Chinese Revolutions

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					Chinese Revolutions

By Priyanka Juneja, Sasha Ree, and
          Lauretta Zhao
Causes of the 1911 Chinese Revolution
   The Qing empire began to grow internally weak:
        Politically
              They were plagued by inefficient emperors
              Bad administration
              Selling of government posts allowed embezzlement
              Corruption increased
              No Manchu control
              Decentralization of government control
              Increase in local power undermining central government
        Socially and Economically
              Population grew but poverty increased
                  Farmable land was limited and held mainly by wealthy lords
                  By law, no one could move out of China
                  No new technology or development to adhere to growing number of people’s needs
              Governmental fiscal breakdown
                  Poverty among the commoners meant inability to collect tax
                  Corruption
                  Decentralization
                  Rebellions cost money
                  Fiscal confusion on how to handle the money
Causes of the 1911 Chinese Revolution                                                              (con’t)

        Ideologically
              Anti-manchu sentiment resurfaced as the central government lost control of common class
        Militarily
              Their troops had become essentially useless
                  Administrative confusion and lack of fundamental cooperation with the government
                  Poverty
                  Loss of will to fight
                          Inactivity
                          Slacking on training
   External threats also compromised Qing legitimacy
        Political factors
              Inability to fight back made the Qing enter many unfavorable treaties that undermined the power of
               the Qing in the face of external foes and internal commoners
              Many traditional Chinese states were annexed by foreign power
                   Broken into different spheres of influence cutting of Qing control
        Social and Economic factors
              Cheaper foreign trade imports undermined the value of goods produced in China
              Foreign missionary activity inspired revolt among commoners
              Imports began to exceed exports
                   Exacerbated by war debts
                   Losses that created need to pay tributes
Causes of the 1911 Chinese Revolution                                                                (con’t)

        Ideological factors
              Confucian theory was brought under fire by western influence and thus questioned the foundation
               of Manchu government
              Nationalism was inspired by the introduction of western ideals and created a national identity that
               was decidedly anti-Manchu
        Anti Manchu tradition
              Anti Manchu sentiment was strengthened as the old Chinese supremacy attitude resurfaced because
               of anger by domination of any foreign power
              Being anti-Manchu was a scapegoat for all the countries problems and acted like psychological
               comfort to those debating whether to embrace the theory or not
   Qing Reform catalyzed overthrow
        Educational Reform
              Sent students to study abroad
                   Became intellectuals dissatisfied with Manchu Government
                   Backbone of the revolution
        Political Reform
              Created holes for the provinces that allowed increased decentralization and allowed them to declare
Causes of the 1911 Chinese Revolution (con’t)
          Military Reform
              Made them independent of Peking and therefore without a military the Manchu government
               was forced to abdicate in 1912
     Revolutionary Movement
          Social problems after Sino-Japan war
              Chinese defeat undermined the government and allowed small armed uprisings to occur
              In the Peace Treaty of 1985 the troops used to fight Japan were disbanded and neglected
                    They became revolutionaries
              Japan took Taiwan and as a result Taiwanese immigrants fled to Fukien and created social
          Western ideas spread
              The influence of European Revolution reverberated strongly throughout China
          Acceptance of All out Rebellion
                Western influence and Japan outlined how backwards China was
                When in foreign influence- subjection to racism created nationalism
                Independence from government allowed room for rebellious thoughts and plans
                Education abroad introduced them to radical ideas and activities
Causes of the 1911 Chinese Revolution (con’t)
        Revolution In China
            Sun Yat-Sen’s revolution in S. China
            Huang Hsing's revolution in C. China
                 Unsuccessful
                 He joined Sun yat-Sen in Japan

        Revolution from Japan
            Abroad studies were in Japan- and most students were from S. China
                Anti-Manchu sentiment was strong in S. China and spread to students studying in
                Provincial lines divided them- no united revolutionary front
                Radicalism increased and they created the Resist-Russia-Volunteer Corps
                Finally they unified and created the evolutionary Alliance (T'ung -meng hui)
Causes of the Chinese Republic to Communism
 The Japanese invaded China and took Qingdao port in 1917. Around this
 time World War 1 started and China sided with the allies in order to regain
 territory from the Japanese. However with the conclusion of the war, the
 treaty of Versailles simply reaffirmed Japanese claim to Chinese land which
 lead to a fair bit of discontent among the Chinese population. The May fourth
 Movement of some Beijing students against this, caught fire and spread across
 China. Sun Yat-Sen tried once again to reunite China by forging alliances with
 the societ union and between Guomindang and the Communist Party of
 China (CPC), but failed. Then Chiang Kaishek seized control of the
 Guomindang after Sun Yat-sen died in 1925. He cut ties with the CPC in
 1927 and drove them to the mountains. In 1934 the CPC lead a revolt. They
 started the long march of 9500km to the capital with 80,000 troops. At first
 Chiang Kashek tried to forge an alliance but after the next Sino-Japan war-
 The red flag of Mao rained supreme.
From Qing Dynasty to Chinese Republic (1911)
Politics                                                               Intellectual                       Religion
 January 1, 1912 – Asia’s first constitutional democracy is            Sun Yat Sen, the main             Iconoclastic Nationalist
   founded by Sun Yat Sen: the Republic of China                          revolutionary during this         party; wanted to begin a new
 Sun wanted to be the absolute leader to “teach” China to                time, forms a new ideology        China, so destruction of
   become a democracy                                                     which he calls “Three             religious and ancestral
 Confucian political system removed
                                                                          Principles of the People”,        temples began
                                                                          combining nationalism,           Anti-traditionalist attitude of
 Chinese Nationalist party (Kuomintang) established by Sun;
                                                                          democracy and socialism           the Chinese elite leads to
   won majority of seats in the first national election, but Sun was
                                                                        Anti-traditionalist                internal assault of traditional
   later forced into exile by Yuan Shikai, a military commander.
 Sun received help from Communist Russia, which supplied him
   with weapons, tactics, and advisors.

Art/Architecture                    Technology                         Economy                            Society
 Foreign influences on art          Few developments in               After the fall of the Qing        Confucian social system
  came into China                     technology during this             Dynasty, China’s economy           rejected by the Republic of
 There was a separation              period, as China is in a           was unstable                       China
  between the “conservatives”         period of instability and         As Chinese warlords fought        China in turmoil and chaos
  and “innovators”.                   turmoil                            for power, China’s economy         at the time of Sun’s death
 Conservatives – wanted to                                              continued to weaken
  preserve traditional Chinese                                          However, during WWI,
  art techniques                                                         demand for Chinese goods
 Innovators – wanted to                                                 increased, spurring industrial
  reform Chinese art with                                                production
  foreign styles
From Chinese Republic to Communism (1918-1921)
Politics                                                            Intellectual                       Religion
 Russian Communists are admitted into the Kuomintang after          Wanted to adopt Western           Marxist-inspired attitude
   agreeing to help Sun Yat Sen                                        sciences                          toward religion; continued to
 Sun’s successor, Chiang Kai-shek, eliminates Communist             New literature written in          destroy religious temples
   membership within the Kuomintang.                                   vernacular Chinese, one of       Traditional Chinese religion
 The Communist Party began to have its own rebellions against         the most intellectually           looked down upon
   Chiang’s government.                                                revolutionary periods (1917-
 May 4, 1919, students held demonstrations protesting the Treaty
   of Versailles, which gave Japan the Chinese province of           Called by some “The
   Shantung.                                                           Chinese Renaissance”
 This is the beginning of the Communist uprising.

Art/Architecture                  Technology                        Economy                            Society
 Foreign influences on art        Few developments in              Political turmoil keeps           May Fourth Movement –
  came into China                   technology during this            economy from large                 wanted to replace Confucian
 There was a separation            period, as China is in a          developments – famine, war,        culture with more
  between the “conservatives”       period of instability and         etc                                westernized culture
  and “innovators”.                 turmoil                          Still, Chinese products are in    Traditional Chinese beliefs,

 Conservatives – wanted to                                           demand elsewhere around            everything from government
  preserve traditional Chinese                                        the world                          to Chinese classics, were
  art techniques                                                                                         attacked
 Innovators – wanted to
  reform Chinese art with
  foreign styles
Chronology of Changes in China
Qing to Chinese Republic:
 1905 – Sun Yat-sen organized the anti-Manchu movement from Japan.
 1911 – Xinhai Revolution. Wuchang Uprising. Manchu dynasty overthrown.
 1911 – Sun Yat-sen declared the Chinese republic.
 1913 – Yuan Shi-kai became president.
 1916 – Yuan died. Period of disunity and warlords began.
Chinese Republic to Communism:
 1916 – Warlord era begins
 1919 – May Fourth Movement
 1921 – Foundation of Communist Party of China
 1925 – Sun Yat-sen dies of cancer.
 1926 – Peasant communism spreads.
 1927 – Nanchung Uprising. Chinese Civil War. Creation of the Fourth Red
Chart of Chinese Government Structures
Machu Government       Republic of China             Communist China

- Manchu Emperor       -No monarch
head                   -Break down of
- Strong Confucian     Confucianism- increase in
base                   westernization and
- Huge aristocratic
                       -The formation of a
and noble class
                       primitive republic
- Power in the hands
                       -Still power being held in
of a few
                       the hands of a few
-Anti-Manchu           -Further decentralization
sentiment              between provinces
                       -Anti-imperialist sentiment
                       -Loss of outer Mongolia
                       and Tibet
Revolutionary Leaders

Sun Yat-sen: Anti-Manchu
revolutionary and leader of the                                Chiang Kai-shek: 2nd leader of
New Republic of China (1912)                                   Chinese republic
                                  Huang Hsing: Anti - Manchu
Mao Tse-Dong: leader of CPC
and first communist leader    Major points of engagement during Chinese
                              Revolution of 1911- concentrated in the
Communist Revolution- came from the
Mountain bases to ShangXi province
Methods to Gain Support
Chinese Republic:
   There was already a lot of social unrest during the Qing Empire, so it was easy to get the citizens
    of China to go along with the Chinese Republic. The Chinese citizens had been suppressed by the
    Manchus for so long that they organized quite a few anti-Manchu movements, which spurred the
    development of the Chinese Republic.
   The first uprising in the 1911 Revolution was entirely against the imperial government’s plan to
    nationalize the railway. Many who supported the uprising were wealthy investors who wanted to
    keep their wealth, military commanders who wanted independence, and Sun Yat-sen. The Chinese
    citizens were angered by the imperial government’s decision and tried to protest. When there was
    no response from the government, they turned to the revolutionaries.
Communist Party:
   The Communists were able to use the humiliation of Yuan Shi-kai and his brand of Confucianism
    as a motivating factor for the people to adopt Western science, culture, and democratic principles.
    The New Culture thinkers published their theories of many Western ideas, including government,
    education, culture, economics, and science in books and journals. They viciously attacked the
    traditional Chinese views of government, which sparked the May Fourth Movement.
   During the Versailles conference after World War I, it was decided that Japan would keep
    Shantung. The Chinese were furious about this and protested; however, it did nothing to help.
    Several leaders of the pro-Western movement were angry about China’s betrayal, which caused
    them to turn to Marxism. The New Culture Movement gestated the seeds of the Chinese
    Communist Party.
Comparison of Government Structures
                End of Qing Empire                          Beginning of Chinese Republic

massive social strife                           anti-Qing
economic stagnation                             centered on the Three principles of the People:
explosive population growth                     nationalism, democracy, and people’s livelihood
famine                                          ended unequal treaties
anti-Manchu rebellions                          brief rule by Yuan Shikai who used military power to
banned slavery                                  rule
banned concubines                               brief rule by warlords who either made treaties with
banned arranged marriage                        each other or fought against each other
banned opium smoking                            supported peasants and workers
banned foot-binding                             dictatorial rule by Chiang Kai-Shek
banned judicial torture
banned worship of idols
many internal feuds
weak military because of undeveloped military
technology compared to the rest of the world
many conflicts with foreign powers
signed unequal treaties with foreign powers
 Comparison of Government Structures
                   Chinese Republic                                         Communism

leaned towards Soviet Union                         guidance of workers, peasants, and soldiers to the
suppressed worker strikes                           socialist revolution
strong military force                               abolition of private ownership of production
concentration on destruction of the Communists      equipment
backed up by the USA                                takeover of the state power and the construction of the
wanted political and economic modernization while   dictatorship of the proletariat
maintaining the traditional Confucian values         abolition of social classes
                                                     realization of communism
                                                     organized worker strikes
                                                     backed up by Joseph Stalin
                                                     wanted to eliminate traditional Confucian culture and
                                                     create a culture more similar to Western cultures
Works Cited
   "CHINA IN THE 20TH CENTURY." Emayzine 2001. N.p., n.d. Web. 8 Feb. 2011.
   "Chinese Revolution." Encyclopedia . N.p., n.d. Web. 8 Feb. 2011.
   "From Republic to Communism." China Travel Guide . N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Feb. 2011.
   Hooker, Richard. "Modern China: The Chinese Communist Party." Information
    Technology Learning Systems Group . N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Feb. 2011.
   "Living in the Chinese Cosmos: Understanding Religion in Late-Imperial China." Asia
           for Educators. Columbia University, n.d. Web. 10 Feb. 2011.
   Theobald, Ulrich. "Chinese History - The Republic of China ." The Republic of China
           (1911-1949) event history. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Feb. 2011.
   "Traditional Chinese Painting in the Twentieth Century ." The Metropolitan Museum of
           Art, New York. N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Feb. 2011. <>.
   Woo, Philip. "The Chinese Revolution of 1911." TheCorner. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Feb.
           2011. <>.
 Priyanka Juneja – 1, part of 3
 Sasha Ree – 4, part of 3
 Lauretta Zhao – 2