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                                                               COVER PICTURE: View of complete power system
                                                               of the Carter Steam Car installed in the same space
                                                               as the VW engine. EPA gave the weight of 120 pounds
                                                               over that of the VW, but the VW is an air-cooled en-
                                                               gine and has no radiator.


        LETTERS                                                                                                              3

        CHICAGO STEAM AUTO SHOW                                                                                              4
          IN THE STEAM AUTOMOBILE (W. G. Wyatt)                                                                              8

          AUTOMOTIVE POWER SYSTEMS - THE D-CYCLE (John Gordon Davoud)                                                       10

         (B. J. Vierling)                                                                                                   16
        MIKE BRICKLEY AND HIS STEAM-POWERED BICYCLE (Diane Thomas)                                                          19

        THE MSS STANLEY (E. C. Hise)                                                                                   .    20

        IMPROVED VALVING FOR UNIFLOW STEAM ENGINE (F. L. Williams)                                                          23

       The STEAM AUTOMOBILE is published by and for
       the Steam Automobile Club of America, Inc., a non-
       profit organization dedicated to the preservation of
       steam car history, the restoration of antique steam
       cars, aiding the development of a modern steam car,
       and interesting the manufacturers in producing a
       modern steam car. The STEAM AUTOMOBILE will
       accept for publication suitable material dealing with
       subjects which fall within the above areas. Address                         OFFICERS
       all communications regarding editorial matter or ad-
       vertisements to: Editor, The STEAM AUTOMOBILE,            ROBERT L. LYON              -       -       -    -   President
       333 N. Michigan Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60601.          R. A. GIBBS  -          -       -       -       Vice-president
       Include zip code number with all return addresses.        A. W. LANDRY -                                       Secretary

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                                                                                                     The Steam Automobile
                                                                       Dear Bob:
                                                                           Thanks for the invitation to come over in September
                                                                      for the Chicago Steam Auto Show. The letter I reposted
                                                                      on 19th July (of 20th February) partly answered the ques-
                                                                      tion of why we could not bring the car over.
                                                                           We are interested in obtaining orders for the batch of
      Dear Mr. Lyon:
                                                                      25 units to be made up - financed from deposits and other
           I have been meaning to write to you for some time
                                                                      sources - but we intend to build three advanced units and
      now to thank you for your help sorting out my fittings.
                                                                      test them first. Our proposed improvements to the design
      However, I have been working very hard on the Stanley
                                                                      want to be well checked out before we make a batch of
     and now have it on the road at last. In fact, it has been
                                                                      25. We would carry out some endurance testing on the dy-
      running since July, and I have been sorting out some of
                                                                      namometer and at least 10,000 miles on the road. The pre-
     the snags.
                                                                      sent car has done over 5,000 miles mainly on data-gathering
           I decided to fit a temporary body on it and get it on
                                                                      runs averaging 20 miles plus demonstration runs.
     the road as soon as possible as this seemed a better idea
                                                                           We are endeavoring to interest the Government and
     than completing a new body before testing the chassis thor-
                                                                      business people in our project to gain support for the next
     oughly. I have done about 800 miles so far, and the only
                                                                      three units. Although we have had some feelers from gov-
     serious trouble is with the burner carboning up. This is en-
                                                                      ernment and business sources here, we feel it is too darned
     tirely due to having to use Diesel oil as the customs will
                                                                      slow waiting for this support at this stage. Thought is be-
     not allow me to use kerosene yet.
                                                                      ing given to getting further finance into the company. De-
           I have fitted 30' of ½" tubing over the boiler as an
                                                                     tails are not fully worked out. We have to raise $200,000
     economizer, and this is giving mixed results. On calm days
                                                                     for this project. We would welcome investment from people
     the performance is very good, 45 m.p.h., but on windy
                                                                     in Australia, U.S.A. or elsewhere who want to see steam
     days the economizer cools the feed water more than it puts
                                                                     on the roads again. Business and auto company people will
     in. I should have the smoke hood and flue fitted in the
                                                                     have to be convinced when they see more steamers per-
     next few weeks, and it will cure this problem. So far I
                                                                     forming well on the roads.
     have run without it, so it says something for the clean
                                                                           Would you have an idea if any such people on your
     combustion that takes place in a boiler as all the flue gas-
                                                                     side of the Pacific would back our plan and/or be inter-
     es come straight back into your face. The longest trip so
                                                                     ested in one of the two advanced units which will be for
     far is 300 miles out and back in a day. Unfortunately the
                                                                     sale after our tests are completed!
     performance was spoiled by very strong cold winds, but
                                                                           At the moment, there are four of us working on the
     nevertheless it did better than 10 m.p.g. on fuel and water.
                                                                     project. We are developing an advanced new 5/6 seater
     When the boiler is fully lagged and the cylinders lagged, I
                                                                     body for the new model and expect a professional body "
     expect it to be able to maintain 45m.p.g. over reasonable
                                                                     builder to start work on this in eight weeks. The Falcon
     roads. I have done a trip of 48 miles in l½ hours, includ-
                                                                     Steamer is still being improved. Improvements to the burn-
     ing stopping for fuel, and this was on a Sunday with heavy
                                                                     er fan and fuel pump are anticipated to raise cruising speed
    weekend traffic.
                                                                     from 60 to 70 m.p.h. The new model steam power unit
          I have had difficulty obtaining lead-free petrol for the
                                                                     will have a 16" steam generator (old 15") and a 26 cubic
    pilot, and the pump petrol chokes the jet in about half an
                                                                     inch engine (old 17.6 c.i.) Cruise speed approximately 80
    hour. I am now using naphtha and find this perfect. It will
                                                                     m.p.h. The unit will still be very compact. The projected
    burn for hours with no trouble, but it is about twice the
                                                                     miles per gallon - U.S. is 21 at 60 m.p.h. At present it is
    price of petrol. The overall performance is better than I
                                                                     17.5m.p.g. U.S.
    had expected, and the acceleration really is amazing, just
                                                                           Would you believe we already have had some letters
    like they used to claim. I left an AJ 6 Jaguar standing the
                                                                     from the U.S.A. as a result of your article in Vol. 16 No.
    other day. I do not know how hard he was trying, but his
                                                                     2 of the magazine.
    expression was worth seeing. I shall try and finish the en-
                                                                             E. Pritchard, Australia
    gine this winter. So far, I have only given it a quick look
    over. It needs the piston and valve rods hard chroming, I
    think, as these are pitted and there is a slight knock on        Dear Mr. Lyon:
    one side in f u l l gear. It may be the crosshead or crank            Just a few lines to let you know that I did plan on
    bearing that needs taking up. Also, the spring trunnions are     going to the Chicago Steam Auto Show this time, but cir-
    very badly worn, so I will have to try and fit a shell bear-     cumstances got to such a point that I could not make it
    ing to the top half of the axle and re-machine the cap to        this time. I know that everyone there must have had a
    take this up.                                                    good time with the new steam cars on display.
          I still have a vast amount of work to do to it, but             I hope that production of these new cars will soon
    being able to run it is a great boost to my enthusiasm,          come off the assembly lines, and with best wishes for a
    and the performance it is giving at present shows promise        successful determination to get the steam cars on the mar-
    for when it is finally completed.                                ket, I am,
             P. Stevenson, Coventry, England                                 H. C. Janzen, California

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                                                                              STEAM AUTO
                                                                           September 5, 6, & 7, 1974

              Chicago again attracted a goodly crowd of steam doers    "My Fair Lady", and Nancy Payne and Laura Conter,
        and delvers for this, the second Chicago Meet. Atlantic,       who specialize in private club entertainment. Song sheets
        Pacific, and Gulf coast states were represented, besides       of "ENJOY YOURSELF (It's Later Than You Think)"
        many of the states in between. Activities at the meet were     were at each person's dinner plate. Mr. E. W. Ranck,
        mainly centered in the meeting room, where in all, more        formerly in the Foreign Service of the United States Gov-
        than 20 speakers (some impromptu) were heard during the        ernment and also a prolific world traveler, spoke about his
        three-day seminar.                                             design of the Nova Steamer.
              Adjoining the meeting room was the Chicago Steam              Our enthusiastic SACA member, Mr. Charles Cum-
        Auto Show displaying antique and modern steam cars,            mings of Columbus, Ohio, has thoughtfully sent us his re-
        components, literature, charts, etc. which was open to the     port on the meet, which is as follows:
        general public with an admission charge of $1.50 for adults         As I was leaving the Chicago meet in September and
        and 75$ for children under 12. Advertisements announcing       thanking Mr. & Mrs. Lyon for their untiring efforts in
        the Show were run in several local and suburban newspa-        making the meet such a great success for so many of us,
        pers. As each person paid his admission to the Show, his
        hand was stamped with a rubber stamp of the original in-
        signia of the Stanley name. It was amazing to note that
        the only ones not knowing about the Stanley Steamer were
        the grammar school students and pre-schoolers.
               As the various members registered for the meet, they
        were directed to the hospitality room where coffee and
        sweet rolls were served. This was where pressures got up
         and "Steam was the stuff".
               Because of the extensive speakers' list, formal meet-
         ings began after lunch Thursday when the president, Robert
         L. Lyon made the welcoming opening address. He was fol-
         lowed by B.J. Vierling, Acting Director of the Urban Mass
         Transportation Administration of Washington, D.C. He
         spoke about the mass transportation dilemma and how the
         use of mass transportation would eliminate the congestion
         caused by the unrestricted use of automobiles along with
         buses and trucks, which have saturated our city centers.
         He also explained some of the work which is being done
         to try to solve this problem.
               Mr. Stephen Luchter of the Alternative Automotive
         Power Systems Division of the United States Environmen-
          tal Protection Agency, Ann Arbor, Michigan, talked about
         the development and progress of steam power systems for
          motor vehicles.
               Mr. Harry W. Gahagan, President of Stanley Steamer,
          Inc., told about his efforts in the 1930's to produce a
          steam bus for city transportation.
               Thursday evening's dinner entertainment was by Bob
          Nolan at the piano, who accompanied the singers - Jan
          Gbur, formerly of the San Francisco Opera Company and

                                                                                   The Steam Automobile
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           Mrs. Lyon indicated some interest in the notes I had taken
           during my two day visit. These notes cover only from Fri-
           day morning to Saturday after dinner and just before Jay
           Carter, Jr. spoke.
                The Steam Automobile Club of America had both a
           good location and good weather for its meet on September
          5, 6, and 7 at the O'Hare Inn in DesPlaines, Illinois, a
          suburb of Chicago.
                Friday's technical talks began with Mr. R. A. Gibbs
          discussing some of his and his associates' individual steam
          projects. Then he delved into the numerous anecdotes and
          technical talk about his 1901 White, which was residing
          in the room next to the meeting room. "Did you buy it
         new?" he was queried previously, to which he replied:
          "Yes, I did. I was only 1 year old, but I worked hard
         and saved my money." "Will it run?" "No." "How did
         you get it here?" "Margie pushes while I steer." Controls,
         firing-up procedures were explained and performance men-
               Mr. T. A. Smith of Purvis, Mississippi, was the se-          Jay Carter, Jr. explains the workings of his steamer (a retrofitted VW
        cond speaker, revealing the latest developments in rotary           squareback) to an interested audience. The Carter car was reported
                                                                            both on local TV, radio, and by UPI newspapers, and as a result nu-
        steam engines. A model of his patented engine aided his             merous inquiries about steam cars have come to SACA.
        explanation of how two arc-shaped pistons moving about
        in a torus could provide a large expansion ratio, minimiz-
        ing reciprocating motions, and potentially a large amount
       of power in a small package volume. The ability to seal
       the pistons had previously plagued this arrangement, but
       Mr. Smith has evolved a preferred shape of carbon seals
       toward solution of this problem area. On a 12-inch diame-
       ter unit, the displacement is about 320 cubic inches.
              In the third talk of the morning, Rex Roehl of Lisle,
       Illinois, illustrated with slides activity at Illinois Institute
       of Technology in the field of steam power. A Richard A.
       Smith boiler, modified, and a Model 735 Stanley engine
      are being built into a 1961 Willys post office van. Much
      bench testing has been done, but the vehicle has not run
      yet on the road. A second project was the construction of
      a steam powered bicycle, utilizing some components bought            Instrument panel of the Carter Steam Car
      from Smith. Although the flash boiler can produce 300
      psi steam in about 30 seconds, piston blow-by in the Siri-
      us engine limits the use of incoming steam pressure to 50
     psi. Consequently, the use of the bicycle is limited, and
     the speed, about 20 mph maximum.
             After lunch, Mr. Richard French of Tinius Olsen
     Testing Machine Co. of Willow Grove, Pa., illustrated
     with a movie a talk on the restoration of Mr. Lyon's 1912
     Stanley, 30 HP. This is a seven passenger car with a bore
     and stroke of 4½ by 6½ inches. The engine is now geared
     1 to 1 to the axle, and its boiler now has copper-nickel
    tubes to permit higher working pressure than originally,
    up to 500 psi.
            Jerry A. Peoples of Huntsville, Ala., author of the
    book "Steam Automotive Analysis", was to speak on
    "Why the Steam Engine Keeps Staying Around", but last                 Ed Blakeman demonstrates his modulating burner, which employs a
                                                                          spinning cup.
    minute circumstances prevented his coming to the meet,
    and S. S. Miner, consulting engineer from Niles, Michigan,
    read his talk which was a rebuttal of the stereotyped phrase
    "What about the water freezing in the wintertime?" Using

   Nineteen Seventy-Four
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                                                                                       Clean Car Project, steam installations in a Ford Cortina
                                                                                       and in a Flexible bus. The most detailed presentation was
                                                                                      made on the steam bus, especially on the burner, where
                                                                                      much effort had been placed to obtain high efficiency.
                                                                                           A spinning-cup atomizer, placed in the center of the
                                                                                      axial combustion air blower received closely controlled
                                                                                      fuel air ratio mixtures from a fuel valve consisting of
                                                                                      wedge-shaped slots in two plates which could be moved
                                                                                      with respect to each other for regulation, and an air vol-
                                                                                      ume flow valve consisting of two discs having somewhat
                                                                                      triangular slots which could be rotated with respect to each
                                                                                      other for regulation. Thus, with rotation of the discs for
                                                                                      air flow, and sliding the fuel valve plates in close coordi-
                                                                                      nation with each other, the air fuel ratio was kept con-
                                                                                      stant over a 10 to 1 turn down ratio. In actual operation,
          Karl Petersen (left) operates the "go" valve on R.A. Gibbs' (center) new    they found the flame color to change from clear at low
          "Elliptovane" engine. Steam is being provided by Harold G. Janson's         heat release rates, to blue to yellow-blue at higher fire.
          (wearing cap) garden tractor, built jointly by him and Harry Peterson
          (not Karl).                                                                 This revelation somewhat upsets the old "blue flame"
          the equipment which Mr. Peoples made to conduct his ex-                     theory of determining the proper burner adjustments.
          periments, Mr. Miner explained the three basic experi-                           The SPS bus expander had 4 cylinders, double expan-
           ments that were related to the freezing of water in steam                  sion, with piston valves, the latter being phase modulated
          automobiles.                                                                (for cutoff) in coordination with the throttle. Iron cylin-
               Mr. Ted North of Meeker, Oklahoma described some                      der liners were used, and an aluminum crankcase. A
          aspects of fire tube location in a forced-draft commercial                  Brobeck-design throttle was driven by engine oil pressure.
          heating boiler.                                                            A two-speed automatic transmission with centrifugal clutch
               With many slides, Mr. Karl Petersen of Santa Ana,                     resided at the rear of the vehicle with the differential
          California, illustrated descriptions of formerly gasoline                  bolted to the frame. Universal joints transmitted power
          powered modern automobiles to steam. An MG 1100 was                        to torsion-bar sprung rear wheels. Injection of oil oc-
          fitted with a 4-cylinder Mercury outboard having rotary                    curred just upstream of the steam engine inlet, and oil
          valves and a boiler construction similar to Richard J.                     separation occurred just after the feedwater pump. Tests
          Smith designs. A DS-19 Citroen was also converted with                     showed a boiler efficiency in the range of 90 to 87 per
          the use of a Mercury outboard, but this time with bash                     cent, and an overall efficiency under laboratory conditions
          valves. Chrome-moly iron pistons were made flat topped,                    of 18 per cent.
         except with three pins to operate the valves. Exhaust                             As an editorial note, the dinner that evening appeared
          steam drives turbine-powered blowers on the condensers.                    to be enjoyed more as a mechanism for interested parties
          No separation is made of steam cylinder oil from boiler                    to get much more acquainted with the experimenters and
          water, as was also revealed in other home designs in talks                 successful inventors, as if this had not happened earlier.
          this weekend. Steam is supplied the engine at 800 psi, and                       Saturday morning's session started with Roy Renner,
          700 degrees F.                                                             of Livermore, California, Technical Manager of California's
               In his talk on sliding-gate valves, Mr. Roger Hodapp                  Clean Car Project, describing details of the use made of
         of Richards Industries in Cincinnati, mentioned that sim-                   the results from the California Steam Bus Project, which
         ple modifications on a 3/4 inch pipe size valve permitted                   were applied to the car project. In his introduction, he
         incorporation into a 1919 Stanley's revised plumbing.                       relayed Brobeck's definition of a steam car, "A blunt in-
               Double commotion occurred at about this point, when                   strument made for forcing a condenser through the atmos-
         Hugh A. Kaykendall, an associate of Jay Carter's, arrived                   phere". Although all three buses successfully ran, and
         in the parking lot with the now well-known steam powered                    conceivably could be used in mass transit service for an
         Volkswagen on a trailer. As unloading progressed, TV                        extended period of time, the fuel consumption was iden-
         cameramen and newsmen had Mr. Gibbs fire up his White                       tified as a major problem. All three buses used about 1
         for the cameras. With two mobile operations taking place,                   lb. fuel for each horsepower output, as compared with a
         the seminar room stayed empty, in spite of Bob Lyon's                       diesel's 0.5 lb/hp-hr. The Scientific Energy Systems steam
         repeated blasts from a steam whistle. When we finally re-                   generator, which was used in the car, was described in
         sumed, a brief question and answer period showed how                        detail. Finned tubing was used in part of the boiler for
         strong was the interest in the Carter car.                                  efficient transfer of heat. The combustion air blower was
               After dinner, Mr. Richard D. Burtz of Steam Power                     located within part of the boiler as were the fuel nozzles
         Systems, Inc. of San Diego, California, discussed develop-                  for efficient utilization of heat released from the burning
         ments made by SPS. With many slides and movies, illus-                      fuel.
         trated were basic research leading to operating steam power-                      Mr. Renner stated three reasons to make steam ve-
         plants, the California Steam Bus Project, the California                    hicles: 1.) for yourself for fun, 2.) to make 5 to 10 as

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      did Karl Peterson, and 3.) to make an impact on Califor-         slides of his motorcycle for those who missed this ve-
      nia's air pollution. The latter is staggering in numbers:        hicle at the Greensboro meet on May 3, 4, and 5, 1974.
      100,000 in quantity of cars, and billions of dollars.            Paul Chaddock, it was reported, still finds the single
           Future possibilities may exist for electrical mass tran-    cylinder performance satisfactory. Why put the other one
      sit vehicles, as a recent issue of electric vehicle news re-     back on?
      lates - electrically driven from home or business to a mass           Out in the parking lot Mr. Ed Blakeman of Pontiac,
      transport area where the vehicle locks into a mass transit       Michigan, demonstrated his spinning cup burner with a
      device.                                                         variety of fuels; Diesel fuel from A. W. Landry's Merce-
           Mr. William Lipman of Washington, D.C., discussed           des, kerosene, oil from a home furnace, and gasoline. It
      the political picture of today as it relates to vehicles        was an impressive volume of fire, impressive that the
      such as the steam powered car, bringing us up to date on        variety of fuels could be used right after one another,
      the activities since he spoke at the Chicago meet last          and impressive how the fuel and air were metered for ef-
      year.                                                           ficient burning.
           Mr. Warren Weiant, Jr. of Newark, Ohio, described                Mr. Brunn Roysden of Chicago, in another part of the
      in very complete terms the workings of the condensing           parking lot, arrived with a steam powered bicycle which
      White Steamer. He and his father had visited the Stanley        he, Rex Roehl and others had constructed with basically
      factory, where when his father saw the burners going un-         Richard J. Smith parts. Brunn and Rex found need to
      der high fire, canceled the order he had previously placed.     modify much of Smith's parts to achieve the sort of opera-
      Mr. Weiant has had much operating experience with               tion that was demonstrated to many riders that afternoon.
      "Herkimer", his 1907 Model H White. For example,                Brunn recommends this size project to anyone who feels
      it is normal to - find that the vaporizer has a propen-         the desire to do "something in steam power". The conden-
      sity to howl, to "accidentally on purpose" overfill the         ser was not connected at this time, so each rider caused
      water tank to float residual oil out the top, and to blow       the parking lot to be spewed with the working fluid,
      down the boiler after the first "fire up" and last one          "Smithium" as he started up. For those who have not
      of the day. From an enlarged colored piping print, 3 ft.        seen this before, the boiler consists of two helices, one in-
      x 5 ft., Mr. Weiant revealed the rather complex controls        side the other, wound from 1/8-inch carbon steel pipe,
      on the White that served to regulate the water level and        fitted into a casing about 4 3/8-inch diameter, 19 inches
      fuel flow under the varying conditions encountered in           long. Propane is the fuel, delivered from a small house-
      driving a steamer. Notable was a flowmotor in the feed-         trailer tank mounted forward. An English "Sirius" model
      water pressure line which was mechanically connected to         engine friction drives the rear wheel. As mentioned earlier,
      a needle valve for regulating gasoline flow. A pressure         piston blowby restricts the input pressure to the engine to
      control on the boiler outfeed line modulated a diaphragm        50 psi, although the boiler can produce 500 psi with ap-
      controlled water regulator in a bypass circuit. In the Glid-    parent ease. Homemade by Smith are the throttle valve,
      den Tours, in which he participated in 1947, 1948, and          water pump, and burner shutoff valve.
      1949, the water rate was 10 miles per gallon, and the fuel,           At this point in the late afternoon, the attendees
      10 miles per gallon.                                            seemed almost reluctant to see Carter's and Gibbs' cars
           Following the lunch break, the seminar room shared         removed from the Show and readied for the long trips
     with the outdoor displays. Mr. Gibbs demonstrated his            back home.
     elliptovane, having connected it to steam powered trac-                The placemats at the banquet Saturday evening were
     tor of Harold G. Janson of Chicago. Mr. Gibbs offered            a nice touch -- illustrations of eight old time steam cars.
     to build copies of the elliptovane at $500 each if enough              Many thanks to you both.
     interest is shown. This engine produces about 15 HP at                                          Charlie
     2500 rpm from 1000 psi steam, has about 30 cubic inches
     displacement, and occupies a volume less than a one-foot
           Mr. Velio Ebrock, Professor at Upsala College, New
     York, discussed his and his associates' efforts in build-
     ing engines and generators, some of which have been
     written about in Vol. 16, No. 3 of The Steam Automobile.
     A sad but true comment of Mr. Ebrock was that after a
     large amount of hard work, their pride and joy leaked so
     terribly that it could scarcely run.
           Mr. Karl Peterson showed some very interesting pic-
     tures of the development of the Doble - Early cars, Doble
     himself, laboratory efforts, the Detroit and Emeryville
     factories, etc. One statistic: Detroit to Chicago, 7.2 miles     Janson's tractor which supplied the steam for the various engines
     per gallon for a 6000 lb car going at 30-60 mph.                 being demonstrated.
           Mr. William Cartland of Jupiter, Florida, showed                                                       Continued on Page 26

     Nineteen Seventy-Four                                                                  7
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              In recent years environmental considerations have           allows hydrogen and oxygen to be introduced into the
        brought renewed interest to the steam automobile because          combustion chamber unmixed to avoid pre-ignition. These
        of its low pollution possibilities. However, when this sub-       fuels as a stoichiometric mixture are allowed to react pro-
        ject is mentioned, many individuals still envision a heavy        ducing a high temperature working fluid. Liquid water is
        mechanical monster clanking along a side road. These in-          introduced through the bottom plate into the annulus be-
        dividuals do need to realize that progress is being made          tween the two tubes and flows up over the top of the in-
        toward developing suitable components for steam automo-           ner tube and into the combustion chamber where it is
        biles that will compete quite favorably with the gasoline         vaporized. This water flow cools both the inner and outer
        powered internal combustion engine.                               tubes, but it is all injected into the combustion chamber so

                                                                                                    Figure 2
                                                                          that there is almost no heat loss.
                                                                               The Gray System burning hydrogen and oxygen as
                                                                          fuel is described by the Rankine cycle as shown in Fig. 3.
                                                                          This system has the usual components including a turbine,
                                                                          a condenser, a pump, and a portion of the cycle where
                                                                          heat is added. This last portion has been outlined with a
                                                                          dashed line because this is the only part of the system to
                                                                          be modified.
                                                                               In Fig. 4, a schematic is shown with both the normal
                                                                          boiler and the Gray Vapor Generator illustrated. Notice
                                                                          that in the normal boiler the fuel combustion products
                                                                          come into the boiler, reject heat to the system working
                   Figure 1 - Schematic Representation of G.V.G.          fluid, then exit still retaining some energy. In the Gray
             One such component, a replacement for the conven-            Vapor Generator, the combustion products come in, are
        tional boiler, is the Gray Vapor Generator (Figs. 1 and 2).       mixed with the working fluid, and enter the turbine to
                                                                          be expanded. The fuel in the Gray Vapor Generator
        It is formed by two concentric tubes of approximately 4
                                                                          would normally, although not necessarily, be a stoichi-
        and 6 inch inside diameters, respectively, closed with two
                                                                          ometric mixture of hydrogen and oxygen such that the pro-
        end plates. The top plate has an orifice plate in it that
                                                                          ducts are pure steam and can be condensed. An additional
          The material presented here on the Gray Vapor System was sub-   feature is that a quantity of cool water equal to the mass
          mitted by W. G. Wyatt, Associate Professor of Mechanical En-
          gineering at Southern Methodist University. This novel system   of fuel burned will be bled from the system. This water,
          should be food for thought for anyone pondering the problems    if uncontaminated, could possibly be used directly in a
          of vehicle propulsion in these days of fuel shortages.
                                                                          city water supply.

       8                                                                                                       The Steam Automobile
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          In comparing the two systems, one can quickly see             In practice the Gray boiler efficiency may be around
     that they are identical except for the boiler or generator.   95 to 98% efficient depending only on how well it is in-
     A logical way to compare the system would be the ther-        sulated. The normal boiler efficiency will be around 80
     mal efficiency for the same work output where                 to 85% efficient if it is very good. Thus, the comparison
                                  WORK OUTPUT                      becomes:                   th GRAY       95 or 1.12
                            LOWER HEATING VALUE OF                                               th NORMAL 85
                             COMBUSTION PRODUCTS IN                                                 BOILER
          A simple comparison may be made by first defining a
     boiler efficiency:
                                  HEAT TO SYSTEM
                            LOWER HEATING VALUE OF
                            COMBUSTION PRODUCTS IN
     Note that by this definition a normal boiler will always
     be less than 100% efficient, but that the Gray Vapor Gen-
     erator will approach 100% efficiency.

                                                                   Figure 4 - Comparison of Gray Vapor Generator to the Normal Boiler
                    Figure 3 - Simple Rankine Cycle

          Now the equation for thermal efficiency may be writ-     or a 12% higher efficiency than a very good normal boiler.
     ten as:                                                            More typical numbers might be obtained by looking at
                                       WORK OUTPUT                 a good boiler which might have an efficiency of 65%. Then
                                     HEAT TO SYSTEM
                                                                                              th GRAY      95 or 1.46
                                                                                              th NORMAL 65
         A quick comparison may then be made between the                                         BOILER
     thermal efficiency of the system utilizing the Gray Vapor     or a 46% higher efficiency.
     Generator and the system utilizing the normal boiler:              The actual thermal efficiencies of the cycles if they
                              WORK OUTPUT                          are based on the heat input to the working fluid of the
                             HEAT TO SYSTEM                        cycle would be identical for the same components and op-
                                                          GRAY     erating conditions. The difference comes into view when
            GRAY                                                   a comparison of fuel inputs is made. For example, with
           NORMAL             WORK OUTPUT                          the previous very good normal boiler using the same fuel,
           BOILER            HEAT TO SYSTEM                        approximately 12% more fuel would be used because of
                                                    NORMAL         the energy remaining in the combustion products when
         If the systems are identical with the exception of the    they are released to the atmosphere. With the good normal
    method of heat input, the "work outputs" will be identi-       boiler approximately 46% more fuel would be used.
    cal for the same "heat to system".                                  This previous calculation has neglected the work of
    The comparison then becomes:                                   compression required to bring the fuel gases up to their
                           th GRAY            B GRAY               required injection pressure in the Gray Vapor Generator.
                              NORMAL          B NORMAL             A quick calculation shows this to be small. If the gases
                            th BOILER                              enter 90% efficient compressors at 50°F and 100 PSIA and
         Now the Gray boiler efficiency will approach one          are compressed to a working pressure of 800 PSIA, only
    while the normal boiler efficiency will always be less than    4.6% of the lower heating value of the fuel is required as
    one.                                                                                                        Continued on Page 18

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                             Improvement in the Efficiency of the
                                                                                  by John Gordon Davoud, President of D-Cycle
                                                                                             Power Systems, Inc.

                                 ABSTRACT                                operation. A rule of thumb is that these result in a so-
              The D-Cycle is a thermodynamic cycle which employs        called diagram factor of 50%. The simple Rankine cycle in
        wet vapor compression as an integral part of the cycle.         the above example is then down to 15.5% overall thermal
        Large theoretical increases in thermodynamic efficiency         efficiency - at the wheels in a vehicle.
         result from using this cycle rather than the standard Ran-           All modern efforts to apply the steam engine to auto-
        kine cycle.                                                     motive use are perforce directed towards increasing the
              Results are described of two phase vapor compression      diagram factor by concentrating on improving the main
        in a motored compressor for water and trifluoroethanol-         cycle components - burner, boiler, superheater, engine and
        water mixtures (Fluorinol 85). Rate of attainment of tem-       condenser.
        perature and pressure equilibrium between vapor and liquid           A different approach has been made in the work de-
        at constant volume were measured.                               scribed below which is directed towards altering the basic
              Like all thermodynamic cycles with a significant work     thermodynamic cycle in a way which results in a large in-
        of compression, the D-Cycle is effected by compression          crease in ideal cycle efficiency. This paper further proceeds
        efficiency. Ways of applying the cycle are described which      to define the parasitic and inherent factors peculiar to this
        are directed towards lowering the ratio of work of com-         new cycle, which cause it to depart from ideal behavior,
        pression to work of expansion (described in this paper as       compared with the Rankine cycle and describes same
        the work ratio). Lowering the work ratio in the D-Cycle         practical approaches to minimize effects.
        decreases the ideal efficiency but increases the realizable          This cycle involves wet vapor compression, and it is
        efficiency.                                                     convenient to refer to it by its trade name, the D-Cycle.
              A version of the D-Cycle with isothermal expansion                            BASIC D-CYCLE
        and two-phase compression confers the advantages of multi-           In a simple version of the D-Cycle feedwater pump,
        stage regeneration and reheat to small condensing vapor         feedwater heater, and boiler are eliminated, and replaced
        systems.                                                        by a two phase vapor compression process, 1, 3, 4. Flow
                            INTRODUCTION                                of working fluid is split, either before 1 or after 2 ex-
             Practical considerations place restrictions on maxi-       pansion. One part of the expanded vapor only is passed
        mum and minimum working fluid temperature in conden-
        sing vapor cycles in automotive systems. For steam, upper
        and lower temperature limits in the working fluid of about
        1000°F and 230°F are acceptable from the point of view
        of expander and condenser size and boiler, superheater,
        and engine construction materials.
             For organic working fluids, much lower maximum tem-
        peratures are mandatory. One of the more stable organic
        working fluids receiving attention today is trifluoroethanol,
        CF3CH2OH; and aqueous solutions thereof - maximum
        cycle point temperature cannot exceed about 625°F.
             In the family of heat engines, these are relatively nar-
        row temperature limits and above all, low maximum tem-
        peratures. The result is that under the restrictions imposed
        by these practical considerations, the simple Rankine con-
        densing vapor cycle has the lowest ideal cycle thermal ef-
        ficiency of the four thermodynamic cycles in use today
        (Rankine, Otto, Diesel, Brayton) and is even lower com-
        pared with the ideal Stirling or Ericsson cycles.
             For example, a Rankine simple system operating from
        1000 psia at 1000°F, with expansion to 20 psia, has an
        ideal thermodynamic efficiency of only 30.9%.
             Peculiar to each thermodynamic cycle is the usual
        melancholy array of inherent and parasitic factors which
        cause sharp reductions from ideal behavior in practical

       10                                                                                                   The Steam Automobile
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Condensing Vapor Cycle
in Automotive Power Systems - The D-Cycle
    through the condenser. The condensate is injected as a                3. Expansion - vapor is expanded to State E supply-
    mist into the remaining portion of expanded vapor before                 ing compression work, to the system, and produc-
    and/or during compression to the maximum working pres-                   ing net output work.
    sure. Ideal compression can take place inside the vapor              4. Heat Rejection and Liquid Injection - Some ex-
    dome, ending with wet vapor, or with dry saturated vapor,                panded vapor at E is removed and completely con-
    or with superheated vapor, depending on the relative pro-                densed. This liquid is injected into the remaining
    portions of the mass flows in the two vapor streams.                     expanded vapor to decrease entropy, resulting in
         In the simplest case with reciprocating machinery,                  the two phase mixture at J, (or , or ) for
    expansion and compression can take place in the same                     recompression and the continuation of the cycle.
    cylinder.                                                             The D-Cycle takes advantage of the fact that for water
         A schematic of this simplified D-Cycle is shown in          and, to a lesser extent, a number of strongly polar liquids
    Figure 1, and the state points appropriate for the three         such as ammonia and methanol, the specific heat of the
    cases described above are shown in Figure 2.                     vapor at constant pressure increases much more rapidly
                                                                     with increasing temperature than the specific heat of vapor
                                                                     for non-polar organic materials, and for diatomic gases
                                                                     such as hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen. Thus, the ratio
                                                                                     for steam is 1.73; for hydrogen is 1.19;

                                                                     for air 1.225. This characteristic, notable for steam, shows
                                                                     up on a Mollier diagram as diverging lines of constant
                                                                     pressure as the entropy increases. Thus, the input work
                                                                     required to compress at lower entropy (J-C) is less than
                                                                     the output work during expansion at higher entropy (D-E).
                                                                     The net result is that steam expanded from 1000°F, a rea-
                                                                     sonable temperature from the engineering aspect, and com-
                                                                     pressed within the vapor dome, can yield a useable power
                                                                     system. In all the other cycles using ideally isentropic ex-
                                                                     pansion and compression processes, i.e., the Brayton,
                                                                     Otto and Diesel, and the so-called valved hot air engine
                                                                     very much higher maximum temperatures are required than
                                                                     will give good efficiency in the D-Cycle.
                                                                          The two cycles using ideally isothermal expansion
                                                                     and compression, the Stirling and Ericsson cycles, have
                                                                     excellent ideal thermal efficiency at 1000°F but adverse
                                                                     heat transfer factors make these cycles impossible to op-
                                                                     erate efficiently at even this modest maximum in the work-
                                                                     ing fluid with normal engineering materials.
                                                                          All of the thermal energy in the D-Cycle is introduced
                                                                     at high temperature in the vapor heater. Hence, from
                                                                     straight thermodynamic considerations, ideal thermody-
          Figure 2 - Simplified D-Cycle Thermodynamic State Points
                                                                     namic efficiency greater than the Rankine would be ex-
                                                                     pected and is, of course, found. The ideal efficiency for
        The four processes which make up the D-Cycle are:            the cycle      -D-E -        of Figure 2 with D defined by
        1. Compression - Wet vapor at statepoint, J, or              p=1000 psia, T=1000°F; E on the isentropic line through
            or    , is compressed, ideally isentropically, to        D at a pressure of 20 psia (just inside the vapor dome);
           maximum working pressure at C (wet vapor) or              and J1 also at 20 psia lying on the isentropic line which
           (saturation) or   (superheated).                          passes through the saturated vapor line at 1000 psia is
        2. Heat addition - minimum vapor temperature is              .426 or 42.6% - 38% greater than the ideal Rankine cycle
           saturation temperature or greater. All heat is intro-     efficiency with the same maximum state point and con-
           duced into dry or wet vapor at or above saturation        densing pressure.
           temperature.                                                   The rest of this paper describes experimental results

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           of two-phase vapor compression; and explains ways of pre-        the pressure ratio of the compression step.
           serving in practice the greatly increased ideal efficiency of         A vital factor in the D-Cycle is the rate of attainment
           the D-Cycle compared with the Rankine.                           of this equilibrium, which determines the rate of cooling
                           VAPOR COMPRESSION                                of superheated vapor on which the reduction in work of
                Any cycle with a significant mechanical work of com-        compression depends.
          pression is sensitive to a greater or less extent to compres-          Using Fluorinol-85 7, data has been measured on the
          sion efficiency; the D-Cycle is no exception.                     rate of pressure increase and temperature reduction of
                Experimental data on two-phase vapor compression           vapor in a heated vessel, at constant volume, upon the in-
          have been obtained by D-Cycle Power Systems on steam 6           jection of liquid. The technique was to inject by suitable
          and on trifluoroethanol water mixture7. A single cylinder        mechanical means a measured volume of liquid at a rate
          reciprocating engine, driven by a cradled electric motor,        within the time frame of the compression stage of a D-
          had a useable compression ratio of 5:1. Throttling losses        Cycle type engine running at 1800 R.P.M., i.e. 15 milli-
          were minimized by using the largest possible inlet conduits.     seconds. Temperature and pressure rate changes were de-
          Inlet and outlet valves were pressure-activated.                 termined by micro-thermocouple, pressure transducer, and
                A vapor generator, superheater, and vapor receiver         oscilloscope.
          provided low pressure vapor slightly superheated, at the               The results showed that the rate-determining factor
          inlet to the compressor.                                         in the attainment of equilibrium is the rate of injection of
                A fluid injection system was developed consisting of       the liquid; evaporation, pressure increase at constant vol-
          a high pressure piston pump and a modified diesel-type           ume, and temperature reduction appear to be instantane-
          injector specifically developed to give a fine, "soft" mist      ous for practical purposes.
          of droplets at the relatively low opening pressure of 1000             An ongoing program, with higher compression ratios
          psia. The pump employed a piston with a plastic seal; a          and more precise determination of the extent of inlet
         variable stroke mechanism, and a mechanically operated            throttling is continuing. It is concluded that the work of
         inlet valve.                                                      two-phase vapor compression can be held to 110% of the
               This pump was belt driven from the compressor shaft         work of the ideal isentropic compression for the given
         and timed to start injection 15° before bottom dead center.       conditions.
         Injection period was a nominal 60°.                               SOME APPROACHES TO MAXIMIZING D-CYCLE
               Instrumentation for pressure and temperature measure-                      EFFICIENCY IN PRACTICE
         ment of inlet and outlet vapor and transducer for pressure-            The D-Cycle differs thermodynamically from the Ran-
         time measurement within the cylinder were provided. Means         kine principally in two respects.
         were provided for vapor quality measurement on the outlet
         side of the compressor.
               For Steam - Dry Compression - Enthalpy change 17%
         greater than required by isentropic compression. Wet Com-
         pression - entirely within vapor dome. During two-phase
         compression, an enthalpy change 10.6% greater than isen-
         tropic was recorded. Equivalent steam quality before com-
         pression was 0.813, although this steady state point was
         never actually reached since water was injected throughout
         the compression stroke.
               Steam quality measurement of outlet steam plus pres-
         sure and temperature measurements located the state-point
         at the end of compression.
               For an 85 mol-percent trifluoreathanol, 15 mol-per-
         cent water mixture (known as Fluorinol-85) results of both
         dry and wet compression indicated less than isentropic
         enthalpy change. The exact determination of initial and
         ending state points was complicated by inlet throttling and
         inertia effects at the outlet valves both inherently due to
         the large organic molecule.
               In the two phase vapor compression process, the vapor
         is compressed and the liquid is evaporated continuously to
         reduce the mixture temperature to the saturated vapor line
         as the pressure increases thus approaching an isentropic
         process. The liquid droplets, introduced at or near con-
         densing temperature are increasingly out of temperature
         equilibrium with the vapor as pressure increases; and the
         rate of cooling will be correspondingly faster, the greater          Figure 3 - Effect of non-ideal expansion and compression at
                                                                                         different work ratios on net efficiency

        12                                                                                                        The Steam Automobile
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           i. It has a much greater work of compression.                  Another approach to reducing the "work ratio" is to
          ii. The heat is transmitted to the working substance      use a larger pressure ratio for expansion than for com-"
              at higher temperature.                                pression. A cycle based on this method is shown in Fig-
           In the ideal cycle, neither of these factors is impor-    ure 4 on pressure enthalpy co-ordinates. The ideal effi-
     tant. In practice, both must be taken into account in op-      ciency of the cycle is 0.393. The work ratio is 0.47 and
     timizing system design.                                        the efficiency of the cycle shown by the dotted lines, which
              Effect Of "Work Ratio" In Practical Cycle             reflect 90% of ideal expander work and 110% of ideal
           In Figure 3 is shown a family of curves relating the     compressor work, is 0.314. This is a relatively easy cycle
     work ratio, given by:                                          to carry out in practice, and the first D-Cycle develop-
     (Work of compression) to the % of ideal net work under         ment prototype engine is based on it.
     (Work of expansion)                                            Isothermal Expansion
     three sets of conditions - for 90%, 85%, and 80% of ideal            Work of expansion between two pressures is at a max-
     expander and compressor efficiency. The need to mini-          imum for isothermal conditions. The problems of low heat
     mize the so-called work ratio is clear. An example further     transfer to the expander from the gas side are too well
     illustrates the point.                                         known to require further comment. The D-Cycle, however,
          The ideal D-Cycle described above with =0.426 has         can, with advantage, make use of isothermal expansion at
    a work ratio of 0.66. Ideal compression to the saturation       relatively low temperature. A cycle, shown as Figure 5,
    line (         in Figure 2) takes place at entropy 1.3903.      postulates isothermal expansion of steam at 650%, followed
    Figure 3 shows          would be reduced to 51% of ideal by     by superheating and isentropic expansion. The problem
    a combination of 90% expansion efficiency and 90% com-          of low heat transfer to the expander from the gas side
    pression efficiency giving a net efficiency of .218.            are too well known to require further comment.
          A reduction in the work of compression can be simply           The cycle C—D—E—F—J—C is made up of the follow-
    effected by compressing at lower entropy. In Figure 3,          ing steps:
    the cycle with compression JC, at entropy 1.2 .would have            C-D - Isothermal expansion of saturated steam from
    a lower ideal efficiency (0.385) but a higher net (.262).                     2205 psia to 200 psia.
    Compression at entropy 1.1 would have ideal efficiency               At D - Remove all steam from expander, pass to
    .368 and net efficiency .270.                                                 superheater.

    Nineteen Seventy-Four                                                                  13
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               D-E - Superheat all steam to 1000°.                           pression efficiencies of 0.9.
               E-F - Expand all steam isentropically to 10 psia.                  Isothermal expansion at 650° allows use of a condens-
               AtF - Remove and condense .368 of expanded steam;             ing vapor system for heat transfer to the expander cylinder.
                        inject into remaining expanded steam produc-         Saturated Dowtherm "A" vapor at 750° would be suit-
                        ing wet steam at J.                                  able. The rate of heat transfer to the metal is of course,
               J-C - Compress to C                                           many times greater than for gas at the same temperature
                        Cycle repeats.                                       at atmospheric pressure. A Dowtherm boiler also allows
               The ideal efficiency of this cycle, with maximum              shielding of the steam superheater coil and a high rate of
          steam temperature 1000°F is - 0.467. The work ratio                heat input to the nucleate boiling section of the Dowtherm
          is .495. At 90% expander and compressor efficiency, the            boiler.
          net indicated efficiency would be about .33.                       Heat Input In D-Cycle
               By reducing the entropy and the pressure ratio in the              In the simple D-Cycle, the design of a heater must
          compression stage, the work ratio can be further reduced           take into account three factors compared with usual feed-
          at the expense of a decrease in ideal efficiency.                  water heater - boiler - superheater.
               The cycle C—D—E—F—K—C is then made up of the                       i. Increased mass flow.
          following stages:                                                      ii. All heat input to dry or wet vapor.

                                                   Figure 5 - D-Cycle with isothermal expansion

              C-D      - Isothermal expansion.                                   iii. High inlet temperature of steam.
              At D-i  - Remove and pass to superheater .372 of ex-                The cycle shown in Figure 4 can be readily carried
                         panded steam.                                      out in an engine in which, for example, two cylinders
             ii         - Remove remainder and pass to compression          are used for steam expansion only. One and two are used
                         stage.                                             for expansion and compression. The condensate from the
             D-E      - Superheat 0.372 of steam.                           first two cylinders is injected into the second pair at
             E-F      - Expand 0.372 to 10 psia.                            bottom dead center. The two types of cylinders have dif-
             F-L       - Condense 0.372.                                    ferent expansion ratios. This cycle, as we have seen, has
             D-K      - Inject 0.372 (condensate) into remainder            both high ideal efficiency and good realizable efficiency.
                         of expanded steam at D, producing wet                    A schematic of the engine in a power system is shown
                         steam at K.                                        in Figure 6.
             I-C      - Compress to maximum working pressure.                     The mode of control of the cycle is to alter either
                -C    - Heat addition.                                      by cutoff or throttling or both the steam flow to the two
             The ideal efficiency of this cycle   is 0.428.                 "expansion only" cylinders. The two "expansion-compres-
             Work ratio is reduced to 0.33; and the net thermo-             sion" cylinders have fixed cut-off and no throttling; hence,
         dynamic cycle efficiency is .34 with expansion and com-            they always receive the same mass flow of steam.

         14                                                                                                     The Steam Automobile
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                                                                            Expansion enthalpy change             - (ideal -10%)
                                                                            Compression enthalpy change           - (ideal +10%)
                                                                            Overall heater efficiency              - 0.85
                                                                            Estimated fuel requirement -
                                                                            level driving at 60 m.p.h.            - 20.5 lbs/hour
                                                                                                                   LHV 18500

                                                                              This is not the most efficient application of the D-
                                                                         Cycle to vehicle propulsion, but it is relatively simple; and
                                                                         the practical problem it raises is little different from those
                                                                         currently being worked on and successively solved for the
                                                                         Rankine cycle.
                                                                              The cycles described, with two-phase compression and
                                                                         one stage of isothermal expansion, offer promise. It will
                                                                         be realized that this approach confers on small conden-
                                                                         sing vapor systems what amounts to an infinite number of
                                                                         regeneration stages in the compression step, and an infi-
                                                                         nite number of reheat stages in isothermal expansion; and
                                                                         these are the practical methods which raise the perfor-
                                                                         mance of steam electricity generating plants to the highest
                                                                         level of thermal efficiency of any heat-power system.
                                                                              The D-Cycle uses the same techniques in small reci-
                                                                         procating machinery.

      Figure 6 - Schematic of D-Cycle Power System, suitable for auto-
                 motive use. Connecting rods and cranks not shown
                                                                         1. "External Combustion Power Producing System",
         Under varying load conditions, the statepoints of                  John Gordon Davoud; Jerry A. Burke, Jr., U.S.
    the compressed steam will move along the line of constant               Patent No. 3,798,908, March 26, 1974.
    pressure in the vapor dome at maximum cycle pressure.                2. "Multi-Cylinder External Combustion Power Produc-
    Even under idling condition, however, there will always                 ing System", John Gordon Davoud, Jerry A. Burke,
    be a minimal mass flow which can never be less than the                 Jr., U.S. Patent No. 3,772,883, November 20, 1973.
    amount of steam taken into the expansion-compression cy-             3. "Condensable Vapor Power Producing System",
    linders. This ensures mass flow through the superheater                 John Gordon Davoud, U.S. Patent No. 3,716,990,
    tube at all times and minimizes the risk of a burn-out.                 February 20, 1973.
         Heat transfer surface in the heater tube can be the             4. "D-Cycle Applied to Fossil Plants", J. C. Corman,
    subject of the treatment of exterior fins, and the usual                J. G. Davoud and R. P. Shah, Proceedings 8th Inter-
    good design concepts for direct fired superheaters must                 society Energy Conversion Engineering Conference,
    be followed. A simple way to reduce stack temperature in                Pg. 631, August, 1973.
    the heater is to cool the heater casing with inlet air.              5. "Design, Construction and Testing of a New Valved,
         The engine swept volume is on the diagram as indi-                 Hot-Gas Engine", B. C. Fryer and J. L. Smith, Jr.,
    cated. This system would be capable of propelling a 3500                Proceedings of 8th Intersociety Energy Conversion En-
    lb vehicle with appropriate performance.                                gineering Conference, Pg. 174, August, 1973.
                                                                         6. "The Compression of Wet Steam: Experimental Deter-
       Engine swept volume                       - 124 cubic inches         mination of State Points", J. G. Davoud and Jerry A.
       Maximum engine speed                      - 2500 r.p.m.
                                                                            Burke, Jr., D-Cycle Power Systems, Inc., October, 1972.
                                                                         7. Final Report DCR No. 741 to U.S. Army Contract
      Swept volume of expansion                                             DAAK02-72-C-0457, "Proof of Principle Study of the
      cylinders                                  - 84 cubic inches
                                                                            D-Cycle. A Thermodynamic Cycle using Mechanical
      Swept volume of expansion                                             Compression of a Condensable Vapor", J. G. Davoud,
      compression cylinders                      - 40 cubic inches
                                                                            February, 1974.
      Normal operating mode:
      expansion cylinders                       - 1500-20 psia
       Expansion-compression       cylinders     - 1500-100 psia
       Friction, parasitic power
       requirement                               - 33 1/3%

    Nineteen Seventy-Four                                                                                                           15
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             The national transportation system is one of our most            hicle is the least efficient means of intra-urban transporta-
        important assets. It is dynamic and complex and is a key              tion, and an inefficient use of real estate. The real chal-
        factor in our way of life. We are currently investing 20%             lenge is to develop public systems with the appeal and a-
        of our gross national product including 53% of our petro-             vailability of the private automobile.
        leum fuels each year to transport people and goods in the                  The first step was to determine what improvements
        United States.                                                        could be made with the tools at hand, i.e., existing pub-
             The keystone of the national transportation system is            lic transit facilities, existing center city streets and free-
        the urban system which confronts most working Americans               ways, and the feeder routes to the city center from the
        every working day; and regardless of the mode one uses for            suburbs. UMTA developed demonstrations designed to
        inter-city travel or the efficiency of that mode, the speed           increase bus productivity by providing reserved lanes for
        of the trip from door-to-door is limited by the efficiency            buses along line haul routes to expedite passenger service
        of the urban systems at both ends of the journey. The edge            from suburbs to central business districts and return.
        is taken off of a 4½ hour transcontinental air journey                     One of these, "The Shirley Highway Express Bus De-
        that requires two hours at either end of the flight to get            monstration" was established between the northern Virginia
        to and from the airport.                                              suburbs and the District of Columbia. The impact of this
             The transportation dilemma in most urban areas has               demonstration has been significant in the reduction of
        been created by the unrestricted use of automobiles which             automobiles on Shirley Highway and the increase in rider-
        along with the buses and trucks, has saturated our city               ship of the buses. Surveys showed that in October 1971,
        centers and reduced the very mobility that the automobile             this service had taken 2,220 automobiles per day off
        was intended to achieve. The automobile has supplanted                Shirley Highway and by June 1973, 5,038 fewer autos were
        public transportation as the preferred means of intra-urban           on this highway. Busway users increased from 7,890 in
        travel. Yet, few urban communities have the capacity for              October 1971 to 11,870 in June 1973. The project has
        accommodating the automobile in increasing numbers, or                substantially reduced auto air pollution emissions and
        the fiscal resources to support its unrestricted use. The             reduced gasoline consumption by over 6,500 gallons a day.
        social cost of this change is becoming more and more ap-              Carpools with four or more people per car have been per-
        parent, as we pay for it in polluted air; fragmented use of           mitted to use the bus lanes since December 10,1973, to
        land in our cities; the ensuing declining property tax                further encourage the conservation of energy.
        base, and rising costs for social services. We have only                   Another UMTA project to stimulate a return to public
        recently become aware of the cost paid in depletion of               transit is the Dial-A-Ride demonstration in Haddonfield,
        our energy resources. Automobiles consume about 90% of               New Jersey. Small buses are dispatched by a control cen-
        the petroleum used for transportation in the United States           ter to pick up passengers at their door in response to
        today.                                                               telephone requests for service. These passengers are car-
             Nearly three decades of rising per capita income and            ried to connecting line haul transit stations or local busi-
        a growing response from the private auto-producing sector            ness centers and returned to their homes. This service is
        has been speeded by Federal funding in the building of               particularly useful to the physically handicapped and peo-
        roads and highways, without a similar commitment to tran-            ple who can not drive. The elderly, who constitute 17%
        sit. This combination has led most Americans to spurn                of the Dial-A-Ride users, are particularly enthusiastic
        public transit in favor of their readily available alterna-          about the system.
        tive, the private automobile. People like their autos:                     Buses operating on urban streets are subject to the
             1. Because they are fast.                                       same delays and congestion engendered stoppages as is all
             2. Because there is no long wait to start the journey.          other traffic operating on these streets. Yet, buses repre-
             3. Because the perceived cost to the user is low.               sent a far more efficient use of available fuel and street
             4. Because they are private and secure, and                     space than any other form of urban street transportation
             5. Because their use is subsidized.                             operating today. If buses could be provided with some
             The trend toward personal mobility, exemplified by              form of preferential treatment so as to increase their speed
        the private car, has greatly advanced the cause of inter-            relative to the general traffic stream, their people-moving
        city mobility, but at great cost to our cities. A system             efficiency would increase still more and the shorter trip
        of mobility based on the extensive use of the private ve-            times thus possible should attract increased numbers of
        Address of B.J. Vierling given at the Chicago Steam Auto Show held
                                                                             riders away from autos and provide better utilization of
        September 5-7, 1974.                                                 transit equipment.

        16                                                                                                        The Steam Automobile
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          The UMTA Bus Priority System (EPS) Project is an           pletely new cars, but that we can do something with the
    effort designed to give preferential treatment to transit        subsystems and improve the performance of existing fleets.
    vehicles. The EPS will operate as part of the Urban Traf-             The ACT train itself will be powered by a revolution-
    fic Control System (UTCS), a computerized system de-            ary energy storage flywheel propulsion system designed to
    veloped to control traffic signals so as to optimize ve-        conserve energy and better utilize power. Energy can be
    hicle flow. The BPS will "recognize" buses on their ap-         stored aboard the train itself instead of being dissipated
    proach to an intersection and, if possible, give them           as waste heat. The system promises a favorable and sig-
    priority to move through the intersection by holding the        nificant impact on the nation's energy crisis. In fact, we
    "green" phase for a longer period of time than usual.           project that the ACT train will be able to operate at a
          Automatic Vehicle Monitoring is another UMTA pro-         40% lower cost per passenger mile than do present train-
    ject. It is a system for electronically locating transit or     set cars.
    other public vehicles as they move over urban streets.                 We are also testing Gas-Turbine/Electric Trains at
    This tracking capability will provide transit operators with     the DOT Ground Transportation Development Center at
    real-time information on the location and schedule ad-           Pueblo, Colorado. This will permit extension of rail ser-
    herence of all their vehicles. The dispatch center will then     vice without changing trains where wayside power is not
    be able to take action as needed to keep each route on           available.
    schedule and maintain the proper level of service. The                Turning to buses, UMTA is sponsoring a competitive
    rider will be spared the now too common occurrence of            program to develop a new 40-foot transit bus that will
    a long wait for an overdue bus followed by the arrival           set the standard for urban transportation for years to
    of two or three buses running in tandem.                        come. This new vehicle, named TRANSBUS, will contain
          The tracking technologies will eventually be inte-        the first basic changes made in urban transit buses in more
    grated into an overall automatic vehicle monitoring (AVM)       than fifteen years. At present three bus manufacturers:
    system which can provide two-way voice communications,          AM General Corporation, General Motors Truck and
    automatic signaling of mechanical problems, automatic           Coach Division, and ROHR Industries have built their
    collection of ridership data needed for route planning, and     versions of the new TRANSBUS, under subcontract from
    a driver-actuated "silent alarm" which will instantly sum-      Booz Allen Applied Research.
    mon police aid when criminal action threatens. Transit                In setting the objectives for the TRANSBUS program,
    operators will be able to better utilize their equipment        we have chosen vehicle designs which emphasize improved
    and manpower resources by having modern command and             service for all people. TRANSBUS will move its passengers
    control techniques available for the first time.                faster. It will have wider doors and a floor only half as
          These are things we have done to increase the pro-        high as that on current buses. These features will allow
    ductivity of our present transportation systems. They show      riders to board and leave the bus more quickly. The a-
    how urban communities can provide some relief with the         chievement of a floor height only one and one-half feet
    tools that are available. Much of the hope of the future,       above the street is a major breakthrough in transit bus
    of course, is in our research and development program.          technology.
          One of the first major efforts of UMTA in rail tran-            TRANSBUS will be a safer bus. The entire design is
    sit is the development of the State-of-the-Art Car which        based on a scientific analysis of transit bus safety. It will
    fits the best of existing technology into one vehicle. The     have energy absorbing bumpers, break-proof windows,
    State-of-the-Art Car was intended to accommodate those          resilient seat backs, other soft interior surfaces, and scien-
    advances made since BART. These cars have performed            tifically designed safety handholds.
    extremely well, and are currently on demonstration ser-              TRANSBUS will be quieter, cleaner, and more com-
    vice in Boston. The SOAC cars were well received in ear-       fortable. Seats will be wider and there will be more knee
    lier demonstration service in New York.                        room. The rear of the bus, once cramped at best, will be
          Going a step further than SOAC is our Advanced Con-      transformed into a U-shaped lounge-like area. The fume
    cept Train Project or ACT. This project is in two parts.       and draft free interiors will be kept at uniform comfort-
    One was a design competition with four major companies         able temperatures in summer and winter by advanced air-
    funded to produce designs for a second generation of           conditioning and heating systems. Seated passengers will
    transit cars beyond SOAC. The Garrett Air Research Cor-        look out of panoramic, tinted windows and will have a
    poration was awarded a contract to convert its design to       smooth ride equivalent to that of a luxury automobile,
    a prototype trainset.                                          thanks to a new wheel suspension system.
          This two-car train will be designed to incorporate             Two prototype buses of each design are currently
    advanced technology with major consideration to operating      undergoing rigorous laboratory and test track shakedown
    efficiency. In addition to constructing the winning design,    at Phoenix and soon, prototype TRANSBUS vehicles will
    we will select, with the help of the transit industry, those   be rolling on the streets of a few selected cities to help in
    subsystems from the other designs that show the most           our effort to meet the needs of the urban areas. A require-
    promise, and will sponsor the development and testing of       ment also exists for developing and providing the feasi-
    those systems on existing equipment in the hope that we        bility of a low-pollution vehicle specially designed and
    can not only introduce through the ACT program com-            optimized for use in various types of para-transit services.

    Nineteen Seventy-Four                                                                                                      17
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       Para-transit is defined here as all transit between the fixed-    the conventional bus and rapid rail transit systems with
       route, fixed schedule main transit on one hand and the            respect to such items as capacity (passenger/hour/lane),
       privately owned, personally operated passenger car. This          capital costs, operating costs and ease of expansion with
       includes services such as taxicab, dial-a-ride and jitney.        urban growth. A dual mode system would have a much
       Taxicabs, the vehicles presently available for this type ser-     lower operating cost and a higher utilization of manpower
       vice do not cover the full spectrum of functional charac-         and vehicles than is presently obtained with conventional
       teristics required, particularly in the field of easy ingress     bus service.
       and egress for elderly and handicapped.                                UMTA R&D, as you can see, is directed toward the
             The objective of our low-pollution para-transit ve-         development of a family of vehicles and systems of proven
       hicle project is to provide such a vehicle. The project will      productivity and economic capabilities that can be used
       involve the design, fabrication and testing of an experi-         by the various regions of the country to solve their parti-
       mental, light-duty vehicle suitable for use in para-transit       cular urban transportation needs.
       service which meets EPA's low emission vehicle specifi-                Once this has been achieved, urban planners will have
       cations. An energy shortage flywheel development for an           a family of vehicles and systems to choose from for feeder
       electric trolley bus to permit its operation without over-        routes, long haul routes and pick-up and distribution routes
       head wires is currently being developed for test on the           that will accept varying levels of traffic under varying
       San Francisco Muni system.                                        conditions.
             The personalized rapid transit (PRT) research and          Continued from Page 9     Gray Vapor
       development program at Morgantown, West Virginia, was             work input. Even assuming that this work must be fur-
       conceived as a means to provide an alternative to the auto,       nished by a heat engine, this only brings the efficiency
       duplicating the same attractive features people find in their     level of the generator down to the level of the very good
      personal car. The PRT will have a large fleet of fully             normal boiler.
      automated, relatively small vehicles capable of departing               Current automobile engines commonly run on gasoline.
      a station and offering direct-to-destination service quickly,      The Gray system engine will commonly use hydrogen and
      without waiting for a full passenger load. The PRT has             oxygen as fuel. The hydrogen and oxygen will probably be
      a separate roadway so, unlike other forms of public tran-          carried in liquid state. The safety aspects of liquid hydro-
      sit, it won't be slowed down by the street congestion pro-         gen bring objections from many, but in many respects it
      blem it sets out to cure. In this way, even though PRT             is no more hazardous than gasoline (1). A quick estimate
      vehicles will not be designed to hit maximum speeds a              of the quantities of hydrogen and oxygen to be carried
      motorist reaches in his car, the PRT will travel uninter-          may be made by comparing the heats of combustion of
      rupted from station to destination without en-route stops          hydrogen and gasoline. That of hydrogen is approximately
      or the traffic lights, accidents, and rush hour delays of         three times as high on a pound basis. If the efficiency of
      surface streets, thus shortening the total time a person           the Gray system is twice as high as the standard automo-
      devotes to his trip. PRT systems will require a relatively        bile efficiency, which appears possible, the weight of hy-
      large initial capital investment, but this should be justified    drogen carried for similar automobiles would be about
      by the economy achieved through their fully automated             one-sixth that of gasoline. Twenty gallons of gasoline
      operation.                                                        weigh about 116.6 pounds. Thus, the weight of hydrogen
            Although the Morgantown design with its 15-second           required would be about 19.4 pounds and that of oxygen
      headway between 21 passenger vehicles will meet Morgan-           about 155.4 pounds. The hydrogen-oxygen combined weight
      town's transportation requirements, this will not necessar-       will be greater than the gasoline weight.
      ily satisfy the needs of all other urban areas. It is a first           In contrast to this, the Gray system engine will be
      generation PRT. PRT productivity can be further en-               significantly lighter than the engines currently used. For
      hanced by increasing the size of the vehicle, decreasing          example, the current prototype of the Gray Vapor Gen-
      the headway between vehicles or increasing the speed of           erator weighs approximately 50 pounds filled with its re-
      the vehicles. Increasing productivity is the R&D goal for         quired water.
      the next generation of PRT's now being projected.                      It should also be pointed out that even though the
            The Dual Mode Project will develop and demonstrate          Gray Vapor Generator is more efficient than the normal
      a new transit mode that combines the features of scheduled        boiler, it is also smaller, more compact, and has a short-
      and demand-responsive bus systems with the automated Per-         er start-up time. The normal boiler not only has a burn-
      sonal Rapid Transit (PRT) systems. This system uses a             er area but in addition must have a large heat exchange
      dual purpose vehicle that is operated manually on the             surface area. The Gray Vapor Generator has only a burner
      public streets and highways and automatically on exclu-           and mixing area. The normal boiler, even the monotube
      sive guideways. It will provide a flexible transit system         boiler, has a start-up time in minutes. The start-up time
      that is adaptive to the daily and seasonal needs of an            on the Gray Vapor Generator is in the order of 5
      urban area, offering the transit user as nearly point-to-         seconds.
      point transportation as is practical.
            Dual mode transit would present United States cities        1. Steward, W.F. and Eduskuty, F.J., "Alternate Fuels for Transpor-
                                                                           tation, Part 2: Hydrogen for the Automobile, "Mechanical Engineer-
      a viable alternative that successfully fills the gap between         ing, Vol. 96, No. 6, p. 22, June, 1974.

      18                                                                                                         The Steam Automobile
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           Mike Brickley and his Steam-powered Bicycle!
                            It's the first step in his plan to revolutionize the auto industry with a steam-engined car
                                                                   by Diane Thomas

                                                                            Mike's future plans have started with a bike.
                                                                                 "First I studied a lawn mower to know more about
                                                                            how a one cylinder engine develops power. Then I began
         His granddaddy was a steam drivin' man, and his                    to build the engine for my bike".
    daddy was a fireman. It reads like the words to a coun-                      The bike started life as a standard 26-inch Schwinn,
    try-western hit song, but it's the truth. Mike Brickley's               but Mike changed all that. He built a one-cylinder double-
    grandfather was a Norfolk and Western engineer in the                   acting steam engine to power the wheels. Because the
    days when coal was king and the train whistle drifted in                engine weighs over 40 pounds, he's had to put extra air
    disembodied sadness over hundreds of empty miles. His                   in the tires. And the pedals became footrests, while the
    father was a fireman on the Nickle Plate out of Buffalo                 tank and boiler went onto the frame between his feet.
    and when he retired he ran his own line over yards of                        The tank holds one gallon of water, and because the
    track in a special building behind his house; it was de-                engine is "more or less condensing - I have to work on
    signed for his miniature railroad set-up. Mike followed in              that" - he can go about five miles without refilling.
    his foot-steps when he took a job as fireman for a scale                     The boiler has 45 feet of 3/8-inch steel and copper
    railroad that chuffs around a Phoenix amusement park.
         "I need the money for college" Mike says. "You see,
    I want to be a mechanical engineer and that means four
    years of hard study".
         Mike has his future all mapped out, and he's been
    working on it for the last two years. He intends to build
    a steam car that will revolutionize the auto industry and
    solve pollution problems. Oddly enough, his procedure
    closely parallels history. Like the original automobile
    makers whose invention depended on the lowly bicycle,
      Reprint from Science & Mechanics Magazine. Mike Brickley of
      Scottsdale, Ariz., is one of the young members of SACA. He also
      attended the 1973 national meet in Chicago.
                                                                                                                          Continued on Page 26

    Nineteen Seventy-Four                                                                                                                  19
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                                                                             The throttle valve is a Jordan nominal ½-in. equipped -
                                                                        with "Jordanite" trim. This valve is designed for thrott-
                                                                        ling and shut off in high pressure, superheated steam ser-
            The MSS Stanley                                             vice. We accidentally subjected it to 1200°F steam with
                                                                        no apparent damage. The travel is 1/8 in. from full closed
                              by E. C. Hise                             to full open. We designed and built an operator to oper-
                                                                        ate the valve from the Stanley throttle linkage. Fig. 2
                                                                        shows the steam generator center, the insulation wrapped
            Art Thomas's 1919 Stanley touring with the MSS              scale trap to the left, and the Jordan valve at lower
       (Mobile Steam Society) MK II steam generator went into           right.
       operation shortly before the Oak Ridge September 1973                  The Steam Generator Control: Firing is controlled
       meeting. We have since driven it 140 miles around the             on the basis of steam pressure with overtemperature safety
       rugged Oak Ridge terrain with ever increasing reliability        interlocks. Feed water is controlled on the basis of tem-
       and distance between failures. This is a description of the
       steam generator installation and a report on its operation.
            The Car: 1919 Stanley seven-passenger touring, serial
       No. 19206. It appears to be in original condition through-
       out and indicates 4500 miles on the odometer. We have
       removed and stored the original boiler and controls. All
       of the new equipment has been installed using existing
       holes, bolts, and brackets so that the car can be restored
       to original condition. MSS member Dick Hamer is seen
       at the wheel in Fig. 1.

                                                                        peratures within the steam generator. Three thermo-
                                                                        couples brazed to the boiler tube walls sense the temper-
                                                                        atures at specific locations. The signals from these couples
                                                                        are amplified and analyzed by an electronic unit. This
                                                                        system suffers a certain amount of electronic complexity,
                                                                        however it enjoys extreme mechanical simplicity. The
                                                                        boiler tubing is one continuous series of spirals from bot-
                                                                        tom to top with no thermostatic loops and no casing
                                                                        penetrations other than water entry and steam exit. The
                                                                        exit steam temperature can be set by the several adjust-
                                   Fig. 1                               ments of the electronic unit. The unit has successfully
             The Steam System: The steam generator is the MSS           controlled the generator to pressures from 200 psi to 800
        MKII that you have been seeing at meets in the southeast        psi, to temperatures from 500°F to 800°F, during cold
        for several years. At the Greensboro May 1974 meet, a           starts and hot restarts, and during steady loads and wild-
        MKII was tested under the supervision of Dr. Arthur Gar-        ly fluctuating loads. It always (except once when a tran-
        diner and found to have efficiency of 82%. Complete             sistor failed) holds the temperature within safe limits and
        detailed construction drawings and design description are       usually within ±50°F.
        available. In the Stanley it is controlled to 500 psi and             We expect soon to be able to offer a complete de-
        600°F. We operated initially at a firing rate of 3½ gallons     tailed set of drawings that will enable an electronic hobby-
        of kerosene per hour and have increased to 4 gph.               ist to build one.
             Immediately downstream of the steam generator outlet             The Fuel System: We have retained the Stanley main
        is a simple centrifugal scale trap constructed of 3-in. pipe.   fuel system intact - the engine driven pump, the air tank,
        This is blown down after every run. Since the boiler stop        the fuel pressurizer tanks, and the fuel pressure regulator
        valve is normally left open, the scale trap also provides a     - to pump fuel from the tank and deliver it to the burner
        surge volume. This makes it possible to start up with a          at 100 psi. An added solenoid valve controls admission
        full boiler and go to operating pressure and temperature         of fuel to the burner. The engine driven pump is able to
        without having to blow off during the process.                   maintain fuel pressure except during start up and very

                                                                                                             The Steam Automobile
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    long, steep hills. A small electric fuel pump is installed
    in parallel with the engine driven pump to take care of
    these conditions.
          Feed Water System: The engine driven water pumps
    deliver water into a new system consisting of a pressure
    relief valve set at 700 psi, a one-gallon hydraulic accumu-
    lation (shown in Fig. 3), and two solenoid valves in para-
    llel. One solenoid valve is orificed to pass about 0.4 gpm
    and is controlled to open whenever the burner is firing.
    The other valve has a large orifice and is controlled to
    open by the electronic unit on the basis of the tempera-
    tures within the boiler. The accumulator stores water
    pumped when there is no boiler demand and injects it
    on demand. This partially matches the speed related out-
    put of the pumps to the power related demand of the
    boiler. The engine driven pumps are thus able to main-
    tain feed water under all conditions except start up and
    very long steep hills. An electrically driven Hypro pump       a 35-amp automotive alternator through a chain drive
    (Fig. 4) geared to deliver 0.5 gpm, is installed in parallel   speed increase (Fig. 5) to achieve full output at 10 miles
    with the engine driven pumps to take care of these con-        per hour. Under normal circumstances the electrical drain
    ditions.                                                       is about 20 amps for the blower, ignition, and solenoids
          Electrical System: The car has been converted to 12      when firing. The alternator is able to maintain the battery
    volts. The battery box was modified to accept a size 27        without auxiliary charging.
    battery. All lamps were replaced with 12-volt lamps and             Exhaust System: A centrifugal separator and float
    all added motors, solenoids, relays, etc. are 12 volt. The     type trap (on the right in Fig. 3) have been installed in
    generator was removed and its drive shaft used to drive        the exhaust steam line between the engine and the conden-

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                                                                            Performance: The proof of the pudding is in the eat--
                                                                      ing, and the proof of a steam car is in the driving. As
                                                                      one might expect with a four-gallon an hour fire, our
                                                                      Stanley is no hot rod. On level ground the maximum sus-
                                                                      tainable speed is between 30 and 32 mph. It will majes-
                                                                      tically but steadily climb 10% to 12% grades for a quarter
                                                                      mile or more. And, we have on several occasions mea-
                                                                      sured the time from a dead cold start until the car is out
                                                                      of the garage to be 1 min. and 45 sec.
                                                                            We also made a number of performance tests, and we
                                                                      believe the following measurements or calculated results
                                                                      to be reasonably accurate:
                                                                            Fuel mileage - 8 mpg at a steady 30 mph
                                                                                            8.4 mpg overall "trip" mileage
                                                                            Gross horsepower @ 25 mph level grade - 9.3 Hp
                                                                            Maximum sustainable Hp at 4 gph firing rate- 13.1 Hp
                                                                            Specific fuel consumption - 2.1 lbs/gross Hp hr

                                   Fig. 4
        sor. This removes the cylinder oil and periodically voids
        it. The separator appears to be quite effective. Normally
        before startup we overflow the water tank and catch the
        overflow in a clean container. Only a few small drops of
        oil appear on the surface of that water.
              Water Treatment: To minimize corrosion throughout
        the water-steam system, we treat the feed water with a
        filming amine. This chemical forms a mono molecular
        film over all the metal surfaces in the system which pro-
        vides protection against oxidation and reduces the scaling
        from hardness dissolved in the water. The system is con-
        structed of all of the common metals which makes it dif-
        ficult to choose a "best" pH for the water, but we have
        decided to try to maintain pH8. The filming amine is basic
        and with our water achieves a pH of 8. If the amine addi-
        tion does not bring the water up to 8, morpholine can be
              Since we initiated the amine treatment, the water re-
        mains sparkling clear and the blowdown from the scale
        trap contains relatively little particulate.
                                                                            Specific steam consumption - 263 lbs/gross Hp hr
                                                                            Observations and Opinions: It would be convenient
                                                                      on many occasions to be able to declutch and run the
                                                                      engine without moving the car.
                                                                            The steam storage capacity of the pipe between the
                                                                      throttle valve and the engine makes maneuvering in close
                                                                      quarters difficult and sometimes a little frightening. Ideally,
                                                                      the throttle should be quite close to the engine.
                                                                            List of Equipment: The following list of equipment
                                                                      used in the revision is given for the benefit of those who
                                                                      would like to obtain any of the items.
                                                                            Steam Generator: The M.S.S. MK II monotube steam
                                                                      generator, designed and fabricated by the Mobile Steam
                                                                      Society. Detailed drawings available from M.S.S., 106 E.
                                                                      Irving Lane, Oak Ridge, Tenn. 37830.
                                                                            Throttle Valve: Jordan valve 1/2 in. model 70 with
                                                                      Jordanite trim - Jordan Valve Company, Helen & Blade
                                                                      Sts., Cincinnati, Ohio 45216, Phone: 513/242-3100.
                                  Fig. 5                                                                         Continued on Page 26

       22                                                                                                  The Steam Automobile
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                    IMPROVED VALVING
                                                       by F. L. Williams

         The following drawing is a preliminary sketch of how     and I would certainly recommend that the design of cylin-
     I suggest that steam engines be designed for automobiles     der and piston valves shown in Fig. 3 and 4 be used as
     or boats. It embodies well tried principals of steam en-     there would then be no backpressure build up at the end
     gine design called "Scotch Yoke", which requires no con-     of each stroke, which surely must be a detriment to the
     necting rod or wristpin, but does have balanced cranks.      efficiency of the engines made out of 2 cycle I.C. motor
     The usual steel sliding block would instead be of alumi-     blocks. It is possible that certain rotary valves that are be-

    num, or similar metal which would have bearing surfaces      ing made may eliminate the backpressure problem, but
    of teflon attached to each side of the 2 sliding blocks.     how long are these rotary valves going to last under the
    This suggestion modernizes the Scotch Yoke design, which     grueling job they have to do at high speed and with the
    could be run at high speeds on very hot steam.               hot steam, which is a must if any kind of efficiency is to
         As shown, the 2 high pressure cylinders are diagon-     be obtained? Also, if a simple engine design is used, then
    ally opposite, and of course the two cranks are set at 90    the idea of returning the steam from the high-pressure cyl-
    degrees, so they would start like any 2 cylinder simple      inders to the firebox for passage thru a reheating coil, is
    engine would start and not need any form of simplying        out. In steam turbine electric generating points this is done
    valve. The Baker Valve gear shown in Fig. 1 and 2, of        once or twice as the steam passes thru the turbine, and
    the A. D. Baker catalogue shown here, might be used,         this certainly would not be done if there was nothing to

    Nineteen Seventy-Four                                                                  23
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        be gained by so doing.                                                          reason that superheated steam has been frowned upon in
             In order for steam power to compete with I.C. power,                       times gone by.
        I believe that nothing that will add to the efficiency                                I would use bevel gear drive from the crankshaft to
        should be overlooked. In my plan the engine will lie be-                        the propeller shaft in either cars or boats.
        tween the frames of a car, about under the footboard so                               The above engine plan would have a low center of
        that the H.P. exhaust steam can readily be returned to the                      gravity and be less in the way than vertical or V type
        firebox for reheating before it goes to the L.P. cylinders.                     engines, and have more advantages than any other design
        I would also suggest that thermostatically operated auto-                       that I know of.
        matic cylinder drain valves be designed and attached to                              I wish that someone would build this design of engine
        each cylinder. This will prevent the accidental blowing                         for the automotive and marine market because I am physi-
        of cylinder heads, which has been an excuse for using                           cally and financially unable to do so, but I certainly would
        power consuming self destroying slide valves, which were                        like to see steam back where it has really always belonged.
        one of the great objections to all such engines, and one

                    How the "Baker" Valve Gear Does the Business
                                                                                          By the mechanism here shown, we transmit a motion to the valve
       Fig. 1 shows the piston standing in the cylinder 4½ inches from the            that conforms to the travel of the piston, giving us a square cut-off, uni-
       back end, and 5½ inches from the front end, when the crank is at 90            form lead, and quick port opening.
       degrees from dead center, or the position usually called "half stroke."            The swinging arm is readily adjusted to any position between 6 and
       In other words, the crank has made a quarter revolution, starting from         7, by means of the reverse lever.
       1 in the diagram; but the piston has traveled more than half the                   It will be thoroughly understood that the valve may be adjusted to
       length of the cylinder, for the reason that the connecting-rod stands at       cut off steam at any point from 1/6 to 7/10 of the stroke, either for-
       an angle when the crank is at 2.                                               ward or backward.

                                                                                                           The "Baker" Uniflow Cylinder
                                                                                         A UNI FLOW Cylinder is one where the steam in the cylinder flows
                                                                                      just in one direction as it passes through it. Steam comes in a port at the
                                                                                      end of the cylinder and follows the piston up to the end of the cylinder
                                                                                      and around the cylinder wall, which are uncovered by the piston. It will
                                                                                      be seen that a long piston, which is nearly one-half the length of the cyl-
                                                                                      inder, is used so that release does not come until late in the stroke.
                                                                                         When the piston covers these exhaust ports on the return stroke,
            From 2 to 3 the connecting rod is returning to the straightway            compression would run up very high by the time the piston got to the
       position, and the piston will travel less than half the stroke. While the      end of the stroke if special means were not provided to prevent it.
       crank travels from 1 to 2, the piston travels 5½ inches; when it moves             By referring to accompanying illustration of the Uniflow Cylinder,
       from 2 to 3, the piston moves 4½ inches.                                       you will note that we use a piston valve which admits steam at the outer
           The angularity of the connecting-rod is, of course, a fact that cannot
       be avoided so long as a straight rod must be carried around a circle;
       neither can the difference in the speed of the piston from opposite ends
       of the cylinder be overcome or modified, nor are such changes necessary
       or desirable, because it is possible to build a valve gear that will conform
       to the angularity of the connecting-rod, and the consequent variable
       travel of the piston.

           Such is the Valve Gear shown in Figure 2, which is used exclusively
       on "Baker" Traction Engines. The valve cuts off at an equal distance
       from either end of the stroke.
           By reference to the sectional view above, you will notice that when        end of the valve. This valve has a piston head on each end with two
       the swinging arm of reverse is pivoted at 6, the end of the eccentric arm      rings on each head. It also has a center valve which controls release at
       swings in an arc in one direction, and when it is pivoted at 7, it swings      center port in valve chamber. The exhaust edges or inner edges of the
       in the opposite direction, the two curved lines crossing each other on a       end valves have 1/8 inch clearance when the valve is in center position
       center line parallel with the center line of the engine when the crank is      and the center valve has 5/16 inch lap in same position. By this means
       on dead center, either forward or backward. The center of the pin in           we permit the compression in the cylinder to escape into the valve
       the end of eccentric arm stands centrally with the center line of rocker       chamber up to the time that the inner edge of the end valve closes port
       shaft bearing. This means that the angularity of the curved lines above        to exhaust steam. By having 1/8 inch clearance, this causes the valve to
       the center is greater than that of the curved lines below the center. The      close late in the stroke. Consequently, the compression is low and the
       curved lines above the center represent the crank end, and those below         5/16 inch lap on center valve holds the steam behind the piston until it
       the center represent the opposite end of the cylinder.                         (the piston) almost reaches the end of the stroke.

       24                                                                                                                          The Steam Automobile
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                          Reasons Why the "Baker" Uniflow Cylinder
                      Uses Less Fuel Than a Common Single Valve Engine
        CYLINDER temperatures also are always about the same as the                           There are two other serious troubles that cannot be overcome in a
    steam that is driving the piston. There is no crossing over of pressure in            common, single valve engine: First, in short cut-off, the steam is re-
    the cylinder. Steam entering at each end of the cylinder expands and                  leased from the cylinder too early in the stroke and compression begins
     loses its heat as it approaches the center of the cylinder from each end,            too early; second, this early release causes a portion of the piston stroke
    and the cool exhaust steam passes out of the center exhaust port. In the              to be made by momentum of the moving parts and the excessive com-
    old style cylinder, hot steam is likewise admitted at each end, but the               pression, which is always present when running on short cut-off, retards
    cool exhaust steam gets beyond the center of the cylinder, cooling its                the piston.
    walls at a point where the hot steam is admitted on the next stroke, and                  In the "Baker" Uniflow, compression is always low by having large
    this cool steam also passes back through the admission ports and valve,               exhaust clearance at inner edges of end valves, and release is late owing
    lowering their temperature just before hot steam is admitted for the                  to lap on center valve.
    next stroke of the piston.

                                                                                 Fig. 4
        The action of the steam in the Uniflow Cylinder is as follows:                        The admitting of nearly boiler pressure to the cylinder, late release,
         Steam is admitted to the cylinder, any percent of the stroke of the              low compression, and small amount of back pressure, together with the
    piston desired, from 15 percent to 70 percent, depending upon the loca-               small amount of cylinder condensation, explains why the "Baker" Uni-
     tion of the reverse lever. Release is constant and takes place at 91 per-            flow Engine will produce more power with a given size cylinder, and
     cent of the stroke at all times, regardless of point of cut-off.                     will also do it with less fuel and water than any other traction engine
         Fig. 4 shows four positions of the piston and valve as the piston                ever built.
     makes its stroke with valve cutting off at 50 percent. The curved arrows                 The best results and maximum efficiency are attained by carrying
    show direction of steam, and straight arrows show direction of moving                 high pressure and with extremely early cut-off. We, therefore, mount
    parts.                                                                                the Uniflow on a boiler suitable for carrying 180 pounds steam - one
         Figure A shows piston and valve at beginning of stroke. Figure B                 which is tested at 270 pounds hydrostatic pressure. The boiler is an
    shows them at point of cut-off. At this point, the main exhaust ports in              A.S.M.E. boiler, heavier, we believe, than any other traction boiler
    the cylinder wall are covered by the piston, while the small amount of                being made.
                                                                                                                  Other Important Features
    steam remaining in opposite end of cylinder after principal exhaust has
    taken place, is escaping through the auxiliary exhaust port in center of                  The Throttle-valve is direct-acting, controlled by a lever, in easy
    valve chamber. Figure C shows the center valve closing auxiliary exhaust              reach of either hand. We use Pickering and Gardner Governors, which
    port, and at this point pressure begins to build up in the valve chamber              are so well known that description is unnecessary.
    between the two end valves for the purpose of preventing early release                    The Piston is cast in one piece, cored to reduce weight, is fitted with
    on crank end. The pressure built up between the valves is very nearly                 four over-lapping packing rings, and entirely steam-tight.
    equal to the pressure behind the piston at time of release, thereby hold-                 The Cross-head differs from that used on any other engine, in that
    ing pressure behind piston until the main exhaust ports around cylinder               the cross-head shoes are independently adjustable, being carried on a
    wall are uncovered by it. Figure D shows piston nearly at the end of its              pivot-bearing, so arranged that they will adjust themselves to perfect
    stroke at point of release. It is opening the main exhaust port, and cen-             alignment with the guides, having a uniform bearing their full length.
    ter valve is opening auxiliary exhaust port.                                          There can be no uneven wear.

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       Continued from Page 19                                            Continued from Page 7 Chicago Steam Auto Show
         tubing wound up in it. It is lighted by an ingenious in-              After dinner Saturday evening the Carters showed
         vention of Mike's. A rubber hose attaches to a small pro-        movies and slides of details of their steam power system.
         pane tank behind the seat. The end of the hose is fitted        It was obvious that the expander and generator were small,
         with a metal tip which Mike lights, then pushes through         compact and light in weight. Jay Carter, Jr. explained
         a hole in the asbestos covering of the boiler. The asbestos     many phases of the EPA test of their car at Ann Arbor,
         keeps Mike's legs from slowly broiling, but it's still a real   Michigan in May. The test records showed a high of 24.7
         hot seat!                                                       mpg. However, the EPA chose to use the low figure of 14.9
               "I just keep traveling when the boiler is fired up. To    mpg. Carbon monoxide and hydro carbons were below Fed-
         stop and talk can be a real problem, especially since some      eral regulations. The nitrogen oxides were slightly above
         of the steam still escapes from the engine and becomes           regulations, which is just a matter of air adjustment. EPA
         instant hot water, which then splashes down into my             in their bulletin report on Carter's car said "had the
         shoes".                                                         Carters disclosed to them the engineering and design de-
               The engine has a piston in the cylinder, with cross-      tails, they could have have helped them".
         head supports for the piston rod. The arrangement con-                The Carter steam car has definitely solved the ques-
        verts back and forth motion into a rotary action, and the        tion of air pollution by automobiles and without tailpipe
        whole thing is practically indestructible.                       add-ons such as catalysts, thermal reactors, auxiliary con-
               "No one knows how many million of miles a steam           trol hardware or exhaust gas recirculators.
        engine will last, so the use of it in a modern automobile              Because of the high interest in the speakers and their
        would be fantastic", Mike firmly states.                         subjects, all three evenings many stayed in the meeting
               The small engine gets up a real head of steam, some       room until midnight directing questions to the various
        80 to 100 pounds of pressure. Using 40 to 60 pounds of           speakers and getting answers to their questions.
        this pressure, Mike can go 10-12 miles per hour on the                Our Chicago Steam Auto Show this year had TV and
        level.                                                           radio coverage as well as national newspaper publicity.
               "I don't know what percent grade I can climb with         This brought about numerous letters and phone calls since
        it. It's just been finished for a couple months, and I have      then and radio station interviews with Mr. Lyon on both
        not had a chance to try it on hills, but I think I could         United States and Canadian broadcasts.
        work it out on the drawing board."
              His drawing board shares honors with a tool bench and
                                                                         Continued from Page 22   MSS Stanley
        several intricate models he has made of working machinery.
        All this is housed, along with the bike, in the building              Feed Water Accumulator: Greerolator Model 20-250
        Mike's father built for his model railroad. His scientific       TMR S 3/4 A66797-200, 1 gallon capacity, 2000 psi -
        experiments have been encouraged by an interested woman          Greer Olear Products, 5930 W. Jefferson Blvd., Los An-
       teacher.                                                          geles, Calif. 90018, Phone: 213/870-9161.
              Whenever Mike needs a lathe or drill press, he goes             Oil Separator: 1 1/2 in. Type T entertainment sepa-
       to a neighbor's workshop, where he is most welcome.               rator, cast iron with NPT connections - Wright Austin
       The neighbor thinks his idea for a steam car is a bit way         Company, 3245 Wight St., Detroit, Mich. 48207, Phone:
       out, but he is glad to see an 18-year-old who'd rather            313/567-0243.
       tinker with his quiet steam bike than roar around on a                 Steam Trap: 3/4 in. No. 90-AC float trap - Wright
       cackling minibike.                                                Austin Company, 3245 Wight Street, Detroit, Mich. 48207,
              "What I really plan on doing is buying up an old en-       Phone: 313/567-0243.
       gine from a Stanley Steamer, then designing a car to go                Feed Water Pump: Hypro model C5320C rated @ 0.5
       around it. Something light, yet tough. With all the new           gpm, 500 psi at 1800 rpm -Hypro, 375 Fifth Ave., N.W.,
       metals, that should be possible. I'd make it real stream-         New Brighton, Minn. 55112, Phone: 612/633-9300. Feed
       lined, so it would stay in style a long time."                    water pressure unloading valve - PHYPRO RB-3390-6
              Much of the locomotive is to be found in Mike's            Unloader.
       steam bike. The throttle moves backward and forward.                   Feed Water Pump Drive Motor: American Bosch
       Many of the parts he has adapted from railroad drawings.          Model XMO55-0109A FT No. 1 - American Bosch Com-
       Some of the pieces are his own inventions, different from         pany, P.O. Box 2228, Columbus, Miss. 39701.
       anything now in use on steam engines.                                  Fuel Pump: Webster Electric 8 gph fuel unit - Web-
              Mike would like to build his own automobile steam          ster Electric Company, 1900 Clark St., Racine, Wis. 53403,
       engine, and in time he probably will. But he has no cast-         Phone: 414/633-3511.
       ing facilities, so for a while he will have to be content              Fuel Pump Drive Motor: American Bosch M0551045A.
       with a Stanley engine. In fact, that's what he has asked               Filming Amine: Calgon FL-125 29LlB-CalgonCorp.,
       for Christmas this year.                                          P.O. Box 1346, Pittsburgh, Pa. 15230.
              His mother looks at his greasy hands, and sighs:
       "Well, he's too old for a train set, so we are looking for        "Your antique or modern steam articles are always wel-
       an engine he can use. But it will look mighty funny under         come. Keep sending them."
       the tree on Christmas morning."

       26                                                                                                       The Steam Automobile
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