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					                EDM6210
       Education Policy and Society




               Lecture 7
Education Policy and Social Integration:
   Project of State Formation



               Wing-kwong Tsang
            www.fed.cuhk.edu.hk/~wktsang
「他們殺我們漢族人,我們也要殺他」
漢人刀棍上街復仇
2009 年 07 月 08 日

新疆烏魯木齊發生維吾爾族人騷亂事件後,當地漢維兩族人的矛盾和衝突進一步
升級。昨日,有數千名漢人組織自衞隊,手持菜刀、木棍、斧頭等武器,上街示
威,有人沿途高喊:「我們漢人不是好欺負的。」有漢人為報復,大肆破壞維族
人的商店,武警等隨即施放數十枚催淚彈驅散漢人示威者。當局為避免情況惡
化,宣佈烏魯木齊由昨晚 9 時至今早 8 時實施宵禁,並派解放軍進駐,候命平
定局面。
■ 2010 年 11 月 02 日
                     ■ 20102010 年 11 月 09 日
                            年 10 月 20 日
觀點      梁恩榮
      觀點 觀點 黃均瑜
如何培育「批判性愛國者」
         觀點 黃均瑜
                     別拿學生滿足政治任務
                       國民教育走進課堂仍然是禁忌嗎?
【明報專訊】                 國民教育走進課堂仍然是禁忌嗎?
                   【明報專訊】
                       【明報專訊】
近期特區政府的施政報告提出             「教育局會邀請課程發展議會檢視中、
                   回歸以降,香港就有一把聲音老是認為青年人的「國家認同」不足,因此
                       每當特區政府建議加強國民教育,總會招來謾罵與批評。今年施政報
小學的德育及公民教育課程架構,進一步加強國民教育內容,使這個
                       ……
                   必須要加強加強再加強國民教育,而最方便的就是由學校裏做起。「國民
                       告提出「進一步加強國民教育內容, 使這個課題成為獨立的『德育
課題成為獨立的          『德育及國民教育科』   ,預計可於 2013/14 學年推行」
                   教育」已連續 4 年在施政報告中有專項介紹,而今年施政報告恐怕最能滿
                       及國民教育科』」,社會上隨即出現反對論調。本來,香港社會言論
(第 160 段)。這建議引起公民社會的強烈反彈,他們提出很多的
                       事實上,推動愛國並不等於否定中國有落後和不足之處,國家政府的
                   足這種無止境的需索——政府打算於中小學設立德育及國民教育科,會有
                       自由,各人都有表達意見的自由和空間,但如果論點來來去去都離不
擔憂,例如國民教育的潛在排他性,建議應同時強化人權教育和全球
                       工作報告也不迴避這些問題。正因為看到國家仍有落後與不足,才有
                   考試;又會增加學習《基本法》及相關內容的時數。除此之外,還會將國
                       開「洗腦論」和「狹隘論」,那麼,這只顯示出香港儘管已經回歸了
                           。
公民教育來平衡這些潛在的危機 他們也指出政府一直大力提倡歌功
                       施展抱負的空間。論者怪罪國民教育沒有高唱國家的黑暗面,其實國
                   內交流團的數量加碼,讓每個學生會有至少一次機會回國內交流。國民教
                       13 年,不少事物雖然都在開放、在進步,但在某些論者心目中,國
頌德式的國民教育,只側重國家的發展及繁榮,並沒有針對中國的現
                       家的負面信息媒體每日都會有,自不需我們代勞。關鍵是所有結論都
                   育轉型為愛國主義教育,似乎為期不遠。
                       民教育似乎依然停留了在歷史某一時空。
實狀况進行客觀分析,缺乏批判思維的取向。如今,政府把國民教育
                       應該在相對充分的正面和反面理由支持下才能作出。
進一步納入正規課程,若然仍是採用上述的取向來教授國民教育,他
                   「國民」蓋過「公民」
                       高唱「洗腦論」
                       因此,在作出價值判斷的過程中,全部正面或全部負面的信息無助於
們擔心此舉將會令學生被迫接受一套具政治灌輸作用的國民教育 最                 ,
                       學生對事物作出正確的判斷。最重要是通過親身接觸,通過資訊與數
終成為盲從的順民。他們反建議國民教育應以培育「批判性愛國者」
                   這種對國民教育的執著,更似是一種威權對青年人無能為力的焦慮。03 年
                       無疑侮辱同儕專業水平
(criticalpatriot)為目的。據的蒐集,讓學生自己作出結論。如果發現國家現况未如理想,那麼,
                   七一青年人蜂擁上街反對 23 條,使這種「國民教育不足」的聲音崛起;而
                       立志推動國家發展,才是國民教育的成果。
                       回歸以來,香港政府一直倚重非政府機構推動國民教育,自己則扮演
                   今年 80 後青年躁動,恐怕也成了要「教育青年更愛國」的理由。掌握意識
教學時盡量避免灌輸              撥款者的角色,好處是不同機構可以舉辦不同類型的活動,形式靈活
                   形態的傳播,用愛國推動青年人的和諧,是內地行之已久的方法;過去香
 Why Education Policy and Society?
2010 年 11 月 09 日
                       2010 年 11 月 09 日
觀點     黃均瑜

國民教育走進課堂仍然是禁忌嗎?
                       觀點     黃均瑜
【明報專訊】
                       國民教育走進課堂仍然是禁忌嗎?
每當特區政府建議加強國民教育,總會招來謾罵與批評。今年施政報
告提出「進一步加強國民教育內容, 使這個課題成為獨立的『德育
    ■ 2010 年 10 月 14 日
及國民教育科』」,社會上隨即出現反對論調。本來,香港社會言論
                       ……
自由,各人都有表達意見的自由和空間,但如果論點來來去去都離不
開「洗腦論」和「狹隘論」,那麼,這只顯示出香港儘管已經回歸了
    要聞 > 要聞            事實上,推動愛國並不等於否定中國有落後和不足之處,國家政府的
13 年,不少事物雖然都在開放、在進步,但在某些論者心目中,國
民教育似乎依然停留了在歷史某一時空。工作報告也不迴避這些問題。正因為看到國家仍有落後與不足,才有
  中學設基本法校內試
高唱「洗腦論」
         施展抱負的空間。論者怪罪國民教育沒有高唱國家的黑暗面,其實國
         家的負面信息媒體每日都會有,自不需我們代勞。關鍵是所有結論都
                      應該在相對充分的正面和反面理由支持下才能作出。
  校長有讚有彈
無疑侮辱同儕專業水平         家長憂死背法律
                   因此,在作出價值判斷的過程中,全部正面或全部負面的信息無助於
回歸以來,香港政府一直倚重非政府機構推動國民教育,自己則扮演
                   學生對事物作出正確的判斷。最重要是通過親身接觸,通過資訊與數
撥款者的角色,好處是不同機構可以舉辦不同類型的活動,形式靈活
     【明報專訊】施政報告建議整合現時德育、公民教育和國民教育課程,在
                   據的蒐集,讓學生自己作出結論。如果發現國家現况未如理想,那麼,
多樣。但不足之處是不夠規範化,各有各表述,不能保證每個學生均
受到相同的教育。如今將國民教育列入正規課程,能夠補足過往的缺
                   立志推動國家發展,才是國民教育的成果。
失。
   2013/14 學年開始會正名為獨立的「德育及國民教育」學科,更要求增加課時
                       在過去一段很長的日子裏,在課室推動國民教育是一種禁忌,如今回
  教授《基本法》,並設校內試作考核,教育局會建立基本法試題庫供學校使
國民教育走進課堂,同時也反映了教師對國民教育的看法。香港的教
                  歸了 13 年,這禁忌仍要保留嗎?
師都受過高等教育和專業訓練,如果論者擔心出現「洗腦」的情况,
  用。有校長擔心增加基本法課程加重教師壓力,家長亦指措施要求學生死背
無疑是對本港教育工作者投以不信任的一票,認定教師將會不辨是
Ethnicity, Citizenship & Nationality in
Social Integration of Modern Societies

                  Social Integrations


          Commonalities                   Differences



          Schooling & Education
   Ethnicity     Citizenship Nationality



  Ethnic group                States                Nation


  Kin   Clans    Localities     Regions   Languages     Religions
Nation-State as the Universal-Global Unit
of Social Integration

 Theory of state formation and education policy as
  means for state formation
 Theory of nation building and education policy as
  means for nation building
 Theory of citizenship development and education
  policy as means for citizenship constitution
Understanding the Concept of the State

 Max Weber‟s Definition of the State
  “Today, however, we have to say that a state is a
  human community that (successfully) claims the
  monopoly of the legitimate use of physical force within
  a given territory. Note that „territory‟ is one of the
  characteristics of the state. Specifically, at the present
  time, the right to use physical force is ascribed to other
  institutions or individuals only to the extent to which
  the state permits it. The state is consider the sole
  source of the „right‟ to use violence.”
                                   (Weber, 1946, p. 78)
Understanding the Concept of the State

  Charles Tilly‟s Definition of the State
   An organization which control the population
   occupying a definite territory is a state insofar as
   (1) it is differentiated from other organizations
   operating in the same territory; (2) it is
   autonomous; (3) it is centralized; and (4) its
   division are formally coordinated with one
   another.
                                     (Tilly, 1975, p. 70)
Understanding the Concept of the State

The constituent features of modern state
      The definitive territory
      The definitive subjects
      Monopoly of use of force and sovereign power
      The establishment of internal and external
       public authority
Understanding the Concept of the State

 Charles Tilly‟s conception of “Stateness”
  The level and degree of stateness can be “measured
  by formal autonomy, differentiation from
  nongovernmental organizations, centralization, and
  internal coordination” of a government. (Tilly, 1975,
  p.34)
 Understanding the Concept of the State

 Marxist‟s conception of the state
    “The executive of the modern state is but a
     committee for managing the common affairs of the
     whole bourgeoisie.” (Marx & Engels, 1848)
    “The state is an organ of class rule, an organ for the
     oppression of one class by another; it is the creation
     of „order‟ which legalizes and perpetuates this
     oppression by moderating the conflict between the
     classes.” (Lenin, 1917)
    Althusser‟s instrumentalist perspective
        Repressive state apparatus
        Ideological state apparatus
  Theories of State Formation

 Stein Rokkan‟s theory of state formation
    From primordial peripheral community to central
     establishment
    Four trajectories of functional differentiations
        Economic-technological differentiation and the
         establishment of CitiesCross-local commercial-industrial
         organization
        Military-administrative differentiation and the
         establishment of Military Organizations for control of
         external conflict
        Judicial-legislative differentiation and the establishment of
         JudiciaryOrganizations for management of internal
         conflict
        Religious-symbolic differentiation and the establishment
         of ChurchCross-local script religion
                                    Territorial
                                     Centers


                    Military: Organization     Judiciary: Organization
                        For Control of          For Management of
                     External Conflicts           Internal Conflicts




 Cities: Cross-Local                                                            Churches:
Commercial-Industrial                                                          Cross-Local
     Organization               Military-           Judicial-                 Script Religions
                             Administrative       Legislative
                             Differentiation     Differentiation



         Economic-Technological                                    Religious-Symbolic
             Differentiation                                         Differentiation




                                     Primordial
                                  Local Community
Theories of State Formation

 Charles Tilly‟s theory of state formation: Coercion,
  Capital, and European States, AD 900-1992 (1992)
    Accumulation and concentration of coercion, and the growth
     and formation of the state
    Accumulation and concentration of capital, and the formation
     and growth of cities
    Coalition and conflict within the state
        Class coalition and struggle in the realm of exploitation
        Coalition and struggle between state authority and citizenship in
         the realm of domination
Theories of State Formation

 Charles Tilly‟s theory of state formation: Coercion,
  Capital, and European States, AD 900-1992 (1992)
    Coalition and conflict among states: The mechanism of war
     preparation and making
          Dialectic relationship between capital accumulation and
           warmaking
          Dialectic relationship between coercion accumulation and
           warmaking
    Dynamics of geopolitics and inter-state system in Europe
                Geopolitical Situation
Coalition &
Struggle                                          Class Coalition
between State                                     and Struggle
& Citizenship                  War
                            Preparation
                             & Making


Concentration                                     Concentration
of coercion                                       of Capital

                Growth of             Growth of
                States                Cities
Accumulation                                      Accumulation
of coercion                                       of Capital

                        Form of State




   Tilly‟s Conception of State Formation
 Theories of State Formation

Pierre Bourdieu‟s Theory of State Formation
   Definition of the State
      “Using a variation of Max Weber‟s famous formula, that
       the state is an X (to be determined) which successfully
       claims the monopoly of the legitimate use of physical
       and symbolic violence over a definite territory and over
       the totality of the corresponding population.” (Bourdieu,
       1999, p. 56)
 Theories of State Formation

Pierre Bourdieu‟s Theory of State Formation
   Definition of the State
      “The state is the culmination of a process of
        concentration of different species of capital:
          • capital of physical force or instruments of
            coercion
          • economic capital,
          • cultural &/or information capital, and
          • symbolic capital.” (p. 57)
 Theories of State Formation

Pierre Bourdieu‟s Theory of State Formation
   Project of constitution of physical & fiscal efficacy
    of the state
      Accumulation of physical capital
         • Internal physical capital accumulation: Policing
           system
         • External physical capital accumulation: Army
           (Military) system
      Accumulation of economic capital
         • Constitution of taxation and fiscal system
 Theories of State Formation

 Pierre Bourdieu‟s Theory of State Formation
    Project of constitution of symbolic efficacy of the
      state
        Concentration of informational capital: “The state
         concentrates, treats, and redistributes information and,
         most of all, effects a theoretical unification. Taking the
         vantage point of the Whole, of society in its totality, the
         state claims responsibility for all operations of totalization
         (especially thanks to census taking and statistics or
         national accounting) and of objectivation through
         cartography (the unitary representation of space from
         above) or more simply through writing as an instrument
         of accumulation of knowledge (e.g. archive), as well as for
         all operation of codification as cognitive unification.” (p.
         61)
 Theories of State Formation

 Pierre Bourdieu‟s Theory of State Formation
    Project of constitution of symbolic efficacy of the state
        Concentration of cultural capital: “The state contributes
         to the unification of the cultural market by unifying all
         codes, linguistic and juridical, and by effecting a
         homogenization of all forms of communication, including
         bureaucratic communication. Through classification
         systems inscribed in law, through bureaucratic
         procedures, educational structures and social rituals, the
         state molds mental structures and imposes common
         principles of vision and division, forms of thinking that
         are to the civilized mind. … And it thereby contributes to
         the construction of what is commonly designated as
         national identity.” (p. 61)
 Theories of State Formation

 Pierre Bourdieu‟s Theory of State Formation
    Project of constitution of symbolic efficacy of the
      state
       Constitution of symbolic capital:
         • “Symbolic capital is any property (any form of capital
            whether physical, economic, cultural or social) when it is
            perceived by social agents endowed with categories of
            perception which cause them to know it and to recognize it,
            to give it value.” (p. 62)
          • Concentration of juridical capital
          • Nomination of state nobility
 Conception of Citizenship:
 Membership in the Modern State

Reinhard Bendix‟s Definition of Citizenship:
   Individualistic and plebiscitarian membership
    before the sovereign and nation-wide public
    authority
   Development of citizenship: “the codification of the
    rights and duties of all adults who are classified as
    citizens”. (Bendix, 1964, p.90)
 Conception of Citizenship:
 Membership in the Modern State

T.H. Marshall‟s Thesis of Citizenship and
 Social Class
   Contradictory trajectory of development of
    capitalism and citizenship
      Capitalism is an institution based upon the principle of
       inequality, which is in turn built on uneven distribution of
       property and/or property right
      Citizenship is an institution based upon the principle of
       equality, which is built on equal citizen status and its
       derivative rights
   Development of citizenship is construed by
    Marshall as means of abating social class conflict
 Conception of Citizenship:
 Membership in the Modern State

T.H. Marshall‟s Thesis …
   The trajectory of citizenship development
      Development of civil rights in the 18th century and the
       constitution of the Court of Justice and the Rule of Law
      Development of the political rights in the 19th century and
       the constitution of the parliamentary system and the
       democratic state
      Development of the social rights in the 20th century and
       the constitution of the social service departments and the
       welfare state
 Conception of Citizenship:
 Membership in the Modern State

Wesley Hohfeld‟s Conception of Rights
     Rights as Liberties
     Rights as Claims
     Rights as Powers
     Rights as Immunities
     Classification of Citizenship Rights with Hodfeld‟s
      Conception
 Conception of Citizenship:
 Membership in the Modern State

Classification of Citizenship Obligations
   Legal, Political, Social and Participation
    Obligations
   Support, Caring, Service and Protection
    Obligations
 Conception of Citizenship:
 Membership in the Modern State

Justification of Citizenship Obligations
   Instrumentalist Perspective: Obligations as
    exchanges for Acceptance and/or Recipience of
    Rights
   Communitarian Perspective: Accepting Obligations
    as Legitimacy
  
 Conception of Citizenship:
 Membership in the Modern State

Obligations as Moral Requirements
   Classification of zones of action
      Indifference
      Moral requirement
      Superrerogation
   Three instances of scale
      Scale of obligation
      Scale of recipience
      Scale of action
Mass Education Policy & the Formation of
Modern State: A Historical Account

 Why were state educational system constructed
  throughout Europe in the late eighteenth and early
  nineteenth centuries?
Mass Education Policy & the Formation of
Modern State: A Historical Account

Prussia
 1716: Fredrick William I made attendance at village schools
  compulsory for all children not otherwise provided with
  instruction
 1763: Fredrick II (Fredrick the Great )issued General
  Regulation for Village School at the end of the Seven Year
  War (1756-1763), in which Prussia and England defeated
  Austria and France
 Compulsory state-directed education as means for national
  unification of Prussia
 1806: The defeat by the Napoleon and the humiliating Treaty
  of Tilsit elicited the call for the provision of universal, state-
  directed, compulsory education as means for nation building
Mass Education Policy & the Formation of
Modern State: A Historical Account

 Austria
   1774: Under the rule of Joseph II, universal compulsory
    education law was passed after the defeat in the Seven
    Year War by Prussia and England
   1866: The defeat by Prussia led to definite effort to
    establish a state-controlled and secular schooling
    system
 Denmark
   1721: Frederick IV proclaimed to build a genuine national
    education system
   The loss of Norway and Sweden in 1809 symbolized the
    fall from the status as a major European power, the state
    passed the law of introducing compulsory education for
    children between the age seven and fourteen.
Mass Education Policy & the Formation of
Modern State: A Historical Account

France
 1791: The 1791 Constitution called for the establishment of a
  system of free instruction common to all citizens.
 Napoleon rose to power and developed secondary and
  higher education as a means to produce effective elites from
  the military and governmental apparatus.
 Democratizing and secularizing trends in education were
  repressed as the result of the 1840 Revolution and the
  subsequent regime of the Louis Napoleon in 1892.
 After the defeat by Prussia in the Franco-Prussian War in
  1870, by 1881 the Third Republic established a universal,
  free compulsory primary school system
Mass Education Policy & the Formation of
Modern State: A Historical Account

England
 1807: First attempt to extend public aid to parochial schools
  for the mass was defeated in the House of Lords.
 1870: Elementary Education Act 1870 mandated the
  provision of elementary education to all but stopped short
  of decreeing compulsory education. The Act could be
  interpreted as responses to a number of political instances,
  e.g. the 1867 political reform enfranchising the working
  classes, the rise of the unified Germany and the United
  States in the late 1860s threatened British industrial
  supremacy, and the 1867 Paris Exhibition, at which English
  products compared unfavorably with those of other
  countries.
 1944: Introduction of 9-year compulsory education
Mass Education Policy & the Formation of
Modern State: A Historical Account

 The Thesis of the Political Construction of Mass
  Education
    The rise of European model of national society
    The rise of nation-state and the intensification of
     inter-state conflict
    The Reformation in Christianity and counter-
     Reformation
    The rise of the exchange economy
                        Institutionalization of
               the Nation-State & the interstate System

  Reformation &                                        Expansion of the
Counter-reformation                                   exchange Economy

                      Elements of the European
                      Model of a national Society
                      1. Myth of the individual
                      2. Myth of the nation as an
                        aggregate of individuals
                      3. Myth of progress (national
                        & individual)
                      4.Myth of socialization and
                        life-cycle continuity
                      5. Myth of the state as the
                        guardian of the nation



                      State Educational System as
                       Means of National Mobility
Mass Education Policy & the Formation of
Modern State: A Historical Account

 Education as a World Culture Institution
     Ontological basis of modern education
        primary unit: individual child
        organizational unit: school
        role unit within organization: principal, teacher and
          student
        institutional unit: nation-state
     Structural basis of modern education
        free, egalitarian, compulsory and rational
        professionalized personnel
        standardized and certified product
Mass Education Policy & the Formation of
Modern State: A Historical Account

 Education as a World Culture Institution
    Legitimation basis of modern organization
       enhances labor productivity
       creates good citizenship
       provides opportunities for self-fulfillment
       increase national well-being, security, political
         stability
       facilitates democracy, liberty and equality
Education Policy and the Contradiction of
the Welfare State
Current Education Reform and the Neo-
Liberal and Competition State

				
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