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					           The Social Capital of Global Ties in Science:
           The Added Value of International
           Collaboration


            Dr. Julia Melkers, Associate Professor
            Ms. Agrita Kiopa, Doctoral Student
            School of Public Policy
            Georgia Institute of Technology,
            Atlanta, Georgia
            Presented at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, March 31, 2011




Data analyzed in this presentation were collected in the 2005-09 project, Women in Science and
Engineering: Network Access, Participation, and Career Outcomes, a project funded by the National
Science Foundation (Grant # REC-0529642) Program Officer, Janice Earle.
                     NETWISE: Networks for Women and Under-Represented Minorities in Academic Science
 The Globalization of Science
 Scientific research is increasingly global in nature.
   Collaborative ties cross sectoral, disciplinary and
    national boundaries.
   “Big science”
   Shrinking globe
     Ease of communication, data sharing, and
      other interaction.




             NETWISE: Networks for Women and Under-Represented Minorities in Academic Science
       S&E Capabilities: Maintaining US
       Competitiveness




Source: National Science Foundation http://www.nsf.gov/statistics/nsb1003/#s2
                                NETWISE: Networks for Women and Under-Represented Minorities in Academic Science
NETWISE: Networks for Women and Under-Represented Minorities in Academic Science
NETWISE: Networks for Women and Under-Represented Minorities in Academic Science
   The U.S. in the Global Scientific
   System




Source: Glanzel & Shubert, 2004)
                          NETWISE: Networks for Women and Under-Represented Minorities in Academic Science
Network views of Social Capital:
Increasingly Collaborative Science
 Capacity issues highly relevant in increasingly collaborative
  environment.
      Research groups, centers
      Diminishment of single investigator
      Networked science
      Global collaborative interaction

 Effective collaboration is a social process whereby researchers gain
  new “knowledge value” as a result of their interaction (Bozeman and Rogers,
   2001.)



 Researchers learn and gain the skills and knowledge of other
  researchers through collaborative interactions. The “transfer of
  skills” is an important and primary benefit of research collaboration.
   (Katz and Martin,1987.)


 Funders have responded, with incentives and even requirements for
  collaborative research.
                    NETWISE: Networks for Women and Under-Represented Minorities in Academic Science
  The Value of Collaborative and
  Interdisciplinary Research:

  Findings from Prior Research
 Collaborative research has been shown to:
   Encourage cross-fertilization across disciplines
   Provide access to expertise, equipment & resources
   Encourage learning tacit knowledge about a technique
   Combine knowledge for tackling large and complex
    problems
   Have a positive relationship with productivity
   Have a positive relationship with quality and impact of
    publication
   Contribute to prestige or visibility

   International collaboration can provide access to a
    broader set of collaborative and knowledge
    resources – increases to social capital & capacity.
               NETWISE: Networks for Women and Under-Represented Minorities in Academic Science
Overall Research Questions:

 Which scientists are most likely to have
  international collaborative ties?

 What do scientists gain from these ties?
  (What is the added value of international
  collaboration?)




         NETWISE: Networks for Women and Under-Represented Minorities in Academic Science
Methodology
 National Science Foundation-funded 3 Year Study.
 Online longitudinal survey, supplemented with
  institutional and publication data.
 Statistical modeling of network-based ties and
  related resources
Survey:
 Population of 25,000 faculty in Carnegie-
  Designated Research I universities
 Sample of 3500 stratified by rank, field and gender
 Six fields:
   Biology
   Chemistry
   Computer science
   Earth and atmospheric science
   Electrical engineering
   Physics
             NETWISE: Networks for Women and Under-Represented Minorities in Academic Science
Networks: Scope and
Operationalization
 Global/whole networks
   Allow for understanding
    of nodes within certain
    known boundaries
 Ego networks
   Treats network
    information as individual
    attribute data



             NETWISE: Networks for Women and Under-Represented Minorities in Academic Science
        Survey Structure and Content
 Structure:
   Primarily close-ended

 Content
   Social network items:
     name generators
       collaborative and advice networks

       name interpreters
         origin and nature of relationship, resource
          exchange

     Career timeframe and experience
     Research and teaching responsibilities
     Productivity and collaboration
     Work and institutional environment
     Respondent background and demographics
               NETWISE: Networks for Women and Under-Represented Minorities in Academic Science
        Survey Structure and Content
 Structure:
   Primarily close-ended

 Content
   Social network items:
     name generators
       collaborative and advice networks

       name interpreters
         origin and nature of relationship, resource
          exchange

     Career timeframe and experience
     Research and teaching responsibilities
     Productivity and collaboration
     Work and institutional environment
     Respondent background and demographics
               NETWISE: Networks for Women and Under-Represented Minorities in Academic Science
NETWISE I Survey Themes
 What is the social structure?
    name generators
    Close research collaboration networks (within and outside of one’s
     university)
    Research discussion networks
    Advice networks (career and departmental information)
    Mentor relationships
 What are the characteristics of each relationship?
    name interpreters
      Characteristics of named alter (gender, skills)
      Origin and nature of the relationship
      Types of collaboration
      Collaborative outcomes
      Types of advice
      Career resources (introductions, nominations, advice)
      Connections between named alters


                 NETWISE: Networks for Women and Under-Represented Minorities in Academic Science
     Generating Network Data




   1,598
                 Individuals with whom discuss research but not collaborated
Respondents                                                                             12,727 Named
                                                                                            Alters




Key distinction:
CLOSE networks
Specific dyadic ties
                  NETWISE: Networks for Women and Under-Represented Minorities in Academic Science
      Generating Network Data




   1,598
                Individuals with whom discuss research but not collaborated
Respondents                                                                                  12,727 Named
                                                                                                 Alters




 Key distinction:
 CLOSE networks
 Specific dyadic ties
                   NETWISE: Networks for Women and Under-Represented Minorities in Academic Science
Overall, 1598 usable responses
(47% response rate)
                       180


                       160

Gender                 140



•54% women             120




•46% men
                       100
                                                                                                             Men
                                                                                                             Women
                        80


                        60



Rank                    40




•27 % assistant
                        20


                         0


•28 % associate
                               Biological    Chemistry   Computer Science   EAS       Electrical   Physics
                               Sciences                                              Engineering




•45 % full professor
             NETWISE: Networks for Women and Under-Represented Minorities in Academic Science
Descriptive Findings: Who has at
least one close foreign collaborator?
 34% of respondents have a foreign tie
   No significant difference by citizenship
   More senior faculty
   No gender difference
 Field Variation                      U.S. Federal         Industry                         Other
                                                                                                      Foreign
                                          Lab or               4%                             2%
     EAS      44%                       Agency
                                            9%
                                                                                                     Institution
                                                                                                        15%

     Phys     39%
     Bio      33%
                                                                             U.S.
     CS*      30%                                                         University
                                                                             70%

     EE*      27%
     Chem     26%                                                     All named formal and informal
                                                                        collaborative alters (n=5870)

                NETWISE: Networks for Women and Under-Represented Minorities in Academic Science
    Results: Close International
    Collaborators
•48 Countries represented

•Some field variation
    Chemistry and physics -- Europe
    Biology & EAS – Canada
    Electrical Eng – Asia




                        NETWISE: Networks for Women and Under-Represented Minorities in Academic Science
Descriptive Findings: What resources are
accessed through international ties?

 Collaboration
   More domestic collaboration on grants
   More international collaboration on papers &
    chapters
   ** Production! Faculty with foreign ties have a
    higher mean number of journal articles
 Knowledge Resources
   More domestic review of papers & proposals
 Social Capital
   More international introduction to potential
    collaborators
             NETWISE: Networks for Women and Under-Represented Minorities in Academic Science
Research Questions & Models

  Which scientists are most likely to have
   international collaborative ties?
    International tie (0,1) = f (individual
     characteristics, resources, network properties,
     context)
  What do scientists gain from these ties?
    Resources gained through domestic or
     international ties= f (individual characteristics,
     resources network properties, context)



            NETWISE: Networks for Women and Under-Represented Minorities in Academic Science
 Findings: Explaining International
 Ties
 RANK & AGE:
                                                  Logistic Regression
   + full professors                                   Results
   - professional age
 FIELD:
   + EAS, Biological Sciences and Physics
 ORIGIN & EDUCATION:
   + foreign born/non-U.S. citizens
   - US citizens with foreign PhD
   + US or foreign postdoc
 OTHER:
   + Research network size
   - External collaborative tendencies
   + institutional effects of reputation and resources
   (descriptive) initial meetings at conferences
                 NETWISE: Networks for Women and Under-Represented Minorities in Academic Science
 Findings: Global Social Capital
  Resources gained
   Collaboration, Expertise, Nominations, Introductions


 Variation in the breadth of resources gained from
  foreign collaborative ties.
   Some benefit more (and gain broader resources)
      Full professors
      Foreign nationals with U.S. doctoral degrees
      Faculty with a higher proportion of external
        research ties
   Relationships matter
      Close relationships gain more
      Detailed knowledge of expertise not as
        important.
                                                                                     Multiple Regression
                                                                                            Results
                 NETWISE: Networks for Women and Under-Represented Minorities in Academic Science
Findings: US Citizens vs Foreign-Born:
Do different factors matter in
developing close international ties?
 Some differences by national origin
                                               Native      Naturalized    Foreign
     Demographics
     Female
     Associate Prof                                              +
     Full Professor                                 +                           +
     Ed ucation
     PhD from Foreign Univ                          -                           +
     US Postdoc experience                                       +              +
     Foreign Postdoc experience                     +            +              +
     Networks
     External-Internal Ties                         -            -              -
     Research Discussion Network                    +            +              +
     Ins titutional Setting & Field
     Grant Resources                                +            -
     Institutional Ranking                                       -
     Biology                                        +            +
     Chemistry                                                                  -
     Comp Science                                                +
     EAS                                            +                           -
     Physics                                        +                           -
                 NETWISE: Networks for Women and Under-Represented Minorities in Academic Science
Findings: US Citizens vs Foreign-Born:
Do different factors matter in resources
gained from international ties?
 Breadth of resources from foreign
  collaborators:
  Networks characteristics matter for US and
   non-US born scientists.
     Research discussion networks work differently for
      foreign vs domestic resources
  Naturalized citizens: Associate level faculty
   gain more, women gain less.
  Close, well-developed relationships matter for
   all.
           NETWISE: Networks for Women and Under-Represented Minorities in Academic Science
 Some Conclusions:
 International collaborators provide important
  resources for faculty researchers.

 The ability to access those resources varies.
   Individual characteristics, education, and foreign
    origin play a role.
   Naturalized citizens may have different access &
    opportunities
   Professional conferences important.
   Institutional resources/reputation matters.

 More questions arise:
   What determines productive international ties?
   What sustains international ties?
   Others?
               NETWISE: Networks for Women and Under-Represented Minorities in Academic Science
   The U.S. in the Global Scientific
   System




Source: Glanzel & Shubert, 2004)
                          NETWISE: Networks for Women and Under-Represented Minorities in Academic Science

				
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