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Classical Greece and Rome Greece and Rome 1. Ancient Greece 2. Alexander the Great/Hellenistic Age 3. Roman Empire 4. Dark/Middle Ages http://www.mead.k12.wa.us/SHILOH/Griffith/MrGsWebPage2/Ancient_Greece/Ancient%20Greece.jpg Geography of Greece Mountainous peninsula, rugged terrain Numerous islands Sea serves as a mode of travel and trade Geog. Isolation of the individual poleis Mediterranean Climate Dry summer, wet winter for most types agriculture Difficult Great for olives, grapes, barley http://www.wwnorton.com/college/history/ralph/ralimage/map4gree.jpg Early Greek Cultures Minoan: 2700-1450 BCE Located on Crete King Minos Palace Complex at Knossos Reveals a rich culture; elaborate decoration Sudden destruction Natural disaster OR invasion http://www.odysseyadventures.ca/articles/knossos/knossos_aerial.jpg Palace Complex at Knossos: Minoa http://ccwf.cc.utexas.edu/~warfare/Lectures/Images/1.30/36 _knossos_bull_fresco.JPG http://www.explorecrete.com/archaeology/images/kn ossos01.jpg Early Greek Cultures Mycenaean: 1600-1000 BCE Settled by Indo-Europeans (1900 BCE) Grew into powerful monarchies Warriors and traders Royal family lived in fortified palaces Bee-hive tombs to bury dead (known as Tholos) Setting of Homer’s epic poems Trojan War (around 1250 BCE) Debate over true existance of Troy Heinrich Schleimann- 1870 Decline due to internal conflict, natural disaster and invasion Mycenaean Funeral Mask http://content.answers.com/main/content/wp/e Culture n-commons/thumb/8/81/250px- MaskAgamemnon.png http://www.visitkarpathos.com/ima ges/intelli/mycenaean- rhyton_bullshead_1200bc_tombo naok_new3.jpg Mycenaean Acropolis http://www.greeklandscapes.com/images/destinations/mycen e/mycenae_aerial_photo.jpg http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/i mages/h2/h2_74.51.966.jpg Dark Age After fall of Mycenaea, Greece entered a Dark Age Period of decline Depopulation from mainland Move to Ionia, Lesbos, and other islands Poverty, lack of development Most important development: adoption of the Phoenician alphabetic system Simplified to only 24 letter http://www.umassd.edu/studentactivities/greek/pics/greek_alphabet.gif Greek City-States Independent, self-governing city-state known as a polis Fortified acropolis: place of refuge in attack; site of government buildings and temples Surrounded by agora: open market place Hundreds of poleis, vary in size and pop. Sparta: largest territory Athens: largest Population Hoplite Warfare Competition among poleis led to war Hoplite warfare emerged as a form of defense Marched in phalanx Each man protecting the next Quick battles, well-suited for farmers Did not require expensive gear or great deal of training Hoplite http://www.mlahanas.de/Greeks/images/Hop lite4thcentury.jpg Phalanx http://www.wargames.co.uk/Pending/Archive/May04/phalanx-LDS.jpg Greek Colonies After the Dark Age, Greece experienced a growth in population Due to advances in agricultural techniques Over population led to colonization Sent out colonies in: North Africa, Mediterranean, and Black Sea regions Increased trade with mainland Oliveoil, wine, pottery in exchange for timber, grain, and metals Spread of Greek Colonies http://www.worldcoincatalog.com/AC/C2/Greece/AG/GreekColonies500BCE.jpg Greek Government Various styles of Government Depending on the polis Tyranny: common up until 500’s Strongmen who seized power, often w/ support of peasantry Took power from aristocrats Oligarchy: “rule by the few” very common Council of wealthy aristocrats or elders Democracy: “rule by the people” Athens Limited suffrage; only free men allowed to vote and participate Sparta Chose not to send out colonies Conquered neighboring city-states Forced conquered people to become Helots Produced food to feed the Spartans Often rebelled; put down by Spartan military Militaristic, rigid society Children began education at 7 Taught to be disciplined and obedient Boys and girls train to be fit and disciplined Boys live in barracks until age of 30, in army until 60 Simple meals taken in mess hall http://www.utexas.edu/courses/introtogreece /lect10/emapSparta9907210001.jpg Sparta Society in Sparta: Women lived in separate homes until husband reached 30 Young boys mentored by older Spartan soldiers Often involved a sexual relationship Minimalist lifestyle, no luxury items or wealth Luxury items were thought to make a person weak Government in Sparta: Oligarchy Dual Kingship, Council of Ephors, Council of Elders Only men participated in govt Women, however, had relatively high status compared to Athens Government encouraged isolation of Sparta Often did not allow people to travel to or from Sparta Discouraged the study of anything other than the art of war Athens Focused on learning, art, philosophy Became center of Greek culture Highest population of the poleis Developed democracy after bad experiences with Tyranny and Oligarchy Direct democracy: all eligible citizens (free men) can vote and serve in office Meetings held every 10 days Ostracism as method of eliminating harmful persons (ie. Ambitious politicians) Person with most votes exiled for 10 years Reached height of power after Persian War Greek Religion Polytheistic 3 generations of gods Best known was the 3rd Generation Olympian Gods: Zeus as king of the gods Complex rituals & festivals conducted to please the gods & earn favors Gods believed to communicate through oracles Most important was Delphic Oracle @ Delphi No major decisions made without consulting the oracle http://api.ning.com/files/CUTAFAUVwiWP-*2FKr6oSFRFJWZgJF- SRXV9z8X5XNU_/olympian.jpg Greek Drama Drama very popular in Greece Huge influence on western world Themes of Greek Drama Humanism, good v evil, persistence, pride Tragedies usually written in trilogies Comedy became popular in later years Popular dramatists Aeschylus: Orestia Sophocles: Oedipus Rex, Antigone Euripides Greek Philosophy Philosophy: “Love of Wisdom” Greek philosophers contemplated the universe and emphasized rational thought 3 major philosophers Socrates Sculptor and teacher (Socratic Method of question/answer) Accused of corrupting the youth of Athens Found guilty, sentenced to death or exile Chose death (drank hemlock poison) Plato Student of Plato Prolific writer, established the Academy to teach others his ideas Socrates Plato http://www.behappyandfree.com/pdf/socrates http://www.stenudd.com/myth/greek/images/plato4.jpg Greek Philosophy Aristotle: Student of Plato Interested in analyzing and classifying the world Studied many subjects Ethics, logic, politics, poetry, physics, astronomy, geology His ideas would influence western thought for hundreds of years Researched government, determined there are 3 desirable forms of government Monarchy, aristocracy, and constitutional government Aristotle http://www.stenudd.com/myth/greek/images/aristotle2.jpg Writing of History Herodotus: seen as Father of history in western world Wrote about the Persian War Much discussion of divine forces (ie, the gods) Thucydides: Athenian general in the Peloponnesian War Wroteabout the war Focused mainly on human experiences, not gods More methodical in his approach Look at cause/effect Art in Greece Pottery used as a form of Art Emphasis on balance and harmony Humans often the subject of art (humanism) Body seen as a thing of beauty Often idealized Sculptures emphasize toned bodies and serene faces beauty Architecture Temples to honor gods Use of Columns Parthenon: most famous example of Classical Greek Architecture http://ancientgreecemoberly.pbwiki.com/f/parthenon-and-the-acropolis-landmark-1.jpg http://www.mlahanas.de/Greeks/Arts/Part henon/Parthenon1.jpg http://www.olsjschool.net/pages/sub http://media-2.web.britannica.com/eb- Persian War Persian Empire Greek expansion led to conflict with Persian Empire Persian Empire Cyrus The Great: unified the Persian Kingdoms Captured Anatolia and Mesopotamia Built power base by respecting local traditions and religion Persian Empire Cambyses (Cyrus’ son) expanded empire Defeated Egypt, moved into Nubia & Libya Darius expanded Persian rule into the Indus River valley and into parts of Europe Social Stratification in Persia: 3 classes: Warriors and aristocracy Priests peasants Persian Empire at its height http://fotios.cc/papers/articles/medean_wars/persian_empire.gif Persian Empire Government in Persia Divided empire into provinces Satrap governed each province as a representative of the king Positionof Satrap was hereditary Provinces paid tribute to the central govt. Kings were aloof rulers, seen as gods city where king and royal family Persepolis: conducted ceremonies Persian Empire Religion in Persia: Zoroastrianism World created by Ahuramazda One supreme deity Battle of good v. evil Belief in afterlife where deeds would be rewarded or punished May have influenced the beliefs of Judaism and Christianity Persian War 499 BCE: Ionian Greeks revolted against Persian rule (unsuccessful) Aided by Athens Darius vowed revenge for Greek interference 490: Battle of Marathon Athenian victory 486: Darius died, Xerxes in control Plans attack Athenians buildup a navy Persian War 480: Xerxes leads invasion of Greece Delayed at Thermopylae Eventually advance Athenians abandon city, which was nearly destroyed by the Persians 479: Persians defeated by Greeks at Plataea Athenian Empire Delian League: Greek alliance to defend against Persian Empire Led by Athens Athens used league to build their own power League treasury moved to Athens, money used to fund Athenian growth Pericles: major figure in Athens 461-429 Helped promote democracy; very influential Conflict with Sparta Resentment grew between Athens and Sparta Resulted in war Peloponnesian War: 431-404 BCE Athenians hid within the walls of Athens Plague broke out in Athens 1/3 of population died, including Pericles Periodic truces followed by renewed conflict Athens finally defeated in 404 Peloponnesian War greatly weakened Greece Internal fighting and conflict made them vulnerable Eventually cost them their autonomy Decline of Greeks, Triumph of Macedonia Decline of Greeks Internal conflict among city-states weakened Greece Persians remained a threat Regained territory in W. Asia To north, Philip II began to transform Macedonia Restructured military to include cavalry Developed siege technology- catapult Began to assert control over the Greeks Triumph of Macedonia Philip built organized a coalition to defend against Persia Est. himself as leader Assassinated in 336 BCE His son, Alexander, took over where he left off Empire of Alexander the Great http://www.socialstudiesforkids.com/graphics/alexanderempiremap_large.jpg Alexander the Great Alexander (356-323 BCE) Used military to defeat Persians Expanded influence into North Africa, Egypt and nearly all of Greece Empire was short-lived Power struggle after his death in 323 BCE Empire split into 3 kingdoms Seleucid, Ptolemaic, and Antigonid Hellenistic Period Alexander’s vast empire helped to spread Greek culture to other parts of the world Even after his death, the Hellenistic Kingdoms continued to spread Greek culture Govt. in Hellenistic Kingdoms: autocratic Trade and learning flourished Cities became cultural centers Alexandria in Egypt very important city Rome Geography of Rome Italy Hilly terrain Apennine Mts along eastern coast Alps serve as barrier from north Navigable rivers, access to Med. Sea River valleys and volcanic soil good for ag. Climate much like that in Greece Abundance of Natural resources Rome Legend of Rome’s Creation Founded by Romulus in 753 BCE Evidence points to settlement much earlier Agriculture essential part of economy Land is a measure of wealth Power centered in hands of those who owned the most land Initially ruled by series of kings King overthrown by land-owning aristocracy Republic created in 507 BCE Roman Republic 507-31 BCE Government Structure during the Republic Power in hands of the elite Election of officials by assembly of citizens Wealthy citizens’ votes counted for more than the poor citizens Two main bodies Senate:composed of landowning aristocracy Consuls: 2 executive bodies Members usually relatives of the Senators Expansion under the Roman Republic Rome began to exert influence over the rest of the Italian peninsula Use of military to acquire new lands Punic Wars: 3 wars fought with Carthage 264-146 BCE Defeated Carthage in N. Africa Continued on to seize the western Med., Egypt, and Greece Decline of the Roman Republic Inequality within the Republic led to social unrest and revolts Some changes made to bridge gap between the upper and lower-classes Twelve Tablets 450 BCE: publication of laws to avoid arbitrary decisions by govt. officials Tribunes: offices held by lower class citizens Could veto legislation Eventually, the tribunes would be absorbed into the aristocracy and lost touch with their original purpose Republic saw further trouble when a series of ambitious generals used the military to consolidate their own power Sulla, Pompey, Caesar, Mark Antony, and Octavian Decline of the Roman Republic, Rise of the Roman Empire Civil Wars broke out as rival generals fought for control By the time Octavian (Augustus) came to power in 27 BCE, the Republic was nearly over Augustus established basic structure of the Roman Empire For next 200 years, the Roman Empire expanded and flourished Acquired new territory in Europe and the Middle East http://wps.ablongman.com/wps/media/objects/262/268312/art/figures/KISH106.jpg Government under the Roman Empire Roman Senate still met, but all major decisions made by emperor Local autonomy throughout vast empire Governors sent to maintain control Rarely exerted absolute control, except in times of revolt Use of military to maintain control Empire was tolerant of local traditions As long as they did not interfere with well- being of the empire Government under the Roman Empire Pax Romana Roman citizenship extended to conquered peoples Clearly defined laws throughout the empire Promote order and unity Government regulated grain production Used empire to feed the masses in Rome and other large cities Construction projects throughout empire Public baths, theaters, roads, etc. Technology of Roman Empire Romans excelled in engineering Aqueducts to transport water Domed buildings Massive public buildings Little effort to develop http://oncampus.richmond.edu/academics/education/projects/ webunits/greecerome/acqu.jpg new technology or ideas in science Art and Entertainment Like the Greeks, the Romans continued on the idea of humanism Reflected in art Bustsof rulers Scenes of Roman conquest Elaborate public facilities available for use by city-dwellers Gladiator Games and Chariot races were popular forms of entertainment http://www.hereorthere.co m/images_library/p_big_4 820.jpg http://www.hauntedamericatours.com/toptenhaunted/h auntedworld/images/Coliseum-Rome.jpg Religion Early Roman religion was much like that of Greece Similar gods with different names Ie. King of Gods Greece= Zeus, Rome=Jupiter 313: Roman Empire adopted Christianity Emperor Constantine Attempt to create sense of unity within a crumbling empire Society and Culture Institutionalized system of social inequality in Rome Slavery common Used for housework, working in mines, and agriculture Over time, free farmers became tenant farmers who worked the land of wealthy aristocrats Power centered in hands of the wealthy Society and Culture Patriarchal society Oldest male was head of family Women under authority of male relatives Woman’s place was in the home, no political power However, some were able to exert influence over husbands In families who struggled economically, boys were sometimes preferred to girls Economy Ag based economy Most people made living through farming Olives & grapes in Italy, grains and vegetables in other parts of the empire Grain essential, but does not grow well in Italy Use of empire to feed the masses in Rome Trade and Commerce essential to feed the empire As such, merchants enjoyed high social status Luxury items imported from east Traded animal skins, metals, and exotic animal species for silk and spices from east However, merchants from west were at a disadvantage because their goods were not as valuable as those from India and China Decline of Roman Empire After 200 years of vigorous growth, Roman Empire began a slow decline Economic deterioration as trade began to decline Emperors were unable to maintain control in far reaches of the empire Local authorities began to reassert more power Germanic invasions from North led to the fall of the western half of the empire More information forthcoming on the fall of the Classical Civilizations!!! Ticket Out the Door: How did geography hurt ancient Greece? How did geography help ancient Rome? What was the most important achievement of ancient Greece? What was the most important achievement of ancient Rome? What is the other name for the Eastern Roman Empire?
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