2007_Idaho_Mule_Deer_Hunter_Study by shuifanglj

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									  2007 Idaho Mule Deer Hunter
             Study
          Final Report




                       By:
Nick Sanyal, PhD., Associate Professor
Ed Krumpe, Ph.D., Professor
Dana Coombs, Undergraduate Research Assistant

  Department of Conservation Social Sciences
         College of Natural Resources
              University of Idaho

                Prepared for:
      Idaho Department of Fish and Game
                 March 2008
     2007 IDAHO MULE DEER HUNTER STUDY
                             FINAL REPORT
    Nick Sanyal, Ph.D., Associate Professor
    Ed Krumpe, Ph.D., Professor
    Dana Coombs, Undergraduate Research Assistant

     Department of Conservation Social Sciences
     College of Natural Resources
     University of Idaho




                         EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Motivations for Hunting

   Compared to 1989, hunters in 2007 exhibit slightly weaker attachment to most
    motivations for hunting.
           Only two motivations, “doing something with the family” and “developing
            close friendships”, show greater importance in the 2007 study.

           In general, the relative ranking of motivations remains fairly stable.

   The social domains of “Friends” and “Values” are more important than the
    harvest related motivations.


   We identified four types of hunters:

           Type A hunters are equally distributed across the strata, making up about
            17% of the hunter population.

           Type B hunters (about 30% statewide) are more common in Region 7,
            where they make up about a third of all hunters.

           Type C hunters (25% statewide) are less likely to be found in Regions 2
            and among non-residents and are more likely in Region 4.

           Type D hunters are dominant among non-residents.
Page |2




Hunter Decision Making

   In all seven Regions, mule deer hunters rated social motivations for hunting as
    being more important than “harvesting a large buck.”

             “Being with friends,” “doing something with the family” and “developing
              close friendships” were scored moderately to quite important.

             “Harvesting a large buck” was scored lower as somewhat important to
              moderately important.

             “Doing something with the family’ was the most important reason, followed
              by “being with friends.”

   Harvesting a large buck was not a major motivator for hunting. For example,
    while hunters in Regions 2, 5 and 7 rated “harvesting a large buck” the highest of
    all the Regions, it was rated only “moderately important” on the five point scale.

             It should be noted that the non-resident hunters scored “Harvesting a
              large buck” as more important than Idaho residents.

             Generally, “harvesting any buck” was not very important, but even less
              popular was “getting a small buck”.

   Mule deer hunters in Idaho do value hunting for meat.

             In six of the seven regions, hunters scored “putting meat on the table”
              either higher or the same as “harvesting a large buck.”

             Only in Region 2 was a large buck a more important motivation than
              putting meat on the table.

   Mule deer hunters take many things into consideration when choosing where,
    when and why to go hunting besides just the likelihood of harvesting a deer.

             Their two most important considerations were “an area where they can
              hunt every year” and “an area they are familiar with”. Both were rated as
              quite important on the five point scale.
                                                                               Page |3



         Moderately important were “an area close to home” and “an area where
          they don’t have to compete with ATVs or trail bikes”.

         Hunters are also influenced by the motivations for experiencing nature,
          developing their skills, harvesting game, social interaction, and gaining
          recognition from their peers.

         For all hunters, social interaction was more important than harvest, and
          indeed experiencing nature and developing their skills were more
          important than just harvesting deer.

 Characteristics of the hunting are also influence the decision of where to hunt.

         Idaho mule deer hunters primarily choose their hunting area based upon
          available access to public lands, greatest chance of harvest success, and
          where they can also hunt elk during mule deer season.

         Access to private land and hunting in areas where they can hunt with any
          weapon had almost no effect on their decisions.

         Finally, an area with many mule deer but few mature bucks was generally
          considered to be negative.

 A variety of weapons are used for hunting Mule deer but over 90% of all hunters
  used rifles.

         Compound bows were used by a quarter of the hunters In Regions 1 and
          5. The lowest compound bow use of was by hunters in Region 3 (12.5%).

         Muzzle loaders were most popular in Region 1, where 13% of the hunters
          use them.

 Many hunt with more than one weapon. Thirty six percent of the hunters in
  Region 1 used multiple weapons, followed by about 25% in Regions 5, 6 and 7.
  The least-used weapon was the crossbow (less than 1%), while the recurve or
  longbow and the inline muzzleloader were only slightly more popular.

         It should be noted that over two thirds of all hunters hunted with rifles only.

 Of those who hunted in special weapons seasons, between 66% and 86%
  hunted in one other special weapons season, while about one fifth hunted in two
  additional special weapons seasons.
Page |4



   Archery-only was the most popular additional special weapon season, with over
    one fourth participating in it.


   Because it was important for most hunters to hunt when fewer others were a-
    field, most hunters had a preference for hunting during Deer archery season,
    Short-range weapons season, or Muzzleloader season.


   Overall 62% of all hunters would accept an advance setting of hunting seasons.
    Less than 7% said they would not accept the advance season setting. Support
    was highest in Region 2 at 73% acceptance.




Quality of the Hunt

   Hunters find large mule deer bucks most desirable and smaller buck and
    antlerless deer less desirable. Non-residents have the highest desirability ratings
    large bucks.




Satisfaction Level

   Hunters are most satisfied with the opportunity to hunt in 2006. They are also
    positive about the overall quality of the experience, the amount of access, and
    the length and timing of the season.

             Although the satisfaction with the 2006 mule deer hunting experience was
              higher for those hunters who harvested a deer in 2006, but it did not vary
              with the type of deer harvested.

             Non-residents were the most satisfied with the length of the season.

             Hunters in Region 5 were least satisfied with the amount of access, while
              non-resident hunters were most satisfied.

             Non-residents were the most satisfied with the length of the season.
                                                                              Page |5



          Hunters in Region 2 were most satisfied with the number of other hunters
           encountered.

          Satisfaction with the 2006 mule deer hunting experience did not vary with
           ATV ownership.

          Satisfaction with the 2006 mule deer hunting experience about the same
           for hunters willing to accept restrictions for large bucks, as it was for
           hunters unwilling to do so.

          Satisfaction with the 2006 mule deer hunting experience was higher for
           those hunters who harvested a mule deer in 2006.

  Hunters are neutral about the effects of the number of other hunters seen.
   Hunters in Region 2 were most satisfied with the number of other hunters
   encountered.

          Satisfaction with the hunting experience was lower for those hunters who
           reported that the quality of their hunting experience was seriously
           impacted by the numbers of other hunters.

  Hunters were most dissatisfied with the number of deer seen, the number of
   ATV’s encountered, and the size and number of bucks seen.

          Hunters who use and ATV/trail bike while hunting reported higher
           satisfaction with the number of ATVs seen.




Hunter Crowding

  Across all Regions there is a clear preference for lengthening the season to
   alleviate crowding.

          Choosing a species to reduce the numbers of hunters a-field at a time is
           not acceptable to all hunters.

          Hunters are split over controlled hunts and stratified hunts and they are
           not accepting of zone restrictions.
Page |6




Restrictions for large bucks

   Between 59 and 71 percent of Idaho residents, and almost 80% of non-resident
    hunters are willing to accept additional restrictions to manage for larger and/or
    more mule deer.

             In general hunters prefer restrictions that preserve (maximizes) hunting
              opportunity and harvest.

   Hunters were asked to choose between seven pairs of opposing choices which
    allowed us to examine whether they favored maintaining hunting opportunity
    versus the chance to harvest a large buck.

             Overall, in all seven choices, hunters favored the opportunity to hunt
              frequently over the size of the bucks available. There were some Regional
              differences: hunters in Region 2 and non-resident hunters both favored
              buck size over increased hunting opportunity.

             Nonresident hunters differed most from statewide and resident averages
              on 6 of the 7 choices by primarily favoring large bucks over increased
              opportunity. In 5 of the choices they favored size over opportunity, while in
              2 choices they favored opportunity over size.




Perceived competition between Elk and Mule Deer

   Hunters are not in favor or increasing mule deer hunting opportunities at the
    expense of elk hunting opportunities.


   Hunters will not accept reducing the production (management focus) on elk to
    favor mule deer.
                                                                             Page |7




Antlerless Harvest

   Before hunters accept antlerless deer harvest as a management strategy they
    would like more information.


   A majority of hunters would welcome the added hunting opportunity that an
    antlerless hunt would provide.


   Hunter willingness to participate in antlerless hunts increases when they are
    offered an opportunity to harvest a buck in addition to an antlerless deer.

           Youth Hunts are the preferred method of conducting antlerless hunts.



Motorized Access

   Foot travel is the most frequently used travel mode while hunting, followed by
    car/trucks. This pattern holds across all strata of the sample. ATVs are used
    more often than horse/pack animals, trailbikes or mountain bikes.


   About half of all mule deer hunters own an ATV or trailbike. Ownership is highest
    in Region 5, and lowest among nonresidents.


   On average, hunters travel 5 miles or less per day on an ATV/trailbike, except in
    Region 3, where the average distance is between 6 and 10 miles per day.


   Trail bikes have a longer history of use among Mule deer hunters, than do ATVs.

           On average ATVs have been used for about seven years, compared to
            over 11 years for trailbikes. Length of use is lowest among nonresidents
            and longest in Region 5.

   About half of all Mule Deer hunters are aware of the Motorized Vehicle
    Restriction Rule. However, this awareness does not necessarily mean familiarity
    with the rule.
Page |8



             Familiarity is uneven across the states, being highest in the Regions 1 and
              2, and dropping in Regions further south.

             Between 20% (Region 2) and about 62% (Regions 5 & 6) of all Mule Deer
              hunters are not familiar with the MVRR.

             Hunters are more inclined to believe the MVRR did not apply to their
              hunting unit than believing it did. Hunters were also slightly more “sure”
              that the rule applied/didn’t apply than “thinking” it did/didn’t apply.

   Though hunters generally support the MVRR, hunters are only slightly above
    neutral when it comes to support for the MVRR. Support is lowest in Region 1
    and highest among nonresident hunters.

             Support for the MVRR is not linked to awareness of the rule, though
              support is slightly higher among those not aware of the rule.

   The two most important motivations for using an ATV/trailbike while hunting mule
    deer are “to hunt with others who use ATVs” and to “retrieve big game.”


   While this is a less complex set of motivations that found in earlier studies, it
    does signify a major social-desirability pressure to own and use an ATV while
    hunting mule deer.


   Between a quarter and a third of mule deer hunters self-report the presence of
    disabling conditions.

             Nonresidents are about half as likely to report being disabled.

             Hunters with physical limitations are almost twice as likely to own an
              ATV/trailbike as those who are not disabled.

             Despite the fact that hunters with physical limitations are almost twice as
              likely to own an ATV/trailbike as those who are not disabled, they are less
              likely to own one because it “Makes up for physical limitations” than able
              bodies hunters.

             There appears to be an inverse relationship between the motivation “to
              make up for physical limitations” and age—older hunters are less like to
              subscribe to the motivation.
                                                                               Page |9



   It is very likely that mule deer hunters would continue to hunt in Idaho and would
    do so without an ATV or trailbike if restrictions on ATV use were applied to more
    units. Overall they would somewhat likely to enjoy hunting more.




Evaluation of Conservation Officers

   Over half of Idaho residents did not get checked by a conservation officer.


   Hunters agree that the conservation officers were professional, friendly, and
    knowledgeable.


   Encounters with conservation officers receive a passing grade of a C (adequate).


Hunting History

   Mule deer hunters in Idaho are experienced hunters and have hunted mule deer
    for an average of 20 years.


   Generally, hunters restrict their hunting to three or fewer units each year.

           About half of the mule deer hunters hunt in 2 or 3 units every year and
            over one third hunt in the same unit every year.

           Only a few percent hunt in different units each year or in more than 3 units
            each year. Hunters in Regions 5, 6 and 7 are more likely to hunt in more
            than 3 units.

   Low deer numbers (20%), work schedule (15%), and hunting for other game
    species (13%) were the most frequently mentioned reasons for not hunting deer
    every year.


   Low deer numbers scored highest in Regions 1, 5, and 6. In Regions 1 and 2,
    hunting other game was reported as the reason by 41% and 56% respectively.
P a g e | 10



    In order of desirability, the game species hunted every year are: Mule Deer, Elk,
     Upland Game, White-tailed deer, Waterfowl, Black bear, Mountain Lion, and
     Pronghorn.




Hunter Profile

    Idaho resident hunters match the US Census Bureau reported median household
     income for 2004 of $40,509; nonresidents make about $20--$60,000 more.


    The average hunter has lived in Idaho for 32.9 years.


    Guides or outfitters were utilized mostly by non-residents (9%). Hunters in five of
     the regions did not report any use of guides or outfitters.


    The lowest proportions of Latinos who hunt are in Region 2 and 7, and the
     largest proportion of Latino hunters is in Region 3.


    Idaho’s hunting population is 98.5% Caucasian. Native American/Alaska Natives
     are most commonly from Region 1 or out of state.
2007 IDAHO MULE DEER HUNTER
           STUDY

            FINAL REPORT

                    BY:

Nick Sanyal, Ph.D., Associate Professor
Ed Krumpe, Ph.D., Professor
Dana Coombs, Undergraduate Research Assistant
 Department of Conservation Social Sciences
       College of Natural Resources
            University of Idaho



               Prepared for:
    Idaho Department of Fish and Game
                 Boise



               February 2008
Page |2




Table of Contents
_____________________________________________________________________

     ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS .................................................................. 4

     EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ................................................................... 5

     INTRODUCTION AND METHODS.................................................... 15

              Introduction ............................................................................. 15

              Sampling Approach ................................................................ 15

              Population, frames and sample size ....................................... 16

              Assessing Management and Policy Preferences .................... 17

     FINDINGS ......................................................................................... 19

              Motivations for Hunting ........................................................... 19

                       Measuring Motivations (Desired Hunting Experiences) . 19

                       Market Segmentation by Factor/Cluster Analysis ......... 20

                       Validating the Segmentation.......................................... 20

              Hunter Decision Making .......................................................... 26

              Quality of the Hunt .................................................................. 33

              Satisfaction Level .................................................................... 37

              Hunter Crowding ..................................................................... 43

              Restrictions for Large Bucks ................................................... 46

              Perceived Competition Between Elk and Mule Deer .............. 57

              Antlerless Harvests ................................................................. 59

              Motorized Access ................................................................... 64

              Evaluation of Conservation Officers ........................................ 78

              Hunting Units .......................................................................... 81
                                                                                                               Page |3



          Hunting History ....................................................................... 91

          Hunter Profile ......................................................................... 94

APPENDIX A ..............................................................................................102

LITERATURE CITED .................................................................................103
Page |4




Acknowledgements

We would like to thank Toby Boudreau, Brad Compton and Bruce Ackerman for their
help with instrument design and sampling.

Lilly Steinhorst and Julie Haarr provided logistical support for the project.
                                                                                Page |5




EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Motivations for Hunting

   Compared to 1989, hunters in 2007 exhibit slightly weaker attachment to most
    motivations for hunting.
           Only two motivations, ―doing something with the family‖ and ―developing
            close friendships‖, show greater importance in the 2007 study.

           In general, the relative ranking of motivations remains fairly stable.

   The social domains of ―Friends‖ and ―Values‖ are more important than the
    harvest related motivations.


   We identified four types of hunters:

           Type A hunters are equally distributed across the strata, making up about
            17% of the hunter population.

           Type B hunters (about 30% statewide) are more common in Region 7,
            where they make up about a third of all hunters.

           Type C hunters (25% statewide) are less likely to be found in Regions 2
            and among non-residents and are more likely in Region 4.

           Type D hunters are dominant among non-residents.




Hunter Decision Making

   In all seven Regions, mule deer hunters rated social motivations for hunting as
    being more important than ―harvesting a large buck.‖

           ―Being with friends,‖ ―doing something with the family‖ and ―developing
            close friendships‖ were scored moderately to quite important.

           ―Harvesting a large buck‖ was scored lower as somewhat important to
            moderately important.
Page |6



             ―Doing something with the family’ was the most important reason, followed
              by ―being with friends.‖

   Harvesting a large buck was not a major motivator for hunting. For example,
    while hunters in Regions 2, 5 and 7 rated ―harvesting a large buck‖ the highest of
    all the Regions, it was rated only ―moderately important‖ on the five point scale.

             It should be noted that the non-resident hunters scored ―Harvesting a
              large buck‖ as more important than Idaho residents.

             Generally, ―harvesting any buck‖ was not very important, but even less
              popular was ―getting a small buck‖.

   Mule deer hunters in Idaho do value hunting for meat.

             In six of the seven regions, hunters scored ―putting meat on the table‖
              either higher or the same as ―harvesting a large buck.‖

             Only in Region 2 was a large buck a more important motivation than
              putting meat on the table.

   Mule deer hunters take many things into consideration when choosing where,
    when and why to go hunting besides just the likelihood of harvesting a deer.

             Their two most important considerations were ―an area where they can
              hunt every year‖ and ―an area they are familiar with‖. Both were rated as
              quite important on the five point scale.

             Moderately important were ―an area close to home‖ and ―an area where
              they don’t have to compete with ATVs or trail bikes‖.

             Hunters are also influenced by the motivations for experiencing nature,
              developing their skills, harvesting game, social interaction, and gaining
              recognition from their peers.

             For all hunters, social interaction was more important than harvest, and
              indeed experiencing nature and developing their skills were more
              important than just harvesting deer.

   Characteristics of the hunting are also influence the decision of where to hunt.

             Idaho mule deer hunters primarily choose their hunting area based upon
              available access to public lands, greatest chance of harvest success, and
              where they can also hunt elk during mule deer season.
                                                                               Page |7



         Access to private land and hunting in areas where they can hunt with any
          weapon had almost no effect on their decisions.

         Finally, an area with many mule deer but few mature bucks was generally
          considered to be negative.

 A variety of weapons are used for hunting Mule deer but over 90% of all hunters
  used rifles.

         Compound bows were used by a quarter of the hunters In Regions 1 and
          5. The lowest compound bow use of was by hunters in Region 3 (12.5%).

         Muzzle loaders were most popular in Region 1, where 13% of the hunters
          use them.

 Many hunt with more than one weapon. Thirty six percent of the hunters in
  Region 1 used multiple weapons, followed by about 25% in Regions 5, 6 and 7.
  The least-used weapon was the crossbow (less than 1%), while the recurve or
  longbow and the inline muzzleloader were only slightly more popular.

         It should be noted that over two thirds of all hunters hunted with rifles only.

 Of those who hunted in special weapons seasons, between 66% and 86%
  hunted in one other special weapons season, while about one fifth hunted in two
  additional special weapons seasons.


 Archery-only was the most popular additional special weapon season, with over
  one fourth participating in it.


 Because it was important for most hunters to hunt when fewer others were a-
  field, most hunters had a preference for hunting during Deer archery season,
  Short-range weapons season, or Muzzleloader season.


 Overall 62% of all hunters would accept an advance setting of hunting seasons.
  Less than 7% said they would not accept the advance season setting. Support
  was highest in Region 2 at 73% acceptance.
Page |8




Quality of the Hunt

   Hunters find large mule deer bucks most desirable and smaller buck and
    antlerless deer less desirable. Non-residents have the highest desirability ratings
    large bucks.




Satisfaction Level

   Hunters are most satisfied with the opportunity to hunt in 2006. They are also
    positive about the overall quality of the experience, the amount of access, and
    the length and timing of the season.

             Although the satisfaction with the 2006 mule deer hunting experience was
              higher for those hunters who harvested a deer in 2006, but it did not vary
              with the type of deer harvested.

             Non-residents were the most satisfied with the length of the season.

             Hunters in Region 5 were least satisfied with the amount of access, while
              non-resident hunters were most satisfied.

             Non-residents were the most satisfied with the length of the season.

             Hunters in Region 2 were most satisfied with the number of other hunters
              encountered.

             Satisfaction with the 2006 mule deer hunting experience did not vary with
              ATV ownership.

             Satisfaction with the 2006 mule deer hunting experience about the same
              for hunters willing to accept restrictions for large bucks, as it was for
              hunters unwilling to do so.

             Satisfaction with the 2006 mule deer hunting experience was higher for
              those hunters who harvested a mule deer in 2006.

   Hunters are neutral about the effects of the number of other hunters seen.
    Hunters in Region 2 were most satisfied with the number of other hunters
    encountered.
                                                                               Page |9



           Satisfaction with the hunting experience was lower for those hunters who
            reported that the quality of their hunting experience was seriously
            impacted by the numbers of other hunters.

   Hunters were most dissatisfied with the number of deer seen, the number of
    ATV’s encountered, and the size and number of bucks seen.

           Hunters who use and ATV/trail bike while hunting reported higher
            satisfaction with the number of ATVs seen.




Hunter Crowding

   Across all Regions there is a clear preference for lengthening the season to
    alleviate crowding.

           Choosing a species to reduce the numbers of hunters a-field at a time is
            not acceptable to all hunters.

           Hunters are split over controlled hunts and stratified hunts and they are
            not accepting of zone restrictions.




Restrictions for large bucks

   Between 59 and 71 percent of Idaho residents, and almost 80% of non-resident
    hunters are willing to accept additional restrictions to manage for larger and/or
    more mule deer.

           In general hunters prefer restrictions that preserve (maximizes) hunting
            opportunity and harvest.

   Hunters were asked to choose between seven pairs of opposing choices which
    allowed us to examine whether they favored maintaining hunting opportunity
    versus the chance to harvest a large buck.

           Overall, in all seven choices, hunters favored the opportunity to hunt
            frequently over the size of the bucks available. There were some Regional
P a g e | 10



               differences: hunters in Region 2 and non-resident hunters both favored
               buck size over increased hunting opportunity.

              Nonresident hunters differed most from statewide and resident averages
               on 6 of the 7 choices by primarily favoring large bucks over increased
               opportunity. In 5 of the choices they favored size over opportunity, while in
               2 choices they favored opportunity over size.




Perceived competition between Elk and Mule Deer

    Hunters are not in favor or increasing mule deer hunting opportunities at the
     expense of elk hunting opportunities.


    Hunters will not accept reducing the production (management focus) on elk to
     favor mule deer.




Antlerless Harvest

    Before hunters accept antlerless deer harvest as a management strategy they
     would like more information.


    A majority of hunters would welcome the added hunting opportunity that an
     antlerless hunt would provide.


    Hunter willingness to participate in antlerless hunts increases when they are
     offered an opportunity to harvest a buck in addition to an antlerless deer.

              Youth Hunts are the preferred method of conducting antlerless hunts.
                                                                               P a g e | 11




Motorized Access

   Foot travel is the most frequently used travel mode while hunting, followed by
    car/trucks. This pattern holds across all strata of the sample. ATVs are used
    more often than horse/pack animals, trailbikes or mountain bikes.


   About half of all mule deer hunters own an ATV or trailbike. Ownership is highest
    in Region 5, and lowest among nonresidents.


   On average, hunters travel 5 miles or less per day on an ATV/trailbike, except in
    Region 3, where the average distance is between 6 and 10 miles per day.


   Trail bikes have a longer history of use among Mule deer hunters, than do ATVs.

           On average ATVs have been used for about seven years, compared to
            over 11 years for trailbikes. Length of use is lowest among nonresidents
            and longest in Region 5.

   About half of all Mule Deer hunters are aware of the Motorized Vehicle
    Restriction Rule. However, this awareness does not necessarily mean familiarity
    with the rule.

           Familiarity is uneven across the states, being highest in the Regions 1 and
            2, and dropping in Regions further south.

           Between 20% (Region 2) and about 62% (Regions 5 & 6) of all Mule Deer
            hunters are not familiar with the MVRR.

           Hunters are more inclined to believe the MVRR did not apply to their
            hunting unit than believing it did. Hunters were also slightly more ―sure‖
            that the rule applied/didn’t apply than ―thinking‖ it did/didn’t apply.

   Though hunters generally support the MVRR, hunters are only slightly above
    neutral when it comes to support for the MVRR. Support is lowest in Region 1
    and highest among nonresident hunters.

           Support for the MVRR is not linked to awareness of the rule, though
            support is slightly higher among those not aware of the rule.
P a g e | 12



    The two most important motivations for using an ATV/trailbike while hunting mule
     deer are ―to hunt with others who use ATVs‖ and to ―retrieve big game.‖


    While this is a less complex set of motivations that found in earlier studies, it
     does signify a major social-desirability pressure to own and use an ATV while
     hunting mule deer.


    Between a quarter and a third of mule deer hunters self-report the presence of
     disabling conditions.

              Nonresidents are about half as likely to report being disabled.

              Hunters with physical limitations are almost twice as likely to own an
               ATV/trailbike as those who are not disabled.

              Despite the fact that hunters with physical limitations are almost twice as
               likely to own an ATV/trailbike as those who are not disabled, they are less
               likely to own one because it ―Makes up for physical limitations‖ than able
               bodies hunters.

              There appears to be an inverse relationship between the motivation ―to
               make up for physical limitations‖ and age—older hunters are less like to
               subscribe to the motivation.

    It is very likely that mule deer hunters would continue to hunt in Idaho and would
     do so without an ATV or trailbike if restrictions on ATV use were applied to more
     units. Overall they would somewhat likely to enjoy hunting more.




Evaluation of Conservation Officers

    Over half of Idaho residents did not get checked by a conservation officer.


    Hunters agree that the conservation officers were professional, friendly, and
     knowledgeable.


    Encounters with conservation officers receive a passing grade of a C (adequate).
                                                                              P a g e | 13




Hunting History

   Mule deer hunters in Idaho are experienced hunters and have hunted mule deer
    for an average of 20 years.


   Generally, hunters restrict their hunting to three or fewer units each year.

           About half of the mule deer hunters hunt in 2 or 3 units every year and
            over one third hunt in the same unit every year.

           Only a few percent hunt in different units each year or in more than 3 units
            each year. Hunters in Regions 5, 6 and 7 are more likely to hunt in more
            than 3 units.

   Low deer numbers (20%), work schedule (15%), and hunting for other game
    species (13%) were the most frequently mentioned reasons for not hunting deer
    every year.


   Low deer numbers scored highest in Regions 1, 5, and 6. In Regions 1 and 2,
    hunting other game was reported as the reason by 41% and 56% respectively.


   In order of desirability, the game species hunted every year are: Mule Deer, Elk,
    Upland Game, White-tailed deer, Waterfowl, Black bear, Mountain Lion, and
    Pronghorn.




Hunter Profile

   Idaho resident hunters match the US Census Bureau reported median household
    income for 2004 of $40,509; nonresidents make about $20--$60,000 more.


   The average hunter has lived in Idaho for 32.9 years.


   Guides or outfitters were utilized mostly by non-residents (9%). Hunters in five of
    the regions did not report any use of guides or outfitters.
P a g e | 14



    The lowest proportions of Latinos who hunt are in Region 2 and 7, and the
     largest proportion of Latino hunters is in Region 3.


    Idaho’s hunting population is 98.5% Caucasian. Native American/Alaska Natives
     are most commonly from Region 1 or out of state.
                                                                                P a g e | 15




INTRODUCTION & METHODS

Introduction
The survey research method was used to collect data to develop the detailed analyses
that portray Idaho’s rifle mule deer hunters and their opinions about contemporary
wildlife management issues. The stratified random sampling approach, mail and internet
questionnaire design, administration and coding, response rates, and our strategy to
evaluate non-response bias are presented in this chapter.

Sampling Approach
We essentially updated the administration and measurement approach we developed
for the 1987-88 rifle deer hunter survey (Sanyal et al. 1989b), and have since refined.
Additional questions, scales and analyses were utilized from our work on ATV-Hunter
conflicts (Sanyal 2002) to address issues related to hunter access.


This study employed a differential design (Graziano & Raulin 1997), seeking to
understand selected characteristics of groups designated on the basis of preexisting
variables. The questionnaire (survey instrument) was designed collaboratively during a
series of meetings with representatives of the Idaho Department of Fish and Game. The
questionnaire of was pre-tested on a convenience sample of hunters who had
recreational propensities similar that required for the Idaho sample.


Questionnaires were designed and administered essentially following the Tailored
Design Method (Dillman 1978; Dillman 2000; Salant & Dillman 1984). Mailings began
on 21 January 2006, and data collection concluded on 8 May 2007. Mailings included a
cover letter on UI letterhead from the principal investigators that explains the survey and
provided the internet address and access code to a web site where hunters could
complete the questionnaire on-line. A post card reminder was mailed two weeks later to
encourage people to respond. Finally, a printed questionnaire and a postage-paid return
envelope was mailed 2 weeks later to hunters who had not yet responded via mail or
internet.


This hybrid approach (Best 2005; Ellis, Krumpe & Sanyal 2005) to survey research,
using a mail back instrument and a web-based instrument, combined the strengths of
P a g e | 16



mail and internet surveys to reduce costs and give the sample population their choice of
what they thought was the most convenient way to respond.


The questionnaire included several different types of response formats (close-ended
questions with ordered and unordered choices, partially closed ended, and open
ended). Response formats for all interval scales were constructed using magnitude
estimators (Bass, Cascio & O'Connor 1974). This ensured that all interval measures are
true equal interval scales so that the data could be analyzed quantitatively, and the
findings are comparable across sub-populations, and with the findings of other studies
using similar scale development procedures. Human subject approval for this project
was obtained from the University of Idaho Human Assurances Committee.


Select data provided by IDFG allowed us to compare hunters who responded with
hunters who did not complete or return their questionnaires (non-respondents).
Statistical tests and comparison of age, gender, and region licensed, showed no
significant difference between respondents and non-respondents on gender and region.
The non-respondents were very slightly younger than the respondents. The difference
was so small that we concluded there was no meaningful response bias between
survey respondents and non-respondents. This allows us to conclude that our sample
obtained a representative sample of the population of mule deer hunters in 2007.

Populations, Frames and Sample Size
The population of interest and the sampling frame was defined by the Idaho Department
of Fish and Game. They provided samples of the following sizes, that, using
calculations provided by Dillman (2000, p.206) and assuming a worst-case binomial
proportion (50%/50%), were deemed adequate to provide estimates that are accurate to
at least ± 10% at the regional level and ≤5% at the state level, assuming 99%
confidence level. Details by region are displayed in the table in Appendix A.


Comrey, (1988); Hogarty et al. (2005); and MacCallum et al. (1999) provide compelling
arguments that factor analysis of the size anticipated for this study should not be
conducted on fewer than 200 cases per strata. Thus, we sought 220 returned
instruments for each region, for a total of 1540 responses. This would place the
statewide accuracy at 3.8%, and the regional samples would be accurate between 6.5
and 6.6%. All strata were over-sampled (to account for undeliverables and non-
response) to ensure that the target sample sizes for each population would be reached.
Mailings were sent to an initial sample of 350 questionnaires per region (we included
                                                                                         P a g e | 17



out-of-state hunters as a strata). Thus, a sample of 2,800 mule deer hunters were
contacted. Of these we had 9% returned as undeliverable by the post office. A total of
1,494 hunters responded for a response rate of 60%, while 40% (1,076) were non-
respondents. Of those who responded, some 60% chose to use the internet while 40%
chose to respond by mail.


In summary, the data obtained from employing the research methods used in this study
should be considered to be representative of the population of licensed Mule Deer
hunters and relatively free of any systematic error.



Assessing Management and Policy Preferences
The ―Acceptance scale‖ that we used for assessing acceptance of managerial and
policy alternatives was developed in the late 1980’s (McLaughlin et al., 1989a, 1989b;
Sanyal, 1996; Sanyal et al., 1989) and has been used in several other studies where
management options were evaluated, or policy alternatives were assessed. This
approach uses a brief sentence that explains both a key advantage and key
disadvantage of the management scenario, and each respondent is instructed to
respond using a 4-point nominal scale that frames the individual reaction to the
management option, not asking them to agree or disagree, but whether they would
accept it or not. There is no ―neutral‖ category, but rather a ―need more information‖
response is provided.

                                        ACCEPTANCE CONCEPT

                        Measurement Scale:
                         FAVOR       DO NOT FAVOR BUT     WOULD NOT    WOULD NEED MORE
                                     WOULD ACCEPT IT       ACCEPT IT     INFORMATION

                               ACCEPT                      NOT           SWING
                                                          ACCEPT

                        Acceptance Ratio:
                           WORST                   ACTUAL                  BEST
                            ACCEPT                      ACCEPT          ACCEPT + SWING

                         NOT ACCEPT + SWING         NOT ACCEPT             NOT ACCEPT




The ―Favor‖ and ―Do not favor, but would accept‖ responses are considered an
―Acceptance‖ of the management option, while a ―Would need more information‖
represent a ―swing‖ vote; depending on their opinion after receiving the addition
information they could accept or oppose the option. The size of the swing vote
represents the potential for effecting future change in public acceptance via an
P a g e | 18



information campaign. These responses are converted to acceptance scores and
reported as ratios.

                                   INTERPRETING ACCEPTANCE RATIOS



                                .10               1           10
                             0.1 person      Equal number   10 people
                             accepts for     accept as do   accept for
                             every 1 not      not accept    every 1 not
                              accepting                     accepting



We have found that in practice a ≥2.5: 1 ratio (accepting: not accepting) represents
strong support.
                                                                             P a g e | 19




FINDINGS

Motivations for hunting
Measuring Motivations (Desired Hunting Experiences)
A growing literature suggests that hunter motivation and satisfaction are objective
constructs and influenced by more variables than harvest success and hunter
characteristics. Our research explicitly recognizes that people are motivated to act by
the desire to fulfill several needs-- tacit recognition of the multiple
motivations/satisfactions notion. In terms of hunting, these motivations are best
represented by multiple dimensions of motivations that have been widely reported in the
literature.

The degree to which people are motivated to seek and find specific elements of the
experience/environment has been the underlying paradigm of much hunter behavior
and market segmentation work. While it is tempting to isolate and focus on a single
dimension, it is the unique packages made up of differing combinations of each
dimension that best describes what motivates individual hunters, and what allows us to
identify groups of hunters who share/seek similar needs. A synopsis of over 100
pertinent empirical works (Sanyal & McLaughlin 1992a, 1992c) highlighted the universal
value of the need for escape (relaxation and change) and for nature (natural and wild
settings) in motivating hunters and anglers. Not only have most studies included
measures of these two dimensions, but most studies have also found these two to be
the most important motivational factors for angling and hunting.

The questionnaires for the 1989 rifle elk (McLaughlin et al. 1989a; Sanyal et al. 1989a)
deer (Sanyal et al. 1989b, 1989c) and shotgun (McLaughlin et al. 1989b; Sanyal et al.
1989d) hunting studies contained an inventory of reasons why people might hunt in
Idaho. We developed and perfected this inventory based on the Recreation Experience
Preference (REP) Scales developed by Driver (1977) and adapted for consumptive
wildlife experiences (Sanyal & McLaughlin 1992a, 1992b, 1992c; Sanyal & McLaughlin
1994a, 1994b; Wright & Sanyal 1998; Sanyal 2002). We have refined the measurement,
analysis and interpretation of these scales through constant use in our research and
classrooms since they were first used in Idaho in the 1980s, applying them to a wide
variety of populations—motorized and non-motorized boaters, ATV enthusiasts,
wilderness hikers and campers, skiers and snowmobilers, guided hunters and anglers,
horsemen, adventure and leisure travelers, to name a few. In all, our departmental
colleagues, our graduate students and we have collected over 300,000 questionnaires
using these and related recreational motivational scales.
P a g e | 20



Market Segmentation by Factor/Cluster Analysis
Factor analysis using Varimax was used to reduce the data from the original 30+ items
to about 15 multidimensional factors. Our protocols required Eigenvalues greater than
1.0 and factor loadings greater than .50 for a single factor for an item to be retained.
Items with loadings that are distributed across two or more factors will not be used.
Reliability analysis using Cronbach alpha coefficients (Cronbach 1951) will be used to
assess scale reliability.

The 1989 study used the 1970 revision of Wolfe Normal Mixture Analysis Procedure
NORMIX analysis (Wolfe 1970) to conduct the clustering and to test the hypotheses that
there were a significant number of hunter types. However, NORMIX is no longer
available in a format that is compatible with modern computers. Instead, we used the
SPSS 2-stage clustering algorithm, in which the accepted cluster solution maximizes
the between-group differences while minimizing the within-group differences, to develop
the hunter types using the scales/dimensions identified by factor analysis.
Validating the Segmentation
Each of the four hunter types was validated against other survey data is described in
Tables 1 to 8 and Figures 1 and 2 that describe and validate these types. The types did
differ in meaningful and managerially-relevant ways when examined against other
behavioral, demographic and psychographic data, and thus the typology is useful.

                                       Types of Hunters in 2006
     Most Important

      5



      4



      3                                                                                  Type A 2006
                                                                                         Type B 2006
                                                                                         Type C 2006
      2                                                                                  Type D 2006



      1



      0
               Nature       Skills        Harvest        Social      Recognition



  Figure 1. Mean motivation scores (Importance of different aspects of hunting) for the four hunter types.
                                                                                                      P a g e | 21



                                   Table 1. Distribution of hunter types.


                                            Hunter Type      Percent
                                                 A            16.6%
                                                 B            29.6%
                                                 B            25.0%
                                                 D            28.9%




Table 2. Mean motivation scores (Importance of different aspects of hunting) for the four hunter types.


                                                            Hunter Types
                                                                                          Sample
                                       A              B            C            D         Average
           Values                     3.7            2.5          3.8          3.9          3.4
           Skills                     3.6            2.2          3.5          3.4           3.1
           Harvest                    2.6            1.8          2.9          1.5           2.1
           Friends                    4.0            2.8          3.6          4.4           3.6
           Recognition                2.7            1.1          1.1          1.1           1.4
1 = NOT IMPORTANT; 2 = SOMEWHAT IMPORTANT; 3 = MODERATELY IMPORTANT; 4 = QUITE IMPORTANT; 5 = EXTREMELY IMPORTANT




                                 Table 3. Hunting history by hunter types.


                                                            Hunter Types
                                                                                           Sample
                                        A             B            C             D         Average
          Years hunted-all
                                      29.1           33.5         28.9         31.0          30.9
          Years hunted-Idaho
                                      21.1           24.0         20.7         21.7          22.0
          Years hunted Idaho
          Mule Deer                   18.8           20.7         19.0         19.4          19.6
P a g e | 22



                           Table 4. Motivations for hunting with an ATV or trailbike.


                                                                             Hunter Types
                                                                                               Sample
                                                            A       B       C      D           Average
      Scout for game                                       2.6     2.1     2.3    2.2             2.3

      Make up for physical limitations                     2.5     2.0     2.2    2.1             2.2

      Travel to areas to hunt on foot                      2.0     2.0     2.1    1.9             2.0

      Hunt with others who use ATVs                        3.6     3.1     3.3    3.5             3.3
      Get to the best areas which are far from
                                                           2.2     1.6     1.7    1.7             1.8
      roads
      Go further in less time                              2.6     2.1     2.3    2.1             2.2

      Get away from other hunters                          2.8     2.2     2.4    2.2             2.4

      Retrieve big game                                    3.4     3.1     3.3    3.1             3.2

      Haul camping supplies and equipment                  2.6     2.1     2.3    2.2             2.3

      For the added security and safety                    2.3     1.8     2.0    1.8             1.9

      Haul people to or from hunting camps                 1.9     1.4     1.5    1.5             1.5
      Hunt on roads/trails closed to full-sized
                                                           2.5     2.1     2.3    2.1             2.2
      vehicles
               1 = NOT IMPORTANT; 2 = SOMEWHAT IMPORTANT; 3 = FAIRLY IMPORTANT; 4 = EXTREMELY IMPORTANT
                                                                                                                    P a g e | 23



                          Table 5. Comparison of importance of hunting motivations
                between 1989 and 2007 samples. Highlighted data show major (±5%) differences.




  Motivations                        2007         1989                   Motivations                         2007      1989

  Close to nature                    75.7         82                     Testing my abilities                41.4      43

  Bring back memories                69.8         69                     Putting meat on the table           36.4      40

  View scenery                       68.1         76                     Sharing with others                 36.2      34

  Doing something with the           67.7         56                     Use deer stalking skills            34.5      43
  family

  See deer in a natural setting      65.5         70                     Being on my own                     33.0      37

  Get away from usual                                                    Harvest a large buck                32.7      30
                                     62.8         66
  demands
                                                                         Develop spiritual values            32.0      36
  Being with friends                 59.5         56

  Getting to know the lay of                                             Develop my hunting skills           28.0      39
                                     55.3         64
  the land
                                                                         Test and using equipment            27.9      29
  Tranquility                        55.2         61
                                                                         Tension release                     20.3      28
  Developing close friendships       53.3         48
                                                                         Get any deer                        14.3      16
  Keeping physically fit             51.7         53
                                                                         Getting any buck                    11.8      NA
  Learn more about deer              50.6         53
                                                                         Show others I can do it             5.2       4
  Getting a good shot                50.5         51
                                                                         Get an antlerless deer              4.8       6
  Stimulation and excitement         44.2         40
                                                                         Getting a small buck                3.7       15
  Learning more about nature         44.2         58
                                                    Compete against others   3.3      3
  Thinking about personal  42.2     44
  values
______________________________________________________________________________________________
                           Proportion of hunters who said the item was important or extremely important
                           as a reason for Mule Deer hunting (2007) or ―hunting deer with a rifle‖ (1989).




 Compared to 1989, hunters in 2007 exhibit slightly weaker attachment to many
 motivations. Only two motivations, ―doing something with the family‖ and ―developing
 close friendships‖, show greater importance in the 2007 study. In general, the overall
 ranking of motivations remains fairly stable.
P a g e | 24



                                  Table 6. Means of motivation domains by region.

                          Region       Values     Skills    Harvest      Friends     Recognition
                             1          3.4 A       3.1        2.1         3.4            1.3

                             2           3.5        3.1        2.0         3.6            1.4

                             3           3.4        3.1        2.3         3.8            1.5

                             4           3.5        3.1        2.3         3.8            1.3

                             5           3.5        3.1        2.3         3.6            1.5

                             6           3.3        3.0        2.2         3.5            1.3

                             7           3.2        3.0        2.1         3.5            1.3
                           Non
                                         3.5        3.1        1.7         3.9            1.4
                         resident
                           State
                                         3.4        3.1        2.1         3.7            1.4
                         Average
  A
      1 = NOT IMPORTANT; 2 = SOMEWHAT IMPORTANT; 3 = MODERATELY IMPORTANT; 4 = QUITE IMPORTANT; 5 = EXTREMELY IMPORTANT




The social domains of ―Friends‖ and ―Values‖ are more important than the harvest
related motivations.
                                                                                                                   P a g e | 25




                             Table 7. Hunter type composition by region.
                  (percents show the distribution of the four types within each region)


                                                           Region

 Hunter                                                                                                   Non        State
            1               2            3            4             5        6            7
  Type                                                                                                  resident    Average

   1      12.6%         16.5            20.5         14.3        21.5       13.3         14.4            17.9         16.6

   2       31.8         32.9            24.4         28.6        24.7       32.3         36.9            26.8         29.6

   3       25.2         19.5            28.8         33.3        29.1       29.7         20.6            14.3         25.0

   4       30.5         31.1            26.3         23.8        24.7       24.7         28.1            41.1         28.9



Type 1 hunters are equally distributed across the strata, making up about 17% of the
hunter population. Type 2 hunters (about 30% statewide) are more common in region 7,
where they make up about a third of all hunters. Type 3 hunters (25% statewide) are
less likely to be found in regions 2 and among non-residents and are more likely in
region 4. Type 4 hunters are dominant among non-residents.




                     100%
                                                                                   Hunter Types
                                                                                     A
                                                                                     B
                                                                                     C
                      75%
                                                                                     D


                  Percent                                                          Bars show percents

                      50%




                      25%




                       0%
                                1   2        3   4     5     6      7   8

                                                 Region



                      Figure 2. Hunter type composition by region.
P a g e | 26




Hunter Decision Making
                           Table 8. Means of selected motives for Mule Deer hunting, by region.

                                                                                            Doing
               Harvest         Getting a                                                                 Developing
                                            Getting any   Putting meat    Being with      something
  Region       a large          small                                                                        close
                                               buck       on the table     friends         with the
                buck            buck                                                                     friendships
                                                                                            family
                       a
      1          2.8              1.4           1.9            3.1             3.4            3.7             3.3

      2          3.0              1.4           1.8            2.8             3.6            3.7             3.4

      3          2.4              1.7           2.2            3.0             3.8            4.0             3.7

      4          2.4              1.6           2.0            3.1             3.8            4.0             3.6

      5          2.9              1.6           2.2            2.9             3.5            4.0             3.4

      6          2.4              1.5           2.1            3.1             3.5            3.9             3.3

      7          2.9              1.5           1.9            2.9             3.5            3.8             3.3

   Non
                 3.4              1.3           1.6            2.2             4.2            3.7             3.9
 resident
  State
                 2.8              1.5           2.0            2.9            3.7             3.8             3.5
 Average
 a
     1 = NOT IMPORTANT; 2 = SOMEWHAT IMPORTANT; 3 = MODERATELY IMPORTANT; 4 = QUITE IMPORTANT; 5 = EXTREMELY IMPORTANT




In all seven regions, mule deer hunters scored social motivations as being more
important than ―harvesting a large buck.‖ ―Being with friends,‖ ―doing something with
the family,‖ and ―developing close friendships‖ were scored between moderately
important to quite important, while ―harvesting a large buck‖ was scored lower as
somewhat important to moderately important. In fact, ―doing something with the family’
was the most important reason, followed by ―being with friends.‖
Hunters in regions 2, 5 and 7 rated ―Harvesting a large buck‖ the highest (moderately
important) while hunters in regions 3, 4, and 6 scored it as somewhat important. It
should be noted that the non-resident hunters scored ―Harvesting a large buck‖ as more
important than Idaho residents.

Mule deer hunters in Idaho do value hunting for the meat as moderately important. In
six of the seven regions, hunters scored ―putting meat on the table‖ either higher or the
same as ―harvesting a large buck.‖ Only in region 2 was a large buck more important
than putting meat on the table. Generally, just ―Harvesting any buck‖ was not very
important, but even less popular was ―Getting a small buck‖.
                                                                                                           P a g e | 27



           Table 9. Means of selected motives for considering where to hunt Mule Deer, by region.

                                Where I
                Where I
                               don't have      An area                                       An area        An area
               am able to                                      An area       An area I
                              to compete        where I                                     with lots of   with many
 Region         use my                                         close to     am familiar
                               with ATVs       can hunt                                        other          open
               ATV or trail                                     home           with
                                and trail     every year                                     hunters         roads
                 bike
                                  bikes
                         a
      1            3.0             3.8            4.3             3.9            4.2            1.7            2.8

      2             2.9            3.9            4.1             3.8            4.0            1.5            2.5

      3             3.1            3.6            4.4             3.9            4.1            1.8            2.9

      4             3.1            3.8            4.3             3.9            4.2            1.8            3.0

      5             3.0            3.8            4.3             4.1            4.3            1.6            2.9

      6             3.1            3.8            4.3             3.9            4.2            1.8            3.0

      7             3.0            3.8            4.2             3.8            4.2            1.6            2.7

   Non
                    2.9            3.9            4.2             3.1            3.8            1.5            2.5
 resident
  State
                    3.0            3.8            4.3             3.8            4.1            1.7            2.8
 Average
 a
     1 = NOT IMPORTANT; 2 = SOMEWHAT IMPORTANT; 3 = MODERATELY IMPORTANT; 4 = QUITE IMPORTANT; 5 = EXTREMELY IMPORTANT




Mule deer hunters in Idaho are experienced hunters and have hunted mule deer for an
average of 20 years (Table 69 ) page 93. Not surprisingly, this is reflected in the factors
they consider when choosing where to hunt. Their two most important considerations
were an area where they can hunt ―every year‖ and an area they are ―familiar with‖, both
of which were scored as quite important. Moderately important were ―an area close to
home‖ and an area where they ―don’t have to compete with ATVs or trail bikes‖.

Hunters are also influenced by other motivations when considering where to hunt.
These include experiencing nature, developing their skills, harvesting game, social
interaction, and gaining recognition from their peers. Figure 1 shows that for all types of
hunters, social interaction was more important than harvest, and indeed experiencing
nature and developing their skills were more important than just harvesting deer.

In summary, mule deer hunters take many things into consideration when choosing
where, when, and why to go hunting besides just the likelihood of harvesting a deer.
P a g e | 28



               Table 10. Influence of selected hunting area characteristics on the decision
                                  where to hunt Mule Deer, by region.

                                                                                                  Where I
                                         An area
               An area with                                                                       have the      Where I
                                      where I can        An area with        An area with
                many mule                                                                         greatest      can hunt
     Region                           also hunt elk       access to            access to
               deer but few                                                                      chance of      with any
                                      during mule        public lands        private lands
               mature bucks                                                                      mule deer      weapon
                                      deer season
                                                                                                  harvest
                             a
       1               2.6                  4.3                4.4                 3.3              4.1           3.5
       2                2.5                 4.2                4.3                 3.9               4.1          3.5
       3                2.9                 4.0                4.3                 3.8               4.2          3.3
       4                2.9                 4.0                4.4                 3.8               4.3          3.3
       5                2.7                 4.0                4.4                 3.7               4.2          3.5
       6                2.9                 4.2                4.3                 3.6               4.2          3.3
        7               2.6                 4.2                4.3                 3.6               4.1          3.3
      Non
                        2.3                 4.1                4.3                 3.7               4.3          3.3
    resident
      State
                        2.6                 4.1                4.3                 3.7               4.2          3.4
    Average
                  a
                      1 = Strongly Negative; 2 = Negative; 3 = No Affect; 4 = Positive; 5 = Strongly Positive




Idaho mule deer hunters primarily choose their hunting area based upon available
access to public lands, greatest chance of harvest success, and where they can also
hunt elk during mule deer season.

Access to private land and hunting in areas where they can hunt with any weapon had
almost no effect on their decisions. Finally, an area with many mule deer but few mature
bucks was generally considered to be negative.
                                                                                                    P a g e | 29



                        Table 11. Weapons used while hunting Mule Deer, by region.

                                                  Weapons                                             Percent
                                                                   Inline    Recurve                   using
                     Compound                     Traditional                            Crossbo      multiple
            Rifle                   Handgun                       muzzle        or
                       bow                       muzzleloader                               w         weapons
 Region                                                           loader     longbow
             95.3
   1         %
                a        25.7          2.7            13.5          12.8        2.0          .7         36.2


   2         94.6        16.9          1.5             3.1           2.3         .8          0          19.2


   3         92.5        12.5          3.8             4.4           3.1        2.5         1.3         17.4


   4         92.2        19.6          2.0             4.6           1.3        1.3          0          18.1


   5         91.3        27.3          3.1             5.0           4.3        2.5          0          25.5


   6         93.1        20.1          2.5             5.7           1.9        3.8          .6         23.1


   7         90.6        23.5          2.7             4.7           2.0        4.0          0          23.5

  Non
             93.8        11.0          1.4             1.4           2.8         .7          0          10.3
resident
   a
       Percents for each region total more than 100 because respondents were given multiple response choices.



Over 90% of the hunters in all seven regions and non-residents used rifles. However, a
substantial number of hunters also used multiple weapons to hunt mule deer.

Next to rifles, the most popular weapon was compound bows. In region 5 and 1
compound bows were used by 27% and 25% respectively. The lowest use of compound
bows was by hunters in region 3 (12.5%). The next most popular weapon was inline
muzzle loaders with about 13% of the hunters using them in region one.

It should be noted that many hunters hunt with more than one weapon. Region 1 had
36% that used multiple weapons, followed by 25.5% in region 5 and 23% in regions 6
and 7. The least-used weapon was the crossbow (less than 1%), while the recurve or
longbow and the inline muzzleloader were used slightly more.
P a g e | 30



                                Table 12. Mule deer seasons hunted by region.

                                                          Season
               Rifle season         Archer-only           Muzzleloader-only           Short-range weapon
 Region             only             seasons                  seasons                       seasons
                         a
   1              68.2%                27.6                     20.0                          2.4
    2              79.5                 15.9                       4.5                          5.7
    3              70.9                 16.9                      11.0                         12.2
    4              69.4                 24.1                       5.9                          9.4
    5              67.1                 28.2                       9.4                          4.1
    6              66.9                 22.3                       6.3                         13.7
     7             68.1                 27.0                      11.0                          9.8
   Non
                   85.4                 10.6                       4.5                          1.0
 resident
    a
        Percents for each region total more than 100 because respondents were given multiple response choices.



Over two thirds of all hunters hunted with rifles only.

Of those who hunted in special weapons seasons, between 66% and 86% hunted in
one other special weapons season, while about one fifth hunted in two additional
special weapons seasons.

Archery-only was the most popular additional special weapon season, with over one
fourth participating in it.
                                                                                                    P a g e | 31



Table 13. Reasons for hunting in a Mule Deer archery, Short-range weapons, or Muzzleloader season, by
                                                region.

                              To hunt when        To Improve my       To Expand      To Hunt where I other
               To Increase    Fewer hunters     chance of getting a   my hunting    wise wouldn’t have had
   Region     the challenge     are a-field         mule deer          season       the opportunity to do so

      1           2.5‖             3.8                  2.6               3.7                 3.1

      2            2.4             3.5                  2.6               3.3                 3.4

      3            2.4             3.6                  2.6               2.9                 3.2

      4            2.7             3.8                  2.8               3.5                 3.4

      5            2.9             3.8                  2.4               3.2                 2.9

      6            2.7             3.6                  2.3               3.2                 3.0

      7            2.8             3.7                  2.3               3.4                 2.8

    Non
                   2.6             3.7                  2.4               2.9                 3.1
  resident

    State
                  2.7              3.7                 2.5               3.3                  3.1
   Average

  *1=Not important, 2=Somewhat important, 3= Moderately important, 4=Quite important, 5=Extremely important



          The majority of hunters expressed the most important reason for hunting in a
          Deer archery, Short-range weapons, or Muzzleloader season was because it is
          quite important to them to hunt when fewer hunters are in the field (mean is 3.7).

          Other reasons are to expand their hunting season and to hunt where they
          otherwise would not have had the opportunity to do so.
P a g e | 32



                            Table 14. Preferences for two year advance season setting, by region.

                                                                                           Region

                                                                                                                                        Non
                                              1             2             3            4            5               6          7
                                                                                                                                      resident

    Favor                                   36.0%         45.8          40.4         31.2        25.6            29.8        29.8      36.0

    Don't favor, would
                                            24.6          26.6          22.8         26.5        25.6            30.3        32.2      27.0
    accept

    Would not Accept                        10.3           9.0          10.5         15.3        19.8            16.3        12.3      10.5

    Need more information                   29.1          18.6          26.3         27.1        29.1            23.6        25.7      26.5

    Total                                   100.0%        100.0%        100.0%       100.0%     100.0%           100.0%      100.0%    100.0%




            Overall hunters who ―Favor‖ a two year season and those who ―Don’t favor, but
            would accept‖ account for 63% of the hunters. Support was highest in region 2.
            Only 10.5% said they would not accept the advance season setting.

            Even if all those who needed more information (26.5% statewide) chose not to
            accept the advance season setting it would not be a large enough percentage to
            counter those in favor and those willing to accept.


                            10 0%
                                                                                              Tw o year advance s eason s etting
                                                                                                 Favor
                                                                                                 Don't favor, would accept
                                                                                                 Would not Accept
                             75 %
                                                                                                 Need more information


                                                                                               Bars show percents
                  Percent




                             50 %




                             25 %




                              0%
                                    1   2         3   4         5   6      7     8

                                                      Re gion


               Figure 3. Acceptance of two-year advance setting of hunting season.
                                                                                                  P a g e | 33




Quality of the Hunt
                       Table 15. Desirability of different kinds of Mule Deer, by region.

                  Large Mule
                  Deer buck          Medium Mule
                 (Antlers extend      Deer buck
                outside the ears,     (Antlers do not
                 over 24 inches     extend outside the     Small Mule
                  wide and 4 or     ears, 18-24 inches     Deer buck        Antlerless Mule
                  more points a       wide and 3 - 4      (1 – 2 points a        Deer           Any Mule
                      side)            points a side)          side)        (does or fawns)       Deer
   Region
                            a
     1                3.1                  2.4                 1.5                1.3               1.6

     2                3.1                  2.1                 1.5                1.5               1.8

     3                2.8                  2.3                 1.9                1.6               2.1

     4                2.8                  2.4                 1.9                1.8               2.3

     5                3.2                  2.3                 1.7                1.4               1.9

     6                2.9                  2.4                 1.8                1.6               2.1

     7                3.1                  2.4                 1.6                1.4               1.7
    Non
                      3.5                  2.3                 1.3                1.1               1.4
  resident
    State
                      3.1                  2.3                 1.7                1.5               1.9
  Average
      a
          1 = NOT VERY DESIRABLE; 2 = MODERATELY DESIRABLE; 3 = QUITE DESIRABLE; 4 = EXTREMELY DESIRABLE




Not surprisingly, hunters find large mule deer bucks most desirable and smaller buck
and antlerless deer less desirable. Non-residents have the highest desirability ratings
large bucks.
P a g e | 34




                                        Desirability of Mule Deer


               4




               3
        Mean




               2




               1
                     Large buck      Medium buck      Small buck    Antlerless deer   Any deer


                            Figure 4. Desirability of different types of Mule deer.

       1 = NOT VERY DESIRABLE; 2 = MODERATELY DESIRABLE; 3 = QUITE DESIRABLE; 4 = EXTREMELY DESIRABLE)
                                                                                             P a g e | 35



Table 16. Mean scores of attributes that are most important for a quality hunting experience, by region .

                                                       Region
                                                                                    Non       State
        Attribute         1        2      3       4        5       6       7      resident   Average
  Close to nature        4.1       4.0   4.1     4.1       4.2    4.1      3.9      4.1         4.1
  Bring back
  memories
                         3.8       4.0   4.0     4.1       4.0    3.8      3.8      4.2         4.0

  View scenery           3.8       3.9   3.9     4.0       4.0    3.8      3.8      4.0         3.9

  Get away from
  usual demands
                         3.8       3.8   3.7     3.9       3.9    3.7      3.5      3.8         3.8

  See deer in a
  natural setting
                         3.6       3.8   3.9     4.0       3.9    3.8      3.5      3.9         3.8

  Doing something
  with the family
                         3.7       3.7   4.0     4.0       4.0    3.9      3.8      3.7         3.8

  Being with friends     3.4       3.6   3.8     3.8       3.5    3.5      3.5      4.2         3.7

  Tranquility            3.5       3.6   3.6     3.7       3.5    3.3      3.3      3.6         3.5

  Getting to know the
  lay of the land
                         3.6       3.6   3.5     3.5       3.5    3.5      3.5      3.7         3.5

  Keeping physically
  fit
                         3.7       3.5   3.3     3.4       3.4    3.3      3.6      3.5         3.5

  Developing close
  friendships
                         3.3       3.4   3.7     3.6       3.4    3.3      3.3      3.9         3.5

  Getting a good shot    3.6       3.6   3.4     3.5       3.4    3.3      3.2      3.4         3.4

  Learn more about
  deer
                         3.4       3.5   3.4     3.5       3.5    3.3      3.4      3.6         3.4

  Learning more
  about nature
                         3.4       3.3   3.2     3.3       3.4    3.1      3.1      3.2         3.3

  Stimulation and
  excitement
                         3.1       3.3   3.1     3.1       3.2    3.1      3.2      3.6         3.2

  Testing my abilities   3.2       3.1   3.0     3.2       3.1    3.3      3.1      3.3         3.2

  Thinking about
  personal values
                         3.0       3.2   3.2     3.3       3.3    2.9      2.9      3.2         3.1

  Sharing with others    2.9       2.9   3.2     3.1       3.0    2.9      2.8      3.2         3.0

  Use deer stalking
  skills
                         3.0       2.9   2.9     2.8       2.9    2.7      2.9      3.1         2.9

  Putting meat on the          A
  table
                         3.1       2.8   3.0     3.1       2.9    3.1      2.9      2.2         2.9
P a g e | 36




                                                                 Region
                                                                                                 Non        State
            Attribute           1        2        3         4        5        6        7       resident    Average

      Being on my own          3.1      3.0       2.7      2.5       2.7     2.7      2.6        2.9          2.8

      Harvest a large
      buck
                               2.8      3.0       2.4      2.4       2.9     2.4      2.9        3.4          2.8

      Develop my hunting
      skills
                               2.6      2.6       2.7      2.7       2.7     2.7      2.7        2.5          2.7

      Develop spiritual
      values
                               2.9      2.7       2.7      2.9       2.8     2.7      2.6        2.7          2.7

      Test and using
      equipment
                               2.6      2.8       2.7      2.8       2.7     2.8      2.5        2.8          2.7

      Tension release          2.0      2.1       2.2      2.2       2.5     2.2      2.2        2.2          2.2

      Get any deer             1.8      1.9       2.2      2.4       2.2     2.1      1.8        1.8          2.0

      Getting any buck         1.9      1.8       2.2      2.0       2.2     2.1      1.9        1.6          2.0

      Getting a small
      buck
                               1.4      1.4       1.7      1.6       1.6     1.5      1.5        1.3          1.5

      Show others I can
      do it
                               1.4      1.4       1.6      1.4       1.5     1.4      1.4        1.4          1.4

      Get an antlerless
      deer
                               1.3      1.4       1.6      1.7       1.3     1.6      1.3        1.2          1.4

      Compete against
      others
                               1.2      1.3       1.4      1.2       1.4     1.2      1.2        1.4          1.3

  A
      1 = NOT IMPORTANT; 2 = SOMEWHAT IMPORTANT; 3 = MODERATELY IMPORTANT; 4 = QUITE IMPORTANT; 5 = EXTREMELY IMPORTANT
                                                                                                           P a g e | 37




Satisfaction Level
                                Table 17. Average satisfaction ratings for
                      components of the 2006 Mule Deer hunting experience, by region.


Attributes of the                                                    Region
hunting experience                                                                                Non         State
                                      1         2     3        4       5       6        7       resident     Average
The opportunity to hunt in                  a
                                      4.1       4.2   4.2      4.4     4.1     4.2      4.3     4.4          4.2
2006
Overall quality of the
                                      3.4       3.7   3.4      3.5     3.1     3.3      3.4     3.5          3.4
experience
Amount of access                      3.2       3.6   3.3      3.4     2.9     3.2      3.4     4.0          3.3

Length of season                      3.4       3.5   3.1      3.2     3.0     3.1      3.1     3.7          3.2

Timing of the season                  3.5       3.4   3.2      3.2     3.0     3.1      3.1     3.3          3.2
Number of other hunters
                                      3.0       3.5   2.9      3.0     2.9     3.0      2.8     3.1          3.0
encountered
Number of deer seen                   2.9       3.1   2.8      3.0     2.7     2.6      2.9     3.1          2.9
Number of ATVs/bikes
                                      2.8       3.1   2.9      3.0     2.8     2.8      2.6     3.0          2.9
encountered
The size of bucks seen                2.9       2.8   2.5      2.7     2.3     2.5      2.5     2.6          2.6

Number of bucks seen                  2.7       2.9   2.3      2.6     2.3     2.4      2.5     2.7          2.5
             a
                 1 = VERY DISSATISFIED; 2 = DISSATISFIED; 3 = NEUTRAL; 4 = SATISFIED; 5 = VERY SATISFIED



Hunters are most satisfied with the opportunity to hunt in 2006. They are also positive
about the overall quality of the experience, the amount of access, and the length and
timing of the season.

They are neutral about the numbers of other hunters seen. They were dissatisfied with
the number of deer seen, the number of ATV’s encountered, and the size and number
of bucks seen. Hunters who use and ATV/trail bike while hunting reported higher
satisfaction with the number of ATVs seen (3.3 vs. 2.5).

Hunters in Region 5 were least satisfied (2.9) with the amount of access, while non-
resident hunters were most satisfied (4.0). Non-residents were also the most satisfied
with the length of the season. Hunters in Region 2 were most satisfied with the number
of other hunters encountered.
P a g e | 38




        The opportunity to hunt in 2006
                                                                                  Positive

       Overall quality of the expereince



                     Amount of access



                      Length of season



                   Timing of the season



  Number of other hunters encountered



   Number of ATVs/bikes encountered



                  Number of deer seen



                The size of bucks seen



                 Number of bucks seen            Negative



                                           -2             -1             0    1              2

                                                                       Mean


                                           Figure 5. Satisfaction summary.
                                                                                                                                                 P a g e | 39




                                                                                Statewide Average




                                   125




                                   100
                             Frequency




                                         75




                                         50




                                         25



                                                                                                                     Mean =3.12
                                                                                                                  Std. Dev. =0.656
                                          0                                                                           N =1,110
                                                  1.0            2.0            3.0           4.0       5.0

                                                                       Satisfaction Index

                                                        Figure 6. Distribution of Satisfaction Index.




                   5.0




                   4.5




                   4.0
                                                                                                                           A satisfaction index was
                                                                                                                           created by averaging the
                                                                                                                           individual scores of all 10
95% CI Satisfaction Index




                   3.5

                                                                                                                           satisfaction items (Q36A-J).
                   3.0




                   2.5                                                                                                     The state average was 3.12 on
                                                                                                                           a 5-point scale and varied little
                   2.0                                                                                                     by region.
                   1.5




                   1.0


                                              1           2        3       4            5     6     7         8

                                                                               Region




                                                         Figure 7. Satisfaction index by region.
                            (1 = Very Dissatisfied; 2 = Dissatisfied; 3 = Neutral; 4 = Satisfied; 5 = Very Satisfied)
P a g e | 40




                          Table 18. Satisfaction ratings by ATV/trail bike ownership

                                          Own an ATV/trail          Satisfaction
                                               bike                   Index
                                       Yes                               3.1 a

                                       No                                3.1

                                       State Average                     3.1
               a
                   1 = VERY DISSATISFIED; 2 = DISSATISFIED; 3 = NEUTRAL; 4 = SATISFIED; 5 = VERY SATISFIED




Satisfaction with the 2006 mule deer hunting experience did not vary with ATV
ownership.




                   Table 19. Satisfaction ratings by perceived impacts of hunter numbers.

                                        Hunter numbers                 Satisfaction
                                     impacted quality of hunt             Index

                                    Yes                                    2.9 a

                                    No                                      3.3

                                    Did not hunt in 2006                    3.0

                                    State Average                           3.1
               a
                   1 = VERY DISSATISFIED; 2 = DISSATISFIED; 3 = NEUTRAL; 4 = SATISFIED; 5 = VERY SATISFIED




Satisfaction with the 2006 mule deer hunting experience was lower for those hunters
who reported that the quality of their hunting experience was seriously impacted by the
numbers of other hunters.
                                                                                                            P a g e | 41



                  Table 20. Satisfaction ratings by perceived impacts of hunter numbers.

                                       Accept restrictions          Satisfaction
                                        for larger bucks               Index
                                     Yes                                 3.1

                                     No                                  3.2

                                     State Average                       3.1
              a
                  1 = VERY DISSATISFIED; 2 = DISSATISFIED; 3 = NEUTRAL; 4 = SATISFIED; 5 = VERY SATISFIED




Satisfaction with the 2006 mule deer hunting experience about the same for hunters
willing to accept restrictions for large bucks, as it was for hunters unwilling to do so.




                               Table 21. Satisfaction ratings by harvest status.

                                                                      Satisfaction
                                         Harvest in 2006?
                                                                         Index
                                   Did not hunt in 2006                     2.9

                                   Did not harvest in 2006                  3.0

                                   Harvested in 2006                        3.4

                                   State Average                            3.1
              a
                  1 = VERY DISSATISFIED; 2 = DISSATISFIED; 3 = NEUTRAL; 4 = SATISFIED; 5 = VERY SATISFIED




Satisfaction with the 2006 mule deer hunting experience was higher for those hunters
who harvested a mule deer in 2006.
P a g e | 42



                                 Table 22. Satisfaction ratings by harvest type.


                              Type of mule deer harvested             Satisfaction Index

                              Large buck                                       3.5

                              medium buck                                      3.4

                              Small buck                                       3.4

                              Antlerless deer                                  3.4

                              State Average                                    3.4
               a
                   1 = VERY DISSATISFIED; 2 = DISSATISFIED; 3 = NEUTRAL; 4 = SATISFIED; 5 = VERY SATISFIED




Although the satisfaction with the 2006 mule deer hunting experience was higher for
those hunters who harvested a deer in 2006, it did not vary with the type of deer
harvested.
                                                                                        P a g e | 43




Hunter Crowding
              Table 23. Experiences with the number of other hunters, by region.

                                                         Region
    The numbers of other
      hunters seriously                                                              Non
     detracted from the        1       2      3      4       5      6      7       resident
    quality of the hunting
         experience
             Yes             32.0%   17.8    39.8   37.8    43.2   35.2   44.8      19.6

             No              54.3    45.0    46.6   45.9    43.8   52.0   37.9      38.7

    Did not hunt in 2006     13.7    37.2    13.6   16.3    13.1   12.8   17.2      41.7
P a g e | 44



                       Table 24. Hunter acceptance of potential was of managing
                     for lower hunter numbers during Mule Deer season, by region.


                                                               Region
                                                                                              Non
                                 1       2       3        4        5       6         7
                                                                                            resident
 Longer seasons

 Favor                         51.4%   48.3     45.1    50.0      46.9    58.8      42.7     45.7

 Don't favor, would accept     22.3    28.1     28.0    27.3      24.3    18.6      26.9     29.6

 Would not accept              11.4    14.6     14.9    11.0      18.1    9.0       19.9     13.6

 Need more information         14.9     9.0     12.0    11.6      10.7    13.6      10.5     11.1

 Total                         100.0   100.0   100.0    100.0    100.0   100.0      100.0    100.0
 Chose a species (deer or
 elk)
 Favor                         13.1    12.8     21.5    20.0      20.1    15.2      16.6     35.5

 Don't favor, would accept     13.7    19.6     16.9    25.9      20.1    17.4      14.2     27.5

 Would not accept              64.0    59.8     48.0    42.4      50.6    55.1      60.4     30.5

 Need more information          9.1     7.8     13.6    11.8      9.2     12.4       8.9      6.5

 Total                         100.0   100.0   100.0    100.0    100.0   100.0      100.0    100.0

 Controlled hunts

 Favor                         25.3    43.3     35.8    51.2      38.9    34.5      32.2     43.2

 Don't favor, would accept     28.7    34.3     31.3    30.6      29.1    40.7      36.8     28.1

 Would not accept              34.5    15.2     20.5    10.0      24.0    18.6      22.2     16.6

 Need more information         11.5     7.3     12.5     8.2      8.0     6.2        8.8     12.1

 Total                         100.0   100.0   100.0    100.0    100.0   100.0      100.0    100.0

 Stratified hunts

 Favor                         10.9    19.7     22.2    20.6      19.8    16.3      20.5     28.0

 Don't favor, would accept     24.6    33.1     36.4    27.1      30.5    33.7      35.7     37.0

 Would not accept              41.1    32.6     20.5    22.4      29.9    29.8      25.7     20.0

 Need more information         23.4    14.6     21.0    30.0      19.8    20.2      18.1     15.0

 Total                         100.0   100.0   100.0    100.0    100.0   100.0      100.0    100.0
 Zone restrictions (like the
 elk zones)
                                                                                     P a g e | 45




                                                           Region
                                                                                        Non
                             1       2       3       4         5      6       7
                                                                                      resident
Favor                       22.3    28.2    19.8    16.3      20.3   16.3    17.5      30.5

Don't favor, would accept   24.6    31.6    28.2    33.1      31.6   27.0    29.2      31.5

Would not accept            38.3    29.4    36.2    34.3      33.9   43.8    38.0      22.0

Need more information       14.9    10.7    15.8    16.3      14.1   12.9    15.2      16.0

Total                       100.0   100.0   100.0   100.0    100.0   100.0   100.0     100.0



Across all regions there is a clear preference for lengthening the season. Choosing a
species is not acceptable to all hunters. Hunters are split over controlled hunts and
stratified hunts and not accepting of zone restrictions
P a g e | 46




Restrictions for Large Bucks
                        Table 25. Hunter willingness to accept additional restrictions
               in order to manage for larger bucks and/or more Mule Deer bucks, by region.

                                                 Percent willing to
                                      Region     accept additional
                                                    restrictions
                                         1             60.7

                                         2             68.9

                                         3             59.0

                                         4             65.7

                                         5             70.7

                                         6             60.7

                                         7             65.5
                                        Non
                                                       79.2
                                      resident



Between 59 and 71 percent of Idaho residents, and almost 80% of non-resident hunters
are willing to accept additional restrictions to manage for larger and/or more mule deer.
Table 26 (next page) summarizes their preferences for restrictions.
                                                                                              P a g e | 47



                          Table 26. Hunter acceptability rankings of additional
               restrictions in order to manage for larger and/or more Mule Deer bucks.
                           General
                            harvest
                         restricted to
                         bucks with 4                                      General harvest
                            or more                            Being          restricted to
                           points to                       restricted to     bucks with 2
                           increase      Road and trail    short range       points or less   Giving up
                             buck          closures          weapons          with limited    the ability
                         numbers but        during           (shotgun,         controlled       to hunt
           Controlled     not antler       hunting         muzzleloader,    permits for any      every
 Region      hunts            size         season              bow)               buck           year
                    a
    1         3.0            2.7                3.1               3.4            3.7             5.1

    2         2.3            3.1                2.8               4.0            3.8             4.6

    3         2.3            3.1                3.1               3.6            3.6             5.7

    4         2.4            3.2                3.3               3.6            3.4             5.3

    5         3.0            2.8                3.4               3.6            3.7             5.0

    6         2.6            3.2                3.2               3.6            3.5             5.4

    7         2.3            2.7                3.2               3.4            4.0             5.2
   Non
 residen      2.7            2.7                2.8               3.9            4.0             4.4
     t
  State
 Averag       2.6            2.9                3.1               3.7            3.7             5.0
    e
                                a
                                    1= MOST ACCEPTABLE, 6 = LEAST ACCEPTABLE




In general hunters prefer restrictions that preserve (maximizes) hunting opportunity and
harvest.
P a g e | 48



Table 27. The strength of trade-offs between the size of bucks and the amount of opportunity to hunt that
  hunters are willing to accept to produce more mature (large) Mule Deer bucks-Statewide averages.


                   Choice 1                                                  Choice 2

 A small buck every year                 74%               26%      A big buck once every 10 years


 A medium buck every year                 59                41      A big buck once every 3 years


                                                                    A medium buck once every 10
 A small buck every year                  78                22
                                                                    years


 A medium buck once every 3 years         41                59      A small buck every year


 A big buck once every 10 years           20                80      A medium buck once every 3 years


 A small buck every year                  48                52      A big buck once every 3 years


 A big buck once every 10 years           16                84      A medium buck every year



Hunters were asked to choose between seven pairs of opposing choices which allowed
us to examine whether they favored maintaining hunting opportunity versus the chance
to harvest a large buck.

Overall, in all seven choices, hunters favored the opportunity to hunt frequently over the
size of the bucks available. There were some regional differences in that hunters in
Region 2 and non-resident hunters both favored size over opportunity.

These differences are further described in Tables 28 through 35.
                                                                                         P a g e | 49



    Table 28. The strength of trade-offs between the size of bucks and the amount of opportunity
to hunt that hunters are willing to accept to produce more mature (large) Mule Deer bucks-Region 1.


                Choice 1                                                Choice 2

A small buck every year              81%               19%     A big buck once every 10 years


A medium buck every year              75                25     A big buck once every 3 years


                                                               A medium buck once every 10
A small buck every year               85                15
                                                               years


A medium buck once every 3 years      38                62     A small buck every year


A big buck once every 10 years        15                85     A medium buck once every 3 years


A small buck every year               58                42     A big buck once every 3 years


A big buck once every 10 years        13                87     A medium buck every year
P a g e | 50



      Table 29. The strength of trade-offs between the size of bucks and the amount of opportunity
  to hunt that hunters are willing to accept to produce more mature (large) Mule Deer bucks-Region 2.


    Choice 1                                                   Choice 2

    A small buck every year                72%                 28%       A big buck once every 10 years


    A medium buck every year               47                  53*       A big buck once every 3 years


                                                                         A medium buck once every 10
    A small buck every year                81                  18
                                                                         years


    A medium buck once every 3 years       44                  56        A small buck every year


    A big buck once every 10 years         22                  78        A medium buck once every 3 years


    A small buck every year                37                  62**      A big buck once every 3 years


    A big buck once every 10 years         22                  78        A medium buck every year
                          * Statewide average was 41% ** Statewide average was 52%




In Region 2, hunters differed from statewide averages in two items that favored size of
bucks to harvest over opportunity to hunt. It should be noted that in 5 of the 7 choices
they favored maintaining the opportunity to hunt.
                                                                                              P a g e | 51



Table 30. The strength of trade-offs between the size of bucks and the amount of opportunity to hunt that
        hunters are willing to accept to produce more mature (large) Mule Deer bucks-Region 3.


 Choice 1                                                  Choice 2

 A small buck every year                 81%               19%      A big buck once every 10 years


 A medium buck every year                60                40       A big buck once every 3 years


                                                                    A medium buck once every 10
 A small buck every year                 85                15
                                                                    years


 A medium buck once every 3 years        33                67       A small buck every year


 A big buck once every 10 years          9                 91       A medium buck once every 3 years


 A small buck every year                 49                51       A big buck once every 3 years


 A big buck once every 10 years          9                 91       A medium buck every year
P a g e | 52



      Table 31. The strength of trade-offs between the size of bucks and the amount of opportunity
  to hunt that hunters are willing to accept to produce more mature (large) Mule Deer bucks-Region 4.


  Choice 1                                               Choice 2

  A small buck every year              80%               20%     A big buck once every 10 years


  A medium buck every year             54                46      A big buck once every 3 years


                                                                 A medium buck once every 10
  A small buck every year              83                17
                                                                 years


  A medium buck once every 3 years     39                61      A small buck every year


  A big buck once every 10 years       14                86      A medium buck once every 3 years


  A small buck every year              49                51      A big buck once every 3 years


  A big buck once every 10 years       6                 94      A medium buck every year
                                                                                         P a g e | 53



    Table 32. The strength of trade-offs between the size of bucks and the amount of opportunity
to hunt that hunters are willing to accept to produce more mature (large) Mule Deer bucks-Region 5.


Choice 1                                              Choice 2

A small buck every year             66%               34%      A big buck once every 10 years


A medium buck every year            59                41       A big buck once every 3 years


A small buck every year             76                24       A medium buck once every 10 years


A medium buck once every 3 years    39                61       A small buck every year


A big buck once every 10 years      20                80       A medium buck once every 3 years


A small buck every year             49                51       A big buck once every 3 years


A big buck once every 10 years      23                77       A medium buck every year
P a g e | 54



      Table 33. The strength of trade-offs between the size of bucks and the amount of opportunity
  to hunt that hunters are willing to accept to produce more mature (large) Mule Deer bucks-Region 6.


  Choice 1                                                Choice 2

  A small buck every year               81%               19%      A big buck once every 10 years


  A medium buck every year              64                36       A big buck once every 3 years


                                                                   A medium buck once every 10
  A small buck every year               80                20
                                                                   years


  A medium buck once every 3 years      35                65       A small buck every year


                                                                   A medium buck once every 3
  A big buck once every 10 years        16                84
                                                                   years


  A small buck every year               47                53       A big buck once every 3 years


  A big buck once every 10 years        12                88       A medium buck every year
                                                                                          P a g e | 55



    Table 34. The strength of trade-offs between the size of bucks and the amount of opportunity
to hunt that hunters are willing to accept to produce more mature (large) Mule Deer bucks-Region 7.


Choice 1                                              Choice 2

A small buck every year             71%               29%      A big buck once every 10 years


A medium buck every year            64                36       A big buck once every 3 years


                                                               A medium buck once every 10
A small buck every year             78                22
                                                               years


A medium buck once every 3
                                    45                55       A small buck every year
years


A big buck once every 10 years      23                77       A medium buck once every 3 years


A small buck every year             53                47       A big buck once every 3 years


A big buck once every 10 years      17                83       A medium buck every year
P a g e | 56



      Table 35. The strength of trade-offs between the size of bucks and the amount of opportunity
 to hunt that hunters are willing to accept to produce more mature (large) Mule Deer bucks- Nonresident.


     Choice 1                                                      Choice 2

                                                                          1
     A small buck every year                   49%                 51%        A big buck once every 10 years

                                                                      2
     A medium buck every year                  20                  80         A big buck once every 3 years


                                                                              A medium buck once every 10
     A small buck every year                   55                  45
                                                                              years


     A medium buck once every 3                   3
                                               68                  32         A small buck every year
     years


                                                                      4       A medium buck once every 3
     A big buck once every 10 years            46                  54
                                                                              years

                                                                      5
     A small buck every year                   15                  85         A big buck once every 3 years


                                                                      6
     A big buck once every 10 years            44                  56         A medium buck every year
 1                             2                           3                               4                                5
     Statewide average was 26%. Statewide average was 41%. Statewide average was 41%.          Statewide average was 80%.
                                 Statewide average was 52%. 6 Statewide average was 84%.




Nonresident hunters differed the most from statewide and resident averages on 6 of the
7 choices by primarily favoring size of bucks over opportunity.

In 5 of the choices they favored size while in 2 choices they favored opportunity
(footnoted 4 and 6).
                                                                                             P a g e | 57




Perceived Competition Between Elk and Mule Deer
                               Table 36. Hunter acceptance of potential
                      management options for managing Elk and Mule Deer, by region.
  Reduce elk populations
    on a large scale to                                          Region
 potentially increase Mule
                                                                                                 Non
           Deer.                  1         2        3       4            5    6       7       resident
Favor                            4.6%      1.7      1.7      3.5      7.5     3.9     5.3       12.4
Don’t favor, but would
                                  9.8     10.7     10.3     12.9     19.5     15.2    10.5      14.9
accept
Would not Accept                 71.7     76.4     81.0     74.7     60.3     69.1    74.3      57.9

Need more information            13.9     11.2      6.9      8.8     12.6     11.8    9.9       14.9
Total                            100%     100%      100%    100%     100%     100%    100%       100%

 In some selected units,
 mule deer will be given
management priority over
           elk.
     This means elk
   populations in those
   units may decrease.

             Favor               11.2     12.9      7.5     18.2     22.4     16.4    16.5      30.7

 Don’t favor, would accept       27.1      32      22.4     23.5     28.7     31.1    26.5      26.1

        Would not Accept         48.2     43.8     56.9     46.5     35.6     42.9    45.3      33.2

   Need more information         13.5     11.2     13.2     11.8     13.2     9.6     11.8      10.1
              Total              100%     100%      100%    100%     100%     100%    100%       100%

 Reduce elk population in
   the units I hunt in to
 potentially increase Mule
           Deer.

             Favor               5.3       3.4      2.3      7.6     12.1     6.2     6.4        16.1

 Don’t favor, would accept       16.5     20.8     17.2     19.4     24.1     24.7    18.1       21.6

        Would not Accept         65.9     65.2     70.7     62.4     50.6     54.5    64.9       49.2

   Need more information         12.4     10.7      9.8     10.6     13.2     14.6    10.5       13.1
              Total              100%     100%      100%    100%     100%     100%    100%       100%



Hunters are not in favor or increasing mule deer hunting opportunities at the expense of
elk hunting opportunities.
P a g e | 58



              10 0%
                                                                                      Re duce elk num be rs on large scale
                                                                                         Favor
                                                                                         Don't favor, would accept
                                                                                         Would not Accept
               75 %
                                                                                         Need more information

                                                                                       Bars show percents
    Percent




               50 %




               25 %




                0%
                          1       2       3       4       5       6       7       8

                                              Re gion
          10 0%
                                                                                       Mule de er have m anagem ent priority in s elected areas
                                                                                         Favor
                                                                                         Don't favor, would accept
                                                                                         Would not Accept
              75 %
                                                                                         Need more information

                                                                                       Bars show percents
Percent




              50 %




              25 %




               0%
                      1       2       3        4      5           6       7       8

                                              Re gion

          10 0%
                                                                                      Re duce elk in the units I hunt
                                                                                        Favor
                                                                                        Don't favor, would accept
                                                                                        Would not Accept
              75 %
                                                                                        Need more information

                                                                                      Bars show percents
Percent




              50 %




              25 %




               0%
                      1       2       3       4       5       6       7       8

                                              Re gion
                                              Figures 8,9 & 10. Acceptance of potential management options.

Hunters will not accept reducing the production (management focus) on elk to favor
mule deer.
                                                                                              P a g e | 59




Antlerless Harvest

        Table 37. Hunter acceptance of reasons justifying antlerless Mule Deer hunts, by region.


                                    Regions
                                                                                                Non
                                    1         2      3        4       5       6        7        resident
To reduce agricultural damage
Favor                               13.2%     6.0    9.7      11.1    18.6    12.2     8.2      17.1
Don't favor, would accept           9.2       6.0    8.5      8.2     15.8    12.8     12.9     6.0
Would not accept                    29.3      29.5   30.7     28.7    32.2    35.0     29.2     29.6
Need more information               48.3      58.5   51.1     52.0    33.3    40.0     49.7     47.2
Total                               100%      100%   100%     100%    100%    100%     100%     100%

To provide additional hunting
opportunity
Favor                               8.o       7.7    7.5      7.0     10.2    12.2     7.6      6.5
Don't favor, would accept           19.5      16.9   14.9     16.9    26.6    14.4     28.1     31.0
Would not accept                    30.5      20.2   20.1     21.5    26.6    26.7     24.0     28
Need more information               42.0      55.2   57.5     54.7    36.7    46.7     40.4     34.5
Total                               100%      100%   100%     100%    100%    100%     100%     100%

To maintain a balanced
population size for the quality
of the habitat
Favor                               2.9       4.4    4.5      4.1     5.1     8.3      3.5      3.5
Don't favor, would accept           5.7       1.6    2.3      2.9     7.3     3.3      5.2      4.0
Would not accept                    13.8      10.9   13.6     7.6     15.8    12.8     14.5     8.5
Need more information               77.6      83.1   79.5     85.4    71.8    75.6     76.7     83.9
Total                               100%      100%   100%     100%    100%    100%     100%     100%
P a g e | 60




                                   Regions
                                                                                       Non
                                   1         2      3      4      5      6      7      resident
 To increase productivity of the
 herd
 Favor                             6.9       5.4    5.1    5.8    6.8    10.0   4.1    5.5
 Don't favor, would accept         3.5       3.3    4.0    4.1    6.2    3.9    6.4    3.5
 Would not accept                  11.0      6.5    7.3    5.8    14.7   6.7    9.9    6.5
 Need more information             78.6      84.8   83.6   84.2   72.3   79.4   79.5   84.6
 Total                             100%      100%   100%   100%   100%   100%   100%   100%

 To provide opportunities for
 Youth Hunts
 Favor                             2.3       4.4    1.7    2.3    4.6    2.8    2.3    1.5
 Don't favor, would accept         8.6       6.1    4.5    3.5    10.9   7.3    9.9    6.5
 Would not accept                  21.8      9.9    11.4   12.9   17.1   14.5   15.2   17.5
 Need more information             67.2      79.6   82.4   81.3   67.4   75.4   72.5   74.5
 Total                             100%      100%   100%   100%   100%   100%   100%   100%




Before hunters accept antlerless deer harvest as a management strategy they would
like more information.
                                                                                              P a g e | 61



              Table 38. Participation rates, attitude and future intentions for antlerless
                               Mule Deer hunting in Idaho, by region.

                           Percent who      Percent who have        Percent who would
                          feel antlerless   ever participated     participate if they could
              Region
                            hunting is        in antlerless       harvest a buck and an
                           appropriate            hunts                antlerless deer
                 1            79.3%                 23.9                    52.3
                 2              76.4                40.4                    65.4
                 3              91.8                60.5                    65.5
                 4              92.0                67.4                    70.4
                 5              93.6                61.0                    55.1
                 6              82.4                62.8                    59.0
                 7              89.4                48.0                    56.1
                Non
                                86.0                6.9                     51.5
              resident



A majority of hunters would welcome the added hunting opportunity that an antlerless
hunt would provide.
P a g e | 62



                     Table 39. Willingness to participate in future antlerless hunts, by region.

                               Region
           Willing to
           participate                                                                     Non
                                  1        2        3        4       5       6       7
                                                                                           resident
               Yes             28.8%    53.0     59.3     63.4    44.1    53.6     43.9    11.9

               No              41.2     30.1     18.6     18.0    32.2    27.9     37.6    60.7

               Don't know      29.9     16.9     22.0     18.6    23.7    18.4     18.5    27.4



Hunters willingness to participate in antlerless hunts increases when they are offered an
opportunity to harvest a buck in addition (Table 38).
                                                                                                      P a g e | 63



                     Table 40. Hunter acceptability rankings of preferred methods
                         of conducting antlerless Mule Deer hunts, by region.

                                                                                          Archery and /or
                        Controlled               Youth         General       Extra deer
        Region                                                                             muzzleloader
                          hunts                  hunts          hunts          hunts
                                                                                              hunts
                                 a
           1               2.8                     2.0           2.9                3.1         3.0

           2                2.6                    1.9           3.2                2.8         3.3

           3                2.4                    1.8           3.3                3.2         3.2

           4                2.3                    1.9           3.2                3.2         3.0

           5                2.8                    1.9           3.5                3.3         3.0

           6                2.6                    1.9           3.2                3.3         3.2

           7                2.7                    1.8           3.4                3.5         2.9

      Non resident          2.5                    1.6           3.4                3.5         3.0

     State Average         2.6                    1.8            3.3                3.2        3.1
                                     a
                                         1= MOST ACCEPTABLE, 5 = LEAST ACCEPTABLE


Youth Hunts are the most preferred method of conducting antlerless hunts.
P a g e | 64




Motorized Access
                   Table 41. Frequency of travel modes used by Mule Deer hunters, by region.

                                                       Horse/pack         Mountain
         Region          ATV       Car/truck                                               On foot   Trail bike
                                                        animals             bike
                               a
               1         1.8              2.6              1.4                1.2            3.4        1.2

               2          1.9             2.4              1.6                1.2            3.5        1.1

               3          1.8             2.5              1.6                1.1            3.3        1.2

               4          1.8             2.5              1.5                1.1            3.4        1.2

               5          2.0             2.7              1.7                1.0            3.3        1.1

               6          1.8             2.6              1.5                1.1            3.4        1.2

               7          1.8             2.5              1.6                1.1            3.3        1.2
          Non
                          1.8             2.2              1.8                1.1            3.5        1.2
        resident
          State
                          1.8             2.5              1.6                1.1            3.4        1.2
        Average
                                   a
                                       1 = NEVER; 2 = SOMETIMES; 3 = USUALLY; 4 = ALWAYS




Foot travel is the most frequently used travel mode, followed by car/trucks. This pattern
holds across all strata of the sample. ATVs are used more often than horse/pack
animals, trailbikes or mountain bikes.
                                                                                          P a g e | 65




           Table 42. Percent of Mule Deer hunters who own an ATV/trail bike, by region.

                                        Region     Percent

                                          1          51.1

                                          2          51.1

                                          3          50.9

                                          4          46.2

                                          5          53.8

                                          6          48.0

                                          7          48.0
                                         Non
                                                     42.6
                                       resident



About half of all mule deer hunters own an ATV or trailbike. Ownership is highest in
Region 5, and lowest among nonresidents.
P a g e | 66



    Table 43. Average daily travel distance of ATV/Trail bike-equipped Mule Deer hunters, by region.

                                                            Distance typically
                                             Region        ridden on ATV/trail
                                                               bike per day
                                                                          a
                                                1                   1.0

                                                2                   1.0

                                                3                   2.0

                                                4                   1.0

                                                5                   1.0

                                                6                   1.0

                                                7                   1.0
                                              Non
                                                                    1.0
                                            resident
                                              State
                                                                    1.0
                                            Average
                a
                    1 = 0-5 MILES; 2 = 6-10 MILES; 3 = 11-15 MILES; 4 = 16-20 MILES; 5 = MORE THAN 20 MILES




On average, hunters travel 5 miles or less per day on an ATV/trailbike, except in region
3, where the average distance is between 6 and 10 miles per day.
                                                                                          P a g e | 67



         Table 44. Average years of use of ATV/Trail bikes for Mule Deer hunting, by region.

                                                ATV      Trail bike
                                   Region
                                               years       years
                                      1          6.7       11.7

                                      2          7.6       12.1

                                      3          6.6       11.6

                                      4          6.3       13.0

                                      5          9.0       16.4

                                      6          7.2       10.0

                                      7          7.3        9.9
                                    Non
                                                 5.7        6.3
                                  resident
                                    State
                                                7.1        11.4
                                  Average



Trail bikes have a longer history of use among Mule deer hunters. On average ATVs
have been used for about seven years, compared to over 11 years for trailbikes. Length
of use is lowest among nonresidents and longest in Region 5.
P a g e | 68




     Table 45. Percent of hunters who are aware of the Motorized Vehicle Restriction Rule (MVRR).

                                   Awareness of MVRR        Percent

                                 Not Aware of MVRR           50.4%

                                 Aware of MVRR                49.6



About half of all Mule Deer hunters are aware of the Motorized Vehicle Restriction Rule.
However, as Table 46 (next page) shows, this awareness does not necessarily mean
familiarity with the rule.
                                                                                             P a g e | 69




                            Table 46. Hunter knowledge of the application
                    of the Motorized Vehicle Restriction Rule (MVRR), by region.

                                             I'm sure it
                                                                                            I'm sure it
               Did not hunt   Not familiar   applied to     I think it   I don't think it
    Region                                                                                    did not
                 in 2006      with MVRR        where I      applied         applied
                                                                                               apply
                                               hunted
       1         18.3%           25.1           13.7          10.3            16.6             16.0

       2          10.7           20.3           5.6           10.2            22.0             31.1

       3          12.0           48.0           11.4          6.3             11.4             10.9

       4          10.0           56.5           6.5           6.5              8.2             12.4

       5           7.4           61.9           6.8           4.0              8.5             11.4

       6           8.0           61.4           9.7           4.5              6.8             9.7

       7           6.9           57.8           5.2           4.6              9.8             15.6
      Non
                  14.6           31.2           4.5           5.5             10.1             34.2
    resident



Familiarity is uneven across the states, being highest in the Regions 1 and 2, and
dropping in regions further south.

Between 20% (Region 2) and about 62% (Regions 5 & 6) of all Mule Deer hunters are
not familiar with the MVRR.

Hunters are more inclined to believe the MVRR did not apply to their hunting unit than
believing it did. Hunters were also slightly more ―sure‖ that the rule applied/didn’t apply
than ―thinking‖ it did/didn’t apply.
P a g e | 70



           Table 47. Hunter support for the Motorized Vehicle Restriction Rule (MVRR), by region.
                                                                         a
                                                                 Support
                                                   Region
                                                                for MVRR
                                                      1            2.6

                                                      2            2.2

                                                      3            2.4

                                                      4            2.4

                                                      5            2.3

                                                      6            2.4

                                                      7            2.2
                                                    Non
                                                                   2.1
                                                  resident
                                                    State
                                                                   2.3
                                                  Average
   a
       1 = STRONGLY SUPPORT IT; 2 = SUPPORT IT; 3 = NEITHER SUPPORT NOR OPPOSE IT; 4 = OPPOSE IT; 5 = STRONGLY OPPOSE IT




Though hunters generally support the MVRR, hunters are only slightly above neutral (3)
when it comes to support for the MVRR. Support is lowest in Region 1 and highest
among nonresident hunters.
                                                                                                              P a g e | 71



                  Table 48. Hunter support for the Motorized Vehicle Restriction Rule (MVRR),
                                     by region and awareness of the rule.


                                                                     Region
   Awareness of                                                                                    Non          State
      MVRR                   1         2         3         4         5          6         7      Resident      Average
   Not Aware of                  a
                           2.4        2.3       2.3       2.5        2.4       2.5       2.2         2.0          2.3
      MVRR
  Aware of MVRR             2.7       2.3       2.5       2.3        2.3       2.2       2.3         2.2          2.3
   a
       1 = STRONGLY SUPPORT IT; 2 = SUPPORT IT; 3 = NEITHER SUPPORT NOR OPPOSE IT; 4 = OPPOSE IT; 5 = STRONGLY OPPOSE IT




Support for the MVRR is not linked to awareness of the rule, though support is slightly
higher among those not aware of the rule.
P a g e | 72




          Table 49. Importance of reasons for using an ATV/trail bike while hunting, by region.


   Reasons for Using an ATV/trail                                      Region
        bike while hunting                                                                        Non         Average
                                               1        2      3      4      5      6      7    resident
                                                   a
  Scout for game                             2.3       2.1    2.2    2.3    2.3    2.3    2.4      2.2          2.3

  Make up for physical limitations            2.5      2.3    2.0    2.1    2.1    1.8    2.2      2.3          2.1

  Travel to areas to hunt on foot             2.2      1.9    2.1    2.4    1.9    2.0    2.1      1.9          2.0
  To hunt with others who use
                                              3.7      3.3    3.3    3.2    3.1    3.2    3.4      3.4          3.3
  ATVs
  Get to the best areas which are
                                              1.7      1.7    1.7    1.9    1.7    1.6    1.8      2.0          1.8
  far from roads
  Go further in less time                     2.5      2.3    2.0    2.2    2.1    2.0    2.1      2.5          2.2

  Get away from other hunters                 2.7      2.5    2.1    2.4    2.2    2.1    2.3      2.6          2.4

  To retrieve big game                        3.1      3.2    3.2    3.3    3.2    3.2    3.2      3.2          3.2
  Haul camping supplies and
                                              2.4      2.1    2.3    2.3    2.3    2.2    2.3      2.2          2.3
  equipment
  For the added security and
                                              2.0      1.8    2.0    2.1    2.0    1.8    1.8      1.9          1.9
  safety
  Haul people to or from hunting
                                              1.4      1.5    1.6    1.6    1.6    1.4    1.6      1.5          1.5
  camps
  Hunt on roads/trails closed to
                                              2.4      2.2    2.0    2.3    2.3    2.0    2.2      2.5          2.2
  full-sized vehicles
               a
                   1 = NOT IMPORTANT; 2 = SOMEWHAT IMPORTANT; 3 = FAIRLY IMPORTANT; 4 = EXTREMELY IMPORTANT




The two most important motivations for using an ATV/trailbike while hunting mule deer
are: ―to hunt with others who use ATVs‖ and to ―retrieve big game.‖

These findings should also be examined in conjunction with the presentations we made
at the 2007 In-service training (Figure 11, next page), where we point out that these
findings hold for those with ―high involvement‖ and those with ―low involvement‖ with
ATVs.

While this is a less complex set of motivations that found in earlier studies, it does
signify a major social-desirability pressure to own and use an ATV while hunting mule
deer.
                                                                                                              P a g e | 73




                                                                                                       Scout for game
                                                                                                       Make up for physical
                                                                                                       limitations
                                                                                                       Travel to areas to hunt on
                                                                                                       foot
                                                                                                       Hunt with others who use
                                                                                                       ATVs
                                                                                                       Get to the best areas
                 High Involvement                                                                      which are far from roads
                                                                                                       Go further in less time
                                                                                                       Get away from other
                                                                                                       hunters
                                                                                                       Retrieve big game
ATV user types




                                                                                                       Haul camping supplies and
                                                                                                       equipment
                                                                                                       For the added security
                                                                                                       and safety
                                                                                                       Haul people to or from
                                                                                                       hunting camps
                                                                                                       Hunt on roads/trails
                                                                                                       closed to full-sized
                                                                                                       vehicles




                 Low Involvement




                                    1                 2                    3                     4
                                                       Mean Importance
                         Figure 11. Importance of reasons for using ATV/trailbike while hunting by level of
                                               involvement in motorized recreation.
P a g e | 74



                       Table 50. Percent of hunters reporting ―physical conditions
             such as vision or hearing impairment, or any condition that limits the ability to
          perform activities such as walking, climbing, reaching, lifting, or carrying,‖ by region.

                                                    Percent reporting a
                                       Region
                                                        disability
                                          1               29.3
                                          2                 22.3
                                          3                 28.7
                                          4                 24.9
                                          5                 23.3
                                          6                 28.2
                                          7                 24.1
                                        Non
                                                            15.5
                                      resident



Between a quarter and a third of mule deer hunters self-report the presence of disabling
conditions.

Nonresidents are about half as likely to report being disabled.
                                                                                             P a g e | 75



      Table 51. Percent of those owning an ATV/trailbike who report physically limiting conditions.

                                                                                Total
                              Ownership                Physical limitations
                               category
                                                         Yes          No
                   Own an ATV/trailbike                  30.2        69.8      100.0%



                   Do not own an ATV/trailbike           18.5        81.5      100.0%




Hunters with physical limitations are almost twice as likely to own an ATV/trailbike as
those who are not disabled.
P a g e | 76



                   Table 52. Importance of ―Make up for physical limitations ratings‖
     as a motive for using an ATV/trailbike while hunting, by self-reported physical disability status.

                                                         Make up for
                                           Physical
                                                            physical
                                         limitations
                                                          limitations
                                    Yes                       2.0

                                    No                        2.2

                                    Total                     2.1



Despite the fact (Table 51) that hunters with physical limitations are almost twice as
likely to own an ATV/trailbike as those who are not disabled, they are less likely to own
one because it ―Makes up for physical limitations‖ than able bodied hunters. Perhaps
age is a factor:


                Table 53. Mean age by importance of ―Make up for physical limitations‖
                          as a motive for using an ATV/trailbke while hunting

                                  Make up for physical
                                        limitations            Mean Age
                                Not important                    49.4
                                Somewhat important                  48.4

                                Fairly important                    46.6

                                Extremely important                 45.1

                                State Average                       47.9



There appears to be an inverse relationship between the motivation ―to make up for
physical limitations‖ and age—older hunters are less like to subscribe to the motivation.
                                                                                                             P a g e | 77



                 Table 54. Response to expanded ATV/trail bike restrictions, by region.


                                                                               Region
  Response to expanded ATV/trail                                                                    Non        State
                                             1       2      3       4      5       6       7
         bike restrictions                                                                        resident    Average
                                                 a
    I would quit hunting in Idaho          1.3       1.2   1.3     1.4    1.3     1.3     1.2          1.4      1.3

    I would still hunt in Idaho             3.5      3.6   3.5     3.5    3.5     3.6     3.6          3.3      3.5
     I would hunt without an
                                            3.1      3.1   3.0     3.0    3.0     3.1     3.0          3.1      3.0
            ATV/Bike
    I would hunt a different area           1.6      1.7   1.7     1.8    1.6     1.6     1.5          1.6      1.6

         I would hunt less                  1.4      1.4   1.4     1.5    1.5     1.4     1.4          1.5      1.4

         I would hunt more                  1.9      1.9   1.6     1.7    1.8     1.9     1.9          1.8      1.8

     I would enjoy hunting less             1.6      1.4   1.6     1.6    1.6     1.7     1.6          1.6      1.6

    I would enjoy hunting more              2.2      2.4   2.0     2.1    2.2     2.2     2.2          2.2      2.2
   I would be a more successful
                                            1.9      1.9   1.8     1.9    2.0     1.9     2.0          1.8      1.9
               hunter
    I would be a less successful
                                            1.5      1.4   1.5     1.6    1.5     1.4     1.5          1.5      1.5
               hunter
                    a
                        1 = NOT LIKELY; 2 = SOMEWHAT LIKELY; 3 = FAIRLY LIKELY; 4 = EXTREMELY LIKELY




It is very likely that mule deer hunters would continue to hunt in Idaho and would do so
without an ATV or trailbike if restrictions on ATV use were applied to more units. Overall
they would somewhat likely to enjoy hunting more.

For all the other responses the aggregate data suggests that the behaviors are unlikely
to occur.
P a g e | 78




Evaluation of Conservation Officers
               Table 55. Experiences with and feeling towards Conservation Officers, by region.

                                                                         Region

                                                                                                         Non       State
                                   1         2         3         4         5         6         7
                                                                                                       resident   Average

                       No        51.7%     58.7      61.0      62.7      61.4      61.2      56.6        49.0      57.0
 Checked by a
 Conservation          Yes       48.3      41.3      39.0      37.3      38.6      38.8      43.4        51.0      43.0
 Officer
                       Total     100.0%    100.0%    100.0%    100.0%    100.0%    100.0%    100.0%     100.0%     100.0%




                    Strongly
                                   3.1       3.0       1.9       1.3       2.6       3.1       2.5        0.0       2.1
                    Disagree

                    Disagree       8.6       6.0       7.0       6.9       9.2       6.3       9.4        1.2       6.6

 Conservation       Don't know    16.7       9.0      14.6      12.5      14.5      20.1       8.2       29.8       16.0
 Officer is
 Professional         Agree       49.4      51.8      48.1      53.1      54.6      53.5      56.6       37.4       50.4

                     Strongly
                                  22.2      30.1      28.5      26.3      19.1      17.0      23.3       31.6       24.9
                      Agree

                       Total      100.0%    100.0%    100.0%    100.0%    100.0%    100.0%    100.0%     100.0%     100.0%



 Final Rating:        Mean        3.8       4.0        3.9       4.0      3.8       3.8       3.9         4.0       3.9




                    Strongly
                                   5.6       2.4       1.9       1.3       3.9       3.1       1.3        0.0       2.4
                    Disagree

                    Disagree      10.6      12.0      12.6       8.8      14.5      12.6      14.5        4.1       11.2

 Conservations      Don't know    13.7       6.0      12.6      10.6      13.8      17.6       6.3       27.6       13.8
 Officer is
 Friendly             Agree       49.1      55.4      45.9      56.9      49.3      50.9      57.9       38.8       50.3

                     Strongly
                                  21.1      24.1      27.0      22.5      18.4      15.7      20.1       29.4       22.4
                      Agree

                       Total      100.0%    100.0%    100.0%    100.0%    100.0%    100.0%    100.0%     100.0%     100.0%



 Final Rating:        Mean        3.7       3.9        3.8       3.9      3.6       3.6       3.8         3.9       3.8
                                                                                                              P a g e | 79



                                                                        Region

                                                                                                      Non         State
                                  1         2        3         4         5         6         7
                                                                                                    resident     Average

                  Strongly
                                 3.7       4.3      1.3        .6       2.6       2.6       2.5       0.0          2.1
                  Disagree

                  Disagree       7.4       4.9      8.3       3.2      11.9       7.1       7.6       3.0          6.5

Conservation     Don't know     18.5      20.1      18.5     18.4      19.2      25.0      14.6       33.7         21.3
Officer is
Knowledgeable       Agree       49.4      47.6      47.1     50.6      47.0      45.5      54.8       33.7         46.9

                  Strongly
                                21.0      23.2      24.8     27.2      19.2      19.9      20.4       29.6         23.2
                   Agree

                     Total      100.0%    100.0%   100.0%    100.0%    100.0%    100.0%    100.0%    100.0%        100.0%



Final Rating:       Mean        3.8       3.8       3.9       4.0       3.7      3.7       3.8        3.9          3.8

                Final Ratings: 1=Strongly Disagree, 2=Disagree, 3=Don’t Know, 4=Agree, 5=Strongly Agree




     Over half of Idaho residents did not get checked by a Conservation Officer.
     Hunters agree that the Conservation Officers were professional, friendly, and
     knowledgeable.
P a g e | 80



                             Table 56. Rating of Conservation Officer encounters.

                                                                      Region

                                                                                                    Non       State
                                 1        2        3         4         5         6         7      resident   Average

 F--Unacceptable               3.3%      4.7      1.9       2.8       5.7       3.7       1.0       1.0       3.0

 D--Less than satisfactory      8.8      4.7      5.7       1.9       8.6       7.4       5.1       5.1       5.8

 C--Adequate                    48.4    39.6     41.5      34.0      41.9      47.2       38.8     26.3       39.4

 B--Excellent                   33.0    37.7     31.1      44.3      28.6      32.4       42.9     35.4       35.9

 A--Outstanding                 6.6     13.2     19.8      17.0      15.2       9.3       12.2     32.3       15.8
 Total                         100.0%   100.0%   100.0%    100.0%    100.0%    100.0%    100.0%    100.0%     100.0%


 Average Mean                   2.7     2.5       2.4       2.3       2.6       2.6       2.4       2.0       2.4

                        *The Average Mean Overall was a satisfactory rating of a C -- Adequate




         Encounters with Conservation Officers receive a passing grade of a C
         (―Adequate‖).
                                                                                      P a g e | 81




Hunting Units
                          Table 57. Typical hunting unit use, by region.


                   Same unit every     2-3 units every      More than 3 units   Different units
     Region
                       year                 year                 a year           each year
         1             45.2%                 49.4                  3.0               2.4
         2              40.5                 46.0                  4.9               8.6
         3              48.1                 48.1                  2.5               1.2
         4              35.2                 51.9                  6.2               6.8
         5              31.9                 58.3                  7.4               2.5
         6              25.9                 56.5                  14.1              3.5
         7              29.0                 57.4                  10.5              3.1
    Non resident        57.6                 30.0                  2.4               10.0



Generally, hunters restrict their hunting to three or fewer units each year.

About half of the mule deer hunters hunt in 2 or 3 units every year and over one third
hunt in the same unit every year.

Only a few percent hunt in different units each year or in more than 3 units each year. In
regions 5, 6 and 7 they are more likely to hunt in more than 3 units.
P a g e | 82



               Table 58. Average number of units hunted, by region.

                                             Mean
                              Region      number of
                                         units hunted
                                 1            1.8

                                 2            1.8

                                 3            1.7

                                 4            1.7

                                 5            2.1

                                 6            2.2

                                 7            2.4
                               Non
                                              1.5
                             resident
                               State
                                              1.9
                             Average
                                                                                                          P a g e | 83




                                                 Region: 1

                70.0%



                60.0%



                50.0%



                40.0%
           Percent




                30.0%



                20.0%



                10.0%



                     0.0%


                              1           2        3            4           5           6

                                              number of units hunted


           Table 59. Distribution of hunters by game units for hunters from Region 1.


                                      a                                                               a
    Unit                    Percent                                     Unit                Percent
      4                      44.8%                                        8                  1.4%
      1                      37.8%                                       23                   .7%
      6                      21.0%                                       27                   .7%
      7                      14.0%                                       44                   .7%
      3                      11.9%                                       49                   .7%
      2                       7.7%                                      66A                   .7%
     4A                       5.6%                                      73A                   .7%
     22                       2.1%                                       10                   .7%
     39                       2.1%                                       13                   .7%
     31                       2.1%                                       14                   .7%
     32                       2.1%                                      20A                   .7%
    32A                       2.1%                                      21A                   .7%
      5                       2.1%                                      36A                   .7%
      9                       2.1%                                       40                   .7%
     66                       1.4%                                       41                   .7%
     67                       1.4%                                       46                   .7%
     25                       1.4%                                       72                   .7%
     33                       1.4%                                       73                   .7%
     34                       1.4%                                     Salmon                 .7%
     4a                       1.4%
a
    Percents for the region total more than 100 because respondents were given multiple response choices.
P a g e | 84



                                                                Region: 2

                              70.0%



                              60.0%



                              50.0%



                              40.0%
                         Percent




                              30.0%



                              20.0%



                              10.0%



                                   0.0%


                                              1         2   3               4        5      6   8

                                                            number of units hunted


                     Table 60. Distribution of hunters by game units for hunters from Region 2.

                                                    a                                                          a
              Unit                        Percent                                        Unit        Percent
              11A                          16.1%                                           1          1.7%
               39                          11.9%                                          33          1.7%
               19                          11.0%                                           6          1.7%
              10A                          10.2%                                          18          1.7%
               20                          10.2%                                          21          1.7%
               10                           8.5%                                          26          1.7%
               14                           7.6%                                          53          1.7%
               23                           5.9%                                          12           .8%
               15                           5.9%                                          44           .8%
               13                           5.1%                                          54           .8%
               24                           5.1%                                          61           .8%
               40                           4.2%                                          66           .8%
                8                           4.2%                                         66A           .8%
               17                           4.2%                                          69           .8%
               8A                           4.2%                                         20A           .8%
               22                           3.4%                                          25           .8%
              19A                           3.4%                                         36A           .8%
               43                           2.5%                                          41           .8%
               31                           2.5%                                          46           .8%
               32                           2.5%                                          4A           .8%
              32A                           2.5%                                          16           .8%
                4                           2.5%                                          42           .8%
               11                           2.5%                                          50           .8%
              16A                           2.5%                                         52A           .8%
               38                           2.5%                                          58           .8%
               55                           2.5%                                          63           .8%
               76                           2.5%                                          71           .8%
               48                           1.7%
          a
              Percents for the region total more than 100 because respondents were given multiple response choices.
                                                                                                         P a g e | 85



                                                  Region: 3

                 70.0%



                 60.0%



                 50.0%



                 40.0%
            Percent




                 30.0%



                 20.0%



                 10.0%



                      0.0%


                                 1         2                  3         4             5

                                               number of units hunted

           Table 61. Distribution of hunters by game units for hunters from Region 3.


                                       a                                                             a
    Unit                     Percent                                    Unit               Percent
     39                       32.7%                                      45                   1.9%
    32A                       19.2%                                      43                   1.3%
     32                       17.3%                                      41                   1.3%
     40                       14.1%                                      42                   1.3%
     22                       12.8%                                     SW                    1.3%
     24                       10.9%                                      28                    .6%
     31                        7.1%                                      48                    .6%
     33                        7.1%                                     66A                    .6%
     23                        5.8%                                      69                    .6%
     25                        5.8%                                     73A                    .6%
     34                        5.8%                                     20A                    .6%
     35                        5.8%                                       3                    .6%
     38                        4.5%                                      53                    .6%
     36                        3.8%                                      3b                    .6%
    19A                        2.6%                                     MV                     .6%
      2                        1.9%
a
    Percents for the region total more than 100 because respondents were given multiple response choices.
P a g e | 86




                                                             Region: 4

                           70.0%



                           60.0%



                           50.0%



                           40.0%
                      Percent




                           30.0%



                           20.0%



                           10.0%



                                0.0%


                                          1          2   3               4        5          6    8

                                                         number of units hunted



                     Table 62. Distribution of hunters by game units for hunters from Region 4.

                                                 a                                                              a
              Unit                     Percent                                        Unit            Percent
               49                       20.7%                                           3              1.4%
               43                       20.0%                                         32A              1.4%
               48                       17.2%                                         36A              1.4%
               39                       11.0%                                         68A              1.4%
               45                       11.0%                                          22               .7%
               54                        9.7%                                          66               .7%
               53                        6.9%                                          69               .7%
               56                        6.2%                                          32               .7%
               50                        6.2%                                           4               .7%
               52                        6.2%                                          41               .7%
               46                        5.5%                                           5               .7%
              52A                        4.1%                                           6               .7%
               55                        4.1%                                           9               .7%
               36                        3.4%                                          24               .7%
               44                        3.4%                                          42               .7%
               34                        2.8%                                          35               .7%
               23                        2.1%                                          47               .7%
              20A                        2.1%                                          51               .7%
               33                        2.1%                                          64               .7%
               40                        2.1%                                          77               .7%
               76                        2.1%                                          78               .7%
               59                        1.4%
          a
              Percents for the region total more than 100 because respondents were given multiple response choices.
                                                                                                         P a g e | 87



                                                     Region: 5

                   70.0%



                   60.0%



                   50.0%



                   40.0%
              Percent




                   30.0%



                   20.0%



                   10.0%



                        0.0%


                                  1          2   3               4        5      6    7

                                                 number of units hunted

           Table 63. Distribution of hunters by game units for hunters from Region 5.


                                         a                                                           a
    Unit                       Percent                                        Unit         Percent
     76                         33.5%                                          39           1.3%
     74                         19.4%                                          67           1.3%
     75                         18.7%                                           7           1.3%
     73                         16.8%                                          55           1.3%
     72                         14.2%                                          63           1.3%
    73A                         10.3%                                         68A           1.3%
     71                         10.3%                                          37           1.3%
     78                         10.3%                                         59A           1.3%
     70                         10.3%                                         63A           1.3%
     77                          9.7%                                         SE            1.3%
    66A                          8.4%                                          28            .6%
     56                          7.7%                                          29            .6%
     69                          7.1%                                          43            .6%
     66                          6.5%                                           3            .6%
     50                          3.2%                                           6            .6%
     68                          3.2%                                          64            .6%
     61                          1.9%                                         23a            .6%
     51                          1.9%                                         37A            .6%
    60A                          1.9%                                         74A            .6%
a
    Percents for the region total more than 100 because respondents were given multiple response choices.
P a g e | 88



                                                              Region: 6

                                  70.0%



                                  60.0%



                                  50.0%



                                  40.0%




                             Percent
                                  30.0%



                                  20.0%



                                  10.0%



                                       0.0%


                                              1       2   3               4        5    6      8

                                                          number of units hunted

                     Table 64. Distribution of hunters by game units for hunters from Region 6.

                                                  a                                                            a
              Unit                      Percent                                         Unit         Percent
               50                        19.9%                                           29           1.3%
               59                        17.3%                                           48           1.3%
               69                        16.7%                                          73A           1.3%
               60                        14.1%                                          52A           1.3%
              59A                        12.8%                                           37           1.3%
               51                        11.5%                                           39            .6%
               61                        10.9%                                           43            .6%
               66                        10.9%                                           54            .6%
               64                        10.9%                                            1            .6%
              60A                         9.0%                                            2            .6%
              62A                         7.7%                                           33            .6%
               67                         7.1%                                          36A            .6%
               62                         5.1%                                           46            .6%
               76                         5.1%                                            8            .6%
               58                         4.5%                                           20            .6%
               65                         4.5%                                           42            .6%
               49                         3.8%                                           53            .6%
              66A                         3.8%                                           55            .6%
               63                         3.8%                                           35            .6%
              63A                         3.2%                                           45            .6%
               56                         2.6%                                          68A            .6%
               71                         2.6%                                           77            .6%
              37A                         2.6%                                           75            .6%
               68                         2.6%                                           57            .6%
               27                         1.9%                                          61A            .6%
               30                         1.9%                                         Upper
                                                                                                        .6%
              36B                         1.9%                                         Snake
               28                         1.3%
          a
              Percents for the region total more than 100 because respondents were given multiple response choices.
                                                                                                          P a g e | 89



                                                       Region: 7

                        70.0%



                        60.0%



                        50.0%



                        40.0%




                   Percent
                        30.0%



                        20.0%



                        10.0%



                             0.0%


                                    1       2   3          4        5        6    7     8

                                                    number of units hunted

        Table 65. Distribution of hunters by game units for hunters from Region 7.

                                        a                                                             a
 Unit                         Percent                                            Unit       Percent
  28                           27.1%                                               1         1.4%
 36B                           16.7%                                              31         1.4%
  29                           16.0%                                              33         1.4%
  30                           14.6%                                               4         1.4%
  36                           13.2%                                              41         1.4%
  37                           11.1%                                              24         1.4%
 21A                           10.4%                                              26         1.4%
  21                            9.7%                                              53         1.4%
 36A                            7.6%                                              63         1.4%
 30A                            6.9%                                              35         1.4%
  39                            6.9%                                              51         1.4%
  50                            6.9%                                              64         1.4%
 37A                            5.6%                                              23          .7%
  49                            4.9%                                              67          .7%
  76                            4.2%                                              69          .7%
  27                            3.5%                                             73A          .7%
  54                            3.5%                                              74          .7%
 60A                            3.5%                                               2          .7%
  43                            2.8%                                              25          .7%
  56                            2.8%                                             32A          .7%
 66A                            2.8%                                              4A          .7%
Salmon                          2.8%                                              73          .7%
  48                            2.1%                                              15          .7%
  59                            2.1%                                              20          .7%
  61                            2.1%                                              58          .7%
  66                            2.1%                                             MV           .7%
  34                            2.1%                                              52          .7%
  40                            2.1%                                             68A          .7%
  55                            2.1%                                              77          .7%
 59A                            2.1%                                              78          .7%
  75                            2.1%                                             63A          .7%
  44                            1.4%                                              70          .7%
  60                            1.4%                                              65          .7%
a
    Percents for the region total more than 100 because respondents were given multiple response choices.
P a g e | 90



                                                                     Region: 8

                                              70.0%



                                              60.0%



                                              50.0%



                                              40.0%




                                         Percent
                                              30.0%



                                              20.0%



                                              10.0%



                                                   0.0%


                                                          1   2                  3         4    5

                                                                  number of units hunted


                Table 66. Distribution of hunters by game units for hunters from Out of State.
                                               a                                                                     a
          Unit                   Percent                                                          Unit     Percent
           39                     10.1%                                                            19       1.6%
           21                      7.8%                                                           19A       1.6%
           76                      7.8%                                                            38       1.6%
           43                      7.0%                                                            71       1.6%
           22                      4.7%                                                            77       1.6%
          21A                      4.7%                                                            78       1.6%
           73                      4.7%                                                            70       1.6%
           75                      4.7%                                                            57       1.6%
           23                      3.9%                                                            12        .8%
           27                      3.9%                                                            44        .8%
           30                      3.9%                                                            49        .8%
          36B                      3.9%                                                            54        .8%
           28                      3.1%                                                            61        .8%
          73A                      3.1%                                                           66A        .8%
           74                      3.1%                                                            67        .8%
            7                      3.1%                                                            69        .8%
          37A                      3.1%                                                            13        .8%
          30A                      2.3%                                                             2        .8%
           56                      2.3%                                                            25        .8%
            1                      2.3%                                                            32        .8%
          20A                      2.3%                                                            33        .8%
          32A                      2.3%                                                            34        .8%
            4                      2.3%                                                            40        .8%
            6                      2.3%                                                            46        .8%
            9                      2.3%                                                             5        .8%
           50                      2.3%                                                            16        .8%
           29                      1.6%                                                            20        .8%
           48                      1.6%                                                            24        .8%
           66                      1.6%                                                            42        .8%
           14                      1.6%                                                            35        .8%
            3                      1.6%                                                            52        .8%
           31                      1.6%                                                            37        .8%
          36A                      1.6%                                                           63A        .8%
           41                      1.6%                                                            79        .8%
           72                      1.6%                                                        Panhandle     .8%
         Salmon                    1.6%
           17                      1.6%
          a
              Percents for the region total more than 100 because respondents were given multiple response choices.
                                                                     P a g e | 91




Hunting History
            Table 67. Percent of hunters who have hunted Mule Deer
                  every year for the past five years, by region.

                            Region       Percent
                               1         63.9%
                               2          65.9
                               3          72.2
                               4          77.7
                               5          75.6
                               6          71.8
                                7         76.1
                              Non
                                          53.2
                            resident
P a g e | 92



                                 Table 68. Reasons for not hunting Mule Deer for each of the past five years, by region.

                                                       Low
                                                                  Hunter     Could not                                   Too much         Too         No
             Poor       Work           Family          deer                                    Access       Season                                            Season
 Region                                                            other     afford to                                     ATV            many      hunting
            health    schedule       obligations      number                                 limitations     timing                                            length
                                                                  game         hunt                                       activity       hunters    partner
                                                        s
    1       16.7%       40.7             18.5           38.9       40.7          9.3            18.5          11.1          18.5             25.9     5.6       7.4

    2          4.0      24.0             16.0           20.0       56.0          12.0           22.0          12.0           8.0             14.0     2.0      14.0

    3          13.3     42.2             17.8           22.2       17.8          15.6           13.3          28.9          17.8             17.8    22.2      13.3

    4          25.9     40.7             14.8           25.9        7.4          18.5           18.5          11.1          14.8             18.5    18.5      11.1

    5          13.5     29.7             10.8           64.9       21.6          13.5           21.6          18.9          32.4             29.7     5.4      18.9

    6          11.1     40.0             15.6           35.6       24.4          15.6           15.6          15.6          20.0             17.8     8.9      13.3

    7          11.1     55.6             30.6           25.0       11.1          2.8             5.6          25.0          19.4             16.7     5.6      13.9

   Non
               5.1      31.6             19.0           27.8       25.3          41.8           12.7          19.0          12.7             13.9     6.3       7.6
 resident
                                 a
                                     Percents for the region total more than 100 because respondents were given multiple response choices.




The primary reason people did not hunt mule deer for each of the past five years was their work schedule. In 5 regions
this was the most frequently reported reason.

Low deer numbers scored highest in regions 5, 1 and 6. In regions 2 and 1 hunting other game was reported as the
reason by 56% and $40.7% respectively.

When asked which one item was the most important reason, 20% reported low deer numbers, 15% reported work
schedule, and 13% reported they hunted other game species.
                                                              P a g e | 93



Table 69. Hunting history for Mule Deer hunters, by region.

                Years
                                              Years
              hunted-all      Years
   Region                                  hunted Idaho
               species,    hunted-Idaho
                                            Mule Deer
              anywhere
      1          31.8          23.9            17.4

      2          33.4          24.1            17.2

      3          31.6          24.6            23.2

      4          30.0          24.9            23.0

      5          29.8          27.0            25.8

      6          30.9          25.8            23.9

      7          31.8          23.7            22.1
    Non
                 34.4           8.2             7.6
  resident
    State
                31.8           22.5            19.8
  Average
P a g e | 94




Hunter Profile
                         Table 70. Median household income category, by region.

                                                               A
                                           Region     Income

                                              1         4.0

                                              2         4.0

                                              3         4.0

                                              4         4.0

                                              5         4.0

                                              6         4.0

                                              7         4.0
                                             Non
                                                        6.0
                                          residents
                                            State
                                                        4.0
                                           Average
A
    1 = No answer; 2 = below $20,000; 3 = $20-39,999; 4 = $40-59,999; 5 = $60-79,999; 6 = $80-99,999; 7
             = $100--119,999; 8 = $120-139,999; 9 = $140-159,999; 10 = $160,000 and more;




Idaho resident hunters match the US Census Bureau reported median household
income for 2004 of $40,509; nonresident hunters are $20,000 higher.
                                                                          P a g e | 95



                        Table 71. Use of a guide or outfitter


                              Region        Percent

                                 1            1.1

                                 2            0.5

                                 3            0.0

                                 4            0.0

                                 5            0.0

                                 6            0.0

                                 7            0.0

                                Non
                                              9.0
                              resident




The guides or outfitter where utilized mostly by non-residents ( 9%). Hunters in five
of the regions did not report any use of guides or outfitters.
P a g e | 96



                       Table 72. Frequency of hunting game species, by region.

               Black           Mountain        Mule                        Upland                  White-
  Region               Elk                                Pronghorn                 Waterfowl
               Bear              Lion          Deer                        Game                 tailed Deer

     1          2.2    3.4         1.6          3.2           1.2            2.4       1.6          3.3

     2          2.0    3.3         1.6          3.0           1.3            2.6       1.9          3.0

     3          1.6    3.1         1.3          3.6           1.4            2.6       2.0          1.8

     4          1.6    2.8         1.2          3.6           1.6            2.6       2.1          1.4

     5          1.4    3.0         1.3          3.6           1.4            2.5       2.0          1.4

     6          1.5    3.2         1.3          3.7           1.4            2.4       1.9          1.8

     7          1.8    3.3         1.5          3.6           1.5            2.5       2.0          1.8

    Non
                1.3    2.2         1.2          3.1           1.1            1.6       1.3          1.5
  resident

   State
                1.7    3.0         1.4          3.4          1.3             2.4       1.8         2.0
  Average

                             *1=Never, 2=Some Years, 3=Most years, 4= Every Year




In order of desirability the game species to hunt every year are: Mule Deer (3.4), Elk
(3.0), Upland Game (2.4), White-tailed deer (2.0), Waterfowl (1.8), Black bear (1.7),
Mountain Lion (1.4), Pronghorn (1.3).
                                                                                            P a g e | 97



                          Table 73. Where Hunters lived in 2006.

                                                            Region

                                                                                            Non
                            1        2        3        4         5        6        7
                                                                                          resident

Developed area in Idaho   42.5%    63.7     60.8     58.8      49.1     51.1     50.0       1.5

Rural Idaho               55.2     34.1     37.4     40.0      46.9     47.7     47.1       2.0

Developed area out of
                           1.7      1.7      1.8      1.2       4.0      1.1      2.3      41.2
state

Rural out of state         0.6      0.6      0.0      0.0       0.0      0.0      0.6      55.3

Total                     100.0%   100.0%   100.0%   100.0%    100.0%   100.0%   100.0%    100.0%
P a g e | 98



                         Table 74. Years Lived In Idaho.

                                          Average
                              Region
                                           Years

                                 1          31.4

                                 2          30.0

                                 3          34.3

                                 4          33.4

                                 5          35.8

                                 6          36.0

                                 7          30.8

                               Non
                                             1.7
                             residents

                              State
                                            32.9
                             Average




               The average number of years lived in Idaho is 32.9.
                                                                                                 P a g e | 99



                                        Table 75. Gender.

                                                           Region

                                                                                     Non       State
     Average Percent    1       2        3        4       5         6       7
                                                                                   resident   Average

           Male        90.7    92.7    86.8     84.2     89.1     87.6     89.6      99.0      90.2

          Female       9.3     7.3     13.2     15.8     10.9     12.4     10.4      1.0        9.8

                        *2005 Census Bureau statistic for Idaho is 49.8% females




Census Bureau reports 50% of Idaho is female; our sample shows that 10% of our
respondents are women. Regions 3 and 4 have the highest proportion of female
hunters.
P a g e | 100



                               Table 76. Distribution of Hispanic/Latino/Latina hunters.

                                                                Region

                1       2           3         4          5          6          7         Non resident   State Average

    Yes        1.2      .6         2.3       1.2        1.7        1.7        0.0              2.5           1.4

    No         98.8    99.4        97.7      98.8      98.3       98.3       100.0             97.5         98.6

    Total      100.0   100.0       100.0     100.0      100.0     100.0       100.0            100.0        100.0


                                    *2005 Census Bureau statistics for Idaho is 9.1% Latinos




            The lowest proportions of Latinos who hunt are in Region 2 and 7 however the
            largest proportion of Latino hunters is in Region 3.
                                                                                                       P a g e | 101



                                        Table 77. Racial characteristics.

                                                                          Region

                                                                                                      Non       State
                                   1         2         3         4        5         6         7     resident   Average

American Indian/Alaska
                                  2.4        .6       1.2       .6                  .6       1.1      2.0        1.0
Native

Asian/Pacific Islander                       .6                 1.2                           .6       .5        .3

African American                                                .6        .6                                     .1

White                            97.6       98.9     98.8      97.6      99.4      99.4     98.3     97.5       98.5

Total                            100.0%    100.0%   100.0%    100.0%    100.0%    100.0%   100.0%    100.0%     100.0%

                   *2005 Census Bureau statistics for Idaho is 95.5% White, 0.6 African American,
                          1.1 Asian/Pacific Islander, 1.4 American Indian/Alaska Natives




    Idaho’s hunting population is 98.5% Caucasian. Native American/Alaska Natives
    are most commonly from Region 1 or out of state.
P a g e | 102




APPENDIX A



Appendix Table 1. Sample size statistics.

                                            Hunters x %   Sample needed for ±      Sample desired
    Region      Hunters      %WTD
                                             Mule Deer      10%@ 99% CI             for analyses

       1        26,936        76.9           6,223                   162                  220

       2        26,796        66.8           8,899                   163                  220

       3        35,809          8.2         32,863                   166                  220

       4        14,423          1.6         14,199                   165                  220

       5        18,349        11.5          16,238                   164                  220

       6        16,887          28          12,167                   164                  220

       7         9,166        25.6           6,817                   162                  220



                                                                           1                   2
    STATE       148,366         --          97,406                 1,146                1540




1
 As calculated, this represents a 3.8% level of accuracy at the 99% level of confidence.
2
 As calculated, this represents a 3.3% level of accuracy at the 99% level of confidence
As calculated, the regional samples represent a 6.5—6.6% level of accuracy at the 99% level of
confidence
                                                                                        P a g e | 103




LITERATURE CITED


Bass, B. M., Cascio, W. F. & O'Connor, E. J. (1974). Magnitude estimations of expressions of
       frequency and amount. Journal of Applied Psychology, 59(3), 310-320.

Best, S. L. 2005. Beliefs about bear resistant food canister use among backcountry visitors in
       Glacier National Park. Unpublished master’s thesis. University of Idaho, Moscow.

Comrey, A. L. 1988. Factor-analytic methods of scale development in personality and clinical
       psychology. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 565, 754-761.

Cronbach, L. J. 1951. Coefficient alpha and the internal structure of tests. Psychometrika,
       16,297-334.

Dillman, D. A. (1978). Mail and telephone surveys: The total design method. New York, NY:
       John Wiley and Sons.

Dillman, D. A. (2000). Mail and internet surveys: The Tailored Design Method, 2nd Edition. New
       York: NY: John Wiley Company.

Driver, B. L. 1977. Item pool scales designed to quantify the psychological outcomes desired
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       Forest and Range Experiment Station, Fort Collins, CO.

Ellis, E., E. E. Krumpe & N. Sanyal. 2005. Hunter specialization and management
       preferences of Idaho big game bowhunters: A research proposal. University of
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Graziano, A. M. & M. L. Raulin. (1997). Research methods-A process of inquiry (3ed). New York,
       NY: Addison Wesley Longman.

Hogarty, K. Y., C. V. Hines, J. D. Kromrey, J. M. Ferron & K. R. Mumford. 2005. The quality of
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MacCallum, R. C., K. F. Widaman, S. Zhang & S. Hong. 1999. Sample size in factor analysis.
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McLaughlin, W. J., N. Sanyal, J. Tangen-Foster, J. F. Tynon, S. Allen & C.C. Harris. 1989a.
       1987-88 Idaho rifle elk hunting study. Volume 1: Results. Contribution No. 499. Idaho
       Forest, Wildlife and Range Experiment Station.

McLaughlin, W. J., N. Sanyal, J. Tangen-Foster, J. F. Tynon, S. Allen, & C. C. Harris. 1989b.
       1987-88 Idaho shotgun hunting study. Volume 1: Results. Contribution No. 501. Idaho
       Forest, Wildlife and Range Experiment Station.

Salant, P. & D. A. Dillman. 1984. How to Conduct Your Own Survey. New York, NY: Wiley.

Sanyal, N. 2002. Understanding ATV/OHM and hunting interactions in Idaho: a survey of
       ATV/OHM registrants and licensed hunters. Final Project Report. Contribution No. 953 of
       the Idaho Forest, Wildlife and Range Experiment Station.

Sanyal, N & W. J. McLaughlin. 1990. Identifying different types of Idaho anglers: A pilot analysis
       using 1988 Idaho Angler Opinion Survey Data. Prepared for Idaho Department of Fish
       and Game. University of Idaho, Moscow,

Sanyal, N. & W. J. McLaughlin. 1992a. The relationship between angler motivation and
       satisfaction, with special emphasis of the role of market segmentation to enhance
       measurement and management of angler satisfaction. Prepared for Idaho Fish and
       Game.

Sanyal, N. & W. J. McLaughlin. 1992b. The literature on angler segmentation. Prepared for
       Idaho Fish and Game.

Sanyal, N. & McLaughlin, W. J. 1992c. Synopsis of the empirical and theoretical literature on
       activity persistence, with emphasis on developing survey instruments and methodology
       for use with sport anglers in Idaho. Prepared for Idaho Department of Fish and Game.

Sanyal, N., & W. J. McLaughlin. 1994a. Angling and gender bias in Idaho: An examination of the
       factors for lower participation by women in fishing and a proposal for research. For Idaho
       Department of Fish and Game.
                                                                                      P a g e | 105



Sanyal, N. & W. J. McLaughlin. 1994b. Market segmentation, satisfaction, and activity
       persistence of Idaho anglers. For Idaho Department of Fish and Game.

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       1987-88 Idaho rifle elk hunting study. Volume 2: Open-ended questions appendix.
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       1987-88 Idaho rifle deer hunting study. Volume 1: Results. Contribution No. 500. Idaho
       Forest, Wildlife and Range Experiment Station.

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       1987-88 Idaho rifle deer hunting study. Volume 2: Open-ended questions appendix.
       Contribution No. 500. Idaho Forest, Wildlife and Range Experiment Station.

Sanyal, N., W. J. McLaughlin, J. Tangen-Foster, J. F. Tynon, S. Allen and C. C. Harris. 1989d.
       1987-88 Idaho shotgun hunting study. Volume 2: Open-ended questions appendix.
       Contribution No. 501. Idaho Forest, Wildlife and Range Experiment Station.

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       Research 5, 329-350.

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P a g e | 106
   KEY CHARACTERISTICS OF A
“GREAT” IDAHO MULE DEER HUNT:
   A QUALITATIVE ASSESSMENT

                      By:

 Dana Coombs, Undergraduate Research Assistant
 Nick Sanyal, Ph.D., Associate Professor
 Ed Krumpe, Ph.D., Professor

   Department of Conservation Social Sciences
         College of Natural Resources
              University of Idaho
                   Moscow



                  July 5, 2007


                 Prepared for:
      Idaho Department of Fish and Game
                   Boise
                                                                                              Page |1



              What are the key characteristics of a “great” mule deer hunt in Idaho?
                                  (Please write in your answer below)


The survey yielded detailed comments from 1215 respondents resulting in 2796 individual
characteristics. These were coded by two analysts into 25 categories. Two comments deserve
special mention as they capture the complexity and essence of the sentiments of hunting
quality. Each category is followed with one or more exemplar quotes that illustrate the overall
content of the category.

General Philosophical Observations

“There are no great characteristics of a great hunt. Ask any deer you know. It’s all about life and
death.”

“Good access without over hunting/crowding. Healthy populations with a good doe to buck ratio
and a decent amount of good mature bucks. Also a sustainable population that is not being
threatened by invasive species, i.e. the whitetail, or over predation. When I hunt mule deer I hunt long
hard days often covering as many as 10 to 14 miles a day, and if I do not see any mature deer or just
many deer in general, it seriously takes away from the experience and can ruin ones image of a "great"
mule deer hunt. Also, as I said before, the simple tranquility you experience when you are hunting mule
deer whether in the desert, high country, or in the thick brush of Northern Idaho, is very important. A
quality mule deer hunt is between you, the deer, and nature. Not a game of first come first serve
competition by hunters in overcrowded areas. Sadly in many general hunts this is sometimes the
case.”
Page |2



Table 1. Ranking of characteristics of :great: mule deer hunting compared
         with 1987.

                                                                           Approximate*
                                                  Number    Percent 2007
Characteristics                                                            Percent 1987
                                                 (n=2796)      study
                                                                              study
Seeing game                                         629        22.5%         21.2%
Size                                                443        15.8%          8.5%
Few other hunters                                   268         9.6%          9.0%
Harvest                                             225         9.8%          7.3%
Experiencing the outdoors                           217         7.8%         11.5%
Social factors (see also “youth” below)             169         6.0%          4.4%
Terrain and habitat                                 123         4.4%          2.7%
Weather and seasons                                  90         3.2%          5.2%
Good access                                          74         2.6%          2.2%
Opposed to motorized use                             73         2.6%          1.5%
Tracking/stalking                                    62         2.2%          5.0%
Access                                               59         2.1%          1.6%
No predators                                         55         2.0%            --
Hunting regulations                                  54         1.9%          3.9%
Opportunities to see and hunt multiple species       47         1.7%            --
Season length and timing                             44         1.6%            --
Beauty                                               42         1.5%            --
Weapons                                              26         0.9%          2.0%
Youth                                                23         0.8&            --
Hunting during the rut                               21         0.7%            --
Challenge                                            20         0.7%          1.6%
Ethics                                               19         0.6%            --
Convenience                                          17         0.6%            --
Using pack animals                                   11         0.4%          1.2%
Motorized access                                      9         0.3%            --
Time afield                                           4        <0.1%            --
                                                                                                 Page |3


* 1987 figures are approximate in that the categories were not the same for both studies. Blank cells
indicates categories for which it was not possible o determine percentages from the published data.
The 1987 percentages do not sum to 100%.

SEEING GAME: numbers, frequency of sightings, population, quality, just
seeing deer, find
(629/2796 comments—22.5%)

   1.    Having the chance to spend time hunting with family members. Being able to see good
         numbers of deer and stalking some of them. Passing on knowledge and ethics to younger
         hunters.

   2.    Spending time with my kids in nature, seeing deer even when we don't harvest any making
         great memories.

   3.    They are to go with friends and family to enjoy the outdoors. Seeing game is a great benefit,
         taking game is a great bonus.

   4.    Time spent with family and friends, plus seeing lots of deer, bucks or does

   5.    Access into the desired hunting area, driving and walking the area and enjoying the sights and
         smells. Seeing animals every now and again.

   6.    Access, seeing deer, teaching and enjoying the experience with family, meat in the freezer.

   7.    A good area with not a lot of people. Important to see deer would like to see good bucks. Enjoy
         getting out most.

   8.    A quality wilderness experience without lots of other hunters. Seeing game.

   9.    Fewer non-resident hunters. Less wolf depredation. Abundant mule deer bucks for viewing and
         harvesting.

   10.   Very few people, lots of deer.

   11.   Walking back into country and not seeing a lot of hunters. Seeing nice animals.

   12.   See animals (late hunts when deer are more accessible for a guy my age and physical abilities).

   13.   Seeing large numbers of animals.

   14.   To see game, to keep interest up deer, elk, bear, cat, bighorn, goats, and pronghorn.

   15.   Being able to enjoy the area and hopefully at least see animals.

   16.   Being in the woods and having a prospect of seeing more deer than people.

   17.   It's not about the kill, it's about the hunt, the mountains and just getting outdoors. I've turned
         down many animals so I could just enjoy watching them in their natural surroundings. It's a
         successful hunt just to find the deer.

   18.   It's not so much getting a deer as it is getting out in nature and at least see deer.
Page |4



  19.   Just being able to get out there and seeing numerous mule deer during the hunt.

  20.   Just being out in the field, seeing deer even if I don't get one.

  21.   Just being out in the woods makes for a great mule deer hunt. Of course, it's better if you see
        lots of game. I have never taken a really nice mule deer trophy buck, but would hope someday I
        get the opportunity.

  22.   The experience of seeing a lot of animals.

  23.   The outdoor experience the amount of deer seen.

  24.   To enjoy the outdoors and to see game whether you fill your tag or not.

  25.   Being as far back in the wilderness as I can get. Seeing large animals.

  26.   A successful mule deer hunt is seeing beautiful scenery and seeing lots of animals.

  27.   For me the key characteristics are beautiful country, seeing game, and sharing time with family
        and friends afield. While success is the intent of hunting, constantly harvesting an animal is not
        key to a successful hunt. Having the opportunity to harvest because the numbers of mule deer
        are increasing is important. I am worried about the future of the mule deer.

  28.   Hunting in beautiful country no hunting pressure, seeing lots of deer....even if they are not
        "shootable".

  29.   Good times with good friends. I want to see game and have the opportunity to make the choice
        whether to bag the game or not.

  30.   A good sighting and possibly, a kill. But just seeing them in the wild is a beautiful thing.

  31.   Actually seeing a deer. The thrill of tracking them. And finding them. Seeing them for the
        majestic animal they are.

  32.   Being able to see a lot of deer and a number of good bucks even if I don't harvest. Seeing
        keeps you going for next season.

  33.   Being plentiful. Seeing them frequently.

  34.   Getting to see allot of animals. Having options.

  35.   In my opinion, a "great" hunt is one where I can see large numbers of deer, with several decent
        bucks, and not a lot of other hunters.

  36.   My greatest pleasure is the opportunity to see a large amount of wildlife when afield.

  37.   Observe large groups of animals.

  38.   Seeing a abundance of all sizes of game.

  39.   Seeing a lot of animals, knowing the herds are healthy.
                                                                                             Page |5


  40.   Seeing bucks is a great hunt. Seeing big bucks would make it really great even if it meant
        giving up part of the hunting season to make it happen.

  41.   Seeing deer even if I do not get one.

  42.   To be able to watch and observe many mule deer in a hunting area. I may not actually make the
        decision to harvest an animal, but I believe that seeing a lot of game and having opportunity is
        what makes the hunt. It is the challenge of the hunt that I reminisce about, and I know that if
        the game are in a given area, that I will always be able to come back if I desire. I feel that no
        matter how hard the physical conditions may be during the hunt, as long as I am seeing the
        game animals, my enjoyment is fulfilled. My success isn't necessarily measured by harvesting,
        but by the total package of challenging my skills, knowledge, and physical conditioning against
        the rigors of the hunt and the quarry.




SIZE: trophy animals, bucks, big bucks, buck-doe ratios, points, “nice
deer”, good size, respectable deer, mature, big, quality
(443/2796—15.8%)

   1.   I hunt on horseback to get away from the crowds of people. To be able to see more than a
        single 2- point.

   2.   Lots of game with a high percentage of bucks. A high percentage of older bucks. Good habitat
        to promote good antler growth. Contact with traditional hunters on foot or horseback.
        Elimination of hunters using motorized vehicles to access the backcountry.

   3.   Not just shooting the first buck that comes along but hunting for quality animals.

   4.   Hunting with friends and looking for the "big one".

   5.   Just getting outdoors and seeing some nice bucks.

   6.   Being able to get away from other hunters and good habitat. The quality of deer being hunted
        is very important in Idaho

   7.   I would like to have very few people, and lots of deer with the chance at a mature buck.

   8.   Minimal contact with other hunters. Seeing good numbers of game. Opportunity to harvest a
        trophy deer.

   9.   No crowds, plentiful game/healthy groups, scenic terrain.

   10. Success would be the first key followed by size of animal harvested. I would also like to add
       that the amount of deer seen is very important as it keeps my interest up while I'm in the
       woods

   11. Solitude, quality deer, family experience.

   12. To me a great mule deer hunt is one that can be done with zero contact with other hunters
       other than me and my partner. That is accomplished by hunting where no others will go. Seeing
       these animals in their natural conditions and thriving is what I enjoy. Seeing one dominant buck
       with several does is always a plus. Observing healthy animals in their natural environment and
Page |6



        bringing a trophy buck home at the end of a hard days hunt is what we hunt for in northern
        Idaho.

   13. Harvesting a 4x4 or bigger with a 30in. plus spread.

   14. Draw a controlled hunt that I have been trying to get forever and get a wall hanger.

   15. A great mule deer hunt would be a hunt where you could consistently see deer, had a real
       opportunity at a 170+ inch B&C buck, and had to deal with a limited number of hunters.

   16. Being able to glass #s of bucks before harvesting one that meets your minimums.

   17. Seeing deer, opportunity to harvest a nice buck. Not necessary to kill it, just to have the
       opportunity. Not necessary for a trophy, just a nice mature buck.

   18. Seeing three or more nice mule deer bucks together which is something I haven't seen since
       the 80's in the panhandle anyway. I believe the mule deer should be closed for harvest in the
       Coeur d’Alene and St. Joe areas the mild winters we have been having would give them a
       chance to make a good comeback.

   19. Spotting trophy-class animals, few people in the field, ability to hunt early season (September
       archery), no competition from ATV's.

   20. The quantity and quality of the mule deer. I prefer to hunt the bucks always looking for the "BIG
       ONE" and if that does not work out in the time I have allowed myself to hunt then I take a good
       healthy young buck.

   21. Good hunting companions, good hunting weather, some good bucks.

   22. 28 in spread with good mass.

   23. 30 inch or better.

   24. A deer with horns.

   25. An abundance of 3x3 or better bucks.

   26. I only trophy hunt, but any time you see deer is a good hunt.

   27. Larger animals, bigger rack. I do not shoot deer under 4 points.

   28. Seeing "QUALITY" bucks. Unfortunately, what the wolfs don't get, anything with horns is being
       shot!

   29. Size.

   30. The bucks we were looking for had heavy (thick), tall antlers with many points. The non-typical
       bucks are the ones of interest to us. We saw many bucks that had wide, spindly (thin) antlers
       and many with 3 points on each side. These bucks were unfavorable and even though they
       were heavy bodied we passed them up. As far as health, all the deer we spotted seemed robust
       and fattened. In the last three years we've shot three bucks and each one was very mature with
       a thick layer of fat. This was great to see, considering how harsh Idaho winters can be for big
                                                                                              Page |7


        game. I will note that we were exceedingly disappointed to find out that many cattle ranchers
        were burning their excess crop in the winter, hoping that the big game would starve during the
        winter and wouldn't be able to compete for the cattle's food sources (then they wonder why
        the coyotes and wolves attack the cattle and not the deer...because the deer have starved to
        death!) This surely has a deleterious effect on many populations especially those at higher
        altitudes. What makes hunting in Idaho great is that on any hunting day you will see deer (and
        other game, like antelope and elk). However, the big deer are in the high country and don't
        come down until rutting season. This means that the deer you do see are usually young bucks
        or bucks with feeble antlers. Many of the hunters we encountered harvested young bucks with
        four point antlers because of their shape rather than harvest the larger and older deer because
        they had only two or three points on each side. It would be great if the preferred bucks (four
        point and non-typical) were given an opportunity to develop and populate. In 2005 my
        husband and I both harvested bucks, and both were over 36 inches wide with heavy tall antlers.
        In 2006 we both had tags, but did not harvest a deer because we could not find one that had
        heavy enough mass. We do not look for antler width as much as we do for height and mass (we
        found these qualities lacking in the population in 2006).

   31. The chance of a trophy buck, with as few other hunters as possible.

   32. The opportunity to harvest a large 4 point or better buck. That is the reason my family and
       friends drive 12 hours and spend the money we do to hunt Idaho. Plus it's beautiful state.

   33. The opportunity to pursue trophy class animals with bow.

   34. To be able to see one of those wide racked bucks on top of a ride top, or to see one with his
       nose down in the snow on the trail of a doe.

   35. Well if I am hunting with my bow just being able to get close to them. If I am rifle hunting
       trying to find the big boy.


FEW OTHER HUNTERS: uncrowded, few encounters with others, silence,
solitude, away from people and machines, privacy, escape, safety
(268/2796—9.6%)

  1.    Maybe not even to get one but to just get out and have a good time with my family. But it
        would be nice to see more deer and to have a better chance to see my kids get one. We have a
        lot of people moving in to our area it seem you cannot go out without someone messing up
        your hunt. It would be nice to maybe have area's were you can have a family hunt.

  2.    The opportunity to camp & hunt with fellow hunters where you are not besieged by red hats
        and jackets over every hill. Good food, good company, ample exercise, and great scenery covers
        it all.

  3.    Public access to good areas, seeing lots of animals, low competition with other hunters.

  4.    A great mule deer hunt is the combination of great access to mule deer habitat and not
        running into other hunters that could scare animals away or push them around. The element of
        surprise upon the animals is very important. I don't want to scare them and chase them all over
        the countryside which is dangerous for the animals. Having access to secluded mule deer
        habitat is key to any "great" mule deer hunt.

  5.    A great mule deer hunt in Idaho is hunting areas not easily accessed by the majority of other
        hunters, i.e. road hunters. The late mule deer hunt reduced the number of hunters in the field
Page |8



        due to adverse weather conditions.

  6.    A roadless, wilderness area that is so remote that the deer never see a human. A late Oct. and
        into early Nov. hunt when the bucks are starting to rut and even migrate, depending on snow
        levels. A place where buck harvests are limited to achieve mature animals with trophy potential.

  7.    Getting into the high country, and most of the time not seeing another hunter.

  8.    It can be either sex or antlered but it has to be away from the roads and motorized trails. I
        stopped hunting public land in 1986 and am hunting private. That way I know I can get away
        from people and the animal population is larger.

  9.    Being able to get away from other hunters and be in nature with no interruptions.

  10.   Few hunters, few ATVs, lots of game and open spaces.

  11.   Get out into the field without it being too crowded. Hunting from my horse. No loud
        motorcycles or 4 wheelers around.

  12.   Getting away from other crazy hunters. Being able to ride horses into an area w/o idiots on four
        wheelers.

  13.   Hunting when and where there are fewer people and seeing animals even if they are does or
        small bucks

  14.   I believe the key to a great Idaho hunt is to be allowed to travel away from the crowd. This year
        everyone was confined to the same few trails.

  15.   I hunt on public land, and it is always nice to find a place that isn't overrun by other hunters.
        During the four days of our Idaho hunt we encountered only three other hunters in the field.
        Thus I consider the trip a "great" hunt.

  16.   I, of course, enjoy a hunt without running into other hunters. A great mule deer hunt, whether it
        be early or late season, is spot and stalk hunting of unspooked deer. I love to spot the deer
        feeding in early morning. I love to watch them for a bit and be able to judge size. If the buck is
        only an average 24 incher I will let him go and move on until I can find a good buck (28" or
        bigger with good heavy tines) Actually the size is not the only factor, seeing mature bucks 24"
        or bigger is what is important. I hate the thought of sitting in a saddle in a saddle waiting for
        other hunters to scare up a buck. I hate the thought of hearing 4 wheelers. Hunting mule deer
        is the whole package, being in the high country mostly alone, seeing bucks, and enjoying the
        outdoors. Most of the deer I shoot are a mile plus from any road so I bone out all my deer. I still
        enjoy doing this if I am after mature bucks.

  17.   Isolation, high country, and good friends and food.

  18.   Most of the open tag hunts have too many hunters hunting a particular unit. Spreading the
        hunters among some of the other units would be great. A good example of this is the hunt in
        unit 56. For the past few years it has been nothing but a money-making ploy, because it went
        from the two-point or smaller deer to any buck for the first week. All of the areas hunters
        congregated in that one unit.

  19.   Not sharing the season with rifle hunters.
                                                                                              Page |9


20.   That there are always too many hunters in the same areas of open hunts and that the area that
      we like to go to hunt, it does not stay open long enough for it to get cold enough for the deer
      to start moving down.

21.   The absence of other hunters and motorized vehicles. And a healthy managed population of
      mule deer to hunt.

22.   The way it used to be. Without all of the people.

23.   There are too many hunters in sw Idaho. If possible find a way to spread out hunters like
      extending the season or making out of county hunters pay a fee. also I would like to see a
      military member advantage for draw hunts.

24.   To me a great mule deer hunt is one that can be done with zero contact with other hunters
      other than me and my partner. That is accomplished by hunting where no others will go. Seeing
      these animals in their natural conditions and thriving is what I enjoy. Seeing one dominant buck
      with several does is always a plus. Observing healthy animals in their natural environment and
      bringing a trophy buck home at the end of a hard days hunt is what we hunt for in northern
      Idaho.

25.   Hunting the "right" time of year....late October into November Seeing bucks.....Not necessarily
      "record book" bucks, but decent three and four point buckshot having to hunt in a "rush hour"
      situation.....i.e., not driving in a line of hunters to get to where I want to go, and then not
      running into other hunters on every ridge. Finally, getting to harvest a buck...again, not
      necessarily a "record book" buck, but taking home a buck with a decent set of horns.

26.   I believe we need to get the lazy people off their quads and out of our forest. We get up early
      hike to the top of the (world) mountain sit down, be quiet and freeze our butts off, watch the
      sunrise listen, look and hope. If you see the big one you make a game plan and go sneak up on
      him look for a good clean shot and then take him down. 1) Fewer hunters in an area at one
      time, after twenty years of hunting. There are too many hunters after different animals in any
      one area at a time making hunting difficult and dangerous. During my controlled Bull Elk hunt
      last year, we encountered Deer Doe hunters, Spike Hunters, Bull Elk Hunters, Bear Trackers all in
      one zone during one controlled hunt period. 2) Too many adults don't leave the spikes and
      younger animals for our young hunters and there are not enough maturing animals. 3) More
      aggressive poaching enforcement... We would like to see a lot more enforcement of hunters
      hunting in the wrong zones... going unchecked we encounter this every year...Shooting multiple
      animals.... not retrieving game.

27.   Being alone in the outdoors, no traffic or blaring radios. Getting to see animals in the wild, not
      so much getting to kill one just seeing them. The challenge of making a good shot or stalk on
      an animal. Whether or not you harvest one is not that important, it's being there that matters.

28.   To be able to leave everything behind in the city, and get away from all the people to where the
      sky is blue and there are few people around to walk the mountains and hope that I am lucky
      enough to at least see some game.. Even if the opportunity for a shot presents itself or not.

29.   Any great hunt anywhere is seeing a lot more animals than other hunters. The more natural the
      animals act (less disturbed) the better.

30.   In an area that you see plenty of mule deer and not a lot of hunters. You don't have an outfitter
      trying to tell you that this is their area. You have the opportunity to shoot a buck or doe.

31.   Seeing a lot of deer, getting a few shots at moderate-sized bucks, and hopefully getting a large
P a g e | 10



         buck deer. Hopefully not seeing an excess of hunters -- however, I feel you need a certain
         amount of hunters to keep the deer moving around.

   32.   Spotting game regularly, and having an opportunity to take a mature animal is nice. To me, no
         hunt is great unless I am able to be away from most other people while I am hunting.

   33.   I like to see enough mature bucks that I feel like I can be selective. Although this is not as
         important as running into less hunters in the woods, especially those on ATVs. Off-trail ATV use
         and ATV use on closed roads is an increasing problem for quality hunting experience that can
         only be addressed by law enforcement officers enforcing closures more stringently.

   34.   Seeing lots of Trophy class animals, Not having so many hunters around you that you feel your
         safety is at risk, hunting with family and friends.

   35.   Be able to go to a place year after year, so I can git to know the country. I hunt the units that I
         can do this in only. The units I hunt do not have a lot of deer so we do not shoot does, we are
         looking for big bucks 28" or bigger. We pack in to get away from others. Like to hunt with our
         group 3 to 10 people, varies due to kids school each year. I have come to Idaho for 2 weeks
         archery and 2 weeks rifle hunting for years. We had the worst trip ever last year because of one
         of your Outfitters, Heavens Gate Outfitters. They threatened to fight and yelled at us many
         times. NOT GOOD !!! This was on public land and they yelled for us to stay out.

   36.   Hunt up high, where nobody goes, keep secret spots to yourself.


HARVEST: killing, shooting, the opportunity to shoot, a chance of a shot,
meat on the table, food, bring home, getting a deer, success
(225/2796—9.8%)

   1.    Camping and being with friends. A kill is the bonus.

   2.    Honestly, spending the time with my father, seeing bucks when you have doe tags, cold
         weather, when dad gets his, and when I get mine with a better shot.

   3.    Spending quality time with family and friends in the outdoors. Seeing deer is great, but
         harvesting deer is icing on the cake.

   4.    They are to go with friends and family to enjoy the outdoors. Seeing game is a great benefit,
         taking game is a great bonus.

   5.    A large buck, or doe, that will provide plenty of meat. Access to good hunting areas.

   6.    Access, seeing deer, teaching and enjoying the experience with family, meat in the freezer.

   7.    Few other hunters and multiple opportunities for success.

   8.    For me, a great deer hunt in Idaho means taking out young hunters or older, less mobile
         hunters and being able to find a deer that meets their expectations. Whether a deer is food (my
         case) or an early big game experience I many cases for young hunters

   9.    Not allot of people crammed in the same place looking for the same deer. Unpressured, not
         over hunted areas, which aren’t always available. A healthy population to choose from, hunters
                                                                                              P a g e | 11


      following proper gaming rules. Kids out with their family learning and enjoying the experience.
      One clean kill shot so the animal doesn't suffer.

10.   Realistic opportunity to fill tag fair chase not overcrowded with hunters

11.   1. Time in the outdoors. 2. Association with friends. 3. Sighting of game and animals and other
      wildlife. 4. Successfully take a deer. Note: items in order of importance!

12.   Being out with the people I hunt with makes for a great hunting experience, taking a deer is the
      icing on the cake.

13.   Being with family and friends and being out in the beautiful landscape of Idaho. Harvesting an
      animal is just frosting on the cake.

14.   Enjoying family companions, the country, the stalk, the meat for the following year

15.   A good shot and good meat.

16.   A lot of work with good reward of some game to eat.

17.   A successful is the best. Just being out of Boise for a few days is second.

18.   Being able to put "meat" on the table! Also the joy of seeing lots of deer, and seeing larger
      bucks during the season.

19.   Doe hunt! We hunt for meat.

20.   Filling our tag.

21.   Getting one- we hunt for meat not trophies.

22.   Great outdoor experience with an opportunity to harvest. I am spot and stalk. Opportunity is
      having the chance to stalk...outcome, well not always meat in the freezer. However that harvest
      is important to longevity of the hunter.

23.   Indogment (enjoyment?) and meat.

24.   No "key" characteristics. When I hunt deer, I'm looking for meat and I don't care if it's white tail,
      mule deer, or black tail.

25.   Proximity of residence, harvesting, and NOT BE INFECTED WITH "TAPE WORM"! Access and
      retrieve game without encountering road closures on public lands. Allocation of draw hunts
      available should be somewhat equal with the percentage allowed for harvest. November hunt.

26.   Being in the woods with friends and family and having the chance to harvest a deer.

27.   Being on a mountain top when the sun rises and you can see into the next state!! Camping and
      sharing the outdoors with my daughter, friends, and relatives. But the ultimate is taking home a
      nice buck and having meat in the freezer.

28.   Being out and about; success is always a plus.

29.   Being outdoors. Seeing game animals. Successful hunt.
P a g e | 12



   30.   Being outdoors knowing that there is a very good chance of seeing and taking home a nice
         deer.

   31.   The hike to find one, finding one, successful hit.

   32.   Seeing deer, opportunity to harvest a nice buck. Not necessary to kill it, just to have the
         opportunity. Not necessary for a trophy, just a nice mature buck.

   33.   Good country, good camp, nice views, taking pictures of animals, good meat.

   34.   Seeing deer, spending quality time with friends & family, harvesting a nice buck and eating
         them.

   35.   Working hard and scouting the animal prior to the season and hunting the animal, not
         necessarily killing it. Harvesting is an added bonus to seeing the animal in all its glory.


EXPERIENCING THE OUTDOORS: experience, enjoyment, getting out,
relaxing, camping, traditional outdoor skills
(217/2796—7.8%)

   1.    To be able to be out in the woods and enjoy the outdoors, the chance to see the animals of all
         type and hopefully harvest an animal.

   2.    Being able to see game is key. We all say "just getting out hunting was worth it". This is true
         however being able to see enough game to choose what you want to harvest is a GREAT hunt.

   3.    The chance to spend quality time with my 14 year old son teaching him the hunting traditions
         and joys. Enjoying the beauty of the woods and mountains.

   4.    A successful is the best. Just being out of Boise for a few days is second.

   5.    Getting our and seeing the animals, hiking the hills, and not seeing a bunch of other hunters.
         Seeing nice bucks is a great attribute, but seeing many deer is better.

   6.    Good quiet camp, be able to walk without ATVs on every trail.

   7.    I believe we need to get the lazy people off their quads and out of our forest. We get up early
         hike to the top of the (world) mountain sit down, be quiet and freeze our butts off, watch the
         sunrise listen, look and hope. If you see the big one you make a game plan and go sneak up on
         him look for a good clean shot and then take him down. 1) Fewer hunters in an area at one
         time, after twenty years of hunting. There are too many hunters after different animals in any
         one area at a time making hunting difficult and dangerous. During my controlled Bull Elk hunt
         last year, we encountered Deer Doe hunters, Spike Hunters, Bull Elk Hunters, Bear Trackers all in
         one zone during one controlled hunt period. 2) Too many adults don't leave the spikes and
         younger animals for our young hunters and there are not enough maturing animals. 3) More
         aggressive poaching enforcement... We would like to see a lot more enforcement of hunters
         hunting in the wrong zones... going unchecked we encounter this every year...Shooting multiple
         animals.... not retrieving game.

   8.    After over 50 years hunting, I hunt for the pleasure of being with good friends (the campfire
         atmosphere) and the "opportunity" to see and perhaps harvest game. The killing is by far the
                                                                                              P a g e | 13


      least important aspect of the hunt. Being "out there" is what it is all about.

9.    Being out with family and friends, seeing all the animals, getting away from the everyday
      things, getting the exercise you might not normally get.

10.   Walking in the hills of Owyhee County with another hunter whom you trust.

11.   Family, friends, and being out in the camp

12.   Because it’s just yourself and mother nature.

13.   Being able to hunt in many units. I love to explore and see different areas of Idaho.

14.   Being alone in the outdoors, no traffic or blaring radios. Getting to see animals in the wild, not
      so much getting to kill one just seeing them. The challenge of making a good shot or stalk on
      an animal. Whether or not you harvest one is not that important, it's being there that matters.

15.   Being on a mountain top when the sun rises and you can see into the next state!! Camping and
      sharing the outdoors with my daughter, friends, and relatives. But the ultimate is taking home a
      nice buck and having meat in the freezer.

16.   Camping/hiking in beautiful, challenging country, knowing that when you sit down and glass
      the terrain, you: a) have a change of seeing a nice buck & other wildlife, and b) don't have to
      worry about seeing a 4-wheeler on every mountain top.

17.   Experiencing the high country, seeing a decent amount of game and experiencing the hunt with
      friends.

18.   Freedom, quiet time, the challenge of getting within 25 yards of game, tracking the animal, and
      having a successful harvest.

19.   Getting out in the outdoors, seeing and listening to nature.

20.   I am disabled, so just the chance to get out in the woods is very important!

21.   I enjoy the experience of being outdoors in nature just seeing the game. It doesn't matter if I
      harvest every year or not. I would rather harvest a mature buck or doe than harvest a 1 to 3 year
      old animal. I think there needs to be more temporary controlled hunts to help the quality of the
      trophy animals to harvest and there needs to be attention about wolf management not just for
      mule deer but all big game.

22.   I like being in the wilderness without being crowded by other people. I enjoy the challenge of
      matching my sight with skill against such an elusive, beautiful, majestic animal. If I tag one find
      and if I don’t, that’s fine to.

23.   It's not about the kill, it's about the hunt, the mountains and just getting outdoors. I've turned
      down many animals so I could just enjoy watching them in their natural surroundings. It's a
      successful hunt just to find the deer.

24.   just being out there.

25.   just to be out in the wild, watching these wonderful animals in their natural setting, I don't have
      to harvest an animal to have a great hunt, just be out there to enjoy nature
P a g e | 14



   26.   Leaving civilization far behind. It really doesn't matter if I see anything or not.

   27.   To be able to leave everything behind in the city, and get away from all the people to where the
         sky is blue and there are few people around to walk the mountains and hope that I am lucky
         enough to at least see some game.. Even if the opportunity for a shot presents itself or not.

   28.   To get away from the "hustle" and be with friends and harvest a deer.

   29.   Any mule deer hunt is great even if you can’t hunt in a heavy populated area. But it is to be in a
         heavy populated area so you feel like you’re seeing deer and you have a choice in which animal
         to take. Instead of feeling desperate and taking the first deer you see. And last but not least just
         getting to be with friends and family camping out in the hills.

   30.   I like to see lots of deer- mostly because I enjoy hunting and watching them. However, when it
         comes right down to it, quality is more important than quantity for me. Most important of all
         though is just being with my brother and my friends enjoying the crisp, clear fall days.

   31.   Seeing game, enjoying the outdoors. Being with my family and friends.

   32.   Seeing lots of animals including some bucks, good weather, few other hunters, outdoor
         experience (i.e. sunrises, sunsets and scenery.

   33.   Seeing lots of deer and enjoying the outdoors. Being able to get a good shot.

   34.   Wide open spaces, few other visible hunters, no 4-wheeler tracks or noise, and observing some
         animals (not necessarily mule deer). A feeling of satisfaction at covering a good amount of
         territory without seeing a lot of other hunters.

   35.   Wide open spaces, No vehicles, very seldom see another hunter. Lots of travel on foot and
         enjoy ever min of it.

   36.   I enjoy the actual hunt, finding, stalking, shooting, waiting, tracking, and field dressing game.
         The whole experience!


SOCIAL FACTORS: family, friends, hunting buddies, sons, daughters,
fathers, companionship,
(169/2796—6.0%) See also “Youth” below

   1.    Packing back beyond most hunting to a good area with enough game to give you a fair chance.
         Good company, great food, and time enough to really hunt and enjoy it.

   2.    For me the key characteristics are beautiful country, seeing game, and sharing time with family
         and friends afield. While success is the intent of hunting, constantly harvesting an animal is not
         key to a successful hunt. Having the opportunity to harvest because the numbers of mule deer
         are increasing is important. I am worried about the future of the mule deer.

   3.    A great deer hunt for me includes hunting with my family, a couple inches of snow, and actually
         seeing a deer once in a while.

   4.    A great hunt depends on who you’re with, and how much time you actually get to put into it.
                                                                                           P a g e | 15


5.    After over 50 years hunting, I hunt for the pleasure of being with good friends (the campfire
      atmosphere) and the "opportunity" to see and perhaps harvest game. The killing is by far the
      least important aspect of the hunt. Being "out there" is what it is all about.

6.    An open hunt that all in the family can hunt in and shoot any size deer not just 2 point etc. In
      an area that the Forest Service has not screwed up by all of their so called improvements, and
      of course it's fun to see a lot of deer even if you don't get one.

7.    Being able to be with a family and friends-killing something is not that important to me.

8.    Being out with the people I hunt with makes for a great hunting experience, taking a deer is the
      icing on the cake.

9.    Comrodery, just being in Idaho

10.   Walking in the hills of Owyhee County with another hunter whom you trust.

11.   Family tradition and the love of hunting that my dad taught me

12.   Family, Friends, and the challenge it presents. I love stalking a huge mule deer buck in the sage
      country. Deer hunting is a passion of mine, an obsession in my wife's eyes, but a love none the
      less. I've got to the point in my life that it's now all about the experience not just killing
      something. It gives me something to dream about at night and look forward to in the fall. A
      great mule deer hunt in Idaho is what you make of it; stand on top a ridge at day break and
      that will get you off to a great start.

13.   Having the chance to spend time hunting with family members. Being able to see good
      numbers of deer and stalking some of them. Passing on knowledge and ethics to younger
      hunters.

14.   Honestly, spending the time with my father, seeing bucks when you have doe tags, cold
      weather, when dad gets his, and when I get mine with a better shot.

15.   I like to take my family for a memory making trip whether we kill anything or not. We love the
      outdoors.

16.   It was the late season rifle hunt but now I have 2 youth hunters now have began to hunt so
      looking for a longer hunt for them because of school abs are not excused.

17.   Me and my buddies, lots of big bucks, and a few beers at night.

18.   My idea of a great hunt is to spend time with family and friends, see quality animals, not see

19.   Team work good safety.

20.   To hunt with friends or family, success is secondary

21.   For me, a great deer hunt in Idaho means taking out young hunters or older, less mobile
      hunters and being able to find a deer that meets their expectations. Whether a deer is food (my
      case) or an early big game experience I many cases for young hunters

22.   Being successful and meeting hunters from all over, camping with my old time hunting partner
      for over 40 years.
P a g e | 16



   23.   1. Seeing lots of game animals 2. Available public land 3. Enjoying the outdoors 4. Beautiful
         terrain 5. Making friends.

   24.   The fellowship with the other men and seeing game every day.

   25.   Seeing new country with family and friends.

   26.   Maybe not even to get one but to just get out and have a good time with my family. But it
         would be nice to see more deer and to have a better chance to see my kids get one. We have a
         lot of people moving in to our area it seem you cannot go out without someone messing up
         your hunt. It would be nice to maybe have area's were you can have a family hunt.


TERRAIN AND HABITAT: high country, desert, rugged/remote country,
open country, mountains, knowledge of area, familiarity with area, habitat
(123/2796—4.4%)

    1.   To be able to have access to where the deer are mostly to have the major of your deer not on
         private property and to have season that the high country can be accessed before bad weather
         comes.

    2.   Few hunters, few ATVs, lots of game and open spaces.

    3.   Fewer hunters, high country.

    4.   Isolation, high country, and good friends and food.

    5.   Solitude in the high country. Frosty or snowy days searching for mule deer bucks in timber and
         open country.

    6.   Solitude, isolation, high country.

    7.   When you have harvested. Knowing what terrain and conditions they are in.

    8.   Getting drawn for a controlled hunt permit. Scouting the unit and getting to know the access
         areas and terrain.

    9.   To be able to hunt during the rut. To have the season start later for modern rifle weapon or
         give more permits/special drawings for rifle hunters. Where I hunt it is rugged terrain, which
         means there are fewer hunters and more game. This makes the hunt challenging and
         rewarding.

    10. Good deer population, mature bucks, big country where one can get away from crowds. In
        Idaho this is easily accomplished by walking a mile off the beaten path.

    11. Seeing the country and the deer.

    12. The opportunity to see great mule deer in the Idaho mountains. Harvest is secondary.

    13. The possibility of game, but more than anything else, accessible terrain and limited pressure
        from other hunters.
                                                                                              P a g e | 17


   14. To see several large bucks even if I'm not successful I love the Idaho high country.

   15. Backcountry - Away from crowds, motorized vehicles Highcountry - Open hillsides with
       scattered timber and good food and water sources

   16. I hunt mule deer on the Salmon River breaks. The challenge of bagging a big buck, on open
       steep terrain brings a sporting event like none other. To me this is a great hunt.

   17. Habitat.

   18. Know the area, scout the area.

   19. Landscape.

   20. Rugged terrain, long hikes, no 4 wheelers, away from roads, see a lot of animals, good quality
       bucks.

   21. The challenge of hunting mule deer in a diverse environment the rock, steep terrain and the
       solitude. Also mule deer I’ve taken are some of the best I’ve ever eaten.

   22. Wide open spaces, few other visible hunters, no 4-wheeler tracks or noise, and observing some
       animals (not necessarily mule deer). A feeling of satisfaction at covering a good amount of
       territory without seeing a lot of other hunters.

   23. Wild, unspoiled country. No motorized vehicles ruining the hunt. Few hunters encountered
       while in the field.


WEATHER AND SEASONS: weather, snow, cool/cold weather, good weathe,
warm weather
(90/2796—3.2%)

  1.    Safe trip, good friends, snow on the ground.

  2.    Few people few hunters nice weather and family.

  3.    Few people more mature bucks good cold weather.

  4.    Few people, lots of game, crisp and sunny October mornings.

  5.    Less hunting pressure bit warmer weather harvesting a quality buck.

  6.    Hunt late season in the snow.

  7.    I like our late season mule deer hunts which involve the added challenge of snow in the higher
        elevations. I do support the efforts to limit mule deer hunting and only try for an above average
        mule deer. I mainly hunt in the northern units of the state.

  8.    Timing, weather conditions, deer population, Access, hunter population and, (NO Wolf
        population).

  9.    Getting out in the woods with a few other hunters having a good time nearly freezing to death
        some time and getting a nice deer.
P a g e | 18



   10.   Seeing lots of deer. Snow on the hills peace and quiet. Family and friends.

   11.   Seeing lots of game, less to no people, on the land behind the rich losers land, that treat you
         like criminals when trying to get past their places. Later hunts in the year (in snow) and away
         from the roads. More permits.

   12.   Seeing lots of sign, several big bucks, seeing them in their natural habitat, SNOW

   13.   The key characteristics of a great mule deer hunt in Idaho is seeing a lot of animals, being
         outdoors and hiking. Cold weather is helpful, being able to campout. The access yes program.
         Well marked boundaries and two wheel vehicle trails and having regulated ATV travel.

   14.   1 mile from road and 8 inches of snow.

   15.   A great deer hunt for me includes hunting with my family, a couple inches of snow, and actually
         seeing a deer once in a while.

   16.   Bad weather.

   17.   Bad weather, to find 4 point or better bucks, Lemhi and Custer counties should be 4 point or
         better, for more trophy bucks and no doe season.

   18.   Being able to hunt in the snow.

   19.   Cold Weather is good, no rain. Moving your start date from Oct. 5 to Oct. 10 has increased
         sightings.

   20.   Colder climates to get the deer moving. Large numbers of deer bucks and does. Fewer hunters
         less predators: wolves and cougars.

   21.   Cool days, cold nights, warm fires, light snow, sign to read and track.

   22.   Tracking snow.

   23.   To be able to see one of those wide racked bucks on top of a ride top, or to see one with his
         nose down in the snow on the trail of a doe.

   24.   Great stalk and harvest. Animal abundance. No motorized vehicle traffic. Respectful hunters.
         Snow.
                                                                                               P a g e | 19



GOOD ACCESS: easy, access to public and/or private land, “Access Yes”,
road access, access for handicapped hunters
(74/2796—2.6%)

  1.    Hunting with family members and camping, not having to pack it out too far because I'm
        getting older.

  2.    The freedom to hunt with my friends on public land.

  3.    Beautiful scenery seeing lots of animals. Serenity of few people. Ability to hunt with family and
        friends. Successful hunt. Fewer out of state people. Lots of open land to public hunters. More
        clear rules and proclamations.

  4.    I am 67 years old, I will be 68 in November. I have handicap limitations so to find them easy is
        in my best interest. Thank you.

  5.    Access into the desired hunting area, driving and walking the area and enjoying the sights and
        smells. Seeing animals every now and again.

  6.    Access to good hunting areas. Not being restricted in the unit of hunt by the type of tag
        purchased.

  7.    Access to public land, not to rugged off country because I'm handicapped.

  8.    Access to public land. Deer and Elk seasons that overlap. Opportunity to bag a nice buck.
        Access to the back country via forest service roads on a 4 wheeler.

  9.    Accessibility, quantity, .deer health.

  10.   An area that is fairly easy to access, where there are some open areas, with a decent place to
        park my 5th wheel camper.

  11.   Being able to get to the national forest. It seems like all the rich folks buy the land in front of
        the national forest, So no one else can use it. I am sure you can do nothing about this. There is
        less and less places to hunt.

  12.   Ease of access.

  13.   Good access roads and trails.

  14.   Moderate easy walking, lots of game, good friends and hunting partners, some trophy or larger
        animals.

  15.   Most mule deer in our area are on private property so good relationships with the property
        owners.

  16.   Public land. Good habitat and good friends to hunt with.

  17.   To be able to access hunting areas without gates.

  18.   No people, good weather is a plus but not a necessity, having multiple deer sightings and an
        opportunity to pick and choose, accessibility to an area my 72 year old father and disabled son
P a g e | 20



         can have a quality hunt.

   19.   Good opportunity for success for a buck, with a possibility of a large buck. Consistent shot
         opportunity. Good access. Ability to use 4 wheeler, but ability to hike away from road access.

   20.   Seeing lots of deer, time spent in the mountains, access to deer country i.e. either public
         property or via Access Yes

   21.   Seeing lots of game, less to no people, on the land behind the rich losers land, that treat you
         like criminals when trying to get past their places. Later hunts in the year (in snow) and away
         from the roads. More permits.

   22.   The key characteristics of a great mule deer hunt in Idaho is seeing a lot of animals, being
         outdoors and hiking. Cold weather is helpful, being able to campout. The access yes program.
         Well marked boundaries and two wheel vehicle trails and having regulated ATV travel.

   23.   The key to a good hunt has nothing to do with killing one. A great hunt is lots of deer, good
         mature bucks to choose from, and not having to worry a lot about private/public land
         boundaries.

   24.   High elevation. Access to trail heads. I hunt units 20, 17 and 1 for these reasons for mule deer.


OPPOSED TO MOTORIZED USE: negative views on ATVs, excessive
motorized play, noise, speed, density
73/2796—2.6%)

   1.    To be able to go where there are good bucks and plenty of other deer. To be able to hunt them
         by fair chase (on foot or horseback) without ATV's or other vehicles all around.

   2.    Get out into the field without it being too crowded. Hunting from my horse. No loud
         motorcycles or 4 wheelers around.

   3.    Getting away from other crazy hunters. Being able to ride horses into an area w/o idiots on four
         wheelers.

   4.    I, of course, enjoy a hunt without running into other hunters. A great mule deer hunt, whether it
         be early or late season, is spot and stalk hunting of unspooked deer. I love to spot the deer
         feeding in early morning. I love to watch them for a bit and be able to judge size. If the buck is
         only an average 24 incher I will let him go and move on until I can find a good buck (28" or
         bigger with good heavy tines) Actually the size is not the only factor, seeing mature bucks 24"
         or bigger is what is important. I hate the thought of sitting in a saddle in a saddle waiting for
         other hunters to scare up a buck. I hate the thought of hearing 4 wheelers. Hunting mule deer
         is the whole package, being in the high country mostly alone, seeing bucks, and enjoying the
         outdoors. Most of the deer I shoot are a mile plus from any road so I bone out all my deer. I still
         enjoy doing this if I am after mature bucks.

   5.    Longer and later season, more permit only short range weapon only units (bow, muzzleloader,
         handgun, and shotgun seasons) Not hunting to compete against wolves and ATVs.

   6.    Season open later in October so they're closer to the rut and the big bucks are more active.
         Less people would be nice. More restrictions on where people could run quads would be great
                                                                                            P a g e | 21


      too - people just tear across the hillside with them and it's disgusting.

7.    Staying away from unethical slobs on ATV'S.

8.    Would like no 4 wheelers, no drunks and to see more deer.

9.    Being able to hunt with friends. Plenty of animals to see. Not have the hunt interrupted by jerks
      driving 4 wheelers.

10.   Being able to hunt every year even if you don't harvest a deer. Not having people with ATV’s
      ruining the hunt by riding everywhere they can go and in closed areas. Having the chance to
      hunt where you know there are large bucks even if you don't get the chance to see or harvest
      one. Having the deer season going without also having the elk season going at the same time.

11.   Good quiet camp, be able to walk without ATVs on every trail.

12.   I believe we need to get the lazy people off their quads and out of our forest. We get up early
      hike to the top of the (world) mountain sit down, be quiet and freeze our butts off, watch the
      sunrise listen, look and hope. If you see the big one you make a game plan and go sneak up on
      him look for a good clean shot and then take him down. 1) Fewer hunters in an area at one
      time, after twenty years of hunting. There are too many hunters after different animals in any
      one area at a time making hunting difficult and dangerous. During my controlled Bull Elk hunt
      last year, we encountered Deer Doe hunters, Spike Hunters, Bull Elk Hunters, Bear Trackers all in
      one zone during one controlled hunt period. 2) Too many adults don't leave the spikes and
      younger animals for our young hunters and there are not enough maturing animals. 3) More
      aggressive poaching enforcement... We would like to see a lot more enforcement of hunters
      hunting in the wrong zones... going unchecked we encounter this every year...Shooting multiple
      animals.... not retrieving game.

13.   Less access by motor vehicles cutting back or closing some areas totally for a period of time the
      animals are way to small!

14.   The key characteristics would be no motorized vehicles tearing around the areas, overly large
      camps set up directly in the middle of the hunting areas, no party-hunters shooting at anything
      that moves, as well as garbage always being left behind at the sites and where the prime
      hunting spots are.

15.   To be able to pack into an area completely inaccessible to motorcycles and four-wheelers.
      These restrictions on motorcycles and four wheelers must be vigorously enforced. I also want to
      go to an area where I have a reasonably good chance of seeing large bucks and don't have to
      post a guard or worry about wolves attacking the horses. Being able to get away from the
      crowds and hunt where there are few people is also important to me. In regard to question 12 I
      prefer Unit 18 but hunt in unit 23 when I don't get drawn.

16.   To be in the wild outdoors with a chance to harvest a mule deer. I hunt with a bow for the
      challenge. Generally during rifle season everyone from different cities come to the area I live in
      with their four wheelers and campers and push the deer out of the areas I like to hunt.

17.   Being able to see an abundance of game. Limited use for ATV's (To assist with bring game out
      only). To be able to hunt a unit with the chance of taking a trophy mule deer. Limited tags, it is
      always nice to not have competed to hunt an area. I realize you have to hunt with others
      groups of people, but by limiting the number of tags this will decrease.

18.   Lots of game with a high percentage of bucks. A high percentage of older bucks. Good habitat
P a g e | 22



         to promote good antler growth. Contact with traditional hunters on foot or horseback.
         Elimination of hunters using motorized vehicles to access the backcountry.

   19.   Seeing large or small deer each day; passing up smaller bucks; seeing few or no hunters while
         hunting; not seeing or hearing motorized vehicles; seeing hunters hunt (work) for the animal;
         hunting with family members.

   20.   Spotting trophy-class animals, few people in the field, ability to hunt early season (September
         archery), no competition from ATV's.

   21.   I enjoy hunting for large mature bucks. A great hunt is when you see more deer than hunters.
         The hunters are not hunting or depending on Off Road Vehicles to go anywhere other than
         forest service roads. I prefer to hunt in wilderness areas and away from roads in general. Usually
         3 to 5 miles from the nearest road. I backpack in and don't have access to pack animals. I have
         not harvested a deer in several years but pass on at least 5 to 10 legal bucks a year. I have not
         drawn for a controlled hunt for over 10 years. But many of the attributes of a high quality
         control hunt is what I would describe as a great hunt.

   22.   I like to see enough mature bucks that I feel like I can be selective. Although this is not as
         important as running into less hunters in the woods, especially those on ATVs. Off-trail ATV use
         and ATV use on closed roads is an increasing problem for quality hunting experience that can
         only be addressed by law enforcement officers enforcing closures more stringently.

   23.   To hunt in an area that has some mature bucks and to be able to hunt them without the
         interference from other hunters. (hordes of people and four wheelers on every ridge top).

   24.   Deer! I like to have 4 days to a week put up a tent base camp, scout and glass dear areas, a
         experienced set of binoculars should see at least 20 mule deer in a dawn to dusk period.
         Several say at least 3 would be 4 point, and in a 5-10 day hunt by an experienced hunter who
         has done it before many times, at least one large 4x4 or better should be seen. In 3 such hunts
         a large one should be harvested. I consider 24" and up if they are Heavy mature antlers a large
         deer, antlers of 1.5" in diameter on the main beam are not large deer. There should accessible
         trails to the back country where 4 wheelers can go so far then must park and hunt, just like the
         old jeep roads. Occasional recovery is O.K. any 2 or 4 wheelers should be used to get to and
         from areas. Not driven on ridges and deserts just because they can.

   25.   To be able to stalk, and use my skills to get my deer. Have had problems with ATV's in the field
         that go every where and ruin my hunts.
                                                                                               P a g e | 23



TRACKING/STALKING: pursuit, field work, work, signs of deer, glassing,
scouting, spotting, finding
(62/2796—2.2%)

   1.   Having the chance to spend time hunting with family members. Being able to see good
        numbers of deer and stalking some of them. Passing on knowledge and ethics to younger
        hunters.

   2.   To spend time scouting planning-Being with my family and friends. Great camp-food-Great
        time and usually a few deer or elk in the pot. I don't like the meat, but we eat it-its the time and
        experience together, it binds us as a unit.

   3.   Climbing the rugged mountains and not seeing another hunter. There are a good many mule
        deer to be found in the area I hunt. I enjoy simply stalking and watching them as much as
        anything.

   4.   Not seeing other people seeing deer and deer sign.

   5.   Great outdoor experience with an opportunity to harvest. I am spot and stalk. Opportunity is
        having the chance to stalk...outcome, well not always meat in the freezer. However that harvest
        is important to longevity of the hunter.

   6.   I believe we need to get the lazy people off their quads and out of our forest. We get up early
        hike to the top of the (world) mountain sit down, be quiet and freeze our butts off, watch the
        sunrise listen, look and hope. If you see the big one you make a game plan and go sneak up on
        him look for a good clean shot and then take him down. 1) Fewer hunters in an area at one
        time, after twenty years of hunting. There are too many hunters after different animals in any
        one area at a time making hunting difficult and dangerous. During my controlled Bull Elk hunt
        last year, we encountered Deer Doe hunters, Spike Hunters, Bull Elk Hunters, Bear Trackers all in
        one zone during one controlled hunt period. 2) Too many adults don't leave the spikes and
        younger animals for our young hunters and there are not enough maturing animals. 3) More
        aggressive poaching enforcement... We would like to see a lot more enforcement of hunters
        hunting in the wrong zones... going unchecked we encounter this every year...Shooting multiple
        animals.... not retrieving game.

   7.   Being alone in the outdoors, no traffic or blaring radios. Getting to see animals in the wild, not
        so much getting to kill one just seeing them. The challenge of making a good shot or stalk on
        an animal. Whether or not you harvest one is not that important, it's being there that matters.

   8.   Being out before sunrise finding some sign and spending the day stalking.

   9.   Camping/hiking in beautiful, challenging country, knowing that when you sit down and glass
        the terrain, you: a) have a change of seeing a nice buck & other wildlife, and b) don't have to
        worry about seeing a 4-wheeler on every mountain top.

   10. Enjoyment of getting out, out smarting the deer, making a close clean shot, not wasting meat,
       tasty eating.

   11. Freedom, quiet time, the challenge of getting within 25 yards of game, tracking the animal, and
       having a successful harvest.

   12. I like being in the wilderness without being crowded by other people. I enjoy the challenge of
P a g e | 24



         matching my sight with skill against such an elusive, beautiful, majestic animal. If I tag one find
         and if I don’t, that’s fine to.

    13. Getting drawn for a controlled hunt permit. Scouting the unit and getting to know the access
        areas and terrain.

    14. Actually seeing a deer. The thrill of tracking them. And finding them. Seeing them for the
        majestic animal they are.

    15. Being able to glass #s of bucks before harvesting one that meets your minimums.

    16. Finding the deer, observing the deer, camping, teaching our grandchildren an appreciation of
        the outdoors and respect for the animals and privileges of hunting. Mule deer are magnificent
        animals, wily, and smart. It takes time and a lot of work, but it's certainly worth it.

    17. Size, Spot and Stalk, high number of animals to choose from.

    18. Spotting scope, high mountain, and a good view. Staking out the animal.

    19. To be able to watch and observe many mule deer in a hunting area. I may not actually make the
        decision to harvest an animal, but I believe that seeing a lot of game and having opportunity is
        what makes the hunt. It is the challenge of the hunt that I reminisce about, and I know that if
        the game are in a given area, that I will always be able to come back if I desire. I feel that no
        matter how hard the physical conditions may be during the hunt, as long as I am seeing the
        game animals, my enjoyment is fulfilled. My success isn't necessarily measured by harvesting,
        but by the total package of challenging my skills, knowledge, and physical conditioning against
        the rigors of the hunt and the quarry.

    20. Scouting your back before hand. Also knowing where other deer are!

    21. The pursuit.

    22. The tracking, thrill of the stalk and victory with the animal down.

    23. To see and understand their habits.

    24. Tracking and also waiting we do a lot of hiking in spring, summer also. Enjoy watching and
        enjoy the meat.

    25. Trying to outsmart the bucks.

    26. Working hard and scouting the animal prior to the season and hunting the animal, not
        necessarily killing it. Harvesting is an added bonus to seeing the animal in all its glory.
                                                                                               P a g e | 25



ACCESS: Remote, Wilderness, away from roads, places hard to reach
(59/2796—2.1%)

  1.    A great mule deer hunt is the combination of great access to mule deer habitat and not
        running into other hunters that could scare animals away or push them around. The element of
        surprise upon the animals is very important. I don't want to scare them and chase them all over
        the countryside which is dangerous for the animals. Having access to secluded mule deer
        habitat is key to any "great" mule deer hunt.

  2.    1 mile from road and 8 inches of snow

  3.    A great mule deer hunt in Idaho is hunting areas not easily accessed by the majority of other
        hunters, i.e. road hunters. The late mule deer hunt reduced the number of hunters in the field
        due to adverse weather conditions.

  4.    A roadless, wilderness area that is so remote that the deer never see a human. A late Oct. and
        into early Nov. hunt when the bucks are starting to rut and even migrate, depending on snow
        levels. A place where buck harvests are limited to achieve mature animals with trophy potential.

  5.    Packing into the wildernesses of Idaho (preferable without wolves, putting them back there was
        a big mistake, and that is all I will say about that) with my family and friends, and getting to see
        elk and deer in their natural habitat. Also to get a chance at a larger buck, and to use my horses
        and mules, and see the scenery, fish in the high lakes for cutthroat trout while I am up there.
        Idaho is a beautiful place with lots of game and I hope people make an effort to keep it that
        way, whether it be by participating in this survey or others.

  6.    Roadless hunting areas free from ATV's, Motorcycles. Hunting opportunities during the rut
        Opportunity to take a mule deer with several weapon choices while using the same tag - early
        opportunity w/ a bow, rifle season afterwards if not successful with a bow, and finally an
        opportunity after that to muzzleloader after that if not successful with a rifle such has been the
        case in the Panhandle units 4&7.

  7.    The large amount of natural and preserved land that allows mule deer to populate and stay
        healthy.

  8.    To go where no one else either wants to or is too lazy to. Where I can hunt other species of
        animals.

  9.    Wilderness or remote hunting experience with no 4-wheelers, 4x4's or motorcycles. Until
        several years ago, I had stock and usually packed in 4-8 miles to hunt mule deer or elk. I also
        require that I have a excellent opportunity to shoot a large antlered mule deer buck of 26-28" +
        spread. Elk are nice, but I prefer mule deer hunting. I now live in N Idaho, and did not hunt big
        game last year. You should ask me more about my pre-2005 hunting. I have not hunted
        whitetails yet, and am not that interested in them even though I live in N Idaho now.

  10.   Good deer population, mature bucks, big country where one can get away from crowds. In
        Idaho this is easily accomplished by walking a mile off the beaten path.

  11.   I enjoy hunting for large mature bucks. A great hunt is when you see more deer than hunters.
        The hunters are not hunting or depending on Off Road Vehicles to go anywhere other than
        forest service roads. I prefer to hunt in wilderness areas and away from roads in general. Usually
        3 to 5 miles from the nearest road. I backpack in and don't have access to pack animals. I have
P a g e | 26



         not harvested a deer in several years but pass on at least 5 to 10 legal bucks a year. I have not
         drawn for a controlled hunt for over 10 years. But many of the attributes of a high quality
         control hunt is what I would describe as a great hunt.

   12.   Being able to access the bottom of a mountain or ridge and walk for several miles glassing and
         stalking. Access is a big deal when it comes to mule deer hunting.


NO PREDATORS: no wolves, mountain lions, cougars, bears, no wolf tracks,
no wolves howling, competing with wolves
(55/2796—2.0%)

   1.    Fewer non-resident hunters. Less wolf depredation. Abundant mule deer bucks for viewing and
         harvesting.

   2.    Low number of hunters, both human and wolves.

   3.    Longer and later season, more permit only short range weapon only units (bow, muzzleloader,
         handgun, and shotgun seasons) Not hunting to compete against wolves and ATVs.

   4.    Time of year and area, but the weather and predators play a huge role as well. It seems as
         though every year the wolf count goes up and the amount of deer I see goes down.

   5.    Finding more mule deer that haven't been killed by wolfs.

   6.    For starters not being chase by wolfs, and when hunting actually see mule deer instead of white
         tail deer most of the time.

   7.    No wolves!!!! Having a opportunity to harvest a nice buck. Higher population of deer, good
         conservation plan for deer, habitat, and no Wolves.

   8.    Not seeing the wolves, since we have been seeing the wolves the game are scarce or not in the
         areas they have been in for decades. We enjoy spending time with friends, camping, sitting
         around the camp fire, good weather, fall scenery and being outside.

   9.    To be wolf free.

   10.   To go up and hunt mule deer and not see wolf tracks. To lengthen the season another week.

   11.   Being able to hunt them at different times of the year. Able to hunt them with different types
         weapons. I think keeping the doe season closed until the deer population comes back is a good
         idea. I think if better management of our predator problem would increase population.(wolf,
         bear, mountain lion).

   12.   Having options to hunt in all units that are open to hunt. A large selection of units to hunt in is
         extremely important. Now more than ever. Wolf completion has made it difficult to find and
         track mule deer in the area I hunt most.

   13.   A great hunt would involve hunting in an area that has a good population, high buck to doe
         ratio, mature animals, and trophy potential. I also think a great hunt is made possible by seeing
         little or no other people. It is also nice to see a structured age group in the herd that I hunt on a
         great hunt. Also, it is a real downer to get prepared for a hunt invest time and money, take time
                                                                                             P a g e | 27


      off of work, drive to a location, get camp set up, and then go hunting only to see drainage after
      drainage of wolf tracks. This is more common than not these days in North Idaho.

14.   Able to see a lot of game, few people, places where 4-wheelers cannot go. NO WOLVES.

15.   Bigger numbers of mule deer and less number of nonresidents and no wolves.

16.   Finding deer where the wolves haven't been.

17.   Finding huntable numbers of deer. Large bucks. No wolves chasing game in the unit I choose to
      hunt in.

18.   Having the opportunity to see Large Bucks (over 24 inches wide and more than 4 points) this
      opportunity has not present itself much over the last 10 years. There are way too many
      Mountain Lions and as their populations have increased deer populations have decreased
      rapidly.

19.   Large mule deer population no wolf pressure, must control wolf expansion limited number of
      out of state hunters.

20.   More game less wolves (prefer none) any buck that is not 2 point only, buck and doe tag.

21.   Seeing a decent number of animals- some quality animals-and not seeing ANY WOLVES.

22.   Seeing deer-not elk and wolves.

23.   Seeing lot's of game. Not just deer but all wildlife in general. Healthy herds and habitat that is
      not chewed down by sheep and cattle. Just for the record I'm not a big fan of the wolf idea. I've
      heard both side of the argument and frankly we were doing just fine without them. They’re
      dogs they reproduce rapidly when there's food! And when there's not I hope I'm not around:) I
      don't see hunters or the herds benefitting from the introduction of them. So I guess to answer
      your question, no wolves?

24.   Seeing many deer and no wolf tracks.

25.   Seeing more deer than wolf tracks.

26.   Seeing a variety of animals, including does, fawns, small bucks to large mature bucks. Healthy
      and not harassed by excess predators!!

27.   To see a few mule deer and have a good chance to take a good buck. I do not want to see or
      hear a wolf.

28.   To find good healthy deer in fair quantities that aren't to skittish, been on a steady decline since
      wolf reintroduction, now skittish enough that the flee at sight all year round.

29.   Cold weather. Abundant animal sightings - all species. No wolves. I just enjoy hunting.

30.   Colder climates to get the deer moving. Large numbers of deer bucks and does. Fewer hunters
      less predators: wolves and cougars.

31.   To see more quality mature bucks. To see more deer and less hunters. To not have your spot
      ruined by wolves.
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   32.   Good Habitat, low hunting pressure & lower numbers of predators, Wolf need to be controlled.
         Also we noticed a high number of black bears.

   33.   I believe that mule deer hunting is a great way to hunt the high country. They live in the same
         country the elk inhibit, and are more challenging to hunt then the white tail deer. I also believe
         that if the wolf predation is not brought under control, and damm soon. We will be seeing far
         less mule deer and elk in the back country. There are far less now, then 10 years ago.


HUNTING REGULATIONS: controlled hunts, season timing, being drawn,
tags, size of controlled hunts, restrictions, enforcement
(54/2796—1.9%)

   1.    Access to good hunting areas. Not being restricted in the unit of hunt by the type of tag
         purchased.

   2.    Minimal overcrowding, ability to draw a tag, hunting with kids, and family.

   3.    An affordable, safe hunt with a high possibility of harvesting game, including the possibility of
         taking a trophy fairly close to home.

   4.    Being able to hunt either sex for the elderly and handicap hunters. I am disabled and it would
         be nice to be able to hunt either sex. As other years people were able to get either sex. People
         like the meat. If they over populate they will die from winter exposure. I feel it would be best to
         let people hunt for the meat. Why can't the people hunt either sex?

   5.    Being able to hunt them at different times of the year. Able to hunt them with different types
         weapons. I think keeping the doe season closed until the deer population comes back is a good
         idea. I think if better management of our predator problem would increase population.(wolf,
         bear, mountain lion).

   6.    Being able to hunt them more often, near my home (units 11, 11a) being able to access the
         land and being able to hunt mature bucks.

   7.    Drawing a tag. I do not hunt general seasons in the Clearwater Region. I do harvest extra does
         on family property.

   8.    Getting a chance to draw a hunt with another weapon is always a treat.

   9.    Getting drawn for a controlled hunt permit. Scouting the unit and getting to know the access
         areas and terrain.

   10.   Limited entry tag quotas, late season hunts, early season hunts.

   11.   The ability to purchase a tag over the counter and not rely on being drawn is important to me.
         This give me the ability to plan and scout far ahead of time. I like to Hunt in remote areas with
         few other hunters in the area. To see multiple buck muledeer with the possibility of crossing
         paths with a trophy size buck. Harvesting a buck is not the only measurement of a great hunt.
         Being sure you will see more than one buck and being able to choose to harvest a buck or pass
         and wait for a better one is important to me. I support antler size restrictions.

   12.   To draw a hunt.
                                                                                              P a g e | 29


  13.   Lots of game and to be able to draw a permit for mule deer buck in unit 11a that i have never
        been lucky to get in all the years I've hunted Idaho.

  14.   Number and size of deer, number of tags, buck-doe ratio, number of tags to out of state tags.

  15.   Seeing animals. Consistent seasons every year, not cutting down on the days we are able to
        hunt.

  16.   Cold Weather is good, no rain. Moving your start date from Oct. 5 to Oct. 10 has increased
        sightings.

  17.   Ample opportunity for decent mulies without killing the non-resident in license fees.

  18.   Unrestricted trophy hunts.


OPPORTUNITIES TO SEE AND HUNT MULTIPLE SPECIES: seeing all wildlife,
harvesting more than one species, incidental take
(47/2796—1.7%)

  1.    Access to public land. Deer and Elk seasons that overlap. Opportunity to bag a nice buck.
        Access to the back country via forest service roads on a 4 wheeler.

  2.    Not too many other people hunting the same area. Ability to camp anywhere in the hunt area
        or adjacent to it. Animal activity...all kinds not just the game pursued.

  3.    To go where no one else either wants to or is too lazy to. Where I can hunt other species of
        animals.

  4.    See beautiful country. See lots of wildlife. Harvest a deer.

  5.    Being with friends/family. Seeing animals of any species.

  6.    I am really not into hunting mule deer alone. I hunt archery elk in unit 4 and if I were to see a
        nice mule deer or whitetail buck I would take it. I mostly hunt whitetail deer when I deer hunt.

  7.    I do not just go for mule deer, I am elk hunting every time that when I come across the deer I
        shoot. I only shoot mature buck anymore and I only hunt muzzleloader season for past 25
        years.

  8.    To see game, to keep interest up deer, elk, bear, cat, bighorn, goats, and pronghorn.

  9.    A great hunt is a campfire close to some trails that we can ride our ATVs, see some deer, get
        some grouse, and hunt elk at the same time. Wow!

  10.   Camping/hiking in beautiful, challenging country, knowing that when you sit down and glass
        the terrain, you: a) have a change of seeing a nice buck & other wildlife, and b) don't have to
        worry about seeing a 4-wheeler on every mountain top.

  11.   Seeing a abundance of all sizes of game.

  12.   Seeing a decent number of animals- some quality animals-and not seeing ANY WOLVES.

  13.   Seeing game. Chuckars, huns, rabbits, or just being out in the wide open spaces of the
P a g e | 30



         Owyhee’s. Or for that matter hunting mule deer up in the higher country and running into a
         herd of elk.

   14.   Seeing lot's of game. Not just deer but all wildlife in general. Healthy herds and habitat that is
         not chewed down by sheep and cattle. Just for the record I'm not a big fan of the wolf idea. I've
         heard both side of the argument and frankly we were doing just fine without them. They’re
         dogs they reproduce rapidly when there's food! And when there's not I hope I'm not around:) I
         don't see hunters or the herds benefitting from the introduction of them. So I guess to answer
         your question, no wolves?

   15.   Seeing lots of game. Undisturbed hunts from off road vehicles. The portion of the season that
         approaches the rut.

   16.   Seeing a variety of animals, including does, fawns, small bucks to large mature bucks. Healthy
         and not harassed by excess predators!!

   17.   To see large mule deer bucks, and large herds of other game animals.

   18.   Open spaces with mixed types of vegetation with light hunting pressure and seeing game of all
         types, legal or not.

   19.   To go where the deer are. Getting up into the high country where the bigger bucks hang out.
         Makes for a more enjoyable hunt when you can see a lot of game.

   20.   Wide open spaces, few other visible hunters, no 4-wheeler tracks or noise, and observing some
         animals (not necessarily mule deer). A feeling of satisfaction at covering a good amount of
         territory without seeing a lot of other hunters.

   21.   A great hunt is an either sex hunt with only traditional muzzleloaders or archery allowed. The
         hunt would be on public land with ample game with the ability to hunt mule deer, elk, bear,
         and small game at the same time.


SEASON LENGTH AND TIMING: long season, late season, earlier hunts
(44/2769—1.6%)

   1.    It was the late season rifle hunt but now I have 2 youth hunters now have began to hunt so
         looking for a longer hunt for them because of school abs are not excused.

   2.    Less people. Hunting later in the year (late October into November)

   3.    Chance of taking a trophy, not crowded and a long enough season to return if you are not
         successful on the first trip.

   4.    Going to a somewhat rugged remote area in Sept-Oct-Nov and shooting a 30 inch plus buck.

   5.    Being able to hunt in Nov.

   6.    Buck only and in early November limited drawing for the early hunt (Sept) is a great hunt also.

   7.    Having the hunt at a time which might provide a trophy animal. Such as a late buck hunt or
         later season.
                                                                                              P a g e | 31


  8.    Hunt late season in the snow.

  9.    Hunting the "right" time of year....late October into November Seeing bucks.....Not necessarily
        "record book" bucks, but decent three and four point buckshot having to hunt in a "rush hour"
        situation.....i.e., not driving in a line of hunters to get to where I want to go, and then not
        running into other hunters on every ridge. Finally, getting to harvest a buck...again, not
        necessarily a "record book" buck, but taking home a buck with a decent set of horns.

  10.   I like our late season mule deer hunts which involve the added challenge of snow in the higher
        elevations. I do support the efforts to limit mule deer hunting and only try for an above average
        mule deer. I mainly hunt in the northern units of the state.

  11.   Longer and later season, more permit only short range weapon only units (bow, muzzleloader,
        handgun, and shotgun seasons) Not hunting to compete against wolves and ATVs.

  12.   Longer Seasons.

  13.   See animals (late hunts when deer are more accessible for a guy my age and physical abilities).

  14.   The time of year. The number of mule deer seen. Access to hunting areas. Spending time with
        hunting partners. Being able to hunt mule deer early in the season and if a muley is not
        harvested being able to use the same tag latter in the year to thin the whitetail population.

  15.   Good numbers of deer with high quality bucks that exist in the area. A decent season that lasts
        long enough to spread out the competition.

  16.   A great mule deer hunt to me would be one where I could actually see mature bucks. I would
        not need to see a great number of deer, or even harvest a deer, but I would like to hunt in an
        area where I know there would be a possibility of harvesting a mature buck if I put in the
        necessary effort. It would also be a hunt that takes place later in the year, rather than when our
        general seasons now takes place.

  17.   Longer hunting season every 3 years so mule deer have a chance to mature shorter female
        seasons


BEAUTY: Aesthetic quality, scenic areas, “nice” country
(42/2796—1.5%)

  1.    Being away from popular areas of people; enjoying the beauty that Idaho offers, seeing healthy
        populations of mule deer.

  2.    Beautiful scenery seeing lots of animals. Serenity of few people. Ability to hunt with family and
        friends. Successful hunt. Fewer out of state people. Lots of open land to public hunters. More
        clear rules and proclamations.

  3.    Big rugged mountains, lots of snow, few hunters, you know there could be a big buck just over
        the next ridge.

  4.    Rugged country where the views are breath taking, hunting a animal that is one of the premier
        big game animals to hunt in Idaho.

  5.    Being outdoors, seeing the beautiful country and having the chance to possibly harvest a
        trophy buck.
P a g e | 32



   6.    Camping/hiking in beautiful, challenging country, knowing that when you sit down and glass
         the terrain, you: a) have a change of seeing a nice buck & other wildlife, and b) don't have to
         worry about seeing a 4-wheeler on every mountain top.

   7.    Opportunity to observe mule deer as they go about their daily routines. The excitement of
         seeing that large buck, that may give you the chance of a lifetime. Beautiful vistas of mountains
         covered in the crimson colors of fall. The good company of friends and family. That adrenaline
         rush that accompanies the stealthy stalk of a beautiful buck. Stories from the day told at camp.
         Watching the day come to light and the sounds of nature increase as each member awakens.
         The memories that will never be forgotten. It's not so much the hunt, but the experience of
         participating in a tradition of sights, sounds and textures.

   8.    The opportunity to harvest a large 4 point or better buck. That is the reason my family and
         friends drive 12 hours and spend the money we do to hunt Idaho. Plus it's beautiful state.

   9.    Wild, unspoiled country. No motorized vehicles ruining the hunt. Few hunters encountered
         while in the field.


WEAPONS: specific weapons, multiple weapons
(26/2796—0.9%)

   1.    Not sharing the season with rifle hunters.

   2.    Late season muzzleloader hunt.

   3.    Longer and later season, more permit only short range weapon only units (bow, muzzleloader,
         handgun, and shotgun seasons) Not hunting to compete against wolves and ATVs.

   4.    I do not just go for mule deer, I am elk hunting every time that when I come across the deer I
         shoot. I only shoot mature buck anymore and I only hunt muzzleloader season for past 25
         years.

   5.    Getting a chance to draw a hunt with another weapon is always a treat.

   6.    Being able to see many deer each outing, plus being able to hunt more than one until or all
         units and with different weapons.

   7.    The opportunity to pursue trophy class animals with bow.

   8.    To hunt in an area that has a chance at a true 180 class deer. Defined by seeing 1 or 2 in this
         frame class during a hard 10 day hunt. Having other people around is fine if its bow.

   9.    A great hunt is an either sex hunt with only traditional muzzleloaders or archery allowed. The
         hunt would be on public land with ample game with the ability to hunt mule deer, elk, bear,
         and small game at the same time.

   10.   Ability to hunt every year with either bow and/or rifle. Seeing plentiful deer with opportunity to
         find trophy animals.

   11.   Well if I am hunting with my bow just being able to get close to them. If I am rifle hunting
         trying to find the big boy.
                                                                                            P a g e | 33



YOUTH: sons, daughters, teaching, sharing
(23/2796—0.8%)

  1.    Being able to take my boy and my grandsons.

  2.    Being with my son and grandson for the hunt

  3.    Being with my son.

  4.    Good friends to hunt with

  5.    Hunting with one of my sons and seeing a lot of animals.

  6.    It was the late season rifle hunt but now I have 2 youth hunters now have began to hunt so
        looking for a longer hunt for them because of school abs are not excused.

  7.    Spending time with my kids in nature, seeing deer even when we don't harvest any making
        great memories.

  8.    The chance to spend quality time with my 14 year old son teaching him the hunting traditions
        and joys. Enjoying the beauty of the woods and mountains.

  9.    To find herds for young and old to harvest.

  10.   To have the chance to take my daughter and grandsons on a hunt where they get to see both
        bucks and does and have the chance to take either.

  11.   For me, a great deer hunt in Idaho means taking out young hunters or older, less mobile
        hunters and being able to find a deer that meets their expectations. Whether a deer is food (my
        case) or an early big game experience I many cases for young hunters

  12.   No people, good weather is a plus but not a necessity, having multiple deer sightings and an
        opportunity to pick and choose, accessibility to an area my 72 year old father and disabled son
        can have a quality hunt.

  13.   Being on a mountain top when the sun rises and you can see into the next state!! Camping and
        sharing the outdoors with my daughter, friends, and relatives. But the ultimate is taking home a
        nice buck and having meat in the freezer.

  14.   Just being in the hills with friends in hope the young hunters are successful.

  15.   Just seeing game not just taking game. Being with friends and family, sharing the experience.

  16.   Just to be in the field with my sons.

  17.   Used to be looking for trophy, now just being out with grand kids. Grand son took nice buck
        first year hunting.

  18.   Taking my boys out on horseback, camping, I really don't want to shoot anything just get
        outdoors and camp.

  19.   Seeing lots of deer and not seeing lots of other hunters. Going hunting with friends and family
P a g e | 34



         members and just having the night time camping experience. Teaching my son to hunt and the
         bonding experience has been one of the most rewarding parts of hunting. As a teenager it is
         one of the times of the year we spend without his friends and he is mostly himself.

   20.   Maybe not even to get one but to just get out and have a good time with my family. But it
         would be nice to see more deer and to have a better chance to see my kids get one. WE have a
         lot of people moving in to our area it seem you cannot go out without someone messing up
         your hunt. It would be nice to maybe have area's were you can have a family hunt.


HUNTING DURING THE RUT: hunting during the rutting season
(21/2796--0.7%)

   1.    Fewer hunters afield, later season during the rut to maximize the opportunity of taking a
         mature buck.

   2.    Limited hunt area with little pressure during the rut.

   3.    Being able to hunt the rut in November (Panhandle units).

   4.    To be able to hunt during the rut. To have the season start later for modern rifle weapon or
         give more permits/special drawings for rifle hunters. Where I hunt it is rugged terrain, which
         means there are fewer hunters and more game. This makes the hunt challenging and
         rewarding.

   5.    Snow and the rut.

   6.    Snow and hunting during the rut make for a great hunt in Idaho.

   7.    Locations that have restrictive access with mature bucks during the mule deer rut (Archery Hunt
         Only).

   8.    A late archery rut hunt in salmon or Snake River breaks.


CHALLENGE: the challenge of the hunt, challenging situations
(20/2796—0.7%)

   1.    I hunt mule deer on the Salmon River breaks. The challenge of bagging a big buck, on open
         steep terrain brings a sporting event like none other. To me this is a great hunt.

   2.    The big ones are very smart and are a challenge to hunt.

   3.    I don't like the current tag system. I preferred the old system whereby you could shoot both
         species with the same tag early in the season and only whitetail deer later in the season. Also,
         having access to land and not competing with 4 wheelers is the ideal hunt. I hunted in the
         Pittsburg landing area for 2-3 years. The scenery is spectacular, the hiking very challenging and
         the game plentiful. I gave up that hunt because of the 4 wheelers. It would take up a couple of
         hours to hike to a ridge only to have an army of 4 wheelers overtake us in 15-20 minutes. My
         idea of a great hunt in Idaho for any species is one with no 4 wheelers or motorcycles allowed.
         The proliferation of mechanized hunting has ruined much hunting and is philosophically
         opposed to the traditions of hunting. I don't even agree with the idea of using these vehicles to
         pack out meat. I subscribe to the more traditional methods of packboards and stock. My friend
                                                                                                 P a g e | 35


        and I 2 years ago, both of us in our late fifties, packed out on our backs a spike bull. I feel it is
        the hunter's responsibility to stay in shape in order to be able to do this. I don't own stock so I
        hunt in a way I know I can deal with the meat in a timely way. These were time-honored
        approaches to hunting. The new ethics spawned by the mechanization trend has ruined much
        of hunting.

  4.    I just enjoy being out in the field, I enjoy it regardless of whether or not I harvest. However, I do
        enjoy the more difficult hunts. I prefer hunting alone, and I would never use an ATV.

  5.    I like being in the wilderness without being crowded by other people. I enjoy the challenge of
        matching my sight with skill against such an elusive, beautiful, majestic animal. If I tag one find
        and if I don’t, that’s fine to.

  6.    To be in the wild outdoors with a chance to harvest a mule deer. I hunt with a bow for the
        challenge. Generally during rifle season everyone from different cities come to the area I live in
        with their four wheelers and campers and push the deer out of the areas I like to hunt.

  7.    To be able to hunt during the rut. To have the season start later for modern rifle weapon or
        give more permits/special drawings for rifle hunters. Where I hunt it is rugged terrain, which
        means there are fewer hunters and more game. This makes the hunt challenging and
        rewarding.

  8.    Seeing game - not seeing other hunters - knowing the terrain/habitat - challenging myself to
        harvest a mule deer.

  9.    Lots of deer, lots of big bucks. Good friends to share the experience with. Getting up close and
        personal with the deer, the stalk, the challenge of the hunt.

  10.   Good sized deer that are hard to find to make it a challenging hunt.

  11.   The challenge of hunting mule deer in a diverse environment the rock, steep terrain and the
        solitude. Also mule deer I’ve taken are some of the best I’ve ever eaten.


ETHICS: no slobs, slob hunting, noise, injuring the animal, disregard for
rules, drunks, parties
(19/2796—0.6%)

  1.    Hunters who respect other hunters.

  2.    No idiots making noise in the woods.

  3.    Would like no 4 wheelers, no drunks and to see more deer.

  4.    Getting away from other crazy hunters. Being able to ride horses into an area w/o idiots on four
        wheelers.

  5.    Not allot of people crammed in the same place looking for the same deer. Unpressured, not
        over hunted areas, which aren’t always available. A healthy population to choose from, hunters
        following proper gaming rules. Kids out with their family learning and enjoying the experience.
        One clean kill shot so the animal doesn't suffer.

  6.    I don't like the current tag system. I preferred the old system whereby you could shoot both
        species with the same tag early in the season and only whitetail deer later in the season. Also,
P a g e | 36



         having access to land and not competing with 4 wheelers is the ideal hunt. I hunted in the
         Pittsburg landing area for 2-3 years. The scenery is spectacular, the hiking very challenging and
         the game plentiful. I gave up that hunt because of the 4 wheelers. It would take up a couple of
         hours to hike to a ridge only to have an army of 4 wheelers overtake us in 15-20 minutes. My
         idea of a great hunt in Idaho for any species is one with no 4 wheelers or motorcycles allowed.
         The proliferation of mechanized hunting has ruined much hunting and is philosophically
         opposed to the traditions of hunting. I don't even agree with the idea of using these vehicles to
         pack out meat. I subscribe to the more traditional methods of packboards and stock. My friend
         and I 2 years ago, both of us in our late fifties, packed out on our backs a spike bull. I feel it is
         the hunter's responsibility to stay in shape in order to be able to do this. I don't own stock so I
         hunt in a way I know I can deal with the meat in a timely way. These were time-honored
         approaches to hunting. The new ethics spawned by the mechanization trend has ruined much
         of hunting.

   7.    I believe we need to get the lazy people off their quads and out of our forest. We get up early
         hike to the top of the (world) mountain sit down, be quiet and freeze our butts off, watch the
         sunrise listen, look and hope. If you see the big one you make a game plan and go sneak up on
         him look for a good clean shot and then take him down. 1) Fewer hunters in an area at one
         time, after twenty years of hunting. There are too many hunters after different animals in any
         one area at a time making hunting difficult and dangerous. During my controlled Bull Elk hunt
         last year, we encountered Deer Doe hunters, Spike Hunters, Bull Elk Hunters, Bear Trackers all in
         one zone during one controlled hunt period. 2) Too many adults don't leave the spikes and
         younger animals for our young hunters and there are not enough maturing animals. 3) More
         aggressive poaching enforcement... We would like to see a lot more enforcement of hunters
         hunting in the wrong zones... going unchecked we encounter this every year...Shooting multiple
         animals.... not retrieving game.

   8.    The key characteristics would be no motorized vehicles tearing around the areas, overly large
         camps set up directly in the middle of the hunting areas, no party-hunters shooting at anything
         that moves, as well as garbage always being left behind at the sites and where the prime
         hunting spots are.


CONVENIENCE: easy, quick, close to home, right place/right time
(17/2796—0.6%)

   1.    1st day walk out in the field, following the landowners directions. Get a good rest for the rifle,
         and shoot the biggest buck! Be back to the vehicle in an hour and home to cut the meat.

   2.    Being in the right place at the right time and not being picky.

   3.    Broadside and standing still.

   4.    Close to home.

   5.    Deer jumps in back of truck and drive home.

   6.    Easy and quick.

   7.    Filling my tag quickly.

   8.    To be able to drive a short distance from our home...to be able to walk in the hills without
         seeing 25 people also hunting in the same area...to be able to see 3-point or larger mule deer
                                                                                              P a g e | 37


        bucks with large bodies...to be able to get close to (within 200 yards) of same 3-point or larger
        bucks...to be able to camp nearby, not in, the hunting area...to make a good, clean, one-shot
        kill...to have a good butcher to process the meat...to have a successful story to tell...to have
        venison to grace our table.

  9.    Travel distance. I hunt on my own property.

  10.   An area that is fairly easy to access, where there are some open areas, with a decent place to
        park my 5th wheel camper.

  11.   Lots of game and accesses to areas where the game is. Also having those hunters

  12.   clean up their mess when their finished with their camp sites. Heavy fines for littering.


USING PACK ANIMALS: on horseback, time in the saddle
(11/2796—0.4%)

  1.    Getting away from other crazy hunters. Being able to ride horses into an area w/o idiots on four
        wheelers.

  2.    A good horse good food a long day of riding then hope you see something to shoot.

  3.    A good horse, good day, big lunch long day in saddle.

  4.    I hunt on horseback to get away from the crowds of people. To be able to see more than a
        single 2- point.

  5.    Taking my boys out on horseback, camping, I really don't want to shoot anything just get
        outdoors and camp.

  6.    Lots of game with a high percentage of bucks. A high percentage of older bucks. Good habitat
        to promote good antler growth. Contact with traditional hunters on foot or horseback.
        Elimination of hunters using motorized vehicles to access the backcountry.

  7.    To at least see several deer. Get outdoors, ride my horse.

  8.    4 pts or better and few people, usually involving wilderness and the use of pack animals and
        camping.
P a g e | 38




MOTORIZED ACCESS: positive use of motor vehicles and ATVs
(9/2796—0.3%)

   1.    Hunting with my wife and son in uncrowded forest habitat close to home and collecting nice
         piece of meat without having to hunt too far from or drive too far to accessible road for my
         jeep or pickup.

   2.    Access to public land. Deer and Elk seasons that overlap. Opportunity to bag a nice buck.
         Access to the back country via forest service roads on a 4 wheeler.

   3.    I like to hunt on foot but appreciate being able to retrieve game with ATV. I prefer to avoid
         other hunters.

   4.    A great hunt is a campfire close to some trails that we can ride our ATVs, see some deer, get
         some grouse, and hunt elk at the same time. Wow!

   5.    A remote area accessible with 4 wheel drive for on foot, some cover with the opportunity to see
         and stalk deer.

   6.    Being able to ride our quads on the old logging roads, and bagging a big buck

   7.    Open four wheeler trails, and a lot of big bucks which we have very few of on both items.

   8.    Good opportunity for success for a buck, with a possibility of a large buck. Consistent shot
         opportunity. Good access. Ability to use 4 wheeler, but ability to hike away from road access.

   9.    Plenty of game. Less White Tail's. Better access to old roads with an ATV. A wet fall. Coming
         across fewer hunters.


TIME AFIELD: time spent hunting, having enough time
(4/2796—<0.1%)

   1.    Packing back beyond most hunting to a good area with enough game to give you a fair chance.
         Good company, great food, and time enough to really hunt and enjoy it.

   2.    A great hunt depends on who you’re with, and how much time you actually get to put into it.

   3.    Lots of time a field and seeing a lot of deer, then getting a nice buck.

   4.    Time afield, view deer, chance to see a large deer - 28"-34".
P a g e | 39
P a g e | 40
 REASONS FOR GIVING A “VERY
DISSATISFIED” RATING FOR THE
AMOUNT OF HUNTING ACCESS:
 A QUALITATIVE EVALUATION

                      By:

 Dana Coombs, Undergraduate Research Assistant
 Nick Sanyal, Ph.D., Associate Professor
 Ed Krumpe, Ph.D., Professor


   Department of Conservation Social Sciences
         College of Natural Resources
              University of Idaho
                   Moscow

                  July 5, 2007


                 Prepared for:
      Idaho Department of Fish and Game
                   Boise
Page |2


REASONS FOR GIVING A “VERY DISSATISFIED” RATING FOR THE AMOUNT OF ACCESS




                    Table 1: Distribution of 44 open-ended comments describing extreme dissatisfaction with
                              access
                      Response Category                                          N      Percent
                      Not enough access, particularly across private lands       31     70%
                      Access is too easy                                         6      13.6%
                      Difficult access                                           5      11.4%
                      The Confused and Complicated                               2      4.5%



Not Enough Access, Particularly Across Private Lands: (31/44--70%)

   1.   All the road closers in unit 1. This is public land for the public to use-not a limited few to use as they see
        fit.

   2.   To many landowners lock up private property for their own private hunting opportunities beyond

   3.   Private property. In other words access to public land is getting more and more difficult.

   4.   Because of many restrictions, hunters are packed in a few areas and the large amount of "new" predators
        has drastically reduced the deer and elk populations which will directly impact on the amount of game to
        hunt, and the areas where there are deer will have more hunters.

   5.   Cattlemen in unit 42 blocked access to BLM land by not allowing us short access through their private
        property. Even though they were allowed to run their cattle on the BLM land. Cattleman also locked BLM
        gates and "pretended" that it was private property

   6.   Fewer bucks and they seem to be further back in the hills with limited access.

   7.   I feel that the elk and deer seasons should be combined again, with either sex available. Access to areas is
        being sold out to private interests.

   8.   I have been fortunate to hunt in the landowner hunt for the last 9 years, thus I was able to see the
        amount of big bucks in the area during the season and after it had ended. The big deer were on land that
        was unaccessable to me during the season. This private property had salt licks and other nutrition sites
        along with a lack of hunting pressure that, over time trained the deer and other species where to go, and
        how long to stay. Delaying or changing seasons, or increasing access to these critters would benefit
        positive herd ratios and allow for increased hunter success. As you know all hunts change. Pressure from
        hunters, climate changes, cycling increases and decreases in quality of habitat and quantity of predators
        make managing the numbers of critters on private land essential. Obviously if the land owner is bent on
        retaining public wildlife on private land for personal use and/or protection(for whatever reason),
        management of herd numbers and bull to cow ratios, and behaviors including location of the herds during
        take seasons will greatly denigrate Idaho hunters' historic, and inherent, ability to access their game.
        Although I appreciate being able to hunt private land that I hunted as a boy, I have seen the game adjust,
        during the generous season, by moving to private land, that is not accessible. Is there a way to prompt
        land owners that are attempting to privately manage public game, by feeding and protecting them from
        hunters, to encourage our critters to move from their property allowing hunters a chance to harvest. In
                                                                                                     3|Page


     doing so, they will be helping Idaho Fish and Game gain proper numbers, ratios, and etc.

9.   I have hunting the Owhyees since I was 12. When I first started hunting there we saw and shot at BIG
     bucks every year, even before they made the 2 point rule. We still hunt there every year but it seems that
     every year I see fewer and fewer LARGE bucks. We did see a lot of 2 points and shot 3 in out camp. We
     saw lots of deer, but I do not think I saw a single 4 point. If only the 300 or so permits get to shoot BIG
     bucks then it seems this area should have some, and it only seems to be going downhill. We have also
     always hunted Boulder Creek. The last few years we have had real problems with access to the areas we
     hunt. To get to the public land you have to pass thru a quarter mile section of private and it seems a
     gamble every year if we will get thru or not. Part of the fun of hunting is just getting out and riding our
     ATVs. I personally have shot enough 2 points that I don’t care if shoot anymore. But I would like to get
     the opportunity to shoot a big buck one of these years but cannot seem to draw a tag. There needs to be
     an archery season in the Owhyees for big bucks, even if it is draw hunt only, no reason that rifle only gets
     it, and it would help spread hunters out.

10. I think the private land owners that boarder BLM land have too much authority in denying accesses to
    prime hunting areas, just because they can? I remember as a youth that in the Little Lost area your could
    go anywhere you wanted, but now some outfit calling themselves the Lost River Rod and Gun Club have
    fenced off everything from Howe to Clyde, then there are the big outfits from back East that buy up whole
    mountains. I think when land is sold that there should be ready access available to the hunters. If private
    land is posted so be it, but don't do it to just stop people from having access to the nice mountain areas
    that boarder their property. I think you get what I am talking or referring to. I think that Idaho is the
    greatest state in the union and as for a hunter’s heaven you can't ask for a better place, but it seems to
    me shrinking every year.

11. Land that is public land should not have access limits by private land or the desire to have roadless areas
    where roads already exist. Most hunting areas in Idaho are too big to hunt on foot, you need to access
    them with a motor vehicle.

12. Like I said before the season is never long enough the private roads are a joke and rarely clearly marked
    and since the season is so short and when it is it doesn’t get cold enough for the deer to come down

13. More and more land being shut off to the general public by private landholders because of: outfitters,
    hunting leases. And ---LAP permits that encourage pay to hunt/access and therefore shut out the public
    who had historically accessed this land in the past. Those landowners that put in for yet do not draw LAP
    permits every year also deny access in anticipation of drawing one of these permits in the future. They are
    a no win for the general sportsman. The original intent of LAP was to reward a landowner with a tag for
    himself or his family member for allowing access and being a good steward of the land. That intent has
    been lost and access to the general public with it. Through changes in the LAP, and a loss of its orginal
    intent the IDFG has in fact closed off access to the public!

14. Never saw any bucks at all. Access was limited made it hard to get around.

15. No numbers, less deer, no late season, need more ways through private ground to get back forest BIM
    ground.

16. Private land owners closing off access to forest and BLM around

17. Private landowners have a lot of public (U.S. Forest Service and/or BLM) land locked up behind their
    ranches and private land. Ranchers and private land owners control access along the easiest, or only,
    access routes into a lot of public land areas.

18. Restricted or denied access on public, established forest roads is a very big area of dissatisfaction to me.
Page |4


        Both my wife and I are over 65 and still love to hunt, but more and more are limited to those roads open
        for public use. The thinking process used to deny access are highly suspect to me for the most part I
        would say "flawed."

   19. Saw no buck's at all, limited off road use (really no reason to own ATV, not enough road or trails).

   20. Season length are not the same in different units, most units season to short. Access gets worse every
       year. Why can't the F&G buy more land for upland and deer, ducks so we can get back the out of state
       hunters

   21. The federal government i.e. forest service is ripping out our roads with large bulldozers creating more
       erosion and hunters are forced to main road corridors put hunters on top of hunters.

   22. The majority of bucks I saw were all on private land.

   23. The number of deer seen and the closed roads

   24. The season was set later in the fall so the weather is too bad for full size vehicles to get into the high
       country. We need ATV's to get further back in, during bad weather and to retrieve game. Most of the deer
       lower are in private property, and the middle area there is very few deer.

   25. The size & number of bucks sucked. Access to most of the places I hunted years ago on public lands have
       been blocked off by land owners. Rather it be for not allowing access, or allowing access to those who
       want to pay a daily admission. Or for out of staters willing to pay the land owner to keep the locals out so
       they can have the area to themselves. The number of deer was not dissatisfying in the areas I hunted.
       Quite the opposite. We saw hundreds of does to the few small bucks we all saw. ATV use by hunters
       sucked as well in the units I hunted. I don't have a problem with the folks who use them to get to a place
       along a road to start a foot hunt. It's the ones with the big 4X4 ATV's that think they need to travel every
       ridge and patch of brush that piss me off.

   26. There was very limited access from the year before. I experienced a lot more hunters in the same area i
       would never see anyone. This I'm sure was due to the many roads and trails that were closed. It funnels
       everyone into more accessible areas they would not normally hunt if they were able to use there atv's.

   27. There were large tracts of BLM and State Lands in unit 44 that had no access points because of closed
       private lands.

   28. To many closed access to roads, and the amount of other hunters

   29. to many forest service roads gated, open these roads to the public all the time

   30. You need to open the cap land in Idaho as in other states. As the fed subsidize the farms and ranches not
       to grow anything. And most of it posted no hunting.

   31. Your archery season is way too long. Then you open controlled hunts for 12 days, what a change after
       being scattered and then you say we have too many. You close roads, even for cars and trucks for no
       apparent reason.


Access is Too Easy: (6/44--13.6%)

   1.   Access is too easy for motorized vehicles.
                                                                                                         5|Page


   2.   Access to land and number of ATVs and lack of land that they are not running all over.

   3.   I believe the issue of access has had the most negative impact on the area I have hunted the past several
        years. By this, I mean access to go everywhere on a four wheeler/ATV. It has resulted in more hunters
        "four wheeling" the area and, in my opinion, negatively affected the number of deer sighted and the
        number of bucks seen. If, in fact, the above mentioned motorized vehicle restriction rule is in effect in my
        unit, it MUST be enforced. I would support such a law/regulation.

   4.   need more control on access and ATV use

   5.   The amount of access was way too much, everwhere you looked was another open road with an ATV or
        trailbike on it. Even when the road was gated or plowed up,it was still open on the other end. There are
        not enough restrictions on these things, and not enough people to enforce the ones there is. I would like
        to see all roads closed, except the main roads. All the little side roads could be closed, and not bother me.
        It would make hunting more like hunting, instead of ATV counting. Hunting is not for the lazy people of
        the world.

   6.   The mule deer numbers have been increasingly lower each year that I hunt, because of predators
        especially mountain lions. There are too many hunters in my unit and too much access for the motorized
        vehicles.


Difficult Access: (5/44--11.4%)

   1.   ATV restrictions make it so I and most hunters can't hunt with out a horse

   2.   In the unit I hunt mostly unit 1. The working man usually only has the weekends to hunt, most of the
        roads are closed and at the base of the canyons or mountains. Closing huge areas to be able hunt, I limit
        my trips in this type of country because I know if I am successful the retrieval process may make me not
        be back to work on Mondays.

   3.   Road closures make it impossible to in many areas, so all the hunters are in the accessible areas.

   4.   The unit i hunt (58) they have put restrictions on roads that have been open for many years. it didn't hurt
        it for that many years why start now

   5.   Like I said before the season is never long enough the private roads are a joke and rarely clearly marked
        and since the season is so short and when it is it doesn’t get cold enough for the deer to come down


Confused and Complicated: (2/44-- 4.5%

   1.   The only buck I saw in the archery and rifle season was the one I shot. On the amount of access It was
        very a lot because a couple of full size vehicle roads were not even closed until a couple of weeks a lot the
        season. Also the four wheeler trails that have been there for years and that are not hurting anybody or
        anything were closed.

   2.   There was a forest access sign at a gate, so a lot drove in on the road, but when a lot came out the gate
        was locked. A lot had crossed private land. There is a lot of BLM or forest ground you can’t even get to
        !!!!!!!!!!!!!!
Page |6
     DETERMINANTS OF
  DISSATISFACTION AMONG
IDAHO MULE DEER HUNTERS:
  A QUALITATIVE PORTRAIT

                      By:

 Dana Coombs, Undergraduate Research Assistant
 Nick Sanyal, Ph.D., Associate Professor
 Ed Krumpe, Ph.D., Professor

   Department of Conservation Social Sciences
         College of Natural Resources
              University of Idaho
                   Moscow

                  July 2, 2007


                 Prepared for:
      Idaho Department of Fish and Game
                   Boise
                                                                                                 Page |1




      If you were Very Dissatisfied with any of the attributes above, please tell us why.
                                     (Please write in your reasons)


The survey yielded 731 detailed comments the respondents. These were coded by two analysts
into 23 comment categories. One quote deserves special mention as it capture the complexity
and depth of the sentiments of hunting dissatisfaction. Each section is followed with one or
more exemplar quotes that illustrate the overall content of the section.




General Philosophical Observation

“Fish and game exist for two purposes- 1) to justify their existence; 2) to write citations- see number
one. It is in the interest of DNR to have resources to sell- mule deer tags- and extremely in their
interest not have deer to have harvested- this is somewhat of a catch-22. It must be a difficult balance
to create the illusion of there being animals to harvest, yet at the same time making sure seasons do
not coincide with the opportunity to find animals in their traditional ranges at the time the seasons for
those areas are open. The management of animal population and control should be given to an
outside entity which has no agenda to promote or existence to justify. Never will the Fish and Game
have the respect of the hunter when they are incapable of doing the job they hold themselves up as
experts in. Irrespective of departmental directives- very carefully, and publicly, handing the
responsibility and liability to another entity would be the most intelligent thing the department of fish
and game has done in many years. Being intelligent and keeping your job are not the same thing.
Hopefully, hidden in the depths of political thinking, there is a rational being with the insight to see
the inevitable. All this is too much to hope for, so by all means carry on as you have.”
2|Page




Table 1. Summary of the 731 comments.

Attribute                                                               Number of Percent
                                                                        comments
Concerns with too many ATV’s and/ or ATV’s used improperly               136       19.0%
Concerns with low numbers of bucks of any size                           111       15.2%
Concerns with low deer numbers                                            93       12.7%
Concerns with the size of deer                                            49        6.7%
Concerns with wolves and other predators                                  47        6.4%
Concerns about the number of hunters encountered or licensed              42        5.7%
Concerns with the amount and type of access to public and private         39        5.3%
lands
Concerns that the season is too short or long for the hunters or deer     34        4.6%
Concerns with slob hunters                                                34        4.6%
Concerns with the structure of the season                                 32        4.4%
Concerns with the nature and number of hunting regulations                32        4.4%
Concerns with non-resident hunters                                        22        3.0%
Concerns with Laws not being enforced or followed                         15        2.0%
Concerns with the effects of seasonal temperature on hunters and deer     14        1.9%
Concerns with the overpopulation of does or the beliefs that we           14        1.9%
should not be hunting does
Concerned with tag sales at the expense of population quality             10        1.4%
Concerns with habitat quality                                              2        0.3%
Concerns with deer-vehicle fatalities                                      2        0.3%
Concerns with road hunting                                                 2        0.3%
Concerns specifically about trophy deer quality                            1        0.1%
No accommodation for handicapped hunters                                   1        0.1%
Trespassers                                                                1        0.1%
Concerns with disease                                                      1        0.1%
                                                                                               Page |3



Concerns with too many ATV’s and or ATV’s used improperly
(136/731 comments—19%)

  1.   I was really bothered by ATV riders breaking the law/regulations that were in place. There needs
       to be more law enforcement and stiffer penalties for those that break the travel restriction laws.

  2.   ATVs were being used off road and illegally behind closed gates. They were more than just
       using them to get to an area to hunt; they were tearing up the ridge tops for fun and being very
       noisy about it.

  3.   Every year I see more ATVs In general the ATV hunter is lazy and not willing to make the
       sacrifices to take larger bucks. They are also not kind to the environment

  4.   I think you should only be able to use an ATV if disabled or after you harvest to get it out if
       necessary

  5.   I was dissatisfied at the number of lazy hunters just riding around on ATVs. It is extremely
       disheartening have a road closed to full size vehicles and have to hike for an hour before light
       and then see an ATV parked on the ridge you wanted to hunt.

  6.   In our neighborhood, 80% of hunters are non residents on ATV's. They have no regard for our
       resources. They shoot every little fork horn buck they see. They speed through residential areas,
       they have no Idaho Off Road permit, they leave trash in our forest. Many are intoxicated too
       much of the time. The wolves are killing too many mature bucks. We find the results all too
       often. The USFS and Fish and Game do not enforce regulations. Non resident hunters are
       allowed to camp in the forest from Day 1 of deer season through the end of elk season. They
       cut down live trees for camp fire wood. The leave trash behind. In the opinion of many Idaho
       residents, Fish and Game is in the business of selling our game rather than managing it. It is a
       shame. Also, Idaho should require safety orange attire for all hunters. It is amazing more
       hunters aren't shot each season.

  7.   The few rotten apples like the men on ATVs in the middle of the road who wouldn't move and
       flipped me off. To many "Lazys" who road hunt on ATVs. Number of people abusing travel
       plans by going where they please. Also, letting children run amok as long as they are away from
       them.

  8.   There is no enforcement of the ATV restrictions. The forest service does not make it a priority so
       many people just blow it off. I found vehicle tracks where vehicles should never have been.
       When you hike in and 4 wheelers run everywhere in a couple mile band from the roads the
       game goes to very secluded areas. I think a longer season allows the surge of want to be
       hunters to get it out of their system and then lets the more serious hunters follow in after they
       are back at home.

  9.   The size of bucks will always be small if we kill the small ones. Very few bucks of any size,
       season too early and should not overlap with elk. Elk season is too long and too many hunts.
       The number of hunters is out of control. The people on ATVs don't show any respect to land or
       animals especially when mixed with alcoholic beverages.
4|Page



Concerns with low numbers of bucks of any size
(111/731—15.2%)

  1.   Can't hunt unit 9 during the month of November. Only saw a spike buck which got harvested by
       another hunter. Should have a restriction on shooting spike bucks and forked horns. This will give
       a chance for bucks to grow. Too many does for the area, think that it should be back opened for
       hunters who wish to harvest does.

  2.   Did not see any deer. I did see some sign but did not see any bucks, especially of any size.

  3.   I did not actually hunt mule deer in 2006, but I tagged along with a friend. I was very dissatisfied
       with the number of smaller antlered bucks starting to pre-rut/rut with the doe's, as well as the
       overall number of smaller antlered bucks seen. It was noticeable that genetics of smaller antlered
       bucks were starting to be noticed in this controlled hunt area that historically was known for its
       larger (based on your definition) bucks. This seems to be a problem in several areas I have
       historically hunted mule deer. Not enough smaller bucks are being harvested.

  4.   I did not hunt deer in 2006 but I still bought a tag to give the fish and game the money. being
       afield with other hunters gave me the chance to see what deer numbers we had and the quality
       of the bucks. We have nothing but two points and the number of people is absolutely ridiculous.
       We are destroying our herds when Everyone can buy an over the counter deer tag.

  5.   I didn't see one single buck during the days I hunted. I probably saw about 20-25 does but no
       bucks.

  6.   I saw few bucks of any size this year but lots of does. The b/d ratio is out of whack. We need to
       harvest does. Why not give us back the muzzleloader hunt and make it either sex like the archery
       hunt. I am a meat hunter and have discovered that antlers make poor soup.

  7.   I see 50 head of deer every year for the last 5 years I've hunted but I have never shot as I have
       never seen a buck. Let alone a big one. The ratio of bucks to does is atrocious. Must be 1 to 51.

  8.   I think it is obvious why I was very dissatisfied with a couple of my answers. I didn't see many
       bucks. Big or small. Something needs to be done.

  9.   I was very dissatisfied with the fact that in the units I hunt in are antlered deer only and the fact is
       that I have seen less bucks now since they have started antler deer, then when I was able to hunt
       either sex when I first started to hunt.

  10. In 2005 the IDFG lengthened the season well into the rut. We finally were starting to have a good
      number of mature bucks in the area again but because of the late ending an enormous number
      of bucks were easily taken. By the way according to the IDFG in our area the reason for the large
      harvest was “the moons aligned".

  11. Numbers of buck to doe's is terrible. Haven't seen a good mature buck in years. Very few four
      point bucks, smaller bucks being killed before maturity. Saw many cases in breeding grounds
      where small bucks were breeding does, No mature bucks in the area. Hunting season is too hot.
      It's frustrating to hike for 3 miles and have an ATV. ride by you.

  12. There are hardly any bucks. 90% of deer I’ve seen have been does. Does need to be thinned out.

  13. We have seen very few nice bucks. In 1999, 2000, 2001 you would see 1-5 20" 4 points a day with
                                                                                                Page |5



      2 or 3 25"+ 4 points in a season. Too many hunters are killing the small bucks off and they are
      not getting old and wise. I would very much like to see a 4 point restriction. Even out of state
      hunters are shooting 1 and 2 pointers. After a week into the season even small bucks are not as
      prolific as before. The ATVs still drive off road to hunt even when closed. I would like to see ATVs
      used for game retrieval, handicapped hunters, and Private land only.

  14. It’s probably harder to kill a big mule deer buck than a 6-pt elk. The choice doesn't have to be
      less elk for more deer or any of the other options discussed in this survey. This survey and the
      Fish & /Game refuse to evaluate options to increase heard sizes. Most hunters I know would pay
      more for a big buck tag if that money went into increasing habitat and herd sizes in that unit. The
      state needs to change its mindset about growing game. They don't have a problem with growing
      and stocking fish but they can't buy land for increasing winter range that would increase heard
      sizes and produce bigger bucks

  15. The size of the bucks were too small. I’m not out to shoot a trophy but I’d like to see some size.
      the amount of bucks is out outrageous! There’s 25 does to one buck at best!

  16. There were no sightings of any four point bucks in 7 full days of hunting by 2 hunters in my
      hunting party.


Concerns with low deer numbers
(93/731—12.7%)

      1.   I saw only five or six does all in one canyon. The only buck I saw was when I was hunting
           sharp-tailed grouse, so didn't get to shoot. There are far too few deer in Units 56 and 73A. I
           believe if numerous winter food plots were planted in the irregular corners of CRP fields in
           Units 56 and 73A away from State Highway 37 so deer do not get hit would help get them
           though the winter. Shrubs such as winterfat, forage kochia, serviceberry, woods rose, antelope
           bitterbrush, etc., and forbs such as arrowleaf balsamroot, alfalfa, flax, etc. could be planted.

      2.   It seems as though the population of mule deer, both bucks and does has decreased over the
           past few years. Where I’ve been used to seeing several deer during the days that I hunt, now
           I'm lucky if over the period of the season that I get to see maybe four or five in the time I
           have to hunt

      3.   I usually try to hunt for a 4 point buck, and had two daughters hunting with me. One wanted
           a doe first year hunter and one wanted a two point. I spent all of my time (2 days) trying to
           find them deer. We killed one doe and saw one spike. I never got to do the much more
           difficult hunt I do for bigger bucks. (We saw 4 times as many hunters in our area)

      4.   After 25 years of hunting Idaho. I don’t think our deer herds have been managed well part of
           it is the legislator. Our deer numbers should be much higher; I wished I had more space to
           write. Also we have a lot more people and motorized access needs to be shut down.

      5.   Areas I hunted usually don't have a large number of deer but I usually see a couple of good
           mature bucks. Winter was real hard on the deer herds in zones 35 and northern part of 39
           this year. I saw more wolves (4)than bucks this year. Usually I see 5-20 bucks inside rifle range
           (250 yards) each year.

      6.   I am an avid deer hunter and Mule deer is my favorite game. So, I have hunted Mule deer
           every year for 30 years in Utah and Idaho. I am very dissatisfied with the number of deer. They
6|Page



         are few. There are many reasons and theories for that. That is what I am dissatisfied about.

    7.   I hunted in a draw only season for mule deer with a muzzleloader. In 11 days of hunting my
         dad and I saw 3 bucks and brought two of them home with us. The numbers of deer that we
         saw compared to previous years was way down. I am sure that this was an impact of forest
         fires and weather, but I wonder how the predators are impacting the mule deer. Also the loss
         of habitat due to building and development. The numbers or deer, antlered and antlerless
         was very disappointing.

    8.   I never saw a deer in the field in unit 74. I saw deer on the edge of the city limits east of Lava
         where they are illegal to hunt. I hunted unit 76 and only saw one deer. I currently have more
         deer eating the leaves and apples off my trees in my yard, in the city limits than I have seen in
         the field in the last few years. I see more deer droppings in my yard than I have seen in the
         field this last season. Deer hunting in Idaho has become pathetic and I see more deer killed
         along the road I live on than in the back of vehicles for the last few years. The deer are
         encroaching the city limits and are taken by vehicles rather than hunters. I even saw deer in
         the west city limits of Soda Springs this year on the north side of the road during hunting
         season just grazing in the grass between the cedar trees there. I have traveled the road
         between McCammon, Lava and Montpelier frequently in the last few years and have seen
         numerous deer and elk lying dead along the road especially near McCammon, fish creek
         summit, and between Soda Springs and Montpelier. It is difficult to believe that changing the
         number of permits taken will benefit the head size when I count so many dead animals along
         these roadways. Speed limits should be considered along these roadways especially when the
         animals are migrating, typically at night and I suspect many are taken by truck drivers. I get a
         knot in my stomach when I see so many dead animals along the road and hear of no changes
         being made to alter this situation, and then I return home from hunting as often as I do hunt
         without success. In 1989 there was an extra deer tag for does only in unit 74 and prior to then
         I had many enjoyable hunts in this unit. The influx of hunters up Baldy Mountain rd. near fish
         creek was so intense, that it was unpleasant and the property owner promptly marked the
         area with orange markers to prevent hunters from continuing the practice. I had hunted in
         this area for some twenty years prior and suddenly this influx of hunters caused this area to
         be closed and the game population has not returned since. I remember seeing the
         newspapers with the pictures of the dead and dying deer in 1993-94. The deer were dying
         along the roadside where the photographers took their picture and the Idaho Fish and Game
         refused to feed them. The Deer hunting in South Eastern Idaho has not recovered to date. I
         think that the Idaho Fish and Game Office has performed poorly in its decision making and
         that the Mule deer are suffering from these decisions made these long years ago. I support
         the program, but I suggest that it get its act together in planning for future heads which
         includes feeding programs when necessary. Also, what can be done for the herds between
         Soda and Montpelier? I could go on for ever. I do however appreciate the fish and game for
         what it does to prevent poaching. I don't believe we would have near the game populations
         in Idaho without it. It has just been a double edged sword.

    9.   I never saw even ONE deer. A man has to see a deer to have a good quality experience. I did
         see countless Wolf Tracks and also a number of wolves in unit # 44&48

    10. I went hunting quite a few times and I hardly ever see any mule deer. I see maybe one a year.

    11. In my opinion the deer herds in Idaho are very poor if you hunt in Colorado or Wyoming you
        will see 30-50 deer a day

    12. Not very many deer and time of year gives you rutty meat hunters who use ATVs too harvest
                                                                                              Page |7



          deer, tend to cheat on fair chase rules and road restrictions!

     13. Populations are so much lower than past years that youngsters can't experience the full
         meaning of hunting as I did growing up

     14. The # and quality of mule deer throughout this state has steadily decreased annually in our
         controlled units and general season units. Unit 45 has gone from great to poor in less than 10
         years due largely to over harvest of does and bucks. The 2 pt restriction in the Owyhee areas
         has been in place way beyond the plans initial intent which has destroyed some of the west’s
         finest deer hunting potential. The length of some of our hunts is too long when archery starts
         late August and then rifle season and then late archery season ends in Dec. Wow tats a lot of
         pressure on our animals.

     15. The deer numbers are very poor. Youth hunters are killing and wounding all the does. Fish
         and Game are doing a poor job at managing the deer!!

     16. The number of mule deer bucks is really down in S. E. Idaho and the F&G needs to stop
         worrying about the money and start managing the resources by limiting the number of
         smaller bucks that are harvested each year.

     17. The numbers and quality of bucks have steadily declined in the past 5-10 years. It's time to
         worry more about your game and less about predators. Hopefully you won't add more
         antlerless hunts.

     18. Seasons are too long---if you are serious about killing a deer you can do it with a shorter
         season. any more you hardly see any deer period, bucks or does. fish and game only manage
         the money, not the quality of the herd--shorten the seasons--if you shoot all the does who's
         going to reproduce!

     19. The size & number of bucks sucked. Access to most of the places I hunted years ago on
         public lands have been blocked off by land owners. Rather it be for not allowing access, or
         allowing access to those who want to pay a daily admission. Or for out of staters willing to
         pay the land owner to keep the locals out so they can have the area to themselves. The
         number of deer was not dissatisfying in the Ares I hunted. Quite the opposite. We saw
         hundreds of does to the few small bucks we all saw. ATV use by hunters sucked as well in the
         units I hunted. I don't have a problem with the folks who use them to get to a place along a
         road to start a foot hunt. It's the ones with the big 4X4 ATV's that think they need to travel
         every ridge and patch of brush that piss me off.


Concerns with the size of deer
(49/731—6.7%)

     1.   Did not see any deer. I did see some sign but did not see any bucks, especially of any size.

     2.   In five days of hunting we seen only 6 bucks. One being wider than its ears.

     3.   Numbers of buck to doe's is terrible. Haven't seen a good mature buck in years. Very few four
          point bucks, smaller bucks being killed before maturity. Saw many cases in breeding grounds
          where small bucks were breeding does, no mature bucks in the area. Hunting season is too
          hot. It's frustrating to hike for 3 miles and have an ATV ride by you.
8|Page



     4.   The few buck were all small bodied and small racked

     5.   We have seen very few nice bucks. In 1999, 2000, 2001 you would see 1-5 20" 4 points a day
          with 2 or 3 25"+ 4 points in a season. Too many hunters are killing the small bucks off and
          they are not getting old and wise. I would very much like to see a 4 point restriction. Even out
          of state hunters are shooting 1 and 2 pointers. After a week into the season even small bucks
          are not as prolific as before. The ATVs still drive off road to hunt even when closed. I would
          like to see ATVs used for game retrieval, handicapped hunters, and Private land only.

     6.   The numbers of deer and quality of bucks have been getting smaller each year. Encountering
          more hunters due to ATV's can make a good hunting area turn bad.

     7.   All bucks that I saw and were harvested were 2 points.

     8.   Bucks were small and saw very few.

     9.   I felt the number of nice size deer was way down and the number of deer seen in both units
          69 and 20A was very few.

     10. I hunted 6 days of the season and only saw 2 small 4 point bucks. Most of the bucks I saw
         were 2 points.

     11. I hunted Unit 45 which is well known for mature bucks -- after hunting 10 days I saw zero
         bucks in the 30 inch category. Most bucks were 24 inch or less. I found it to be very
         frustrating that I would hike for 2 hours plus only to come over a ridge where hunters were
         riding around on ATV's. In most cases hunters on ATV's would arrive late in the morning and
         overtake me on the trails in a matter of minutes and ruin the hunting due to noise.

     12. The largest buck that I saw during the hunting season was a 2x3 about 15 minutes wide.

     13. The size of the bucks were not very good. there were not many older bucks there were a lot
         of two or three year old bucks ok size but not much mass. don't have enough information on
         habitat or hunting pressure to guess as to what is the largest factor determining age and size

     14. The size of the bucks were too small. I’m not out to shoot a trophy but I’d like to see some
         size. The amount of bucks is out outrageous! there’s 25 does to one buck at best!


Concerns with wolves and other predators
(47/731—6.4%)

     1.   I am very dissatisfied with the does I saw with no fawns. We need better protection control
          for our deer herds from coyotes and wolves.

     2.   Idaho is the only state that does not manage it deer herds, Also.; the wolves situation is
          getting real bad. Have had at least 8 encounters in the last two weeks hunting coyotes.

     3.   There are no restrictions on the quality of deer being harvested. Predation is rampant. In an
          area of 500 acres, 41 deer kills and 13 elk kills were noted.

     4.   Fish and Game needs to get some balls and do 3 things. 1. Improve habitat (burn/log North
          Idaho, save some winter range in southern)2. Encourage predator reduction (similar to Lolo
                                                                                             Page |9



     experiment get HUNTERS to kill more bears, coyotes, maybe wolves soon.)3. Restrict ATV's
     (Worst thing to happen to my hunting. Increase fees on them to IDFG, only allow physically
     handicap/elderly to use, increase fines for violations

5.   Too many hunters and ATV. Too many wolfs. Too many out-of-staters

6.   As compared to previous years each year in succession I have seen less deer both bucks and
     does. Last three most notably. This may be in part or whole to wolves I don't know.
     Something over the last few years has very Definitely CHANGED. The amount of tags and
     licenses (nonresident) I am strongly considering other states.

7.   I never saw even ONE deer. A man has to see a deer to have a good quality experience. I did
     see countless Wolf Tracks and also a number of wolves in unit # 44&48.

8.   In the south Ross Fork drainage in unit 43 the elk are all gone and I didn't see any deer at all
     this year. I saw very little deer or elk sign. What I did see a lot of was wolf tracks and wolf sign
     as well as hearing them every time I turned around. This constitutes very poor management
     of the deer and elk populations in these areas (in my humble opinion).

9.   The mule deer numbers have been increasingly lower each year that I hunt, because of
     predators especially mountain lions. There are too many hunters in my unit and too much
     access for the motorized vehicles.

10. The number of deer I seen on opening day of General there must be something wrong- like
    maybe wolfs.

11. A lot fewer deer. All deer tracks were followed by wolf tracks. Wolfs have changed the pattern
    of the deer.

12. Because I saw more wolf's than deer all season and more grizzly bears.

13. D***** wolves are killing off the deer and elk, everytime you see tracks there are wolf tracks
    following.

14. I hunted deer and elk in unit 28. Ludwich Gulch and Easy Boulder Creek country were both
    pounded with wolves. I even fired a shot in '06.

15. I saw fewer animals this year, but did see more predators (wolf, coyote, bear).

16. I'm mostly dissatisfied having to compete with wolves.

17. In the two units I hunt in the most, the wolf population has dramatically increased the last
    five years. I actually saw more of them, briefly, then I saw deer.

18. Looks like the wolves have run the deer out of this area too. We don't have any elk left!!

19. Lots of wolf tracks!

20. Predator control is very poor. Wolves moved into my primary hunt area, causing deer to be
    very nomadic, and hard to target. I saw very few young bucks, and very few large bucks, most
    bucks were small 4pts that didn’t have great genetics. The elk numbers were good, but the
    wolves made the deer move mostly at night. I believe the winter kill is going to be a very high
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               percent, due to predator kill, and going into winter being chased, and less healthy. I saw more
               bears in my unit this year than previous 5 years combined. The cougar #'s are less probably
               due to wolves moving them out, but they are just migrating elsewhere. I am nervous that the
               predators are taking young bucks, and does aren't being bred. I saw herds of does in middle
               of rut that had no bucks, and these were herds of 20-30 animals know the delisting is on its
               way but I suggest we hasten.

        21. Since wolves moved in to our usual hunting area we are seeing little to no game that were
            there for many decades. It is obvious when you hunt an area for decades, see game daily,
            wolves move in and no game is seen for weeks at a time and wolves sitting on top of the
            peaks watching for more game. Then the game that you do see is smaller herds, and always
            on the run. The stress factor the wolves have added to the mule deer and elk has had to take
            a toll on the populations as well as the need for wolves to kill.

        22. The amount of wolves and out of state hunters in units 21a, 21, 28 have depleted our deer
            and elk herds drastically.

        23. The largest impact on deer herds are cougars and coyotes and (wolves are soon to be.) A
            bounty offered by the state on coyotes would get more results and less cost than hiring
            choppers and planes. $20 per tail would put an end to this problem. More male cat permits
            per hunter would end that problem. I have seen the death of many deer from these problems.
            Your research may not show this but try and do it when the winter is long and cold and the
            snow is deep. Then you will see that coyotes kill deer.

        24. The wolves harassed us and our horses and the game for 5 nights in unit 20.

        25. Wolf, and more wolves and even more wolf.

        26. Wolves!!! Need I say more?

        27. Wolves, they had the area we hunted pretty much cleaned out. They howled nightly their
            tracks were in every drainage. You could glass the ridges and drainages and see ravens
            working kill sites up and down the river. I also found a couple of cow elk dead in one
            drainage from wolf. I listened to the howling for three nights come out of that drainage,
            when I returned to look the only thing left were hooves some leg bones rib and spine. Would
            have to assume the rest of the game in that area was run out by hunting pressure from pack.


Concerns about the number of hunters encountered or licensed
(42/731—5.7%)

        1.     Too many people to have a quality hunt, too many ATV's.

        2.     There was very limited access from the year before. I experienced a lot more hunters in the
               same area I would never see anyone. this I’m sure was due to the many roads and trails that
               were closed. it funnels everyone into the more accessible areas they would not normally hunt
               if they were able to use their ATV's.

        3.     The area we hunt in has a lot of hunters with ATVs but there are a lot of forest service
               closures for motorized vehicles.

        4.     There were also large numbers of other hunters at all public access points.
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     5.   By sun-up on opening morning, the hills were crawling with people! Yes, it was an open unit,
          but there were too many people pushing the deer around to be successful. I went home by
          10:00 am.

     6.   Every wide spot in the road had 4 or 5 cars parked. And all of my old hunting spots were full
          of people. People on foot (myself on foot also) racing to get in front of me.

     7.   Idaho is desperate for mature bucks we must undertake a management program that allows
          our younger bucks to reach maturity like Nevada or Utah. And we must restrict the number of
          hunters in some open areas maybe through a draw system like Nevada or Utah.

     8.   Idaho seems to me to be trying to directly link the amount of ATV's to the lack of mule deer.
          You can’t have a million hunters out there regardless of how they hunt and still expect to
          have quality deer. The day and age of over the counter uncontrolled tags is long gone. Idaho
          needs to manage their herds according too produce the quality of animals that they ONCE
          had. Idaho needs to severely cut the amount of resident deer tags significantly. The resident’s
          numbers also seem maybe a few hundred to many but the residents are way out of control.
          Quite trying to please everyone by giving the opportunity to hunt with no regard to the
          quality of the hunt. I don’t want to hunt every year like I have been for the whole deer and elk
          season only to see a couple of small bucks. FIX IT!!

     9.   Too many hunters congregating in open access areas, due to land closures and limited
          access.

     10. With elk season overlapping deer season the last week of deer season is like a combat zone.

     11. You guys keep going over the same shit over and over again. Yes, I am very dissatisfied with
         how many people there are not how many people on foot but how many ass-holes fly up and
         down the damn roads.


Concerns with the amount and type of access to public and private lands
(39/731—5.3%)

     1.   The majority of bucks I saw were all on private land.

     2.   Cattlemen in unit 42 blocked access to BLM land by not allowing us short access through
          their private property. Even though they were allowed to run their cattle on the BLM land.
          Cattleman also locked BLM gates and "pretended" that it was private property.

     3.   Land that is public land should not have access limits by private land or the desire to have
          roadless areas where roads already exist. Most hunting areas in Idaho are too big to hunt on
          foot, you need to access them with a motor vehicle.

     4.   More and more land being shut off to the general public by private landholders because of:
          outfitters, hunting leases. and ---LAP permits that encourage pay to hunt/access and
          therefore shut out the public who had historically accessed this land in the past. Those
          landowners that put in for yet do not draw LAP permits every year also deny access in
          anticipation of drawing one of these permits in the future. They are a no win for the general
          sportsman. The original intent of LAP was to reward a landowner with a tag for himself or his
          family member for allowing access and being a good steward of the land. That intent has
          been lost and access to the general public with it. Through changes in the LAP, and a loss of
12 | P a g e



               its original intent the IDFG has in fact closed off access to the public!

        5.     Private landowners have a lot of public (U.S. Forest Service and/or BLM) land locked up
               behind their ranches and private land. Ranchers and private land owners control access along
               the easiest, or only, access routes into a lot of public land areas.

        6.     Too many landowners lock up private property for their own private hunting opportunities
               beyond private property. In other words access to public land is getting more and more
               difficult.

        7.     Your archery season is way too long. Then you open controlled hunts for 12 days, what a
               change after being scattered and then you say we have too many. You close roads, even for
               cars and trucks for no apparent reason.

        8.     Too many kinds of seasons overlap, this causes big animals to go to areas not accessible on
               foot.

        9.     ATV restrictions make it so I and most hunters can't hunt without a horse.

        10. I think that too many roads are being closed to ATV's which restricts access to some areas
            and makes hunters congregate in areas that do have better motorized vehicle access.


Concerns that the season is too short or long for the hunters or deer
(34/731—4.6%)

        1.     There is no enforcement of the ATV restrictions. The forest service does not make it a priority
               so many people just blow it off. I found vehicle tracks where vehicles should never have been.
               When you hike in and 4 wheelers run everywhere in a couple mile band from the roads the
               game goes to very secluded areas. I think a longer season allows the surge of want to be
               hunters to get it out of their system and then lets the more serious hunters follow in after
               they are back at home.

        2.     Very low buck count due to heavy hunting by nonresident hunters, season not long enough
               and may bi it could be split into two general seasons hunts (2 weeks in Oct. 2 weeks in Nov).

        3.     Five days were chopped off of the general season, thereby setting a precedent that some
               years there will be only one weekend per season.

        4.     I feel a longer season would spread the amount of hunters in the field at the same time.

        5.     I think it should run into the rut in November.

        6.     Length of the season does not lend the hunter enough opportunity to hunt. Our youth have
               school during the work week and the short seasons may only allow less than 2 days hunting.
               It's no wonder less youth are becoming traditional hunters.

        7.     The length of the season is too short and in a bad time of the year.

        8.     The season is short and most of the bucks have moved out of area 36 by the time the season
               starts.
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     9.   The season lasted a week longer in the Salmon District in 2005. In 2006 I had less time to
          hunt deer because of the shorter season. Being from out of state I try to hunt deer and elk
          together. In 2006 this did not work well.

     10. When I was younger the seasons seemed to start in mid October and go clear into December
         every year the season gets shorter and shorter that's crap!

     11. Your archery season is way too long. Then you open controlled hunts for 12 days, what a
         change after being scattered and then you say we have too many. You close roads, even for
         cars and trucks for no apparent reason.

     12. I think our deer are getting over hunted during the rut. Rifle hunts are pretty efficient when
         those late bucks come down in the sage foothills. I’m mostly dissatisfied having to compete
         with wolves.


Concerns with slob hunters
(34/731—4.6%)

     1.   Trail bikes have absolutely ruined long hillside sections of old original trials by spinning their
          wheels in climbing and cutting into wet on powder dry ground. They have created ditches
          that carry off the soil in the runoff of snow and rain, with the narrow bottom and sloping
          sides only bikes can use these.

     2.   I dislike ATVs for any reason other than to retrieve game I can't stand people chasing deer
          and elk down with them.

     3.   We need to discourage the trophy hunters with the big pocket books that leave the meat.
          And encourage the average joe looking for meat for his family. I hate that hunting has
          evolved into a way for gov. to milk more money out; it leaves the common guys out. We
          should give free tags to low income people. If they are really too lazy to work, the tags won't
          be filled!!!

     4.   I saw a large number of people shooting directly from vehicles and ATV's, many people I
          spoke to said they would shoot anything legal from the road out of their vehicles, people
          made new trails through what used to be prime hunting areas, people went in and left all of
          their garbage behind, people were party hunting and shooting multiple round at herds of
          deer and elk, possibly wounding many animals, and people driving motorcycles right through
          where I am hunting and destroying any chances of me harvesting anything.

     5.   I was dissatisfied with all the hunters ganged up on one unit. ATV riders do not abide by rules
          and regulations. They are more off roads or trails than they are on one. Some riders have no
          respect for others.

     6.   I was dissatisfied with the number of ATVs and pickups abusing the rules. Then I found a
          remote area they could not reach, that's when I began having fun.

     7.   I witnessed many hunters (?) ripping up the country side with ATVs. I don't know what that is
          but it is not hunting.

     8.   It’s been to many times to walk for miles to an ATV restricted area and be walking in ATV
          tracts. Just to find several gut piles, trash, poop, cig. butts, beer cans, oil puddles, smoldering
14 | P a g e



               campfires, and no deer!

        9.     Lots of ATVs, too many hunters- to many drunk hunters with rifles I went out one day in 2006
               all the ATVs and drunks I went home and didn't go back out.

        10. The few rotten apples like the men on ATVs in the middle of the road who wouldn't move
            and flipped me off. Too many "Lazys" who road hunt on ATVs. Number of people abusing
            travel plans by going where they please. Also, letting children run amok as long as they are
            away from them.

        11. The lack of quality hunters that ATVs bring to the field.

        12. We have private property in two of the units. One of the units we have trouble with ATV/bikes
            tearing up the land and our neighbors all on closed roads that are not to have them goings
            to the camp sites and tearing up picnic areas like Whiskey Rock.

        13. Short season combined with late scheduled season to produce limited access due to weather
            (snow & icy conditions). Disappointing to have effort ruined by unsportsmanlike behavior of
            ATV users.

        14. ATV's are not the problem the manner in which the majority of the people who use them is
            the problem. People who use ATV's to travel to and from hunting locations, and use ATV's to
            recover game I think is OK. The people who travel nonstop, those who use their ATV's to
            hinder others, People have become lazy, more hunters are becoming lazy, & less interested in
            hunting on their own. ATV's are allowing people to let others do the work and reap no
            rewards, because by the time someone has done the work, someone else has out
            maneuvered and successfully completed what I call pulling a fast one! This is one of the main
            reasons that I Archery hunt. I have a better chance meeting a sportsman who respects others,
            than meeting a "quote unquote" average hunter who doesn’t respect others! It's not the
            number of people in the field that bothers me, it's the type of hunter.

        15. Too many careless "youth hunters" shooting at anything that moves.

        16. We saw a number of people willing to shoot little spikes, and that were willing to shoot long
            distances and weren’t worried about whether they injured a buck or not and whether or not
            they retrieved the animal.

        17. We were hunting unit 46 and we had walked about 5 miles from the road to get to the edge
            of a draw when a suburban came bouncing across the desert right in front of us and shot a
            deer were we had spent so much time to get to. I only use my ATV to retrieve downed game.
            I just wish others would have the same respect.

        18. Lot of my answers are based on the Lack of Mature bucks, and the overall numbers of
            hunters killing these immature bucks. It is sickening to see these Yearlings slaughtered year
            after year and for what. Most of these people I see killing these bucks are not doing it for the
            meat, they leave a whole ungutted deer in the back of their pickup for a day or 2, Overall I am
            disgusted with the lack of Quality of the Hunters who are disrespecting the animals in which
            they hunt. We have got to do something!!!
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Concerns with the structure of the season
(32/731—4.4%)

     1.   Rifle elk season opened 10/1/06; and was controlled hunt; prior to this the archery season
          opened had been in full swing and because of the popularity of the area there were many
          bow hunters running all over the place on ATV's in both closed and opened areas. archery
          season was an over the counter tag. buck season didn't open until 10/10/06. I feel if rifle
          season is controlled, the archery season should also be controlled with sufficient days
          between seasons to allow bow hunters to go home and rifle hunters to arrive/scout w/o
          competing with the bow hunters.

     2.   Too many kinds of seasons overlap, this causes big animals to go to areas not accessible on
          foot.

     3.   If the season opened later in the year hunting would be more of a challenge, and hunters
          would have to get out and hike because of the snow fall on normal years. Plus the bucks
          would be harder to find because they would not be with the does.

     4.   I feel deer season should open on the first Saturday of Oct. to make it fair to all people who
          work or go to school.

     5.   In southern Idaho, school is out for 3 days before the first weekend of Oct. When opening
          day was on the 5th, young hunters could go out with the family and not miss school, making
          it a true family experience and getting young hunters interested in the sport. When opening
          day was changed to the 10th, that option was removed and choices had to be made in
          getting young hunters into the field.

     6.   Seasons are too long---if you are serious about killing a deer you can do it with a shorter
          season. Any more you hardly see any deer period, bucks or does. fish and game only manage
          the money, not the quality of the herd--shorten the seasons--if you shoot all the does who's
          going to reproduce!

     7.   The hunt starts in the middle of the week and when the weekend gets here I have to go
          higher up.

     8.   The length of the season needs to stay consistent. Opening day should have never been
          changed. Opening day should be the first Tuesday of the month and stay the same year after
          year, just like Thanksgiving day!!

     9.   The season was set later in the fall so the weather is too bad for full size vehicles to get into
          the high country. We need ATV's to get further back in, during bad weather and to retrieve
          game. Most of the deer lower are in private property, and the middle area there is very few
          deer.

     10. The size of bucks will always be small if we kill the small ones. Very few bucks of any size,
         season too early and should not overlap with elk. Elk season is too long and too many hunts.
         The number of hunters is out of control. The people on ATVs don't show any respect to land
         or animals especially when mixed with alcoholic beverages.
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Concerns with the nature and number of hunting regulations
(32/731—4.4%)

        1.     I'd rather see more archery seasons that doesn’t correspond to archery elk. I'd like to see
               more restrictions on ATVs use and enforcement of the existing laws.

        2.     We need to discourage the trophy hunters with the big pocket books that leave the meat.
               And encourage the average joe looking for meat for his family. I hate that hunting has
               evolved into a way for gov. to milk more money out; it leaves the common guys out. We
               should give free tags to low income people. If they are really too lazy to work, the tags won't
               be filled!!!

        3.     Can't hunt unit 9 during the month of November. Only saw a spike buck which got harvested
               by another hunter. Should have a restriction on shooting spike bucks and forked horns. This
               will give a chance for bucks to grow. Too many does for the area, think that it should be back
               opened for hunters who wish to harvest does.

        4.     Darn few bucks, would suggest more doe harvest. suggest doe harvest for junior and senior
               hunter- under 18 or over 65.

        5.     In the last 5 years the quantity and quality of deer in unit 43 has drastically reduced. I believe
               that the doe season should be discontinued for at least 5 years to increase the population of
               the herd again.

        6.     Fish and Game needs to get some balls and do 3 things. 1. Improve habitat (burn/log North
               Idaho, save some winter range in southern) 2. Encourage predator reduction (similar to Lolo
               experiment get HUNTERS to kill more bears, coyotes, maybe wolves soon.) 3. Restrict ATV's
               (Worst thing to happen to my hunting. Increase fees on them to IDFG, only allow physically
               handicap/elderly to use, increase fines for violations.

        7.     The # and quality of mule deer throughout this state has steadily decreased annually in our
               controlled units and general season units. Unit 45 has gone from great to poor in less than 10
               years due largely to over harvest of does and bucks. The 2 pt restriction in the Owyhee areas
               has been in place way beyond the plans initial intent which has destroyed some of the west’s
               finest deer hunting potential. The length of some of our hunts is too long when archery starts
               late August and then rifle season and then late archery season ends in Dec. Wow that’s alot
               of pressure on our animals.

        8.     Not in the rut. Too many armed hikers. Not my type of hunting.

        9.     Unit 72 hunt I participate in is a controlled archery hunt, so due to snow conditions, very few
               deer migrated to the unit during the season. That is a chance I am willing to take. A few
               years ago, the unit 72 controlled archery season opening date was changed from Nov. 25 to
               Dec. 1 to allow for a longer muzzleloader cow elk hunt in an attempt to reduce elk numbers
               in the unit. I do not believe the number of elk taken during those few days justifies
               shortening a controlled archery hunt. Please consider moving this opening date and season
               length back to its traditional time and length.

        10. I feel that the elk and deer seasons should be combined again, with either sex available.
            Access to areas is being sold out to private interests.

        11. Take the bow hunters out of hunt season.
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     12. The season needs to be shifted to later dates, with a no 2 point rule. Not a 4 point only rule,
         just a no 2 point rule. You should allow hunters to hunt 3 points or bigger.

     13. Too many kinds of seasons overlap, this causes big animals to go to areas not accessible on
         foot.

     14. You favor controlled hunts and choose your weapon. I will go out of state if this happens.

     15. The seasons should be pushed back 2 week before opening. If off road vehicles are restricted
         then restrict the use of snow vehicles. Snow machines go right past road restriction signs. If
         the F&G believes people don't run game down with snow machines then they believe in the
         Easter bunny!


Concerns with non-resident hunters
(22/731--3.0%)

     1.   In our neighborhood, 80% of hunters are non residents on ATV's. They have no regard for our
          resources. They shoot every little fork horn buck they see. They speed through residential
          areas, they have no Idaho Off Road permit, they leave trash in our forest. Many are
          intoxicated too much of the time. The wolves are killing too many mature bucks. We find the
          results all too often. The USFS and Fish and Game do not enforce regulations. Nonresident
          hunters are allowed to camp in the forest from Day 1 of deer season through the end of elk
          season. They cut down live trees for camp fire wood. The leave trash behind. In the opinion of
          many Idaho residents, Fish and Game is in the business of selling our game rather than
          managing it. It is a shame. Also, Idaho should require safety orange attire for all hunters. It is
          amazing more hunters aren't shot each season.

     2.   Too many out-of-state hunters or ATVs chasing small bucks, think they can push their way
          around.

     3.   There are way too many people that hunt from outside the area and do not follow the local
          rules established many years before them. I hate seeing people from different counties
          hunting our land when they have land of their own. They don't want us to hunt in their
          county when we want to hunt birds but they come here and want to kill our elk and deer.
          They should have to pay taxes in the county for pay a big price to hunt in a different county.

     4.   90% of hunters I saw were out of state hunters.

     5.   Encountered too many out of state hunters. In particular California hunters. The fee for
          hunting in Idaho should be much higher for them.

     6.   The last two years, I have had a late archery hunt(unlimited controlled). I have seen more out
          of state hunters than I would like to see, I feel that it is very inexpensive for out of staters to
          hunt.

     7.   Too many out of state hunters come here with more money and time to hunt for the big
          bucks only. I think this is one of the most important reasons our big bucks are decreasing.

     8.   The size & number of bucks sucked. Access to most of the places I hunted years ago on
          public lands have been blocked off by land owners. Rather it be for not allowing access, or
          allowing access to those who want to pay a daily admission. Or for out of staters willing to
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               pay the land owner to keep the locals out so they can have the area to themselves. The
               number of deer was not dissatisfying in the areas I hunted. Quite the opposite. We saw
               hundreds of does to the few small bucks we all saw. ATV use by hunters sucked as well in the
               units I hunted. I don't have a problem with the folks who use them to get to a place along a
               road to start a foot hunt. It's the ones with the big 4X4 ATV's that think they need to travel
               every ridge and patch of brush that piss me off.

        9.     (Also) do a big cut in out of state licenses. I don't care where you go to hunt in Id, there will
               be a dozen or more out of state hunters from Wash, or Oregon. This is not fair to the local
               hunters, that help care and look out for their wild game 365 days a year, to be overrun with
               hunters from bordering states. (It's not right). I know there is the big argument that they
               bring a lot of money into the economy, but the only thing they spend money on is the
               license. The rest they bring with them in their campers and pickups. We spend our money
               here every day.


Concerns with Laws not being enforced or followed
(15/731—2.0%)

        1.     ATV's are not following the rules in the areas we have hunted he last few years. This is making
               it extremely difficult for those of us who cannot afford nor have the desire to hunt from
               ATV's. It is my opinion that the fines for the offenses for the vehicles being where they are not
               supposed to be are not severe enough. Since the wardens cannot cover the large amount of
               territory they are assigned many people feel the current fine is worth the risk.

        2.     There are too many ATVs. I get very disappointed when I see someone hunting from one in
               an ATV restricted area. The department as softened the rule too much and made it easy to
               violate.

        3.     There is no enforcement of the ATV restrictions. The forest service does not make it a priority
               so many people just blow it off. I found vehicle tracks where vehicles should never have been.
               When you hike in and 4 wheelers run everywhere in a couple mile band from the roads the
               game goes to very secluded areas. I think a longer season allows the surge of want to be
               hunters to get it out of their system and then lets the more serious hunters follow in after
               they are back at home.

        4.     I saw five does and no bucks in three days. The quality of the hunting experience was great,
               number of deer was not. Please ban ATVs/bikes during hunting season, every camp has one
               or more and are used even in restricted areas. More patrols are needed and tickets written.

        5.     Even though there are restrictions, they are abused by many hunters.

        6.     Every closed and gated FS road I walked had ATV Trail bike tracks and I've seen their fair #s of
               riders who compromised the gates.

        7.     The use of motorized travel in restricted areas (if you make a law, then enforce it) all this law
               does is handicap the honest hunters.
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Concerns with the effects of seasonal temperature on hunters and deer
(14/731—1.9%)

     1.   Archery season is to hot the first half of September.

     2.   The temperature in early October is too hot, would settle for shorter season if it was later and
          closer to the rut and 4 point or better.

     3.   You can hardly hunt deer in 90 degree temperatures.

     4.   Hunting season is too hot.

     5.   The weather seems to be warmer every year there-for the deer usually don’t migrate out till
          the last minute.

     6.   Like I said before the season is never long enough the private roads are a joke and rarely
          clearly marked and since the season is so short and when it is it doesn't get cold enough for
          the deer to come down.

     7.   I would like to see the deer hunt later 1st of November and be shorter than the 1st of
          October when it is still 75 degrees and even if you kill a deer they have a chance to spoil due
          to the heat.


Concerns with the overpopulation of does or the beliefs that we should not
be hunting does
(14/731—1.9%)

     1.   I am very dissatisfied with the does I saw with no fawns. We need better protection control
          for our deer herds from coyotes and wolves.

     2.   The doe season's are killing off the deer, kill the factionery (factory?) and there is no
          production. Stop doe seasons in the areas with low deer numbers.

     3.   All I saw was does; only one spike buck. The Game and Fish need to fix the problem of over
          populated does.

     4.   Can't hunt unit 9 during the month of November. Only saw a spike buck which got harvested
          by another hunter. Should have a restriction on shooting spike bucks and forked horns. This
          will give a chance for bucks to grow. Too many does for the area, think that it should be back
          opened for hunters who wish to harvest does.

     5.   There are hardly any bucks. 90% of deer I’ve seen have been does. Does need to be thinned
          out.

     6.   The total number of mule deer in units 24, 34, and 39 is appalling. I don't believe that having
          an antlerless hunt in any of these areas is appropriate, except for a youth hunt. The managers
          are wrong to allow the baby factories to be killed. There aren't enough deer.
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Concerned with tag sales at the expense of population quality
(10/731—1.4%)

        1.     My family and friends archery hunt unit 54 every year. And every year we see the deer
               population drop. Fish and Game blame it on bad winters. Idaho hasn't seen one of those in a
               long time. Fish and Game give out 450 permits just on that unit. I think that they are more
               concerned about bringing in revenue than worrying about game populations.

        2.     I feel that if we had someone manage the mule deer herds for the deer instead of how many
               tags are sold we would be better off.


Concerns with habitat quality
(2/731—0.3%)

        1.     Most of the areas have signs posted to prevent people from accessing closed areas, yet I have
               seen very visible and blatant disregard. Some areas have had so many four wheelers by pass
               the gate that it was possible to bring a full size pickup around the gate. I think that not only
               making stricter rules to keep areas clear but also enforce and make the penalties more severe,
               instead of fines start taking their 4-wheelers and see what results you get. I also believe that if
               a person can’t pack out his animal without a vehicle, he or she should not be hunting back
               there. If you want to camp in an area that is closed to vehicles, you better hit the treadmill
               and weights. Make the rules stricter and most of all enforce them, start taking vehicles and
               firearms and then maybe the deer will have less harassment from vehicle traffic and will be
               healthier, stronger, and better equipped to survive winter. If funding becomes an issue,
               continue with programs like the nonresident/resident tags to raise revenue or give more
               opportunities to those that will actually hunt as hunting was intended. Quit making it easier
               to harvest deer and the numbers of deer will actually increase, If you start shooting all the
               two point or less, you are essentially getting rid of your future deer herds, the Owyhee units
               are a good example of that. That is a area I would support a complete cessation of buck
               hunting. Management is made up of many facets: habitat management and hunting surplus
               are only two. The mule deer need both to survive, the whitetail deer is more adaptable to its
               environment and handle loss of habitat better than the mule deer. Quit building houses in
               prime mule deer habitat. Hwy 21 north of Hwy 84, by Micron in Boise is a prime example of
               the loss of wintering ground. So keep people from road hunting from their vehicles and close
               all access to motorized vehicles regardless of the reason, if you can't pack your animal out by
               human strength or with a pack animal, stay out of the deer woods. Four wheelers are noisy,
               destructive of the land, and a sorry excuse to let people go hunting. As I age, my body does
               not let me do the things I did when I was younger. I no longer play tackle football in the park,
               or other things that are hard on my body, I am getting old and when I can't hunt the way I
               hunt now, I will give it up. We are mortal and are limited, help all game animals by making
               access more restrictive. Thanks for listening.

        2.     You need to open the cap land in Idaho as in other states. As the fed subsidize the farms and
               ranches not to grow anything. And most of it posted no hunting.
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Concerns with deer-vehicle fatalities
(2/731—0.3%)

     1.   I never saw a deer in the field in unit 74. I saw deer on the edge of the city limits east of Lava
          where they are illegal to hunt. I hunted unit 76 and only saw one deer. I currently have more
          deer eating the leaves and apples off my trees in my yard, in the city limits than I have seen in
          the field in the last few years. I see more deer droppings in my yard than I have seen in the
          field this last season. Deer hunting in Idaho has become pathetic and I see more deer killed
          along the road I live on than in the back of vehicles for the last few years. The deer are
          encroaching the city limits and are taken by vehicles rather than hunters. I even saw deer in
          the west city limits of Soda Springs this year on the north side of the road during hunting
          season just grazing in the grass between the cedar trees there. I have traveled the road
          between McCammon, Lava and Montpelier frequently in the last few years and have seen
          numerous deer and elk lying dead along the road especially near McCammon, fish creek
          summit, and between Soda Springs and Montpelier. It is difficult to believe that changing the
          number of permits taken will benefit the head size when I count so many dead animals along
          these roadways. Speed limits should be considered along these roadways especially when the
          animals are migrating, typically at night and I suspect many are taken by truck drivers. I get a
          knot in my stomach when I see so many dead animals along the road and hear of no changes
          being made to alter this situation, and then I return home from hunting as often as I do hunt
          without success. In 1989 there was an extra deer tag for does only in unit 74 and prior to then
          I had many enjoyable hunts in this unit. The influx of hunters up Baldy Mountain rd. near Fish
          Creek was so intense, that it was unpleasant and the property owner promptly marked the
          area with orange markers to prevent hunters from continuing the practice. I had hunted in
          this area for some twenty years prior and suddenly this influx of hunters caused this area to
          be closed and the game population has not returned since. I remember seeing the
          newspapers with the pictures of the dead and dying deer in 1993-94. The deer were dying
          along the roadside where the photographers took their picture and the Idaho Fish and Game
          refused to feed them. The Deer hunting in South Eastern Idaho has not recovered to date. I
          think that the Idaho Fish and Game Office has performed poorly in its decision making and
          that the Mule deer are suffering from these decisions made these long years ago. I support
          the program, but I suggest that it get its act together in planning for future heads which
          includes feeding programs when necessary. Also, what can be done for the herds between
          Soda and Montpelier? I could go on forever. I do however appreciate the fish and game for
          what it does to prevent poaching. I don't believe we would have near the game populations
          in Idaho without it. It has just been a double edged sword.

     2.   Unit 21 deer season 5 day hunt from Oct 23rd to 31st is unacceptable - Montana opens the
          deer season after ours (In Nov). Too many deer killed on the highways is another concern.


Concerns with road hunting
(2/731—0.3%)

     1.   ATVs and number of hunters, road hunters, etc. affect the large buck.

     2.   Way too many Local Road hunters filling all their families meat tags. I've seen first hand.
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Concerns specifically about trophy deer quality
(1/731--0.1%)

        1.     I feel trophy hunts are poor and getting poorer.


No accommodation for handicapped hunters
(1/731--0.1%)

        1.     Not a thing for handicapped hunters.


Trespassers
(1/731--0.1%)

        1.     We were on my brother in laws ranch and had walked an hour to get where we hunt to find 8
               hunters who had trespassed hunting the ridges we intended to hunt.


Concerns with disease
(1/731--0.1%)

        1.     The Mule deer harvested in unit 50, specifically behind Moore, Idaho were infested with Tape
               Worm.
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