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CONFLICT MANAGEMENT

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CONFLICT MANAGEMENT Powered By Docstoc
					   THE CONCEPT OF CONFLICT, BEING AN
OUTCOME OF BEHAVIOURS ,IS AN INTEGRAL
PART OF HUMAN LIFE & WHENEVER THERE IS
 INTERACTION, THERE IS EVERY LIKELIHOOD
        OF CONFLICT.      `
   CONFLICT COULD BE DEFINED IN MANY WAYS
    & CAN BE CONSIDERED AS AN EXPRESSION
    OF HOSTILITY, NEGATIVE ATTOTUDE,
    ANTAGONISM, RIVALRY & MISUNDERSTANDING.
   IT IS ALSO ASSOCIATED WITH SITUATIONS
    THAT INVOLVES CONTRADICTORY OR
    IRRECONCILIABLE INTERESTS BETWEEN TWO
    OPPOSING GROUPS.
   IT COULD BE DEFINED AS AN DISAGREEMENT
    BETWEEN TWO OR MORE INDIVIDUALS OR
    GROUPS, WITH EACH INDIVIDUAL OR GROUP
    TRYING TO GAIN ACCEPTANCE OF THEIR VIEW
    POINTS OR OBJECTIVES.
   ACCORDING TO CHUNG & MAGGINSON, ‘’ IT
    MAY BE DEFINED AS A STRUGGLE BETWEEN
    INCOMPATIBLE OR OPPOSING NEEDS, WISHES,
    IDEAS, INTERESTS OR PEOPLE.
   CONFLICT ARISES WHEN INDIVIDUALS OR
    GROUPS ENCOUNTER GOALS THAT BOTH
    PARTIES CANNOT OBTAIN SATISFACTORILY’’.
   ACCORDING TO STEPHEN ROBBINS, ‘’
    CONFLICTS IS THE PROCESS THAT BEGINS
    WHEN PARTY PERCEIVES THAT ANOTHER
    PARTY HAS NEGATIVELY AFFECTED OR IS
    ABOUT TO NEGATIVELY AFFECT SOMETHING
    THAT THE FIRST PARTY CARES ABOUT’’.
   THERE ARE THREE DIFFERENT VIEWS
    OF CONFLICT WHICH HAS EMERGED
    WITH TIME & ARE INDICATED BELOW:
   1. TRADITIONAL VIEW.
   2. MODERN VIEW.
   THIS COULD BE DISCUSSED UNDER
    TWO HEADS:
    A. HUMAN RELATIONS VIEW.
    B. INTERACTIONIST VIEW.
TRADITIONAL VIEW.       MODERN VIEW.
1. CONFLICTS ARE DUE CONFLICT IS BUILT IN
   TO PERSONALITY    EVERY SYSTEM.
   DIMENSION.

2. CONFLICT IS BAD &   CONTRUCTIVE
   BE AVOIDED.         CONFLICTS SHOULD BE
                       ENCOURAGED.

3. CONFLICT            CONTRUCTIVE
   DAMAGES THE         CONFLICTS IMPROVES
   INTERNAL            THE INTERNAL
   PERSONAL            PERSONAL RELATIONS.
   RELATIONS.


4. CONFLICT IS         CONFLICT IS
   AVOIDABLE.          INEVITABLE.
TRADITIONAL VIEW (CONT’D).     MODERN VIEW(CONT’D).
5. CONFLICT IS CAUSED BY      SOME CONFLICT IS ABSOLUTELY
   TROUBLE MAKERS, BOAT       NECESSARY FOR A GROUP TO
   ROCKET.                    PERFORM EFFECTIVELY.


6. SCAPE GOATS ARE ACCEPTED   CONFLICT IS INTEGRAL TO THE
   AS INEVITABLE.             NATURE OF CHANGE & A
                              MINIMUM LEVEL OF CONFLICT
                              IS ACCEPTABLE TO ANY
                              PROGRESSIVE ORGANISATION.
   THE MANGEMENT MUST SURVEY THE
    SITUATION TO DECIDE WHETHER TO
    STIMULATE CONFLICT OR TO RESOLVE
    IT.
   THOMAS & SCHMIDT, HAVE REPORTED
    THAT MANAGERS SPEND UPTO 20% OF
    THEIR TIME IN DEALING WITH
    CONFLICTING SITUATIONS.
   HENCE, IT IS VERY IMPORTANT THAT
    MANAGERS UNDERSTAND THE
    DYNAMICS OF CONFLICT & DEVISE
    SOME STANDARDISED TECHNIQUES TO
    DEAL WITH IT.
   THERE ARE FIVE CATEGORIES OF
    CONFLICT:
   1. CONFLICT WITHIN THE INDIVIDUAL.
   2. INTERPERSONAL CONFLICT.
   3. CONFLICT WITHIN THE INDIVIDUAL &
    THE GROUP.
   4. INTERGROUP CONFLICT.
   5. INTERORGANISATIONAL CONFLICT.
   1. CONFLICT WITHIN THE INDIVIDUAL:
   THIS KIND OF CONFLICT ARE VALUE
    RELATED & REFLECTS TO THE ROLE
    PLAYING SITUATION WITHIN THE
    ORGANISATION & PEOPLE MAY VARY IN
    THEIR ATTITUDE TOWARDS A
    PARTICULAR SITUATION & THEIR
    CONSEQUENT RESPONSES.
   FOR EXAMPLE: A SECRETARY MAY
    HAVE TO LIE ON INTRUCTIONS THAT
    HER BOSS IS NOT IN THE OFFICE TO
    AVOID UNWARRANTED VISITORS OR
    CALLS.
   IN ADDITION TO THESE VALUE
    CONFLICTS, A PERSON MAY HAVE A
    ROLE CONFLICT.
   FOR EXAMPLE: A TELEPHONE
    OPERATOR MAY BE ADVISED &
    REQUIRED TO BE POLITE TO THE
    CUSTOMERS BY THEIR SUPERVISORS ,
    WHO IN TURN MAY COMPLAIN THAT THE
    SAID OPERATOR IS SPENDING MORE
    TIME WITH HER CUSTOMERS.
   2. INTERPERSONAL CONFLICT:
   IT INVOLVES CONFLICT BETWEEN TWO
    OR MORE INDIVIDUALS & PROBABLY
    THE MOST COMMON RECOGNISED
    CONFLICT.
   THIS MAY INVOLVE CONFLICT BETWEEN
    TWO MANAGERS WHO ARE COMPETING
    FOR LIMITED CAPITAL & MANPOWER
    RESOURCES.
   ANOTHER TYPE MAY RELATE TO
    DISAGREEMENTS OVER THE GOALS &
    OBJECTIVES OF THE ORGANISATION.
   3. CONFLICT BETWEEN THE INDIVIDUAL
    & THE GROUP:
   IT IS AN ESTALISHED FACT THAT THE
    FORMAL & THE INFORMAL GROUPS
    HAVE CERTAIN NORMS OF BEHAVIOUR
    & OPERATION STANDARDS WHICH ALL
    THE MEMBERS ARE EXPECTED TO
    FOLLOW INVARIABLY TO BE THE PART
    OF THE GROUP.
   THE INDIVIDUALS MAY WANT TO
    REMAIN WITHIN THE GROUP FOR
    SOCIAL NEEDS BUT MAY DISAGREE
    WITH THE GROUP METHODS.
   FOR EXAMPLE, IF A GROUP IS GOING
    ON STRIKE FOR SOME REASON, SOME
    MEMBERS MAY NOT AGREE WITH THE
    REASON OR MAY NOT BE ABLE TO
    AFFORD TO GO ON STRIKE, THUS
    CAUSING CONFLICT WITH THE GROUP.
   THIS MAY FURTHER LEAD TO
    DISCIPLINARY ACTION AGAINST SUCH
    OF EMPLOYEES BY THE CONCERNED
    MANAGEMENT.
   4. INTERGROUP CONFLICT:
   THESE CONFLICTS ARE NOT SO MUCH
    PERSONAL IN NATURE, AS THEY ARE
    DUE TO FACTORS INHERENT IN THE
    ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURE.
   FOR EXAMPLE, THERE IS ACTIVE &
    CONTINUOUS CONFLICT BETWEEN THE
    UNIONS & MANAGEMENT & BETWEEN
    LINE & STAFF FUNCTIONS.
   THIS CONFLICTS ARE CAUSED DUE TO
    TASK DEPENDENCE ON STAFF FOR
    INFORMATIONS & RECOMMENDATIONS.
   A CLASSICAL EXAMPLE OF INTERUNIT
    IS BETWEEN SALES & PRODUCTION
    DEPARTMENT, WHEREIN THE SALES
    DEPARTMENT IS TYPICALLY CUSTOMER-
    ORIENTED & WANTS TO MAINTAIN HIGH
    INVENTORIES FOR FILLING ORDERS AS
    THEY HAVE RECEIVED FROM THE
    MARKET, AS AGAINST THE PRODUCTION
    DEPARTMENT, WHICH IS CONCERNED
    ABOUT COST EFFECTIVENESS
    REQUIRING LITTLE INVENTORIES.
   5. INTER-ORGANISATIONAL CONFLICT:
   THESE TYPE OF CONFLICT ARE MORE
    VISIBLE IN THE ORGANISATIONS, WHICH
    ARE DEPENDENT ON EACH OTHER FOR
    THEIR EFFICIENT OPERATIONS &
    EXISTENCE.
   THIS MAY BE SEEN BETWEEN THE
    BUYERS ORGANISATIONS & SUPPLIERS
    ORGANISATIONS ABOUT THE QUANTITY,
    QUALITY & DELIVERY SCHEDULES &
    OTHER POLICY ISSUES.
   THE VARIOUS CATEGORIES OF
    CONFICT COULD BE CLASSIFIED UNDER
    THREE HEADS:
   A. COMMUNICATION ASPECT OF
    CONFLICT.

   B.   BEHAVIOURAL ASPECT.

   C.   STRUCTURAL ASPECT.
   VARIOUS RESEARCHER’S HAVE
    IDENTIFIED FIVE STRATEGIES FOR
    DEALING WITH & REDUCING THE
    INPACT OF BEHAVIOURAL CONFLICT.
   1. IGNORING THE CONFLICT:
    IN CERTAIN SITUATIONS, IT MAY BE
    ADVISABLE TO TAKE A PASSIVE ROLE &
    AVOID IT ALL TOGETHER.
   FROM THE MANAGER’S POINT OF
    VIEW, IT MAY NOT BE FEASIBLE &
    NECESSARY, WHEN GETTING INVOLVED
    IN A SITUATION WOULD FURTHER
    PROKE CONTROVERSIES.
   THE PARTIES INVOLVED IN THE
    CONFLICT MAY THEMSELVES PREFER
    TO AVOID CONFLICT, IT THEY ARE
    EMOTIONALLY UPSET BY THE TENSION
    & FRUSTRATION CREATED BY IT.
   THUS PEOPLE MAY TRY TO GET AWAY
    FROM THE CONFLICT CAUSING
    SITUATIONS.
   2. SMOOTHING:
   IT REFERS TO COVERING UP THE
    CONFLICT BY APPEALING FOR THE
    NEED FOR UNITY RATHER THAN
    ADREESING THE ISSUE OF CONFLICT
    ITSELF.
   AN INDIVIDUAL WITH INTERNAL
    CONFLICT MAY TRY TO ‘’ COUNT HIS
    BLESSINGS’’ & FORGET ABOUT THE
    CONFLICT.
   SINCE THE PROBLEM IS NEVER
    ADDRESSED , THE EMOTIONS MAY
    BUILD UP FURTHER & SUDDENLY
   SMOOTHING IS MORE SENSITIVE
    APPROACH THAN AVOIDING, AS LONG
    AS THE PARTIES AGREE THAT NOT
    SHOWING CONFLICT HAS MORE
    BENEFITS THAN SHOWING , THEN SUCH
    CONFLICT CAN BE AVOIDED.
   3. COMPROMSING:
   A COMPROMISE IN THE CONFLICT IS
    REACHED BY BALANCING THE POSITION
    THE DEMANDS OF THE CONFLICTING
    PARTIES & BARGAINING IN A GIVE &
    TAKE POSITION TO REACH A SOLUTION.
   THE TECHNIQUE OF CONFLICT
    RESOLUTION IS VERY COMMON IN
    NEGOTIATIONS BETWEEN THE TRADE
    UNIONS & THE MGT.
   IT IS USEFUL TECHNIQUE,
    PARTICULARLY WHEN TWO PARTIES
    HAVE RELATIVELY EQUAL POWER, THUS
    NO PARTY CAN FORCE ITS
    VIEWPOINTS ON THE OTHER & THE
    ONLY SOLUTION IS THE COMPROMISE &
    TIME CONSTRAINTS.
   4. FORCING:
   THE SIMPLEST CONCEIVABLE
    RESOLUTION IS THE ELIMINATION OF
    THE OTHER PARTY- TO FORCE THE
    OPPONENT TO FLEE & GIVE UP THE
    DOMINATOR, WHO HAS THE POWER &
    AUTHORITY TO ENFORCE HIS OWN
    VIEW POINTS OVER OTHER
    INDIVIDUALS OR PARTIES.
   THIS TECHNIQUE ALWAYS ENDS IN ONE
    PARTY BEING THE LOSER & THE
    OTHER PARTY BEING THE WINNER.
   5. PROBLEM SOLVING:
   THIS TECHNIQUE INVOLVES ‘’
    CONFRONTING THE CONFLICT’’ IN
    ORDER TO SEEK THE BEST SOLUTION
    TO THE PROBLEM.
   ALL THE CONFLICTS NEEDS TO BE
    RESOLVED THROUGH MUTUAL
    DIDCUSSIONS & RESPECTING FOR THE
    VIEW-POINTS OF THE OTHER.
   IT INVOLVES CONFLICTS ARISING OUT
    OF SEMANTIC MISUNDERSTANDINGS.
   RESOLVING STRUCTURAL BASED
    CONFLICTS:
   THE STRUCTURAL CONFLICTS ARE
    BASED ON THE PREMISES OF
    ORGANISATIONAL ENVIRONMENT & CAN
    BE SOLVED OR PREVENTED BY
    REDESIGNING ORG. STRUCTURE &
    WORK-FLOWS IN AN EFFECTIVE
    MANNER.
   A GENERAL STRATEGY WOULD BE TO
    MOVE TOWARDS DECENTRALIZATION AS
    FAR AS POSSIBLE, SO THAT THE
    DISPUTES COULD BE SETTLED AT THE
   SINCE INTERDEPEDENCE IS THE MAJOR
    CAUSES OF CONFLICT, IT IS
    NECESSARY TO IDENTIFY & THE
    INTERDEPENDENCIES ARE ADEQUATELY
    UNDERSTOOD IN THE CONTEXT OF THE
    ORGANISATION.
   FOR EXAMPLE: IN CASE OF UNITS
    BUILDING AN AUTOMOBILE ENGINE, IN
    WHICH EACH PERSON IS INVOLVED IN
    THE SEQUENTIAL ASSEMBLY SO THAT
    EACH UNIT DEPENDS UPON THE WORK
    OF THE PREVIOUS DEPARTMENT.
   1. APPOINT MANAGERS WHO SUPPORT
    CHANGE: THIS IS TO ENSURE &
    ENCOURAGE INNOVATION & CHANGE
    FROM THE STATUS QUO.
   2. ENCOURAGE COMPETITION: THIS
    LEADS TO HIGHER PERFORMANCES &
    STATUS ENHANCEMENT.
   3. MANIPULATE SCARCITY: LET
    INDIVIDUALS & GROUPS COMPETE FOR
    THE SCARCE RESOURCES, LEADING TO
    OPTIMUM UTILIZATION OF RESOURCES.
   4. PLAY ON STATUS DIFFERENCES:
    SOMETIMES IGNORING THE SENIOR
    STAFF MEMBERS & GIVING VISIBLE
    RESPONSIBILITIES TO JUNIOR MEMBERS
    CAN CAUSE CONFLICTS.
   THIS LEAD TO A SITUATION WHEREIN
    THE SENIOR MEMBERS HAVE TO WORK
    HARD TO PROVE THEIR WORTH IN THE
    ORGANISATION.

				
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