with two prepositions are possible: We talked to the minister about the crisis. I was talking to Mom on the phone when the operator broke in on our call. After our month-long trip, it was time to catch up with the neighbors and the news around town. Three-Word Phrasal Verbs (Transitive) I was talking to Mom on the phone when the operator broke in on our call. The boys promised to check up on the conditions of the summer house from time to time. After years of giving nothing, the old parishioner was able to come up with a thousand-dollar donation. We tried to cut down on the money we were spending on entertainment. The citizens tried to get rid of their corrupt mayor in the recent election. When will you ever get through with that program? It's hard to keep up with the Joneses when you lose your job! I always look forward to the beginning of a new semester. It's typical of a jingoistic country that the citizens look down on their geographical neighbors. We were going to look in on my brother-in-low, but he wasn't home. Good instructors will look out for early signs of failure in their students. First-graders really look up to their teachers. Make sure of the student's identity before you let him into the classroom. The teacher had to put up with a great deal of nonsense from new students. The runners ran out of energy before the end of the race. My oldest sister took care of us younger children after Mom died. The star player talked back to the coach and was thrown off the team. I often think back on my childhood with great pleasure. Her husband walked out on her and their three children. Phrasal-prepositional verbs no direct object: The driver got off to a flying start. direct object: Onlookers put the accident down to the driver's loss of concentration. Phrasal verbs and modifying adverbs "He unhappily looked round." "He looked unhappily round." "He looked round unhappily.“ "He cheerfully picked the book up." "He picked up the book cheerfully." (not *picked cheerfully up the book) "He picked the book up cheerfully.“ "He cheerfully looked after the children. "He looked after the children cheerfully. "He looked cheerfully after the children. Phrasal verbs combined with special verb forms and clauses Phrasal verbs combined with wh-clauses and that-clauses Sentences which include verb + particle + object(s) + wh-clauses "The teacher tried to dictate to his class what is the right thing to do“ = transitive verb + preposition (dictate to) + direct object (his class) + wh-clause (what is the right thing to do). "My friends called for me when the time came" transitive verb + preposition (called for) + pronoun (me) + wh-clause (when the time came). "Watch out that you don't hit your head on the low beam. - intransitive verb + adverb (watch out) + that-clause (that you don't hit your head on the low beam). Phrasal verbs combined with verb-ing forms "You can't prevent me from seeing her" = transitive verb + pronoun (prevent me) + preposition (from) + verb-ing form (seeing) + pronoun (her). Questionnaire. 1.Do you know English phrasal verbs? 2. Do you think they help in communication? 3. Do you like to use the phrasal verbs? 4. Do you want to enrich and improve your English? 5. Do you consider the phrasal verbs enrich and improve your English? 6. Do you think it is possible to avoid the usage of the phrasal verbs in your speech? 7. Do you understand the meaning of a sentence with many phrasal verbs? Answering the l question, 35% of the respondents have said that they know phrasal verbs well 0nlу 10% of the respondents don't know these phrases at all. This fact speaks that phrasal verbs are difficult to learn though some of them can be easily understood in the context. Answering the 2 question 55% of the respondents have said that they consider the phrasal verbs help in communication, 40% of the respondents find this fact as negative and 5 %- have doubts of this help. But the conclusion is -English phrasal verbs help in communication. Answering the 3 question, 30% of the respondents have said that they like to use phrasal verbs, 50%- don't like, 20%- have doubts and can't answer. Answering the 4 question, 70% of the respondents has said that they want to enrich and improve their English, 20%- don't want and 10%- don't know. So, I can say that most of the respondents take the learning of the English seriously Answering the 5 question, 98% of the respondents consider the phrasal verbs enrich and improve their speech, nobody answers "NO" and only 2% have doubts of this fact. So, I can say that the phrasal verbs enrich and improve their speech. Answering the 6 question, 30% of the respondents think it is not possible to avoid the usage of the phrasal verbs in their speech, 60% consider it is possible to do and 10% have doubts of it. This fact speaks for the respondents' good knowledge of the English language. Answering the 7 question, 35% of the respondents has said that they understand the meaning of a sentence with many phrasal verbs, 58%- don't understand and only 7% -have doubts. So this result confirms the previous conclusions as well. The difficulties of the translation. Such phenomenon in the English grammar has always caused the problems with understanding and translation into Russian due to some reasons: First the meaning of the phrasal verb is always different from the meaning of the original verb and if we don’t know the exact Russian equivalent, it’s sometimes impossible to guess the meaning of the whole phrase. Though some of them can be recognized in the context by the meaning of their particles and adverbs, most of them require memorizing and frequent using in speech to be transferred from passive vocabulary into active usage. The second problem is the abundance of the particles and adverbs after the certain verb which it is combined with, so for a foreigner it is a slow and hard process to memorize them. It takes time and much practice. Moreover, the phrasal verb can’t be translated by the meanings of its constituencies and it’s impossible to guess its meaning without looking up the verb in the dictionary. It is when the combined meaning of verb plus adverb, or verb plus preposition is totally different from each its component parts, that the semantic content of the phrasal verb cannot be predicted by its constituent parts and so becomes much more difficult for a student learning English to recognize. Conclusion. However, phrasal verbs can seem difficult to learn. Often it is impossible to guess their meanings from the verb and the particle. But English is the most widely used language in every field of life, that's why the learners of the English should know it well and can use and understand phrasal verbs perfectly. The results of the questionnaire speak for it. Thus: the first English phrasal verbs are known, understood, realized and used by most of the respondents; the second learning English is important for every educated person; the third the usage of the phrasal verbs and understanding of their analogues in Russian enrich and improve our English speech; it gives an opportunity to learn English perfectly and helps to communicate people at the international level.