"Profit Link Wealth Creation Ltd"
EAST AFRICA ASSOCIATION OF GRANTMAKERS (EAAG) SOCIAL JUSTICE PHILANTHROPY WORKSHOP REPORT HELD ON 17TH – 18TH OCTOBER 2005. NAIROBI SAFARI CLUB NAIROBI, KENYA PREPARED BY EAAG SECRETARIAT 1 TABLE OF CONTENTS Page No I. List of Acronyms and Abbreviations II. Executive Summary 1.0 Introduction 1 1.1 Opening Remarks 1 1.2 Introductions and Participants Expectations 1 2.0 Overview of Human Development Issues of East Africa 2 2.1 Highlights of a Presentation 2 2.2. The Declining Natural Resources and the Poverty Eradication Strategy 3 2.2.1 Introduction 3 2.2.2 Development Plans 4 2.2.3 Structural Adjustment Programmes 6 2.2.4 Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper 7 2.3 Group Exercise 11 2.4 Emerging Issues 13 2.5 Conclusion 13 3.0 Community Empowerment Process: Investing in People 13 3.1 Introduction 13 3.2 Fundamental Issues 15 3.3 Conclusion 15 3.4 Emerging Issues 17 4.0 Social Justice Philanthropy: An Introduction 17 4.1 Social Justice 17 4.2 Social Justice Philanthropy 18 5.0 Categorising Activities (Relief- Welfare- Control) 20 5.1 Group Reports 20 5.2 Emerging Issues 23 6.0 Recap of Day One Sessions 23 7.0 Research on Social Justice Philanthropy in Kenya 24 7.1 Research Questions 25 7.2 The National Context 25 7.3 Methodology 25 7.4 Key Findings 26 7.5 Barriers to Social Justice Philanthropy 26 7.6 Recommendations 27 7.7 Emerging Issues 27 8.0 Social Justice Grantmaking 28 8.1 Funding Social Change 28 8.2 Funding the Development Process 29 2 9.0 Projection (My Dream for East Africa) 31 10.0 Way Forward 32 11.0 Closing Remarks 33 12.0 Annexes Annex 1: List of Participants Annex 2: Workshop Timetable 3 I. ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS AIDS – Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome AKF – Aga Khan Foundation CBOs – Community Based Organisations COMESA – Common Market for East and Southern Africa CSOs – Civil Society Organisations CSR – Corporate Social Responsibility DFRD – District Focus for Rural Development DPF – Deposit Protection Fund EA – East Africa EAAG – East Africa Association of Grantmakers EABL – East Africa Breweries Limited EAC – East Africa Community ECD – Early Childhood Development EPZ – Export Promotion Zone ERAP – Economic Recovery Action Plan FBOs – Faith Based Organisations GDP – Gross Domestic Product HIV – Human Immuno Deficiency Virus HURINET – Human Rights Network IGAs – Income Generating Activities IMF – International Monetary Fund IPRSP – Interim Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper KANU – Kenya African National Union KCDF – Kenya Community Development Foundation MTEF – Medium Term Expenditure Framework MDGs – Millennium Development Goals NGOs – Non-Governmental Organisations NPEP – National Policy Eradication Plan OECD – Organisations for Economic Corporations and Development. OVCs – Orphaned and Vulnerable Children PEC – Poverty Eradication Commission POA – Power of Organised People PRSP – Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper PWDs – Persons with Disability SAPs – Structural Adjustment Programme SDD – Social Dimensions on Development Programme SJ – Social Justice SJP – Social Justice Philanthropy TOT – Training of Trainers TZ - Tanzania UG - Uganda USA – United States of America USIU – United States International University WCRP – World Conference on Religion and Peace WMS – Welfare Monitoring Survey WTO – World Trade Organisation 4 II. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 21 participants drawn from the corporate sector and civil society organisations attended the two-day Social Justice Philanthropy Workshop organised by EAAG. The theme of the workshop was: Broadening our understanding of Social Justice Philanthropy and its relevance to our work. It was pointed out that the obstacles to development in the East Africa Region have been poverty, diseases and ignorance. Health and wealth creation had collapsed and women were the most affected with 85% of the poor living in rural areas. The development plans were created with the objective of ensuring political equality, social justice, human dignity, freedom from want and diseases, equal opportunities and high and growing incomes to be distributed equitably. On the other hand, it was mentioned that good governance matches efficient management in the public sector and sustainable development. This creates equal opportunity for all and political accountability between the rulers and the ruled. However, the declining economic growth in Kenya is rapidly affecting the comparative advantage Kenya has in the East African economic regional market and its future status as one of the regions key economic players that will be determined by the successful implementation of Economic Recovery Action Plan (ERAP). Therefore, there is need to re- address MDGs in the next ten years for us to be able to make tangible gains in development. It was noted that powerlessness is the major cause of poverty. In order to empower people there is need to become more willing to share power in decision making as a way of facilitating the release of the potential and capacity communities have for wealth creation. People‟s participation is key to successful and sustainable wealth creation and development. The power of organised people can only be ensured through accountability, good governance, equity, justice and peace. Our role is to provide education and an enabling environment through democratic leadership and governance that is accountable. Social Justice was defined as a framework of objectives, pursued through social, economic, environmental and political policies, based on acceptance of difference and diversity. Social Justice Philanthropy focuses on addressing root causes rather than alleviating symptoms of inequality, challenging social inequalities and promoting access to 5 resources and opportunities. SJP seeks to bridge the gaps and build relationships between the donors and the grantees. The research done in Kenya on Social Justice Philanthropy with reference to gender bias highlighted some of the barriers to SJP to include: over- reliance on foreign funding, rigid structures and approaches when dealing with those in power, poor governance and lack of an enabling environment. The recommendations from the research indicate that there is need to develop support for SJ work, enhancing and mobilising social capital for gender inequality and building the capacity of individual officers in various organisations to be involved in the decision making process. Social Justice Grantmaking was defined as the funding through which philanthropic institutions can determine causes of social inequalities and support (activities) organisations that work for structural change in order to increase the ability, opportunities and access to greater political, economic and social power to those who are disadvantaged and marginalized in society. In conclusion participants highlighted several areas as the way forward. This were: widening membership to incorporate philanthropists in the corporate sector, empowering members to conduct trainings on various areas of philanthropy, encouraging exploitation of local resources, building partnerships with governments to enhance implementation capacity of communities, liasing with faith based organisations and governments in advocacy for social change and inviting government officials for future workshops to enhance better understanding on issues affecting individual at the grass root level. . 6 DAY 1 SESSION 1 1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Opening Remarks EAAG chairman, Ms Vijoo Rattansi, opened the workshop. In her opening remarks, she began by welcoming members and participants from the corporate sector for the Social Justice Philanthropy workshop. She highlighted the reasons for holding the workshop as: EAAG seeks to build a progressive movement by helping foundations to more effectively serve populations that are the least well off politically, economically and socially. It also seeks to nurture grantmaking to promote greater access in the economic, social and political arena for people who are excluded. EAAG also hopes to strengthen new and or existing social movements that work for social, political and economic equity. One of the activities we are involved currently is lobbying our governments in East Africa to give tax exemptions to organisations and individuals involved in giving in order to have meaningful change in philanthropy. 1.2 Objective of the workshop The objective was enumerated to be: Broadening our understanding of Social Justice Philanthropy and its relevance to our work. 1.3 Introductions and Participants expectations In this session, participants asked to say who they are, what they do and what they expect to achieve after the workshop. The expectations included: To learn about the perspectives of social justice philanthropy Understand social justice philanthropy Know how Unilever can partner with EAAG in education, health or environment issues. Learn more from other participants and how to partner with corporates How to bring synergy between Safaricom foundation and EAAG Learn more about social justice philanthropy and how best to use it Learn more about EAAG Know how USIU can be of service to EAAG Learn how to support orphans and enable them enjoy their rights. 7 2.0 OVERVIEW OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT ISSUES IN EAST AFRICA – by Dr. Michael Chelogoy 2.1 Highlights of the Presentations In the opening statement for the session, the facilitator gave a summary of the human development issues, highlighting the areas of concern. It was pointed out that the constitution making process must take into account the aspirations for all, for any country to realise significant gains in tackling development issues. In relation to development plans, it was mentioned that the obstacles to development were poverty, diseases and ignorance. It was noted that health and wealth creation had collapsed and women were most affected with 52% living in abject poverty. With regard to goals for development were dependent on political equality, social justice, a society that is free from diseases and equitable distribution of resources. It was also noted that strategies for development were affected by internal forces such as economic distribution of resources in limited areas and in the hands of a few people. The facilitator pointed out that Structural Adjustment Programmes (SAPs) failed and poverty levels rose. The vulnerable were affected more and those who were not vulnerable became vulnerable. The financial sector began to crumble and the National Policy Eradication Plan (NPEP) was born out of the failure of SAPs It was also mentioned that the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) were meant to last for 15 years, yet the gains in the last 5 years are not tangible. Therefore, there was need to re-address the MDGs in the 10 years that are remaining. It was also pointed out that development players are struggling to make the MDGs practical in the villages to facilitate impact at the national level. In wealth creation, it was noted that the west are working on adding value to countries that have resources by improving their production capacity thus making the countries viable for their own development. It was further noted that the Welfare Monitoring Survey facilitated research on poverty, which was seen as a multi-diversity factor. Decline in national income increased poverty levels e.g. expensive farm inputs led to expensive farm inputs that led to the decline in income-85% of the poor live in rural areas and women are the most affected. It was enumerated that historical legacies or neglect in the regions have led to insignificant figures in development thus high levels of poverty. It was mentioned that poverty survey was based on several approaches: Theoretical approach: Poverty is seen as a tragedy where social networks have been destroyed. On the other hand, poverty is viewed in its multi-diversity that addresses human dignity including freedoms and other factors beyond wages and incentives that come with it. It was noted that poverty is seen as a trap of a social 8 and economic nature and can only be tackled by creating practices that embrace good governance and social order. The solutions to various approached can be realised by addressing the root causes of poverty. The causes or indicators could be categorised to be either persistent vis-à-vis temporary e.g. disadvantaged and dependent. Dependent vis-à-vis active poor are persons who are susceptible to temporary e.g. loss of a job. Another category is the food poor i.e. they have one meal a day but it‟s not balanced. 2.2 The Declining National Resources and the Poverty Reduction Strategy Why Should we Mobilize Resources for Development in Kenya? 2.2.1 Introduction Since independence, Kenya suffered its worst economic performance in the decade of 1990s. These were ten years of falling economic growth and declining per capita income which culminated in a -0.3 per cent GDP by the year 2000. Kenya performed poorly on governance, effective government and commitment to the rule of law. Before this decline, Kenya had the strongest economy in East Africa. Nairobi, the capital city, hosted many international organizations and companies, and Kenya had become the regional centre of communications and transport, with Kenya Airways recognizably one of the leading airlines in Africa and the Port of Mombasa playing an important role in linking the landlocked countries in the hinterland to the rest of the world. During this period Kenya‟s currency is the shilling (Ksh); varies between Ksh70–80 to the US dollar. In 2002, Kenya‟s GDP was an estimated US$10 billion, with GDP per capita of $230. In 1998, the budget estimated revenues of Ksh160 billion and expenditure of Ksh170 billion (approximately US$2 billion and US$2.1 billion respectively. Foreign debt stood at $6.5 billion in 1997. Imports were valued at $3 billion in 1998, of which 31 per cent was spent on machinery and transport equipment, 13 per cent on consumer goods and 12 per cent on oil. Exports during the same period were valued at $2 billion. Politics of development Good governance match‟s efficient management in the public sector and sustainable social development. It creates equal opportunity for all, and political accountability between rulers and the ruled. Therefore, the role of the state ought to be clearly defined. At independence, the concentration of power in the government institutions was considered sufficient for economic efficiency and growth. While political and social stability could be nurtured through actions of the government, it is critical to integrate people of different backgrounds into a common national interest. Kenya has had peace for over 40 years and the Government will have to maintain the institutional framework to ensure sustainable peace and security. Therefore, the constitution must fully take into account the yearnings, the fears and the aspirations of all Kenyans. The current agitation for an inclusive constitution is a move in the right direction. Civil and political rights are inalienable rights of all people irrespective of 9 the stage of economic and social development in which they are. The government is aware of the fact that economic growth without respect for human rights only weakens democracy. In considering whether the new constitution is good for our country, Kenyan need to consider three things. First ask whether it is able to maintain a strong and integrated national economy, secondly whether it is capable of bring about good governance and finally whether the government created by such constitution could used it to formulate sound development policies that could propel Kenya to reach the standards of participation in the global economy. Kenya in the region The Government of Kenya has been engaged in solving long-standing regional conflicts in the Horn of Africa. It has remained neutral in the Democratic Republic of Congo conflicts and is a key player in peace-building efforts in South Sudan and Somalia. Kenya has the potential to act as an engine of growth for the East African region. Progress has been made in regional integration within the newly reconstituted East African Community and the Common Market for East and Southern Africa (COMESA), which challenges some vested industrial and agricultural interests but will also increase trade opportunities. An economically strong Kenya is important for East African development. Its geographic location, a comparatively strong private sector, financial depth and relatively developed manufacturing and service sectors give it a prominent role in the region. The country also boasts a relatively strong human skills base, which would lay the foundation for success, and with potentially high domestic revenue, its future needs for development assistance should be less than that of its neighbours. However, the declining economic growth is rapidly affecting the comparative advantage Kenya has in the East African economic region market and its future status as one of the region’s key economic players will be determined by the successful implementation of Economic Recovery Action Plan (ERAP). 2.2.2 Development Plans At independence, Kenyan leaders address three main obstacles to development - poverty, diseases and ignorance and they formulated a series of objectives to accomplish in order to build a just and democratic state. The objectives were: Political equality Social justice Human dignity Freedom from want and diseases Equal opportunities High and growing incomes to be distributed equitably At the same time Kenya adapt development strategies and population planning was seen as key to economic growth. Resources allocated for development were directed towards building schools, hospitals and houses. Although the government welcomed investment from both the private sector and civil society organisations, its strategies were badly affected by both internal and external events. Firstly, it failed to introduce varying forms of ownership and progressive system of taxation and thus more 10 economic power and distribution of wealth and income was concentrated in limited areas. Secondly, the intensity of the cold war competition produced negative effects, causing the collapse of the East Africa Community in 1977. Thirdly, a section of the Air Force attempted a coup in 1982 and as a result, the one-party state, was legalized by a Parliamentary constitutional amendment known as section 2A, after which no other political party could legally be formed in Kenya. Between 1979 and 983, a new plan (commonly known as the fourth development plan) for economy reforms with a principle theme of „poverty alleviation‟, emerged. Since then the development challenges facing Kenya had to consider new situations because poverty was growing rapidly and food insecurity was afflicting many Kenyans. Human development indices including life expectancy, nutrition status, and education levels were deteriorating. Public institutions were dysfunctional and corruption was rampant. The future development plans had to take 'hard option' objectives, for easy forms of development came to an end. It is now clear that land policy ought to follow more intensive farming techniques -higher inputs, and greater use of marginal land and introduce irrigation in arid and semi-arid land for production of cotton, rice and other crops. In July 1983, the District Focus For Rural Development (DFRD) was inaugurated to facilitate the implementation of development in Kenya and to move decision centre from Nairobi to the district. Sending the allocated resources directly to the districts was meant to increase efficiency in delivery and implementation process. The cooperative movement also increased and numbers shooting from 1,030 in 1963 to 2,652 in 1983. Developing formal and informal sectors The creation of job opportunities has been the greatest challenges facing Kenya. The scale of the problem demands that more resources and means be utilized to create jobs, in order to enhance incomes and livelihoods. Therefore, both formal and informal sectors should increase their outputs to create more employment opportunities and play a greater role in economic development. The informal sector such as Jua Kali industry must be strengthened in orders to continue growing and create more jobs. Recent years have shown the strength of small-scale enterprises in creating employment, but more importantly, the sector provides an essential training ground for developing entrepreneurial skills that are essential to Kenya's industrialization. In order to expand Kenyan market presence in both traditional and new markets, an effective contact promotion programme, market surveys and investigations, trade fairs, exhibitions and trade missions will have to be undertaken by Export Promotion Zone (EPZ) in collaboration with other private and public institutions. Kenya‟s GDP could experience tremendous growth if value was added to agricultural products, the mainstay of its economy. At present, too many products are sold in a relatively raw form on the domestic market, as illustrated by the following examples. In 1997, timber production amounted to some 460,000 metric tonnes, while the mining sector, including soda mining, produced 225,000 tonnes, accounting for some 5 per cent of overall economic output. In 1998, fish production totalled 200,000 tonnes and the production of subsistence crops improved significantly, for example, 11 2.6 million tonnes of maize and 250,000 tonnes of wheat were produced. In the same year, cash crops remained steadily on course, producing 4.9 million tonnes of sugarcane, 300,000 tonnes of pineapples, 72,000 tonnes of coconuts, 280,000 tonnes of tea, 57,000 tonnes of coffee, 29,000 tonnes of sisal, 10,000 tonnes of pyrethrum and 5,600 tonnes of pepper. By the end of 1998, agriculture and forestry contributed 29 per cent of GDP. This volume included a livestock population of approximately 14.2 million heads of cattle, 7.5 million goats, 5.7 million sheep, 830,000 camels and 2.4 million beehives. In 1998, tourism, a major contributor to Kenya‟s economy, attracted 1 million tourists, generating income of about $400 million. Kenya has attractive wildlife, game parks, lakes and mountains, and its beaches and coral reefs are among the best in Africa. The two international airports, Nairobi and Mombasa, handled 2.7 million passengers and 122,000 tonnes of freight in 1999. There are 11 other subsidiary airports around the country and a major seaport at Mombasa, which handles about 10 million tones of cargo a year. It is important to understand that the 1998 and the 2001 terrorist attacks in Kenya have badly affected the tourist sector. Whereas human curiosity to visit and explore places should not be underestimated, the recent travel advisory by the governments of USA and some other countries of the western Europe have brought irreparable damage to Kenyan tourism industry. It is perhaps an understatement to say that these travel advisories only strengthens terrorist, for in most cases, they are as damaging as the terrorist attacks. Therefore governments of USA and western European nations will need to re-examine the real diplomatic and political motives of such advisories. Kenya has 2,652 km of railways and 63,000 km of roads, of which 9,000 km are paved. It is estimated that there are 12 motor vehicles per 1,000 inhabitants and, according to 1998 estimates; there were eight telephone lines per 1,000 inhabitants. The liberalization of the telecommunications sector has brought about a significant increase in the number of Kenyans having access to telephone services and by January 2002 some 800,000 mobile phones were in use in Kenya and by 2004, a period of two years, the number has grown three fold to over 2,000,000 people. The rise of this figure reveals a surprising phenomenon in human needs, for in a society badly affected by poverty, the growth in communication services illustrates an interesting inter-linkage between the levels of basic needs. 2.2.3 Structural adjustment programmes After independence in 1963, Kenya embarked upon the creation of a free and democratic society that recognized the role of the individual. But independence did not turn the public‟s dream into reality. The free education, free medical care and readily available jobs that were envisioned turned out to be a mirage. Impressive growth rates were recorded between the mid-1960s and mid-1970s, but by the mid- 1980s the country had started to experience economic stagnation, which was attributed to both poor economic management and inappropriate macroeconomic policies. From 1991, Kenya embarked upon structural adjustment programmes (SAPs) under the aegis of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and in order to meet IMF requirements. The changes involved trade liberalization, privatisation of 12 public enterprises and civil service reforms. These reduced government development activities and made it increasingly difficult for Kenyan society to keep up with the levels of expenditure required to support government services. Targets for reducing government budget deficits or increasing government revenue were not reached. In order to fund the budget deficit the government accumulated excessive internal borrowing, while finding it increasingly difficult to explain the complex factors that led to such borrowing to the public. The government was unable to set aside sufficient resources to cushion the poor against the adverse effects of the SAPs. Cost sharing was introduced within the health and education sectors, but this increased the burden on Kenyans and exposed the poorer sections of society to severe economic hardship and eventually increased poverty and social instability. The failure of the SAPs was in part due to too much dependence on additional support from Kenya‟s development partners, which was not forthcoming. To address the economic and social problems experienced by low-income and vulnerable groups, the government initiated the Social Dimensions on Development Programme (SDD). The IMF, World Bank and other development partners insisted on conditions that had to be met before aid would be granted. Such demands, along with other non-quantifiable factors such as governance, lack of transparency in the public and private sectors, and social and economic instability, caused irreversible changes (for better or worse) in the Kenyan political landscape. The governing party at the time, KANU, began to lose the people‟s support, which accelerated the process of change and by the beginning of 2000, the public was in the mood for change and it was only a matter of time until change was effected. Financial sector The picture has been gloomy for the banking sector, which has been grappling with the problem of non-performing loans that constitute 39.3 per cent of the total debt portfolio. Five banks hold 59 per cent of the total assets, while 44 smaller banks hold the remaining 41 per cent. There is little in-built resistance to catastrophes in these small banks, which has made them a source of instability in the sector. The situation is further aggravated by the existence of large state-controlled banks, some of which are struggling with huge political loans. The Central Bank supervises the commercial banks and financial institutions, and although banking supervision has improved over the years, the process is still not effective. There is a statutory instrument, the Deposit Protection Fund (DPF), that protects the ordinary depositor from loss in case the bank becomes insolvent or otherwise fails, but banks are collapsing faster than the DPF is growing. 2.2.4 Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper Action plan Concerned about the effects of poverty on the people of Kenya, at the turn of the century, the government formulated the National Poverty Eradication Plan (NPEP), a long-term (15-year) strategy, to help fight the escalating levels of poverty made worse by the SAPs. It aimed to reduce the incidence of poverty by half by 2015. The government budgeted funds for poverty alleviation programmes and NPEP 13 implementation was spearheaded by the Poverty Eradication Commission (PEC), which was appointed by the Head of State and supported by a secretariat in the Office of the President. Under the NPEP, ministries were required to work out areas and sectors of specific intervention to be funded on priority basis, to identify and train specific officers to oversee the implementation of poverty eradication activities, and to work together on a coordinated approach to implementation of the Plan. On the basis of the WMS III, the NPEP outlined the scope of poverty in Kenya and set targets for its reduction through the Interim Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (IPRSP), incorporating the Medium Term Expenditure Framework (MTEF), which is used to prioritise resource allocation. This led to the development of the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP), which outlines the priorities and measures necessary for poverty reduction, advocates for a multi-sectoral, bottom-up approach and the participation of the poor in budgetary and resource allocation processes, and articulates Kenya‟s commitment and approach to fighting poverty. It represents, the first time in the history of government planning that a major national policy has been developed with the extensive participation of communities and various stakeholders. However, while the PRSP has sought to implement the NPEP in three-year rolling plans, it has yet to turn identified priorities into a viable operational plan with monitoring mechanisms with sufficient resources. Nevertheless, it is an important step by the Kenyan Government in the fight against poverty in order to spur economic growth. The budget allocation for 2000–03 was prepared using the three-year MTEF for the first time. The approach links planning to resource allocation, which ensures that implementation takes into account resource availability, constraints and expected outcomes. The budget was based on the IPRSP, which was developed through extensive consultations with government, NGOs and development partner stakeholders, in all 70 districts of Kenya. The MTEF formed the basis of future budgets and identified priorities and strategies for the reduction of poverty and enhancement of economic growth for the well being of all Kenyans. The uniqueness of the document is its bottom-up approach and its attempts to put the poor in control of their resources and allow them to participate in identifying their development priorities. The document gave a voice to the people and provided credibility to poverty reduction efforts through emphasis of ownership. This approach opened up development space with enormous opportunities for non-profit organizations to complement government efforts and for citizens to participate in national policy development. The Challenge of sustainable economic growth Along with the need to achieve sustained economic growth, the other main challenge facing Kenya today is the need to reduce poverty. The number of poor Kenyans increased from 3.7 million in 1972–3 to 11.5 million in 1994 and by 2002, this had risen to over 15 million. In percentage terms, according to the Welfare Monitoring Survey (WMS III) conducted in 1997, 52 per cent of Kenyans were poor, and by 2001, this figures was estimated to have risen to 56 per cent. This means that more than half of the population currently has no access to the basic necessities of life such 14 as food, medicines, safe water, education and shelter. Approximately three-quarters of the poor live in rural areas. According WMS III, Kenyan adults living in rural areas had only Ksh30.90 to cater for their daily needs such as food, while their urban counterparts had an average of Ksh41.80, so whether living in a rural or urban area, an average Kenyan adult has less than $1 to provide for their daily needs. According to the Economic Survey of 2000, per capita income was $306 in 1999. Poverty has been compounded by the inequitable distribution of wealth, which is concentrated in the hands of a few individuals. The rise in poverty was mainly attributed to the declining national income. The agricultural sector, which had been the mainstay of the economy, has badly been affected by expensive farming inputs such as fertilizers, farming equipments, cost of seeds, and entry of cheaper product from outside the country, all leading to a drastic reduction of personal and national incomes. According to the World Bank country report for Kenya, the incidence of poverty is higher in rural areas. About 85 per cent of the poor live in rural areas and the majority are women. Surveys conducted in 1997 found that rural food poverty affected 51 per cent of the population, while the overall rural poverty affected 53 per cent. In urban areas food poverty affected 38 per cent of the urban population and overall poverty affected 49 per cent. In 1997, based on the total population living in the province, Nyanza Province had the highest incidence of rural poverty (63 per cent), and the Coast Province (62 per cent), while the Central Province had the lowest at 31.4 per cent. At the same time, the overall poverty line (cost of food and non-food items) in Kenyan rural areas was Ksh1, 239 per person per month. In urban areas, the overall poverty line was Ksh 2, 648 per person per month. The estimated poverty levels in Kenya show that the proportion of the population suffering from food poverty has increased more rapidly than absolute poverty in the past 25 years. Notwithstanding, it is of crucial important to mention that, there are two theoretical approaches to the examination of poverty. On the one hand, poverty comes with hardship and tragedy, because many Kenyan children die before their first birthday and each one of this leaves a grieving family. On the other hand, the multidimensionality of poverty must not be overestimated. But that does not merely mean that poverty has many dimensions, but that human dignity and freedom are as important as employment incentives and wages. But, it is imperative to note that, various aspects of poverty reinforce each other, making poverty a trap of both social and economic nature. In other words, the poor could become strangers, removed from the social support that could have legitimised they recovery from poverty. It is equally important understand that, classification of poverty is a theoretical excise for it defines poverty and points to its causes. In Kenya as in most African countries three cause of poverty are worth noting. Firstly, there is the persistent versus temporary poverty, secondly, poor versus destitute, and finally, the dependent versus the economically active poor. The persistent versus temporary poverty includes the disadvantaged, and dependants such as elderly (particularly women whose assets are taken when they become widowed) and the disabled. The major economically active group may move in and out of poverty, which makes them susceptible to interludes of 15 poverty due to individually particular circumstances, caused by factors such as conflict, drought, or unemployment or other momentarily economic crisis. Household are likely to be poor at certain stage of stages of their household cycle, when there are many young children, which is a link between large household size and poverty, or once children have moved away to establish their own households. In both the developing and developed countries, transitory poverty is a common phenomenon, pointing to the importance of vulnerability and of securing livelihoods as an antipoverty strategy. Nonetheless, how people survive moving into poverty, why it happens and how they escape again, and the implications of this phenomenon for poverty measurement, is a key gap in the approaches to poverty analysis. The agricultural sector, which employs the majority of rural people, has experienced many problems ranging from drought and lack of inputs, to mismanagement and lack of markets. Unemployment has been accelerated by mismanagement of resources and failure of the economy to absorb the available labour force from the traditional job market. This was compounded by the energy crisis of 1999–2001, when there was a shortage of power for industrial use leading to industrial closures and massive job losses. The economic liberalization prescribed by the IMF and World Bank and supported by the rich nations of the western world has made the situation worse. For example, In December 2000, the Secretary of State for International Government, in the government of the United Kingdom, presented to the House of Commons a White Paper on International Development. The British government committed itself to; first support a country-specific approach to capital account liberalisation, that considered countries ability to sequence and manage the risks associated to greater openness, secondly, support the IMF role in both low and middle income countries, and ensure that IMF policies support poverty reduction and sustainable development, thirdly, to support the inclusion of agreements on investment and competition as part of future multilateral trade negotiation in the WTO, and work in parallel to help developing countries to build capacity and encourage closer regional co-operation on these issues, and finally, work to build support for consultations beyond the OECD with developing countries on taxation issues, as well as continue to strengthen it work to promote corporate social responsibility particularly with regard to greater disclosure of social environment and ethical policies. Such a approach to poverty reduction sound wonderful, but the Kenyan reality is that when it came to the Civil Service Reform Programme led to many staff redundancies, for example, the complicated phenomenon of poverty was ignored and no western government including United Kingdom opposed these programs. It is also interesting to note that, the world trade negotiation in Mexico in 2003 collapsed because the developed nations went to the negotiation table with an unworkable program of trading with the poor nations. Furthermore, the implementation of cost sharing by most public institutions affected many people who were otherwise cushioned by government subsidies, thereby increasing the incidence of poverty, and now more NGOs are involved with the more communities and groups to find the most effective means of reducing poverty. 16 2.3 Group Exercise Participants were asked to discuss, a) How can we as Grantmakers encourage good governance in both private and public sector? b) What is our role in poverty reduction and wealth creation in the civil society? The group reports were as follows: Group 1 a) How can we as Grantmakers encourage good governance in both private and public sector? Start with our own institutions i.e. NGO council in Kenya. It was pointed out that the council is hardly functioning thus was not in a position to advocate for good governance. Learn who we are: our sense of humanity, natural law – the long term impact of the choices we make over time and sense of service to our community. It was pointed out that Prof. Wangari Maathai said, “If you don‟t treat nature properly, it will destroy you”. Accountability: who are we accountable to: MONGOS (My Own NGO) and MODONOR (My Own Donor). We should improve our accountability to the communities we serve. Create models for the public sector b) What is our role in poverty reduction and wealth creation in the civil society? Invest in people skills, empowerment processes that can change people‟s attitude, outlook and approach to issues. “Mwenda bure si mkaa bure, huenda akaokota” It was noted that CSOs are closer to the people and have the ability to enable people realise the power within. It is also important to encourage partnerships and create linkages between the private and public sector Group 2 a) How can we as Grantmakers encourage good governance in both private and public sector? Ensuring policies and procedures for good governance are in place in our organisations Advocating and lobbying for good governance policies in the public sector Building capacity of communities to demand for accountability Building a network or constituencies of like minded stakeholder Set the pace from our own organisations 17 b) What is our role in poverty reduction and wealth creation in the civil society? Building capacities of people Support initiatives that promote self-reliance Ensure participation of people from planning, implementation and evaluation Encouraging a saving culture It was commented that corporates have an advantage because of CSR thus can partner with the government and CSOs. As a result, they are able to identify needy areas and areas for social investment. CSOs were urged to work hard in ensuring building partnerships with the corporate sector Group 3 a) How can we as Grantmakers encourage good governance in both private and public sector? Educating people (sensitising communities) Capacity building on good governance systems Involvement of religious leaders in enhancing moral values in the community Commitment from Grantmakers in follow-up to know the mission and vision promotes good governance. Make grants for good governance Effective grant making systems to assess the grant recipients b) What is our role in poverty reduction and wealth creation in the civil society? Building capacity of communities to facilitate resource mobilisation locally Providing skills and capital (revolving fund) for IGAs Support community to build endowment fund Promoting partnership between community, corporates and private sector Linking community with potential development partners/donors Promoting village banks Promoting local philanthropy Address issues of HIV/AIDS and gender inequality Group 4 a) How can we as Grantmakers encourage good governance in both private and public sector? Involvement at policy level Building partnerships Good governance practices to start with Grantmakers Act as conduits Hold people responsible or accountable 18 b) What is our role in poverty reduction and wealth creation in the civil society? Corporates involved in CSR to have Long-term activities Make social investment 2.4 Emerging Issues One of the participants enquired if resource mobilisation was achievable. It was pointed out that training, IGAs, community ownership and savings can transform informal groups to formal groups. This was a case study that had been successfully implemented in Tanzania. Another case study mentioned was one in Mwingi in Kenya, where the community members were encouraged to save a shilling a day to build the endowment fund. Their target in a year was said to be Kshs. 3 million. It was pointed out that corporates have embraced the saying that “All money belongs to the people”. 2.5 Conclusion It was mentioned that poverty is beyond economic issues, it also involves social matrix. Grantmakers were thus challenged to have an affection to address issues of good governance, poverty reduction, wealth creation and lobby for change. It was also pointed out that governance has its root in maintaining law and order Participants were urged to build strong social capital and break the „glass ceiling‟ between the power barons vis-à-vis the people. There is need to break ceiling e.g. by corporates being part of the community as they have the goodwill of the people. Breaking the glass will lead to intermingling of the rich and the poor. It was pointed out that there is need for Africans to embrace the culture of saving and appreciate money. This will help the society to transform and change. SESSION 2 3.0 COMMUNITY EMPOWERMENT PROCESSES: INVESTING IN PEOPLE The facilitator began the presentation by stating that people at the bottom tend to be the less powerful. The presentation covered various aspects that need to address in empowering communities. 3.1. Introduction The centrality of power in the dynamics of development Poverty is a structural issue – the change from colonialism-changed faces, not structures and as a result poverty increased. 19 Globalisation may increase the of new millionaires, but poverty is still increasing 1. Pertinent Issues: Equity and distribution of resources --- who determines the development agenda? What is development? o People versus things o Growth versus development changes structures. Do people have the capacity and power to undertake their own development? o Changing the structure of own community, own country, the global structure o Mnyonge kupata ni mwenye nguvu kupenda (If you are weak, its the strong to decide) Capacity means good followeship. It comprises: o Having the ability to question decisions made o Taking responsibility for all actions o Community clearly articulation their needs 2. (A) Empowerment Development Approaches Sectoral Approaches: water and health for all by 2000 was a complete failure Development inputs remain non-systematic solutions that increase the need for more and more of the same rather than strengthening the ability of existing structures. Hence the fostering of increased dependency while lessening abilities of communities to create wealth International donors remain reluctant to fund core costs, endowments and sustainable strategies. They remain rooted in short-term quick fixes of projects: this in spite of all the stalled and non-functioning projects. o Run down health education facilities o Non – operational boreholes and wells litter entire divisions. The facilitator mentioned that if we do not invest enough in people thus the failures we experience today. The inputs are geared towards the products (water, roads). For example, in Moyale in North Eastern Kenya, there are 80 boreholes that are not functioning and a solution to the problem is nowhere near. A number of projects are not working yet we invest more in the “Quick Fixes” just to show we have worked. Without these we feel we have failed. (b) A paradigm shift required to change from project driven initiatives to capacity building and empowerment: 20 Help communities to discover the power and wealth they have – the power of organised people. A paradigm shift is notable in the corporate sector where managers are addressing empowerment of their employees as companies become leaner but more efficient. Empowered employees Sense of determination and freedom to choose how to do their work Sense of meaning – they care about their work Sense of competence about their ability to perform Sense of impact: their ideas will be heard 3.1 Fundamental Issues Qualitative participation and power sharing When power is shared, then responsibility for both credit and blame is shared. The power of organised/mobilise people – “the most potent on earth”, comes to play and ensures: o Accountability o Equitability – Justice o And therefore, SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT. People cannot be developed. They have to develop themselves through their own actions Our role is to provide: education and an enabling environment through participatory/democratic leadership. 3.2 Conclusion 1. Powerlessness is a major cause of poverty. The best approach to identifying the poor is to ask the community; Who are the poor? Why are they poor? What problems are they facing? 2. We need to lower barriers that say „stay where you are” “ do what you are told” We use these to maintain control in the system but they block empowerment 3. We must become more willing to share power in decision-making. It is the risk we have to take in order to end powerlessness In order to release the potential and capacity for wealth creation that communities have. 4. (a) We have to believe and trust that: Every community has assets Employees will do the right thing if given the chance 21 Empowerment breeds freedom which in-turn breeds creativity is necessary for wealth creation. (b) Communities are the only ones capable of achieving durable improvements (wealth) in their livelihoods. (c) People participation is key to successful and sustainable wealth creation and development. (d) Participation brings out people‟s own unique talents 5. The power of organized people (mobilized people) “the most potent on the earth” is not synonymous with violence – but only way to ensure: Accountability Good governance Equity and justice and therefore peace 6. Communities cannot be developed they create wealth through their own actions 7. Our role is to provide: Education Enabling environment through democratic leadership & governance that is accountable. 8. Accountable government: by demand “only” Participation is required for strengthening of associational life Associations, networks and other socio-economic groupings build “social capital” (the power of organized people) Empowering ordinary citizens (CBOs) Gives them a voice which needed to demand better governance (rule of law) Law and order is critical for development An accountable government is feasible only if there is “Demand” “The one thing all history teaches is that people have to act for themselves and in their own interest…. The people know their own needs: once convinced that these can be overcome by their own efforts, they will make these efforts.” “Development brings people freedom, provided it is development of people. People cannot be development; they can only develop themselves. For while it is possible for an outsider to build a man’s house, an outsider cannot give the man pride and self confidence in himself as a human being. Those things a man has to create in himself by his own decisions, by increasing his understanding of what he is doing and why, by his own full participation.” Former President Julius Nyerere, United Republic of Tanzania 22 3.3 Emerging Issues The facilitator enquired to know how could we look at another way from the norm and tradition? It was mentioned that people know their needs. Development brings people freedom provided its development coming from the people themselves. People cannot be developed; they can only develop themselves (Julius Nyerere). Development is about transforming “For a while, its possible for an outsider to build a man’s house, an outsider cannot give the man pride and self-confidence in himself as a human being” – Julius Nyerere. In relation to people, how does this project fit (building a house for the people)? In response it was pointed out that people must change like the people and not as individuals. The issue of participation is important and a donor should be able to ask, what is it the individual or community wants. 4.0 SOCIAL JUSTICE PHILANTHROPY: AN INTRODUCTION 4.1 SOCIAL JUSTICE IS… A framework of objectives, pursued through social, economic, environmental and political policies, based on an acceptance of difference and diversity, and informed by values concerned with: Achieving fairness and equality of outcomes and treatment Recognizing the dignity and equal worth and encouraging the self-esteem of all; Reducing inequalities in wealth, income and life chances Encouraging the sustainable participation of all, including the most disadvantaged SOCIAL JUSTICE REFERS… To sets of interactions, activities and values within social, economic and political relationships, which ensure the availability of rights, access to resources, eradication of poverty and all forms of inequality, and the promotion of well being. “If poverty were regarded as a massive, systematic and continuous violation of human rights, its persistence would no longer be a regrettable feature of the nature of things. It would become a denial of justice.” Pierre Sané 23 “Social justice is part of human rights…Social change is linked with the transformation of society with the emphasis on access to opportunities for development”. Marcos Kisil Social justice is not just about the promotion and protection of human rights. It also incorporates the idea of the struggle for emancipation from social, political and economic oppression…. those who suffer injustice must themselves be involved in actions to eradicate it. SJ guarantees inclusion and respect for diversity, enables participation by communities, ensures that people have a voice, equal access to resources, opportunities and rights. 4.2 SOCIAL JUSTICE PHILANTHROPY: A Definition “Grant-making to make society fairer by increasing political, economic and social opportunities for the disadvantaged or disenfranchised and more equitable distribution of political power”. Cohen The Difference Between Philanthropy and SJP Definitions include: Addressing shortages of basic needs (food, clothing and shelter): Redistributing power Transforming values in favour of diversity (race, gender, caste etc) Building strong community capacity, so that people have the power to act; and Increasing public participation in decision making “Charity as ordinarily practiced, the charity of endowment, the charity of emotion, the charity, which takes the place of justice, creates much of the misery it relieves, but does not relieve all the misery it creates.” Joseph Rowntree (Joseph Rowntree Charitable Trust) “Philanthropy is commendable, but it must not cause the philanthropist to overlook the circumstances of economic injustice that make philanthropy necessary’. Martin Luther King 24 Focus is on: Helping people to help themselves Addressing root causes rather than alleviating symptoms of inequalities Challenging social inequities Institutional change Promoting access to resources and opportunities Attempting to bridge the gaps and build relationships between the donors and the grantees Involving those most affected by social problems by determining a solution We need to assist and resource the disadvantaged to make choices about their own future and to take collective responsibility for, and control of, the way in which their lives are organized. We need to ensure that their participation in decision-making processes is genuinely empowering, and not tokenistic. We need to promote their capacity to change inequitable social structures and institutions. Otherwise philanthropy will simply mirror existing welfare arrangements, imposing top-down government or service provider agendas on consumers. Gary Craig (Professor of Social Justice and President of the International Association for Community Development) 1. Education 2. Provision of skills and investment in human resources 3. Alongside wider programs to address the causes why some groups have difficulty having their basic needs met while others have a disproportionate share of available resources Donors need to think about the extent to which programs they support simply address the manifestations of injustice or its causes. They need to promote an understanding of, and challenge the causes of inequality or injustice. Need to empower disadvantaged communities with tools to change structures of injustice. THE CRUX POWER STRUCTURES dictate maintenance of the status quo. SJP MUST address the power structures. •To implicitly or explicitly confront/challenge the power structures involves risks. •Not being prepared to take risks in pursuit of SJ implies acceptance of the status quo. “We truly believe that for philanthropy to result in change, philanthropy itself must be open to change”. Joan Garner, Executive Director, Southern Partners Fund 25 “If foundations espouse the values of social justice, this implies a strongly proactive stance to grant-making. It will influence not only what they do, but also how they do it. They must also have: - A clear theory of social change, - An analysis of the causes of social injustice - And a strategy for addressing them. It might necessitate building alliances, partnerships or coalitions with other donors or with proxies who can act where donors can’t, to pursue the broader aims of social justice”. Gary Craig SESSION 3 5.0 Categorising Activities (From relief and welfare to control) In this session participants were required to categorise the activities they engage in at their respective organisation and group them in terms of relief, welfare and control/empowerment. The participants used the concept of fishing that focused on 3 aspects Giving fish (relief/welfare), Teaching to fish (education, conscientization) Going Beyond fishing (participation/control) 5.1 Group Reports Group One GIVING FISH TEACHING TO FISH GOING BEYOND FISHING A. WCRP - TZ FBO grants to tackle IGA‟s, SPM Policy advocacy on gender, stigma in HIV/AIDS Training of Trainers-for OVCs, National Poverty Strategy Village/community civic education and voter Papers, land and inheritance. banks- cash grants education Creating legal and economic for capacity building TOT on stigma at national, framework for FBOs to take Give grants for regional and district level. orphans at family and peace meetings and Replication of best community levels. conferences practices - programme by Teaching/advocacy for good others governance Interpretation of statutes that affect human rights, child abuse, gender and inheritance. Conduct consultancy/research/training at community level for economic empowerment. Partnerships with corporates and entrepreneurs in 26 Social responsibility initiatives Joint business ventures e.g. Kenya – Honey Africa (beekeeping project) B. Hurinet Education and sensitisation Peace building and conflict of communities about their resolution rights Advocacy and policy reforms Women rights Training paralegals who work Children rights within communities PWDs HIV/AIDS Capacity building (financial and project management) Computers and accessories C. Ufadhili Institution building Strengthening advocacy Training in good Policy making governance Governance (national) Financial management Public debate Project proposal writing Creating networks Training PWDs Providing safety nets Raising awareness of vulnerable groups Group Two GIVING FISH TEACHING HOW TO BEYOND FISHING FISH A. Kabaka Foundation 1.Street Children and Vocational training Endowment fund rehabilitation centre Basic Education building for the project Giving food and clothing to Computers to schools street children Rehabilitation centre for Rehabilitation for displaced disadvantaged people in Northern Uganda 2. Clan Philanthropy Savings for education and Involvement and conscientization participation of women in clan issues 3.Model Village Community education and Land ownership by involvement in model village identification and members prioritisation. Decisions on markets Training from ministry of for products agriculture on proper land usage 4. Kabaka‟s trail (Country Education of community Community control of cultural tourism) on identification and use of funds from tourism 27 local resources for tourism activities. development e.g. taking care of the sites and craft making B. KCDF 1. Secondary school bursary Capacity building for schools Support for support and organisations on resource endowment fund mobilisation and building sustainability. Early Childhood Development Direct capacity building Supporting partners to (ECD) Programme and capacity building build endowment grants to funds organisations/partners Local resource Training on grantmaking mobilisation processes Resource mobilisation Financial management 3. HIV/AIDS programme Capacity building support Endowment awareness for partners and resource Organisational support for mobilisation for partners partners. 4. CBO‟s initiation and Capacity building in Endowment building strengthening CBO‟s management, capacities governance and related Other appropriate organisational sustainability measures development areas. Social capital awareness and sensitisation 5. Community assets Capacity building on Endowment funds development resource mobilisation and capacity support appropriate projects Building the process of sustainability mechanisms Endowment funds Matching of community funds for endowments. C. Aga Khan Foundation - Kenya 1. Youth Development Training in development Employment Programmes work acquisition after Interns allowance Practical experience attachments through organisations Make informed decisions about life 2.Revolving loan fund Capacity building for Groups have control beneficiaries (groups) over their incomes/savings 3. Water accessibility through Trainings on water Groups control of boreholes management and usage profits from water Sinking boreholes through Maintenance of the AKF support boreholes 4. Education (ECD) Teacher trainings in ECD Community programmes management and control of ECD programmes 28 5. NGO resource centre Capacity building on Structures for development for sustainability to be put community in place Group 3 GIVING FISH TEACHING HOW TO FISH BEYOND FISHING A. Unilever Annual Scholarships: 28 students sponsored for University education and have a trust with Starehe Boys Centre. Environmental- tree planting and Education on conservation B. Safaricom Environment – Reforestation Community Projects – Bee keeping and inter- cropping. Mukuru Primary School Providing sanitary towels Education EABL Environment (Concentrated at area of business) Water treatment Tree planting at barley plantations Empower communities to sell tree seedlings Scholarship fund University students in all 3 E.A. countries 5.2 Emerging Issues One of the participants suggested that government should consider restructuring the education system to enhance self-reliance and facilitate acquisition of proper skills that encourage self-employment. It was also pointed out that it is important to establish a common fund to enable people access capital for initiating community projects. It was mentioned that people need to know who they are for it is fundamental for the rule of law, accountability that facilitate sustainability and social justice to take root. 29 DAY TWO SESSION 1 6.0 Recap of Day One Session Some of the highlights captured in the recap session touched on community empowerment and social justice philanthropy. It was mentioned that development in a community revolves around control/empowerment. It was pointed out that centrality of power is the dynamics of development and this is mainly determined by the distribution of resources. Capacity that was defined as promoting good followership is equally essential for development. Capacity touches on involving the most affected in injustices to come up with solutions affecting their own community. In essence, it was noted empowerment could be summarised as “capacity and power to undertake own development”. Characteristics of empowered employees were pointed out as: Empowered employees Sense of determination and freedom to choose how to do their work Sense of meaning – they care about their work Sense of competence about their ability to perform Sense of impact: their ideas will be heard It was also noted that the power of organised people ensures: Accountability Good governance In conclusion, it was pointed out that: - Quick fixes lead to stalled and non-functioning projects Powerlessness is the major cause of poverty People in power should lower barriers that block empowerment There should be willingness to share power to raise capacity and potential that people have. Trust and participation is key to any empowerment processes. Equity, Justice and peace Social Justice was defined as “A framework of objectives pursued through social economic, environmental and political policies based on acceptance”. It was mentioned the social justice incorporates protection and promotion of human rights and it guarantees inclusion and respect for diversity. It was also pointed out that social justice is when activities involve the participation of disadvantaged communities and they have access to resources and opportunities. 30 7.0 RESEARCH ON SOCIAL JUSTICE PHILANTHROPY IN KENYA A COUNTRY REPORT By Faith Kisinga, MA & Michael Chelogoy, PhD (Ufadhili - The Center for Philanthropy and Social Responsibility) In the introductory remarks, it was mentioned that the research was done in various countries with each focusing on a specific area e.g. Kenya-focused on poverty as a gender based in the area of Social Justice, United States of America focused on race, while Peru focused on how CSR can be used to partner with philanthropists. In Kenya, information shows that in various areas, there is a lot of gender inequality especially among women. It was noted that a lower proportion for the unemployed were women and if employed, women are in the agricultural sector, at the low-income groups. It was also pointed out that policies are gender biased, as there are few women in positions of power, while 22% of the women are illiterate as compared to 14% among men. 7.1 Research Question Key Question: How does Social Justice Philanthropy (SJP) in Kenya take place? Auxiliary Questions: What is the nature and source of SJP in Kenya? What role have funding organizations played in advancing SJ in general and around gender equity in particular? 7.2 THE NATIONAL CONTEXT Social Injustice (Parameter) Gender-Inequity: Income earning opportunities Education Health Participation in political decision-making 7.3 METHODOLOGY Selection of Organizations: 1. Analysis of nature, extent & determinants of inequality to determine selection criteria. 2. Selection Criteria: Nature and Volume of Support Geographical Coverage 31 Focus Evidence of Support 3. Four-funding organizations selected. DESCRIPTION FUNDING FAMILY COMMUNITY RELIGIOUS SERVICE ORGANIZATION FOUNDATION FOUNDATION FOUNDATION CLUB Incorporation 1956 1997 1961 1917 SOURCE Property International International Rotary donor donor Foundation, club organisations, organisations members and foreign private and partners. foundations. international NGOs FOCUS Education Capacity Equity, Humanitarian bursaries building empowerment, intervention community asset education of development women & girls VALUE OF $2.7 million $933 000 $0.5 million N/A FUND FUNDS $160 000 - $1,573,000 to $120,000/annum Varies DISBURSED $200,000/ annum date to CBOs for bursaries 7.4 KEY FINDINGS The facilitator mentioned that in a lot of organizations, especially when looking at the structure of the organization, board members were involved in decision-making but the individual officer was given the ability to make decisions related to Social Justice. Some of the points noted that were of significance during the research include: The need to advocate for role of individual officer Most if not all have never used the word Social Justice Some had a clear understanding of Social Justice and their mission statement captured the fundamentals of Social Justice. Community participation was key for Social Justice Philanthropy to be successful. Decision-Making Process Structure of the funding organizations Role of the individual officer Perceptions of SJP Nature Of Support Consolidated approach: Traditional philanthropy and SJP Groups considered more deserving o Marginalized and vulnerable groups o Women 32 How Funding Organizations Support Social Justice Establishing community ownership and participation Tapping into existing social capital Tapping into local philanthropic traditions Ensuring sustainability of initiatives Building partnerships 7.6 Barriers to SJP Over-reliance on foreign funding It was mentioned that the risks involved in philanthropy was especially due to reliance on donor funding. It was pointed out that results may not come immediately and most risks are as a result of donor support coming to an end. Participants were advised to have local support, which was key to sustainability. Rigid structures and approaches It was pointed out that most organisations had the fear of being vocal against the powers to continue getting support. In addition, gender issues were approached with caution to avoid conflict with community beliefs. It was noted that religious organisations were useful in advocating for girls rights and were actively involved in supporting the disadvantaged groups. Poor governance It was mentioned that lack of accountability and transparency in most CBOs was a major barrier to SJP Lack of an enabling environment It was pointed out that creating linkages with the government was key in addressing SJP. It was noted liaising with the government would spearhead advocacy for policies that are of significance for communities. It was also pointed out that initiatives to mobilize resources were hampered by regulations within government policies e.g. tax rebates for givers. 7.6 Recommendations 1.Develop local support for social justice work 2.Enhancing and mobilizing social capital for gender-equity 3.Creating an enabling environment for SJP 4. Build the capacity of individual officials 33 7.7 Emerging Issues One of the participants from Uganda mentioned that CBOs had been empowered to advocate for land rights and were able to get title deeds for their land. It was mentioned that that funding organization went further and facilitated establishment of IGAs for the CBO members for them to desist from selling land because of abject poverty. A participant from Tanzania pointed out that only one religious organization were actively involved in supporting women, and taking them on board in the organization to be part of decision makers. This was done to endure participation of women. Schedules for activities have been worked out with the participation of women in the organization. During discussions, it was pointed out that organizations could be useful in supporting SJP. An example was given of an organization that developed a rapport with the community to enhance participation. It was mentioned that it is important to build capacity of existing CBOs. It was further noted that building ties and bonds in communities enabled CBOs to pull resources together. The facilitator challenged philanthropists attending the workshop to strengthen even the unorganized groups. Reference was made to a religious foundation that was interested in linking CBOs to service clubs to ensure sustainability if the donors pulled out. The CBOs capacity had been developed through partnerships. It was also pointed out that media was useful in highlighting injustices leading to mobilisation of persons that can address the injustices. It is one of the most effective means of creating awareness and lobbying for policy changes. 8.0 SOCIAL JUSTICE GRANTMAKING Definition: “Social Justice Grantmaking can be defined as the funding through which philanthropic institutions can determine causes of social inequalities and support (activities) organisations that work for structural change in order to increase the ability, opportunities and access to greater political, economic and social power to those who are disadvantaged and marginalized in Society” M. Mutuku - EAAG Social justice grantmaking is based on a belief that some aspects of society is inequitable and needs to be changed to create fairer outcomes Emmett D. Carson, Ph.D. CEO, The Minneapolis Foundation “Social Justice Grantmaking involves funding social change processes and asset building interventions in order to reduce powerlessness and poverty”. M. Mutuku – EAAG 34 This can be done at two levels: upper stream measures or funding broader social change or downstream measures through funding the development process largely at the community level Note the story of the general practitioner and the epidemiologist, pulling the bodies from the river and going upstream to find-out where the bodies are coming from. 8.1 FUNDING SOCIAL CHANGE (Upper Stream Measures) Social Change is linked to transformation of society with emphasis on access to opportunities for development because: Marginalisation and poverty will not end without transformation of society “Transformation will not take place without meaningful and empowering participation by the poor and marginalized” This requires grantmaking for work on structural change and could include a number of broad categories of activities: Researching and disseminating information on the root causes of social problems – Street children, discrimination against women, land distribution – (58 people own 75% of Laikipia district), voting patterns – Kenyans vote for those who give them money. Protecting and enhancing the legal rights of those who are marginalized in society or discriminated against – A Kituo cha Sheria in every major town/district in Kenya Protecting environmental causes that ensure that disadvantaged groups are not disproportionately affected by harmful environmental practices Peace and reconciliation programmes that seek to understand and address causes of conflict – i.e. water resources, cattle, land etc. Advocacy and lobbying to enact changes in government policies, regulation and programmes affecting disadvantaged populations – how does Nyeri District get Ksh 500 million for water when 2/3 of Kenya is semi-arid? Economic activities including projects at the community level that increase the social economic activities of disadvantaged and disenfranchised population. Technical assistance – that includes improving skills in governance management, project design, implementation as well as democratic processes. 8.2 FUNDING THE DEVELOPMENT PROCESS (The Downstream Measures) “The Story Behind the Well” Funding the development process: donors philanthropic/development) want to see tangible results: roads, wells, the school, the hospital etc. and “Quickly too” 35 The result: Stalled, non-functioning the poorly maintained projects seen all over - all by well meaning NGOs, International agencies and government. The “Story Behind the Well” is about the development process: Decision-making: how were the decisions made? How were the discussions organised and held? Who participated and who were left out – the women, the poor, the youth etc. How was the work organised, supervised and done? What about the unique skills, talents and community resources – were they utilised? Is the process promoting better leadership, governance and improved local capacity for creativity and production - growing indigenous capacity? Have a better appreciation and are growing desire for protection of human rights and an increasing ability to organise and get what the community needs – from government, NGOs etc becoming evident/ - The power of organised people (POA) The local politics: Are political careers at stake depending on success or failure of the project? What would be preferred – special interests of the elite and local politicians regardless of cost to the community on account of who gets the credit? i.e. the opponents? Could people overcome entrenched fears and vote differently? Grants would target two levels: 1. CBO capacity building whereby: Women groups, youth groups, faith based groups and, Traditional social groups – clans, burial committees, merry – go – rounds and other social and welfare associations that always exist at the community level are funded. Grants would support organisational/institutional development – a correlation between lack of institutions and where a high level of poverty has been noted. “Nothing is impossible without individuals but nothing is permanent without institutions” – Lorenzo Rasenzweig – Mexican Fund for Conservation. Funded activities and supplies would include: Renting a simple office in the local market – a solar panel would facilitate having a computer but a manual typewriter would do simple office supplies. Staff allowances – salaries distort the power relationships between CBO and Community. 36 Enhancing knowledge and skills – project design and management, proposal writing and resource mobilisation. Financial management – budgeting, banking, book-keeping – cashbooks Personnel issues – selection, appointments/contracts Management structure and governance – constitution and related legal status, elections, board/committees – training 2. Funding the community empowerment/process; the “ Story Behind the Well “ may require local experts in participatory development who understand its key values of sitting, asking and listening: Sitting implies to hurry Asking implies humility and willingness to learn Listening implies respect – Community is the teacher Study tours and exchange visits by community members and community workshops on leadership, skills on farming and animal husbandry. Participatory baseline data collection – Villages will bring data/information on poor families, landless, children not in school or drop – outs. Water – permanent and seasonal rivers. Health facilities, traditional medicine men and women and quality of health care. Identification of problems, prioritisation of needs, what the community can do and what help is required from outside On this basis then we can design our project – the well, the road and the school. COMMUNITY EMPOWERMENT To empower people and strengthen their political voice, we need to help them gain access to resources of power in our society. Typically those include assets such as skills that are marketable, economic resources and social supports. This is essential if we are to make a difference. Geeta Rao Gupta SOCIAL JUSTICE Some notions involve equality and the redistribution of power and resources. Others frame around principles of deserving, fairness, entitlement, rights, equality, ethics and / or morality. Emmett D. Carson: Social Justice Grantmaking: Finding a Common Language 37 9.0 PROJECTION (My Dream for East Africa) In this session, participants were asked to write their ideas on how they envision East Africa in 10 years. Their views were as follows: EAAG to become a vibrant association in partnership with corporates and the private sector (being a voice for poverty reduction in East Africa) An East Africa that values justice taps all resources e.g. social, political and distributes them equally to ensure justice for all. A self-reliant East Africa, whose development is driven and controlled by its people, EAAG should have established a common fund that could be used to promote training of skills and procuring of basic working tools for the trained youth and for organising those with like skills into production groups. Rich and harmonious E.A with supreme technology, abundant nutritious foods, easy transportation and highly skilled people Empowered communities, fully participating at all levels of decision making for equitable development. Self-reliant East Africa that does not depend on imports from other parts of the world, through use of local resources. Equal distribution of resources between men and women (Education, employment and political power. An E.A. that owns it development initiatives, and lives above poverty line. A wholly rounded nation of East Africans – highly skilled and ready to face challenges, and characterised by; o A united East Africa that cares for the people o Eradication of poverty o An educated nation of East Africa (free education at primary and secondary level and a highly subsidised at university level), education system that includes moral values. o Access to electricity and medical attention Changed education system o After primary and secondary school or university education, there should be provision for one or two years of skills training. o Training in entrepreneurship and business management skills Teaching people to know who they are – be masters of their own decisions as basis for sustainable development and growth. Have leadership that is community centred as opposed to self- centred leadership. Have leadership that promotes local expertise in exploiting natural resources Tackling street children problems by promoting integration of orphans in families that are economically empowered. 10.0 WAY FORWARD Widening membership (revisit the criteria) Advocate for partnering between EAAG members and government to increase the implementation capability. Better exploitation of resources 38 Member organisations to be empowered to conduct trainings on Social Justice Philanthropy through: TOT and Social Justice Philanthropy workbook. EAAG to explore ways of partnering with EAC on projects of common concern Mobilise faith-based organisations for advocacy on social justice in their organisations/congregations. Invite government officials in future workshops. 11.0 CLOSING REMARKS Mrs Vijoo Rattansi – EAAG chairman thanked the corporates and members of EAAG who attended the workshop and made it a success. She also thanked the secretariat for organising the workshop and taking care of all the logistical arrangements. She further thanked the facilitators for their commitment to sharing information and knowledge on Social Justice Philanthropy (the various aspects) and creating understanding on its relevance to our work in various organisations. LIST OF PARTICIPANTS NAMES ORGANISATION CONTACT ADDRESS 1 Amon Mrutu The Foundation for Civilgrants@thefoundation-tz.org Society (TZ) P.O Box 7192 Dar es Salaam. 2 Beth Mutuku Aga Khan Foundation (K) firstname.lastname@example.org 223951 / 0722 773595 3. Carole Opile EAAG email@example.com Tel: 315773 4 David EAAG firstname.lastname@example.org Muema Tel: 315773 5. Faith Kisinga Ufadhili email@example.com Tel: 343061 6. Fr. Gallus World Conference on firstname.lastname@example.org Marandu Religions & Peace (TZ) P.O Box 16, Bagamoyo TZ. Tel: 0744624399 7. George Jones United States International email@example.com University (USIU) 8. Gladys k. Kenya Community Gladys.firstname.lastname@example.org Miriti Development Foundation Tel: 0722675376 9. Jean Kiarie East Africa Breweries Ltd Jeanemail@example.com 0722 719070 10. Josephine Human Rights Network firstname.lastname@example.org Kampi P.O Box 21256, Kampala 11 Joyce Kabaka Foundation (UG) Tel: 077 581183 Mpanga 12 Matiya Kabaka Foundation email@example.com Lubega Tel: 077 740471 13. Michael Ufadhili firstname.lastname@example.org Chelogoy 14. Mildred Safaricom Foundation email@example.com 39 Otsieno 0722 711770 15. Monica EAAG firstname.lastname@example.org Mutuku 020 315773 16 R.J.A World Conference on email@example.com Mwaisaku Religion & Peace (TZ) Tel: 0744 844225 17 Regina C. Unilever Tea (K) Ltd Regina.firstname.lastname@example.org Kibwana P.O Box 20, Kericho 18 Salim A. World Conference on email@example.com Zagar Religion & Peace (TZ) P.O Box 76951, Dar es Salaam 19 Urbanus Ndithini Community Dev. firstname.lastname@example.org Mwania Association (K) Tel: 0724 854483 20 Valentine Social Action Foundation email@example.com Rweyemamu Trust (TZ) P.O Box 101123, Dar es Salaam Vijoo Rattansi Education Trust firstname.lastname@example.org Rattansi Tel: 020 220661 40