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Classical Greece and Rome


  • pg 1
									Classical Greece and
        Greece and Rome
 1. Ancient Greece
 2. Alexander the Great/Hellenistic
 3. Roman Empire
 4. Dark/Middle Ages
            Geography of Greece
 Mountainous peninsula, rugged terrain
 Numerous islands
 Sea serves as a mode of travel and trade
 Geog. Isolation of the individual poleis
 Mediterranean Climate
       Dry summer, wet winter
                   for most types agriculture
          Difficult
          Great for olives, grapes, barley
            Early Greek Cultures
   Minoan: 2700-1450 BCE
       Located on Crete
          King   Minos
       Palace Complex at Knossos
          Reveals   a rich culture; elaborate decoration
       Sudden destruction
          Natural   disaster OR invasion

                                                                      Complex at


               Early Greek Cultures
   Mycenaean: 1600-1000 BCE
       Settled by Indo-Europeans (1900 BCE)
       Grew into powerful monarchies
            Warriors and traders
            Royal family lived in fortified palaces
                  Bee-hive tombs to bury dead (known as Tholos)
       Setting of Homer’s epic poems
            Trojan War (around 1250 BCE)
                  Debate over true existance of Troy
                  Heinrich Schleimann- 1870
       Decline due to internal conflict, natural disaster and
Mycenaean                                                                                    Funeral Mask

 Culture                                                                                     n-commons/thumb/8/81/250px-


Mycenaean Acropolis

                        Dark Age
   After fall of Mycenaea, Greece entered a
    Dark Age
     Period of decline
     Depopulation from mainland
          Move   to Ionia, Lesbos, and other islands
       Poverty, lack of development
   Most important development: adoption of
    the Phoenician alphabetic system
       Simplified to only 24 letter
             Greek City-States
   Independent, self-governing city-state
    known as a polis
     Fortified acropolis: place of refuge in attack;
      site of government buildings and temples
     Surrounded by agora: open market place

   Hundreds of poleis, vary in size and pop.
     Sparta: largest territory
     Athens: largest Population
                   Hoplite Warfare
 Competition among poleis led to war
 Hoplite warfare emerged as a form of
       Marched in phalanx
          Each   man protecting the next
       Quick battles, well-suited for farmers
          Did not require expensive gear or great deal of


                   Greek Colonies
   After the Dark Age, Greece experienced a
    growth in population
       Due to advances in agricultural techniques
   Over population led to colonization
     Sent out colonies in: North Africa,
      Mediterranean, and Black Sea regions
     Increased trade with mainland
          Oliveoil, wine, pottery in exchange for timber,
          grain, and metals
Spread of Greek Colonies
              Greek Government
   Various styles of Government
       Depending on the polis
   Tyranny: common up until 500’s
       Strongmen who seized power, often w/ support of
       Took power from aristocrats
   Oligarchy: “rule by the few” very common
       Council of wealthy aristocrats or elders
   Democracy: “rule by the people”
       Athens
       Limited suffrage; only free men allowed to vote and
   Chose not to send out colonies
       Conquered neighboring city-states
            Forced conquered people to become Helots
                  Produced food to feed the Spartans
                  Often rebelled; put down by Spartan military

   Militaristic, rigid society
       Children began education at 7
       Taught to be disciplined and obedient
            Boys and girls train to be fit and disciplined
            Boys live in barracks until age of 30, in army until 60
            Simple meals taken in mess hall
   Society in Sparta:
            Women lived in separate homes until husband reached 30
            Young boys mentored by older Spartan soldiers
                  Often involved a sexual relationship
       Minimalist lifestyle, no luxury items or wealth
            Luxury items were thought to make a person weak
   Government in Sparta: Oligarchy
       Dual Kingship, Council of Ephors, Council of Elders
            Only men participated in govt
            Women, however, had relatively high status compared to Athens
       Government encouraged isolation of Sparta
       Often did not allow people to travel to or from Sparta
       Discouraged the study of anything other than the art of war
   Focused on learning, art, philosophy
       Became center of Greek culture
       Highest population of the poleis
   Developed democracy after bad experiences
    with Tyranny and Oligarchy
       Direct democracy: all eligible citizens (free men) can
        vote and serve in office
            Meetings held every 10 days
       Ostracism as method of eliminating harmful persons
        (ie. Ambitious politicians)
            Person with most votes exiled for 10 years
   Reached height of power after Persian War
                     Greek Religion
   Polytheistic
       3 generations of gods
       Best known was the 3rd Generation
            Olympian Gods: Zeus as king of the gods
   Complex rituals & festivals conducted to please
    the gods & earn favors
   Gods believed to communicate through oracles
       Most important was Delphic Oracle @ Delphi
       No major decisions made without consulting the
                   Greek Drama
   Drama very popular in Greece
       Huge influence on western world
   Themes of Greek Drama
       Humanism, good v evil, persistence, pride
   Tragedies usually written in trilogies
       Comedy became popular in later years
   Popular dramatists
       Aeschylus: Orestia
       Sophocles: Oedipus Rex, Antigone
       Euripides
                     Greek Philosophy
   Philosophy: “Love of Wisdom”
       Greek philosophers contemplated the universe and
        emphasized rational thought
   3 major philosophers
       Socrates
            Sculptor and teacher (Socratic Method of question/answer)
            Accused of corrupting the youth of Athens
                  Found guilty, sentenced to death or exile
                  Chose death (drank hemlock poison)
       Plato
            Student of Plato
            Prolific writer, established the Academy to teach others his
                                Socrates     Plato
http://www.behappyandfree.com/pdf/socrates   http://www.stenudd.com/myth/greek/images/plato4.jpg
                   Greek Philosophy
   Aristotle:
       Student of Plato
       Interested in analyzing and classifying the world
       Studied many subjects
            Ethics, logic, politics, poetry, physics, astronomy, geology
            His ideas would influence western thought for hundreds of
       Researched government, determined there are 3
        desirable forms of government
            Monarchy, aristocracy, and constitutional government
                  Writing of History
   Herodotus: seen as Father of history in
    western world
       Wrote about the Persian War
          Much    discussion of divine forces (ie, the gods)
   Thucydides:
       Athenian general in the Peloponnesian War
          Wroteabout the war
          Focused mainly on human experiences, not gods
          More methodical in his approach
               Look at cause/effect
                           Art in Greece
   Pottery used as a form of Art
   Emphasis on balance and harmony
   Humans often the subject of art (humanism)
       Body seen as a thing of beauty
       Often idealized
            Sculptures emphasize toned bodies and serene faces
                 beauty
   Architecture
       Temples to honor gods
       Use of Columns
            Parthenon: most famous example of Classical Greek

http://www.olsjschool.net/pages/sub   http://media-2.web.britannica.com/eb-
Persian War
                    Persian Empire
 Greek expansion led to conflict with
  Persian Empire
 Persian Empire
       Cyrus The Great: unified the Persian
          Captured    Anatolia and Mesopotamia
               Built power base by respecting local traditions and
                     Persian Empire
   Cambyses (Cyrus’ son) expanded empire
       Defeated Egypt, moved into Nubia & Libya
 Darius expanded Persian rule into the
  Indus River valley and into parts of Europe
 Social Stratification in Persia:
       3 classes:
          Warriors   and aristocracy
          Priests
          peasants
Persian Empire at its height
                  Persian Empire
   Government in Persia
     Divided empire into provinces
     Satrap governed each province as a
      representative of the king
          Positionof Satrap was hereditary
          Provinces paid tribute to the central govt.

       Kings were aloof rulers, seen as gods
                     city where king and royal family
          Persepolis:
          conducted ceremonies
                   Persian Empire
   Religion in Persia:
       Zoroastrianism
          World   created by Ahuramazda
          One supreme deity
          Battle of good v. evil
          Belief in afterlife where deeds would be rewarded
           or punished
       May have influenced the beliefs of Judaism
        and Christianity
                   Persian War
   499 BCE: Ionian Greeks revolted against
    Persian rule (unsuccessful)
     Aided by Athens
     Darius vowed revenge for Greek interference
   490: Battle of Marathon
       Athenian victory
   486: Darius died, Xerxes in control
     Plans attack
     Athenians buildup a navy
               Persian War
   480: Xerxes leads invasion of Greece
     Delayed at Thermopylae
     Eventually advance

 Athenians abandon city, which was nearly
  destroyed by the Persians
 479: Persians defeated by Greeks at
              Athenian Empire
   Delian League: Greek alliance to defend
    against Persian Empire
     Led by Athens
     Athens used league to build their own power
         League treasury moved to Athens, money used to
         fund Athenian growth
   Pericles: major figure in Athens
     461-429
     Helped promote democracy; very influential
                  Conflict with Sparta
   Resentment grew between Athens and Sparta
       Resulted in war
   Peloponnesian War: 431-404 BCE
       Athenians hid within the walls of Athens
            Plague broke out in Athens
                 1/3 of population died, including Pericles
       Periodic truces followed by renewed conflict
       Athens finally defeated in 404
   Peloponnesian War greatly weakened Greece
       Internal fighting and conflict made them vulnerable
            Eventually cost them their autonomy
Decline of Greeks, Triumph
       of Macedonia
              Decline of Greeks
   Internal conflict among city-states
    weakened Greece
       Persians remained a threat
          Regained   territory in W. Asia
   To north, Philip II began to transform
     Restructured military to include cavalry
     Developed siege technology- catapult
     Began to assert control over the Greeks
         Triumph of Macedonia
   Philip built organized a coalition to defend
    against Persia
     Est. himself as leader
     Assassinated in 336 BCE

   His son, Alexander, took over where he
    left off
Empire of Alexander the Great
            Alexander the Great
   Alexander (356-323 BCE)
     Used military to defeat Persians
     Expanded influence into North Africa, Egypt
      and nearly all of Greece
   Empire was short-lived
     Power struggle after his death in 323 BCE
     Empire split into 3 kingdoms
         Seleucid,   Ptolemaic, and Antigonid
              Hellenistic Period
   Alexander’s vast empire helped to spread
    Greek culture to other parts of the world
     Even after his death, the Hellenistic Kingdoms
      continued to spread Greek culture
     Govt. in Hellenistic Kingdoms: autocratic
     Trade and learning flourished
     Cities became cultural centers
         Alexandria   in Egypt very important city
            Geography of Rome
 Italy
 Hilly terrain
     Apennine Mts along eastern coast
     Alps serve as barrier from north

   Navigable rivers, access to Med. Sea
       River valleys and volcanic soil good for ag.
 Climate much like that in Greece
 Abundance of Natural resources
   Legend of Rome’s Creation
       Founded by Romulus in 753 BCE
            Evidence points to settlement much earlier
   Agriculture essential part of economy
       Land is a measure of wealth
       Power centered in hands of those who owned the
        most land
   Initially ruled by series of kings
       King overthrown by land-owning aristocracy
       Republic created in 507 BCE
                  Roman Republic
 507-31 BCE
 Government Structure during the Republic
     Power in hands of the elite
     Election of officials by assembly of citizens
         Wealthy   citizens’ votes counted for more than the
          poor citizens
       Two main bodies
         Senate:composed of landowning aristocracy
         Consuls: 2 executive bodies
              Members usually relatives of the Senators
        Expansion under the Roman
 Rome began to exert influence over the
  rest of the Italian peninsula
 Use of military to acquire new lands
 Punic Wars: 3 wars fought with Carthage
       264-146 BCE
         Defeated   Carthage in N. Africa
   Continued on to seize the western Med.,
    Egypt, and Greece
Decline of the Roman Republic
   Inequality within the Republic led to social unrest
    and revolts
       Some changes made to bridge gap between the
        upper and lower-classes
            Twelve Tablets 450 BCE: publication of laws to avoid
             arbitrary decisions by govt. officials
            Tribunes: offices held by lower class citizens
                 Could veto legislation
                 Eventually, the tribunes would be absorbed into the aristocracy
                  and lost touch with their original purpose
   Republic saw further trouble when a series of
    ambitious generals used the military to
    consolidate their own power
       Sulla, Pompey, Caesar, Mark Antony, and Octavian
    Decline of the Roman Republic,
      Rise of the Roman Empire
   Civil Wars broke out as rival generals fought for
   By the time Octavian (Augustus) came to power
    in 27 BCE, the Republic was nearly over
       Augustus established basic structure of the Roman
   For next 200 years, the Roman Empire
    expanded and flourished
       Acquired new territory in Europe and the Middle East
     Government under the Roman
   Roman Senate still met, but all major
    decisions made by emperor
       Local autonomy throughout vast empire
          Governors  sent to maintain control
          Rarely exerted absolute control, except in times of
       Use of military to maintain control
   Empire was tolerant of local traditions
       As long as they did not interfere with well-
        being of the empire
     Government under the Roman
   Pax Romana
   Roman citizenship extended to conquered
   Clearly defined laws throughout the empire
       Promote order and unity
   Government regulated grain production
       Used empire to feed the masses in Rome and other
        large cities
   Construction projects throughout empire
       Public baths, theaters, roads, etc.
    Technology of Roman Empire
   Romans excelled in
       Aqueducts to transport
       Domed buildings
       Massive public
   Little effort to develop     http://oncampus.richmond.edu/academics/education/projects/

    new technology or
    ideas in science
           Art and Entertainment
   Like the Greeks, the Romans continued on
    the idea of humanism
       Reflected in art
          Bustsof rulers
          Scenes of Roman conquest

 Elaborate public facilities available for use
  by city-dwellers
 Gladiator Games and Chariot races were
  popular forms of entertainment

   Early Roman religion was much like that of
       Similar gods with different names
          Ie.   King of Gods
                Greece= Zeus, Rome=Jupiter

   313: Roman Empire adopted Christianity
     Emperor Constantine
     Attempt to create sense of unity within a
      crumbling empire
             Society and Culture
   Institutionalized system of social inequality
    in Rome
       Slavery common
         Used  for housework, working in mines, and
     Over time, free farmers became tenant
      farmers who worked the land of wealthy
     Power centered in hands of the wealthy
             Society and Culture
   Patriarchal society
     Oldest male was head of family
     Women under authority of male relatives
     Woman’s place was in the home, no political
          However,   some were able to exert influence over
       In families who struggled economically, boys
        were sometimes preferred to girls
   Ag based economy
       Most people made living through farming
            Olives & grapes in Italy, grains and vegetables in other parts
             of the empire
       Grain essential, but does not grow well in Italy
            Use of empire to feed the masses in Rome
                  Trade and Commerce essential to feed the empire
                  As such, merchants enjoyed high social status
   Luxury items imported from east
       Traded animal skins, metals, and exotic animal
        species for silk and spices from east
            However, merchants from west were at a disadvantage
             because their goods were not as valuable as those from
             India and China
        Decline of Roman Empire
   After 200 years of vigorous growth, Roman
    Empire began a slow decline
       Economic deterioration as trade began to decline
       Emperors were unable to maintain control in far
        reaches of the empire
       Local authorities began to reassert more power
       Germanic invasions from North led to the fall of the
        western half of the empire
   More information forthcoming on the fall of the
    Classical Civilizations!!!
       Ticket Out the Door:
 How did geography hurt ancient Greece?
 How did geography help ancient Rome?
 What was the most important achievement
  of ancient Greece?
 What was the most important achievement
  of ancient Rome?
 What is the other name for the Eastern
  Roman Empire?

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