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           HELD ON 17TH – 18TH OCTOBER 2005.

                NAIROBI SAFARI CLUB

                   NAIROBI, KENYA


                                                                        Page No

   I.      List of Acronyms and Abbreviations
   II.     Executive Summary
1.0 Introduction                                                             1
1.1 Opening Remarks                                                          1
1.2 Introductions and Participants Expectations                              1

2.0 Overview of Human Development Issues of East Africa                      2
2.1 Highlights of a Presentation                                             2
2.2. The Declining Natural Resources and the Poverty Eradication Strategy    3
2.2.1 Introduction                                                           3
2.2.2 Development Plans                                                      4
2.2.3 Structural Adjustment Programmes                                       6
2.2.4 Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper                                       7
2.3 Group Exercise                                                           11
2.4 Emerging Issues                                                          13
2.5 Conclusion                                                               13

3.0 Community Empowerment Process: Investing in People                       13
3.1 Introduction                                                             13
3.2 Fundamental Issues                                                       15
3.3 Conclusion                                                               15
3.4 Emerging Issues                                                          17

4.0 Social Justice Philanthropy: An Introduction                             17
4.1 Social Justice                                                           17
4.2 Social Justice Philanthropy                                              18

5.0 Categorising Activities (Relief- Welfare- Control)                       20
5.1 Group Reports                                                            20
5.2 Emerging Issues                                                          23

6.0 Recap of Day One Sessions                                                23
7.0 Research on Social Justice Philanthropy in Kenya                         24
7.1 Research Questions                                                       25
7.2 The National Context                                                     25
7.3 Methodology                                                              25
7.4 Key Findings                                                             26
7.5 Barriers to Social Justice Philanthropy                                  26
7.6 Recommendations                                                          27
7.7 Emerging Issues                                                          27
8.0 Social Justice Grantmaking                                               28
8.1 Funding Social Change                                                    28
8.2 Funding the Development Process                                          29
9.0 Projection (My Dream for East Africa)   31

10.0 Way Forward                            32

11.0 Closing Remarks                        33

12.0 Annexes
       Annex 1: List of Participants
       Annex 2: Workshop Timetable

AIDS      – Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome
AKF       – Aga Khan Foundation
CBOs      – Community Based Organisations
COMESA    – Common Market for East and Southern Africa
CSOs      – Civil Society Organisations
CSR       – Corporate Social Responsibility
DFRD      – District Focus for Rural Development
DPF       – Deposit Protection Fund
EA        – East Africa
EAAG      – East Africa Association of Grantmakers
EABL      – East Africa Breweries Limited
EAC       – East Africa Community
ECD       – Early Childhood Development
EPZ       – Export Promotion Zone
ERAP      – Economic Recovery Action Plan
FBOs      – Faith Based Organisations
GDP       – Gross Domestic Product
HIV       – Human Immuno Deficiency Virus
HURINET   – Human Rights Network
IGAs      – Income Generating Activities
IMF       – International Monetary Fund
IPRSP     – Interim Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper
KANU      – Kenya African National Union
KCDF      – Kenya Community Development Foundation
MTEF      – Medium Term Expenditure Framework
MDGs      – Millennium Development Goals
NGOs      – Non-Governmental Organisations
NPEP      – National Policy Eradication Plan
OECD      – Organisations for Economic Corporations and Development.
OVCs      – Orphaned and Vulnerable Children
PEC       – Poverty Eradication Commission
POA       – Power of Organised People
PRSP      – Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper
PWDs      – Persons with Disability
SAPs      – Structural Adjustment Programme
SDD       – Social Dimensions on Development Programme
SJ        – Social Justice
SJP       – Social Justice Philanthropy
TOT       – Training of Trainers
TZ        - Tanzania
UG        - Uganda
USA       – United States of America
USIU      – United States International University
WCRP       – World Conference on Religion and Peace
WMS       – Welfare Monitoring Survey
WTO       – World Trade Organisation


21 participants drawn from the corporate sector and civil society
organisations attended the two-day Social Justice Philanthropy Workshop
organised by EAAG. The theme of the workshop was: Broadening our
understanding of Social Justice Philanthropy and its relevance to our

It was pointed out that the obstacles to development in the East Africa Region
have been poverty, diseases and ignorance. Health and wealth creation had
collapsed and women were the most affected with 85% of the poor living in rural
areas. The development plans were created with the objective of ensuring
political equality, social justice, human dignity, freedom from want and diseases,
equal opportunities and high and growing incomes to be distributed equitably.
On the other hand, it was mentioned that good governance matches efficient
management in the public sector and sustainable development. This creates
equal opportunity for all and political accountability between the rulers and the

However, the declining economic growth in Kenya is rapidly affecting
the comparative advantage Kenya has in the East African economic
regional market and its future status as one of the regions key economic
players that will be determined by the successful implementation of
Economic Recovery Action Plan (ERAP). Therefore, there is need to re-
address MDGs in the next ten years for us to be able to make tangible
gains in development.

It was noted that powerlessness is the major cause of poverty. In order to
empower people there is need to become more willing to share power in
decision making as a way of facilitating the release of the potential and
capacity communities have for wealth creation. People‟s participation is
key to successful and sustainable wealth creation and development. The
power of organised people can only be ensured through accountability,
good governance, equity, justice and peace. Our role is to provide
education and an enabling environment through democratic leadership
and governance that is accountable.

Social Justice was defined as a framework of objectives, pursued through
social, economic, environmental and political policies, based on
acceptance of difference and diversity. Social Justice Philanthropy
focuses on addressing root causes rather than alleviating symptoms of
inequality, challenging social inequalities and promoting access to

resources and opportunities. SJP seeks to bridge the gaps and build
relationships between the donors and the grantees.

The research done in Kenya on Social Justice Philanthropy with reference
to gender bias highlighted some of the barriers to SJP to include: over-
reliance on foreign funding, rigid structures and approaches when dealing
with those in power, poor governance and lack of an enabling
environment. The recommendations from the research indicate that there
is need to develop support for SJ work, enhancing and mobilising social
capital for gender inequality and building the capacity of individual
officers in various organisations to be involved in the decision making

Social Justice Grantmaking was defined as the funding through which philanthropic
institutions can determine causes of social inequalities and support (activities)
organisations that work for structural change in order to increase the ability,
opportunities and access to greater political, economic and social power to those who
are disadvantaged and marginalized in society.

 In conclusion participants highlighted several areas as the way forward.
This were: widening membership to incorporate philanthropists in the
corporate sector, empowering members to conduct trainings on various
areas of philanthropy, encouraging exploitation of local resources,
building partnerships with governments to enhance implementation
capacity of communities, liasing with faith based organisations and
governments in advocacy for social change and inviting government
officials for future workshops to enhance better understanding on issues
affecting individual at the grass root level.





1.1 Opening Remarks

EAAG chairman, Ms Vijoo Rattansi, opened the workshop. In her opening remarks,
she began by welcoming members and participants from the corporate sector for the
Social Justice Philanthropy workshop. She highlighted the reasons for holding the
workshop as:

   EAAG seeks to build a progressive movement by helping foundations to more
    effectively serve populations that are the least well off politically, economically
    and socially.
   It also seeks to nurture grantmaking to promote greater access in the economic,
    social and political arena for people who are excluded.
   EAAG also hopes to strengthen new and or existing social movements that work
    for social, political and economic equity.
   One of the activities we are involved currently is lobbying our governments in
    East Africa to give tax exemptions to organisations and individuals involved in
    giving in order to have meaningful change in philanthropy.

1.2 Objective of the workshop

The objective was enumerated to be:
Broadening our understanding of Social Justice Philanthropy and its relevance to our

1.3 Introductions and Participants expectations

In this session, participants asked to say who they are, what they do and what they
expect to achieve after the workshop. The expectations included:

       To learn about the perspectives of social justice philanthropy
       Understand social justice philanthropy
       Know how Unilever can partner with EAAG in education, health or
        environment issues.
       Learn more from other participants and how to partner with corporates
       How to bring synergy between Safaricom foundation and EAAG
       Learn more about social justice philanthropy and how best to use it
       Learn more about EAAG
       Know how USIU can be of service to EAAG
       Learn how to support orphans and enable them enjoy their rights.

AFRICA – by Dr. Michael Chelogoy

2.1 Highlights of the Presentations
In the opening statement for the session, the facilitator gave a summary of the human
development issues, highlighting the areas of concern.

It was pointed out that the constitution making process must take into account the
aspirations for all, for any country to realise significant gains in tackling development
issues. In relation to development plans, it was mentioned that the obstacles to
development were poverty, diseases and ignorance. It was noted that health and
wealth creation had collapsed and women were most affected with 52% living in
abject poverty.

With regard to goals for development were dependent on political equality, social
justice, a society that is free from diseases and equitable distribution of resources. It
was also noted that strategies for development were affected by internal forces such as
economic distribution of resources in limited areas and in the hands of a few people.

The facilitator pointed out that Structural Adjustment Programmes (SAPs) failed and
poverty levels rose. The vulnerable were affected more and those who were not
vulnerable became vulnerable. The financial sector began to crumble and the
National Policy Eradication Plan (NPEP) was born out of the failure of SAPs

It was also mentioned that the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) were meant
to last for 15 years, yet the gains in the last 5 years are not tangible. Therefore, there
was need to re-address the MDGs in the 10 years that are remaining. It was also
pointed out that development players are struggling to make the MDGs practical in
the villages to facilitate impact at the national level.

In wealth creation, it was noted that the west are working on adding value to countries
that have resources by improving their production capacity thus making the countries
viable for their own development.

It was further noted that the Welfare Monitoring Survey facilitated research on
poverty, which was seen as a multi-diversity factor. Decline in national income
increased poverty levels e.g. expensive farm inputs led to expensive farm inputs that
led to the decline in income-85% of the poor live in rural areas and women are the
most affected. It was enumerated that historical legacies or neglect in the regions
have led to insignificant figures in development thus high levels of poverty.

It was mentioned that poverty survey was based on several approaches:
 Theoretical approach: Poverty is seen as a tragedy where social networks have
    been destroyed. On the other hand, poverty is viewed in its multi-diversity that
    addresses human dignity including freedoms and other factors beyond wages and
    incentives that come with it. It was noted that poverty is seen as a trap of a social

    and economic nature and can only be tackled by creating practices that embrace
    good governance and social order.

   The solutions to various approached can be realised by addressing the root causes
    of poverty. The causes or indicators could be categorised to be either persistent
    vis-à-vis temporary e.g. disadvantaged and dependent. Dependent vis-à-vis active
    poor are persons who are susceptible to temporary e.g. loss of a job. Another
    category is the food poor i.e. they have one meal a day but it‟s not balanced.

2.2 The Declining National Resources and the Poverty Reduction
          Why Should we Mobilize Resources for Development in Kenya?

2.2.1 Introduction
Since independence, Kenya suffered its worst economic performance in the decade of
1990s. These were ten years of falling economic growth and declining per capita
income which culminated in a -0.3 per cent GDP by the year 2000. Kenya performed
poorly on governance, effective government and commitment to the rule of law.
Before this decline, Kenya had the strongest economy in East Africa. Nairobi, the
capital city, hosted many international organizations and companies, and Kenya had
become the regional centre of communications and transport, with Kenya Airways
recognizably one of the leading airlines in Africa and the Port of Mombasa playing an
important role in linking the landlocked countries in the hinterland to the rest of the
world. During this period Kenya‟s currency is the shilling (Ksh); varies between
Ksh70–80 to the US dollar.

In 2002, Kenya‟s GDP was an estimated US$10 billion, with GDP per capita of $230.
In 1998, the budget estimated revenues of Ksh160 billion and expenditure of Ksh170
billion (approximately US$2 billion and US$2.1 billion respectively. Foreign debt
stood at $6.5 billion in 1997. Imports were valued at $3 billion in 1998, of which 31
per cent was spent on machinery and transport equipment, 13 per cent on consumer
goods and 12 per cent on oil. Exports during the same period were valued at $2

Politics of development
Good governance match‟s efficient management in the public sector and sustainable
social development. It creates equal opportunity for all, and political accountability
between rulers and the ruled. Therefore, the role of the state ought to be clearly
defined. At independence, the concentration of power in the government institutions
was considered sufficient for economic efficiency and growth. While political and
social stability could be nurtured through actions of the government, it is critical to
integrate people of different backgrounds into a common national interest. Kenya has
had peace for over 40 years and the Government will have to maintain the
institutional framework to ensure sustainable peace and security. Therefore, the
constitution must fully take into account the yearnings, the fears and the aspirations of
all Kenyans. The current agitation for an inclusive constitution is a move in the right
direction. Civil and political rights are inalienable rights of all people irrespective of

the stage of economic and social development in which they are. The government is
aware of the fact that economic growth without respect for human rights only
weakens democracy. In considering whether the new constitution is good for our
country, Kenyan need to consider three things. First ask whether it is able to maintain
a strong and integrated national economy, secondly whether it is capable of bring
about good governance and finally whether the government created by such
constitution could used it to formulate sound development policies that could propel
Kenya to reach the standards of participation in the global economy.

Kenya in the region
The Government of Kenya has been engaged in solving long-standing regional
conflicts in the Horn of Africa. It has remained neutral in the Democratic Republic of
Congo conflicts and is a key player in peace-building efforts in South Sudan and
Somalia. Kenya has the potential to act as an engine of growth for the East African
region. Progress has been made in regional integration within the newly reconstituted
East African Community and the Common Market for East and Southern Africa
(COMESA), which challenges some vested industrial and agricultural interests but
will also increase trade opportunities.

An economically strong Kenya is important for East African development. Its
geographic location, a comparatively strong private sector, financial depth and
relatively developed manufacturing and service sectors give it a prominent role in the
region. The country also boasts a relatively strong human skills base, which would lay
the foundation for success, and with potentially high domestic revenue, its future
needs for development assistance should be less than that of its neighbours.
However, the declining economic growth is rapidly affecting the comparative
advantage Kenya has in the East African economic region market and its future
status as one of the region’s key economic players will be determined by the
successful implementation of Economic Recovery Action Plan (ERAP).

2.2.2 Development Plans
At independence, Kenyan leaders address three main obstacles to development -
poverty, diseases and ignorance and they formulated a series of objectives to
accomplish in order to build a just and democratic state. The objectives were:

        Political equality
        Social justice
        Human dignity
        Freedom from want and diseases
        Equal opportunities
        High and growing incomes to be distributed equitably

At the same time Kenya adapt development strategies and population planning was
seen as key to economic growth. Resources allocated for development were directed
towards building schools, hospitals and houses. Although the government welcomed
investment from both the private sector and civil society organisations, its strategies
were badly affected by both internal and external events. Firstly, it failed to introduce
varying forms of ownership and progressive system of taxation and thus more

economic power and distribution of wealth and income was concentrated in limited
areas. Secondly, the intensity of the cold war competition produced negative effects,
causing the collapse of the East Africa Community in 1977. Thirdly, a section of the
Air Force attempted a coup in 1982 and as a result, the one-party state, was legalized
by a Parliamentary constitutional amendment known as section 2A, after which no
other political party could legally be formed in Kenya.

Between 1979 and 983, a new plan (commonly known as the fourth development
plan) for economy reforms with a principle theme of „poverty alleviation‟, emerged.
Since then the development challenges facing Kenya had to consider new situations
because poverty was growing rapidly and food insecurity was afflicting many
Kenyans. Human development indices including life expectancy, nutrition status, and
education levels were deteriorating. Public institutions were dysfunctional and
corruption was rampant. The future development plans had to take 'hard option'
objectives, for easy forms of development came to an end. It is now clear that land
policy ought to follow more intensive farming techniques -higher inputs, and greater
use of marginal land and introduce irrigation in arid and semi-arid land for production
of cotton, rice and other crops.

In July 1983, the District Focus For Rural Development (DFRD) was inaugurated to
facilitate the implementation of development in Kenya and to move decision centre
from Nairobi to the district. Sending the allocated resources directly to the districts
was meant to increase efficiency in delivery and implementation process. The
cooperative movement also increased and numbers shooting from 1,030 in 1963 to
2,652 in 1983.

Developing formal and informal sectors
The creation of job opportunities has been the greatest challenges facing Kenya. The
scale of the problem demands that more resources and means be utilized to create
jobs, in order to enhance incomes and livelihoods. Therefore, both formal and
informal sectors should increase their outputs to create more employment
opportunities and play a greater role in economic development. The informal sector
such as Jua Kali industry must be strengthened in orders to continue growing and
create more jobs. Recent years have shown the strength of small-scale enterprises in
creating employment, but more importantly, the sector provides an essential training
ground for developing entrepreneurial skills that are essential to Kenya's
industrialization. In order to expand Kenyan market presence in both traditional and
new markets, an effective contact promotion programme, market surveys and
investigations, trade fairs, exhibitions and trade missions will have to be undertaken
by Export Promotion Zone (EPZ) in collaboration with other private and public

Kenya‟s GDP could experience tremendous growth if value was added to agricultural
products, the mainstay of its economy. At present, too many products are sold in a
relatively raw form on the domestic market, as illustrated by the following examples.
In 1997, timber production amounted to some 460,000 metric tonnes, while the
mining sector, including soda mining, produced 225,000 tonnes, accounting for some
5 per cent of overall economic output. In 1998, fish production totalled 200,000
tonnes and the production of subsistence crops improved significantly, for example,

2.6 million tonnes of maize and 250,000 tonnes of wheat were produced. In the same
year, cash crops remained steadily on course, producing 4.9 million tonnes of
sugarcane, 300,000 tonnes of pineapples, 72,000 tonnes of coconuts, 280,000 tonnes
of tea, 57,000 tonnes of coffee, 29,000 tonnes of sisal, 10,000 tonnes of pyrethrum
and 5,600 tonnes of pepper. By the end of 1998, agriculture and forestry contributed
29 per cent of GDP. This volume included a livestock population of approximately
14.2 million heads of cattle, 7.5 million goats, 5.7 million sheep, 830,000 camels and
2.4 million beehives.

In 1998, tourism, a major contributor to Kenya‟s economy, attracted 1 million
tourists, generating income of about $400 million. Kenya has attractive wildlife, game
parks, lakes and mountains, and its beaches and coral reefs are among the best in
Africa. The two international airports, Nairobi and Mombasa, handled 2.7 million
passengers and 122,000 tonnes of freight in 1999. There are 11 other subsidiary
airports around the country and a major seaport at Mombasa, which handles about 10
million tones of cargo a year. It is important to understand that the 1998 and the 2001
terrorist attacks in Kenya have badly affected the tourist sector. Whereas human
curiosity to visit and explore places should not be underestimated, the recent travel
advisory by the governments of USA and some other countries of the western Europe
have brought irreparable damage to Kenyan tourism industry. It is perhaps an
understatement to say that these travel advisories only strengthens terrorist, for in
most cases, they are as damaging as the terrorist attacks. Therefore governments of
USA and western European nations will need to re-examine the real diplomatic and
political motives of such advisories.

Kenya has 2,652 km of railways and 63,000 km of roads, of which 9,000 km are
paved. It is estimated that there are 12 motor vehicles per 1,000 inhabitants and,
according to 1998 estimates; there were eight telephone lines per 1,000 inhabitants.
The liberalization of the telecommunications sector has brought about a significant
increase in the number of Kenyans having access to telephone services and by
January 2002 some 800,000 mobile phones were in use in Kenya and by 2004, a
period of two years, the number has grown three fold to over 2,000,000 people. The
rise of this figure reveals a surprising phenomenon in human needs, for in a society
badly affected by poverty, the growth in communication services illustrates an
interesting inter-linkage between the levels of basic needs.

2.2.3 Structural adjustment programmes
After independence in 1963, Kenya embarked upon the creation of a free and
democratic society that recognized the role of the individual. But independence did
not turn the public‟s dream into reality. The free education, free medical care and
readily available jobs that were envisioned turned out to be a mirage. Impressive
growth rates were recorded between the mid-1960s and mid-1970s, but by the mid-
1980s the country had started to experience economic stagnation, which was
attributed to both poor economic management and inappropriate macroeconomic

From 1991, Kenya embarked upon structural adjustment programmes (SAPs) under
the aegis of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and in order
to meet IMF requirements. The changes involved trade liberalization, privatisation of
public enterprises and civil service reforms. These reduced government development
activities and made it increasingly difficult for Kenyan society to keep up with the
levels of expenditure required to support government services. Targets for reducing
government budget deficits or increasing government revenue were not reached. In
order to fund the budget deficit the government accumulated excessive internal
borrowing, while finding it increasingly difficult to explain the complex factors that
led to such borrowing to the public.

The government was unable to set aside sufficient resources to cushion the poor
against the adverse effects of the SAPs. Cost sharing was introduced within the health
and education sectors, but this increased the burden on Kenyans and exposed the
poorer sections of society to severe economic hardship and eventually increased
poverty and social instability.

The failure of the SAPs was in part due to too much dependence on additional support
from Kenya‟s development partners, which was not forthcoming. To address the
economic and social problems experienced by low-income and vulnerable groups, the
government initiated the Social Dimensions on Development Programme (SDD). The
IMF, World Bank and other development partners insisted on conditions that had to
be met before aid would be granted. Such demands, along with other non-quantifiable
factors such as governance, lack of transparency in the public and private sectors, and
social and economic instability, caused irreversible changes (for better or worse) in
the Kenyan political landscape. The governing party at the time, KANU, began to lose
the people‟s support, which accelerated the process of change and by the beginning of
2000, the public was in the mood for change and it was only a matter of time until
change was effected.

Financial sector
The picture has been gloomy for the banking sector, which has been grappling with
the problem of non-performing loans that constitute 39.3 per cent of the total debt
portfolio. Five banks hold 59 per cent of the total assets, while 44 smaller banks hold
the remaining 41 per cent. There is little in-built resistance to catastrophes in these
small banks, which has made them a source of instability in the sector. The situation is
further aggravated by the existence of large state-controlled banks, some of which are
struggling with huge political loans. The Central Bank supervises the commercial
banks and financial institutions, and although banking supervision has improved over
the years, the process is still not effective. There is a statutory instrument, the Deposit
Protection Fund (DPF), that protects the ordinary depositor from loss in case the bank
becomes insolvent or otherwise fails, but banks are collapsing faster than the DPF is

2.2.4 Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper

Action plan
Concerned about the effects of poverty on the people of Kenya, at the turn of the
century, the government formulated the National Poverty Eradication Plan (NPEP), a
long-term (15-year) strategy, to help fight the escalating levels of poverty made worse
by the SAPs. It aimed to reduce the incidence of poverty by half by 2015. The
government budgeted funds for poverty alleviation programmes and NPEP
implementation was spearheaded by the Poverty Eradication Commission (PEC),
which was appointed by the Head of State and supported by a secretariat in the Office
of the President. Under the NPEP, ministries were required to work out areas and
sectors of specific intervention to be funded on priority basis, to identify and train
specific officers to oversee the implementation of poverty eradication activities, and
to work together on a coordinated approach to implementation of the Plan.

On the basis of the WMS III, the NPEP outlined the scope of poverty in Kenya and
set targets for its reduction through the Interim Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper
(IPRSP), incorporating the Medium Term Expenditure Framework (MTEF), which is
used to prioritise resource allocation. This led to the development of the Poverty
Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP), which outlines the priorities and measures
necessary for poverty reduction, advocates for a multi-sectoral, bottom-up approach
and the participation of the poor in budgetary and resource allocation processes, and
articulates Kenya‟s commitment and approach to fighting poverty. It represents, the
first time in the history of government planning that a major national policy has been
developed with the extensive participation of communities and various stakeholders.

However, while the PRSP has sought to implement the NPEP in three-year rolling
plans, it has yet to turn identified priorities into a viable operational plan with
monitoring mechanisms with sufficient resources. Nevertheless, it is an important
step by the Kenyan Government in the fight against poverty in order to spur economic

The budget allocation for 2000–03 was prepared using the three-year MTEF for the
first time. The approach links planning to resource allocation, which ensures that
implementation takes into account resource availability, constraints and expected
outcomes. The budget was based on the IPRSP, which was developed through
extensive consultations with government, NGOs and development partner
stakeholders, in all 70 districts of Kenya.

The MTEF formed the basis of future budgets and identified priorities and strategies
for the reduction of poverty and enhancement of economic growth for the well being
of all Kenyans. The uniqueness of the document is its bottom-up approach and its
attempts to put the poor in control of their resources and allow them to participate in
identifying their development priorities. The document gave a voice to the people and
provided credibility to poverty reduction efforts through emphasis of ownership. This
approach opened up development space with enormous opportunities for non-profit
organizations to complement government efforts and for citizens to participate in
national policy development.

The Challenge of sustainable economic growth
Along with the need to achieve sustained economic growth, the other main challenge
facing Kenya today is the need to reduce poverty. The number of poor Kenyans
increased from 3.7 million in 1972–3 to 11.5 million in 1994 and by 2002, this had
risen to over 15 million. In percentage terms, according to the Welfare Monitoring
Survey (WMS III) conducted in 1997, 52 per cent of Kenyans were poor, and by
2001, this figures was estimated to have risen to 56 per cent. This means that more
than half of the population currently has no access to the basic necessities of life such
as food, medicines, safe water, education and shelter. Approximately three-quarters of
the poor live in rural areas.

According WMS III, Kenyan adults living in rural areas had only Ksh30.90 to cater
for their daily needs such as food, while their urban counterparts had an average of
Ksh41.80, so whether living in a rural or urban area, an average Kenyan adult has less
than $1 to provide for their daily needs. According to the Economic Survey of 2000,
per capita income was $306 in 1999. Poverty has been compounded by the inequitable
distribution of wealth, which is concentrated in the hands of a few individuals.

The rise in poverty was mainly attributed to the declining national income. The
agricultural sector, which had been the mainstay of the economy, has badly been
affected by expensive farming inputs such as fertilizers, farming equipments, cost of
seeds, and entry of cheaper product from outside the country, all leading to a drastic
reduction of personal and national incomes. According to the World Bank country
report for Kenya, the incidence of poverty is higher in rural areas. About 85 per cent
of the poor live in rural areas and the majority are women. Surveys conducted in 1997
found that rural food poverty affected 51 per cent of the population, while the overall
rural poverty affected 53 per cent. In urban areas food poverty affected 38 per cent of
the urban population and overall poverty affected 49 per cent.

In 1997, based on the total population living in the province, Nyanza Province had the
highest incidence of rural poverty (63 per cent), and the Coast Province (62 per cent),
while the Central Province had the lowest at 31.4 per cent. At the same time, the
overall poverty line (cost of food and non-food items) in Kenyan rural areas was
Ksh1, 239 per person per month. In urban areas, the overall poverty line was Ksh 2,
648 per person per month. The estimated poverty levels in Kenya show that the
proportion of the population suffering from food poverty has increased more rapidly
than absolute poverty in the past 25 years.

Notwithstanding, it is of crucial important to mention that, there are two theoretical
approaches to the examination of poverty. On the one hand, poverty comes with
hardship and tragedy, because many Kenyan children die before their first birthday
and each one of this leaves a grieving family. On the other hand, the
multidimensionality of poverty must not be overestimated. But that does not merely
mean that poverty has many dimensions, but that human dignity and freedom are as
important as employment incentives and wages. But, it is imperative to note that,
various aspects of poverty reinforce each other, making poverty a trap of both social
and economic nature. In other words, the poor could become strangers, removed from
the social support that could have legitimised they recovery from poverty.

It is equally important understand that, classification of poverty is a theoretical excise
for it defines poverty and points to its causes. In Kenya as in most African countries
three cause of poverty are worth noting. Firstly, there is the persistent versus
temporary poverty, secondly, poor versus destitute, and finally, the dependent versus
the economically active poor. The persistent versus temporary poverty includes the
disadvantaged, and dependants such as elderly (particularly women whose assets are
taken when they become widowed) and the disabled. The major economically active
group may move in and out of poverty, which makes them susceptible to interludes of
poverty due to individually particular circumstances, caused by factors such as
conflict, drought, or unemployment or other momentarily economic crisis. Household
are likely to be poor at certain stage of stages of their household cycle, when there are
many young children, which is a link between large household size and poverty, or
once children have moved away to establish their own households. In both the
developing and developed countries, transitory poverty is a common phenomenon,
pointing to the importance of vulnerability and of securing livelihoods as an
antipoverty strategy. Nonetheless, how people survive moving into poverty, why it
happens and how they escape again, and the implications of this phenomenon for
poverty measurement, is a key gap in the approaches to poverty analysis.

The agricultural sector, which employs the majority of rural people, has experienced
many problems ranging from drought and lack of inputs, to mismanagement and lack
of markets. Unemployment has been accelerated by mismanagement of resources and
failure of the economy to absorb the available labour force from the traditional job
market. This was compounded by the energy crisis of 1999–2001, when there was a
shortage of power for industrial use leading to industrial closures and massive job

The economic liberalization prescribed by the IMF and World Bank and supported by
the rich nations of the western world has made the situation worse. For example, In
December 2000, the Secretary of State for International Government, in the
government of the United Kingdom, presented to the House of Commons a White
Paper on International Development. The British government committed itself to; first
support a country-specific approach to capital account liberalisation, that considered
countries ability to sequence and manage the risks associated to greater openness,
secondly, support the IMF role in both low and middle income countries, and ensure
that IMF policies support poverty reduction and sustainable development, thirdly, to
support the inclusion of agreements on investment and competition as part of future
multilateral trade negotiation in the WTO, and work in parallel to help developing
countries to build capacity and encourage closer regional co-operation on these issues,
and finally, work to build support for consultations beyond the OECD with
developing countries on taxation issues, as well as continue to strengthen it work to
promote corporate social responsibility particularly with regard to greater disclosure
of social environment and ethical policies.

Such a approach to poverty reduction sound wonderful, but the Kenyan reality is that
when it came to the Civil Service Reform Programme led to many staff redundancies,
for example, the complicated phenomenon of poverty was ignored and no western
government including United Kingdom opposed these programs. It is also interesting
to note that, the world trade negotiation in Mexico in 2003 collapsed because the
developed nations went to the negotiation table with an unworkable program of
trading with the poor nations. Furthermore, the implementation of cost sharing by
most public institutions affected many people who were otherwise cushioned by
government subsidies, thereby increasing the incidence of poverty, and now more
NGOs are involved with the more communities and groups to find the most effective
means of reducing poverty.

2.3 Group Exercise
Participants were asked to discuss,
    a) How can we as Grantmakers encourage good governance in both private and
        public sector?
    b) What is our role in poverty reduction and wealth creation in the civil society?

The group reports were as follows:

Group 1
a) How can we as Grantmakers encourage good governance in both private and
public sector?

      Start with our own institutions i.e. NGO council in Kenya. It was pointed out
       that the council is hardly functioning thus was not in a position to advocate for
       good governance.
      Learn who we are: our sense of humanity, natural law – the long term impact
       of the choices we make over time and sense of service to our community. It
       was pointed out that Prof. Wangari Maathai said, “If you don‟t treat nature
       properly, it will destroy you”.
      Accountability: who are we accountable to: MONGOS (My Own NGO) and
       MODONOR (My Own Donor). We should improve our accountability to the
       communities we serve.
      Create models for the public sector

b) What is our role in poverty reduction and wealth creation in the civil society?

          Invest in people skills, empowerment processes that can change people‟s
           attitude, outlook and approach to issues. “Mwenda bure si mkaa bure,
           huenda akaokota”
          It was noted that CSOs are closer to the people and have the ability to
           enable people realise the power within. It is also important to encourage
           partnerships and create linkages between the private and public sector

Group 2
a) How can we as Grantmakers encourage good governance in both private and
public sector?

      Ensuring policies and procedures for good governance are in place in our
      Advocating and lobbying for good governance policies in the public sector
      Building capacity of communities to demand for accountability
      Building a network or constituencies of like minded stakeholder
      Set the pace from our own organisations

b) What is our role in poverty reduction and wealth creation in the civil society?

      Building capacities of people
      Support initiatives that promote self-reliance
      Ensure participation of people from planning, implementation and evaluation
      Encouraging a saving culture

It was commented that corporates have an advantage because of CSR thus can partner
with the government and CSOs. As a result, they are able to identify needy areas and
areas for social investment. CSOs were urged to work hard in ensuring building
partnerships with the corporate sector

Group 3

a) How can we as Grantmakers encourage good governance in both private and
public sector?
            Educating people (sensitising communities)
            Capacity building on good governance systems
            Involvement of religious leaders in enhancing moral values in the
            Commitment from Grantmakers in follow-up to know the mission and
               vision promotes good governance.
            Make grants for good governance
            Effective grant making systems to assess the grant recipients

b) What is our role in poverty reduction and wealth creation in the civil society?

              Building capacity of communities to facilitate resource mobilisation
              Providing skills and capital (revolving fund) for IGAs
              Support community to build endowment fund
              Promoting partnership between community, corporates and private
              Linking community with potential development partners/donors
              Promoting village banks
              Promoting local philanthropy
              Address issues of HIV/AIDS and gender inequality

Group 4
a) How can we as Grantmakers encourage good governance in both private and
public sector?

              Involvement at policy level
              Building partnerships
              Good governance practices to start with Grantmakers
              Act as conduits
              Hold people responsible or accountable

b) What is our role in poverty reduction and wealth creation in the civil society?

              Corporates involved in CSR to have
              Long-term activities
              Make social investment

2.4 Emerging Issues

 One of the participants enquired if resource mobilisation was achievable. It was
    pointed out that training, IGAs, community ownership and savings can transform
    informal groups to formal groups. This was a case study that had been
    successfully implemented in Tanzania.
   Another case study mentioned was one in Mwingi in Kenya, where the
    community members were encouraged to save a shilling a day to build the
    endowment fund. Their target in a year was said to be Kshs. 3 million.
   It was pointed out that corporates have embraced the saying that “All money
    belongs to the people”.

2.5 Conclusion
It was mentioned that poverty is beyond economic issues, it also involves social
matrix. Grantmakers were thus challenged to have an affection to address issues of
good governance, poverty reduction, wealth creation and lobby for change. It was also
pointed out that governance has its root in maintaining law and order

Participants were urged to build strong social capital and break the „glass ceiling‟
between the power barons vis-à-vis the people. There is need to break ceiling e.g. by
corporates being part of the community as they have the goodwill of the people.
Breaking the glass will lead to intermingling of the rich and the poor.

It was pointed out that there is need for Africans to embrace the culture of saving and
appreciate money. This will help the society to transform and change.


3.0 COMMUNITY            EMPOWERMENT             PROCESSES:         INVESTING        IN

The facilitator began the presentation by stating that people at the bottom tend to be
the less powerful. The presentation covered various aspects that need to address in
empowering communities.

3.1. Introduction

The centrality of power in the dynamics of development
        Poverty is a structural issue – the change from colonialism-changed faces,
            not structures and as a result poverty increased.
          Globalisation may increase the of new millionaires, but poverty is still

1. Pertinent Issues:

       Equity and distribution of resources --- who determines the development
       What is development?
             o     People versus things
             o     Growth versus development changes structures.
       Do people have the capacity and power to undertake their own
           o Changing the structure of own community, own country, the global
           o Mnyonge kupata ni mwenye nguvu kupenda (If you are weak, its
               the strong to decide)

     Capacity means good followeship. It comprises:
              o Having the ability to question decisions made
              o Taking responsibility for all actions
              o Community clearly articulation their needs

2. (A) Empowerment Development Approaches

              Sectoral Approaches: water and health for all by 2000 was a complete
              Development inputs remain non-systematic solutions that increase the
               need for more and more of the same rather than strengthening the
               ability of existing structures.
              Hence the fostering of increased dependency while lessening abilities
               of communities to create wealth
              International donors remain reluctant to fund core costs, endowments
               and sustainable strategies.

They remain rooted in short-term quick fixes of projects: this in spite of all the
stalled and non-functioning projects.
        o Run down health education facilities
        o Non – operational boreholes and wells litter entire divisions.

The facilitator mentioned that if we do not invest enough in people thus the failures
we experience today. The inputs are geared towards the products (water, roads). For
example, in Moyale in North Eastern Kenya, there are 80 boreholes that are not
functioning and a solution to the problem is nowhere near. A number of projects are
not working yet we invest more in the “Quick Fixes” just to show we have worked.
Without these we feel we have failed.

(b) A paradigm shift required to change from project driven initiatives to
capacity building and empowerment:

        Help communities to discover the power and wealth they have – the power of
         organised people.

        A paradigm shift is notable in the corporate sector where managers are
         addressing empowerment of their employees as companies become leaner but
         more efficient.

Empowered employees
   Sense of determination and freedom to choose how to do their work
   Sense of meaning – they care about their work
   Sense of competence about their ability to perform
   Sense of impact: their ideas will be heard

3.1 Fundamental Issues
        Qualitative participation and power sharing
        When power is shared, then responsibility for both credit and blame is shared.
        The power of organised/mobilise people – “the most potent on earth”, comes
         to play and ensures:
             o Accountability
             o Equitability – Justice
             o And therefore, SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT.
        People cannot be developed. They have to develop themselves through their
         own actions
        Our role is to provide: education and an enabling environment through
         participatory/democratic leadership.

3.2 Conclusion
1.       Powerlessness is a major cause of poverty. The best approach to identifying
         the poor is to ask the community;
                 Who are the poor?
                 Why are they poor?
                 What problems are they facing?

2.       We need to lower barriers that say „stay where you are” “ do what you are
          We use these to maintain control in the system but they block

3.       We must become more willing to share power in decision-making. It is the
         risk we have to take in order to end powerlessness
         In order to release the potential and capacity for wealth creation that
         communities have.

4.       (a) We have to believe and trust that:
              Every community has assets
              Employees will do the right thing if given the chance

              Empowerment breeds freedom which in-turn breeds creativity is
               necessary for wealth creation.

       (b) Communities are the only ones capable of achieving durable improvements
           (wealth) in their livelihoods.

       (c) People participation is key to successful and sustainable wealth creation
           and development.

       (d) Participation brings out people‟s own unique talents

5.     The power of organized people (mobilized people) “the most potent on the
       earth” is not synonymous with violence – but only way to ensure:
            Accountability
            Good governance
            Equity and justice and therefore peace

6.    Communities cannot be developed they create wealth through their own
7.    Our role is to provide:
           Education
           Enabling environment through democratic leadership & governance
              that is accountable.
8.    Accountable government: by demand “only”
           Participation is required for strengthening of associational life
           Associations, networks and other socio-economic groupings build
              “social capital” (the power of organized people)
           Empowering ordinary citizens (CBOs)
           Gives them a voice which needed to demand better governance (rule of
           Law and order is critical for development
An accountable government is feasible only if there is “Demand”

“The one thing all history teaches is that people have to act for themselves and in
their own interest…. The people know their own needs: once convinced that these can
be overcome by their own efforts, they will make these efforts.”

“Development brings people freedom, provided it is development of people. People
cannot be development; they can only develop themselves. For while it is possible for
an outsider to build a man’s house, an outsider cannot give the man pride and self
confidence in himself as a human being. Those things a man has to create in himself
by his own decisions, by increasing his understanding of what he is doing and why, by
his own full participation.”

       Former President Julius Nyerere, United Republic of Tanzania

3.3 Emerging Issues

The facilitator enquired to know how could we look at another way from the norm
and tradition?

It was mentioned that people know their needs.
 Development brings people freedom provided its development coming from the
    people themselves.
 People cannot be developed; they can only develop themselves (Julius Nyerere).
    Development is about transforming

“For a while, its possible for an outsider to build a man’s house, an outsider cannot
give the man pride and self-confidence in himself as a human being” – Julius Nyerere.

In relation to people, how does this project fit (building a house for the people)? In
response it was pointed out that people must change like the people and not as
individuals. The issue of participation is important and a donor should be able to ask,
what is it the individual or community wants.



A framework of objectives, pursued through social, economic, environmental and
political policies, based on an acceptance of difference and diversity, and informed by
values concerned with:

      Achieving fairness and equality of outcomes and treatment
      Recognizing the dignity and equal worth and encouraging the self-esteem of
      Reducing inequalities in wealth, income and life chances
      Encouraging the sustainable participation of all, including the most


To sets of interactions, activities and values within social, economic and political
relationships, which ensure the availability of rights, access to resources, eradication
of poverty and all forms of inequality, and the promotion of well being.

“If poverty were regarded as a massive, systematic and continuous violation of
human rights, its persistence would no longer be a regrettable feature of the nature
of things. It would become a denial of justice.”

Pierre Sané

“Social justice is part of human rights…Social change is linked with the
transformation of society with the emphasis on access to opportunities for

Marcos Kisil

Social justice is not just about the promotion and protection of human rights. It also
incorporates the idea of the struggle for emancipation from social, political and
economic oppression…. those who suffer injustice must themselves be involved in
actions to eradicate it.

SJ guarantees inclusion and respect for diversity, enables participation by
communities, ensures that people have a voice, equal access to resources,
opportunities and rights.


A Definition

“Grant-making to make society fairer by increasing political, economic and social
opportunities for the disadvantaged or disenfranchised and more equitable distribution
of political power”. Cohen

The Difference Between Philanthropy and SJP

Definitions include:
    Addressing shortages of basic needs (food, clothing and shelter):
    Redistributing power
    Transforming values in favour of diversity (race, gender, caste etc)
    Building strong community capacity, so that people have the power to act; and
    Increasing public participation in decision making

“Charity as ordinarily practiced, the charity of endowment, the charity of emotion,
the charity, which takes the place of justice, creates much of the misery it relieves,
but     does      not      relieve      all      the     misery     it      creates.”

Joseph Rowntree (Joseph Rowntree Charitable Trust)

“Philanthropy is commendable, but it must not cause the philanthropist to overlook
the circumstances of economic injustice that make philanthropy necessary’.

Martin Luther King

Focus is on:

      Helping people to help themselves
      Addressing root causes rather than alleviating symptoms of inequalities
      Challenging social inequities
      Institutional change
      Promoting access to resources and opportunities
      Attempting to bridge the gaps and build relationships between the donors and
       the grantees
      Involving those most affected by social problems by determining a solution

We need to assist and resource the disadvantaged to make choices about their own
future and to take collective responsibility for, and control of, the way in which their
lives are organized. We need to ensure that their participation in decision-making
processes is genuinely empowering, and not tokenistic. We need to promote their
capacity to change inequitable social structures and institutions. Otherwise
philanthropy will simply mirror existing welfare arrangements, imposing top-down
government or service provider agendas on consumers.

Gary Craig (Professor of Social Justice and President of the International Association
for Community Development)

1. Education
2. Provision of skills and investment in human resources
3. Alongside wider programs to address the causes why some groups have difficulty
  having their basic needs met while others have a disproportionate share of available

Donors need to think about the extent to which programs they support simply address
the manifestations of injustice or its causes. They need to promote an understanding
of, and challenge the causes of inequality or injustice. Need to empower
disadvantaged communities with tools to change structures of injustice.


POWER STRUCTURES       dictate maintenance of the status quo. SJP MUST address the
power structures.

•To implicitly or explicitly confront/challenge the power structures involves risks.
•Not being prepared to take risks in pursuit of SJ implies acceptance of the status quo.

“We truly believe that for philanthropy to result in change, philanthropy itself must be
open to change”.

Joan Garner, Executive Director, Southern Partners Fund

“If foundations espouse the values of social justice, this implies a strongly proactive
stance to grant-making. It will influence not only what they do, but also how they
do it. They must also have:
-       A clear theory of social change,
-       An analysis of the causes of social injustice
-       And a strategy for addressing them.
It might necessitate building alliances, partnerships or coalitions with other donors
or with proxies who can act where donors can’t, to pursue the broader aims of
social justice”.

Gary Craig


5.0 Categorising Activities (From relief and welfare to control)

In this session participants were required to categorise the activities they engage in at
their respective organisation and group them in terms of relief, welfare and

The participants used the concept of fishing that focused on 3 aspects
    Giving fish (relief/welfare),
    Teaching to fish (education, conscientization)
    Going Beyond fishing (participation/control)

5.1 Group Reports
Group One

 FBO grants to tackle     IGA‟s, SPM                     Policy advocacy on gender,
  stigma in HIV/AIDS       Training of Trainers-for        OVCs, National Poverty Strategy
 Village/community         civic education and voter       Papers, land and inheritance.
  banks- cash grants        education                      Creating legal and economic
  for capacity building    TOT on stigma at national,      framework for FBOs to take
 Give grants for           regional and district level.    orphans      at    family     and
  peace meetings and       Replication      of      best   community levels.
  conferences               practices - programme by  Teaching/advocacy for good
                            others                          governance
                                                           Interpretation of statutes that
                                                            affect human rights, child abuse,
                                                            gender and inheritance.
                                                           Conduct
                                                            consultancy/research/training at
                                                            community level for economic
                                                           Partnerships with corporates and
                                                            entrepreneurs in

                                                                 Social      responsibility
                                                                 Joint business ventures
                                                                  e.g. Kenya – Honey
                                                                  Africa        (beekeeping
B. Hurinet
                         Education and sensitisation  Peace building and conflict
                          of communities about their    resolution
                          rights                       Advocacy and policy reforms
                                 Women rights         Training paralegals who work
                                 Children rights       within communities
                                 PWDs
                                 HIV/AIDS
                         Capacity           building
                            (financial and project
                         Computers and accessories
C. Ufadhili
                         Institution building             Strengthening advocacy
                         Training        in     good      Policy making
                          governance                       Governance (national)
                         Financial management             Public debate
                         Project proposal writing         Creating networks
                         Training PWDs                    Providing safety nets
                                                           Raising awareness of vulnerable

Group Two

GIVING FISH                       TEACHING         HOW       TO BEYOND FISHING
A. Kabaka Foundation
1.Street       Children     and      Vocational training        Endowment          fund
  rehabilitation centre              Basic Education             building for the project
 Giving food and clothing to        Computers to schools
    street children                  Rehabilitation centre for
 Rehabilitation for displaced        disadvantaged
    people in Northern Uganda

2. Clan Philanthropy             Savings for education and  Involvement           and
                                  conscientization               participation       of
                                                                 women in clan issues
3.Model Village                  Community education and  Land ownership by
                                  involvement               in   model          village
                                  identification          and    members
                                  prioritisation.               Decisions on markets
                                 Training from ministry of      for products
                                  agriculture on proper land
4. Kabaka‟s trail      (Country  Education of community  Community control of
cultural tourism)                 on identification and use of   funds from tourism

                                      local resources for tourism     activities.
                                      development e.g. taking
                                      care of the sites and craft
1. Secondary school bursary Capacity building for schools            Support              for
support                          and organisations on resource        endowment          fund
                                 mobilisation                and      building
Early Childhood Development  Direct capacity building               Supporting partners to
(ECD) Programme                     and capacity building             build      endowment
                                    grants                     to     funds
                                    organisations/partners           Local         resource
                                  Training on grantmaking            mobilisation
                                  Resource mobilisation
                                  Financial management
3. HIV/AIDS programme             Capacity building support         Endowment awareness
                                    for partners                      and            resource
                                  Organisational support for         mobilisation         for
                                    partners                          partners.
4.    CBO‟s    initiation   and  Capacity        building     in    Endowment building
strengthening                       CBO‟s          management,        capacities
                                    governance and related           Other        appropriate
                                    organisational                    sustainability measures
                                    development areas.
                                  Social capital awareness
                                    and sensitisation
5.       Community        assets  Capacity       building    on     Endowment        funds
development                         resource mobilisation and         capacity support
                                    appropriate          projects    Building the process of
                                    sustainability mechanisms         Endowment funds
                                                                     Matching             of
                                                                      community funds for
C. Aga Khan Foundation - Kenya
1.     Youth       Development  Training in development  Employment
Programmes                       work                          acquisition         after
 Interns allowance             Practical        experience   attachments
                                 through organisations        Make           informed
                                                               decisions about life
2.Revolving loan fund           Capacity building for  Groups have control
                                 beneficiaries (groups)        over                their
3. Water accessibility through  Trainings      on     water  Groups control of
boreholes                        management and usage          profits from water
 Sinking boreholes through                                   Maintenance of the
    AKF support                                                boreholes
4. Education (ECD)              Teacher trainings in ECD  Community
                                 programmes                    management           and
                                                               control     of     ECD

    5. NGO resource centre              Capacity   building      on  Structures           for
                                         development              for  sustainability to be put
                                         community                     in place
    Group 3

    GIVING FISH                    TEACHING HOW TO FISH              BEYOND FISHING
    A. Unilever                                                       Annual Scholarships: 28
                                                                       students sponsored for
                                                                       University education and
                                                                       have a trust with Starehe
                                                                       Boys Centre.
                                                                      Environmental-        tree
                                                                       planting and Education
                                                                       on conservation
    B. Safaricom                                                      Environment              –
                                                                      Community Projects –
                                                                       Bee keeping and inter-
                                   Mukuru Primary School
                                    Providing sanitary towels
                                    Education
    EABL                                                             Environment (Concentrated
                                                                     at area of business)
                                                                      Water treatment
                                                                      Tree planting at barley
                                                                      Empower communities
                                                                          to sell tree seedlings
                                   Scholarship fund
                                    University students in all 3
                                      E.A. countries

    5.2 Emerging Issues

    One of the participants suggested that government should consider restructuring the
     education system to enhance self-reliance and facilitate acquisition of proper skills
     that encourage self-employment.
    It was also pointed out that it is important to establish a common fund to enable
     people access capital for initiating community projects.
    It was mentioned that people need to know who they are for it is fundamental for the
     rule of law, accountability that facilitate sustainability and social justice to take root.



6.0 Recap of Day One Session

Some of the highlights captured in the recap session touched on community
empowerment and social justice philanthropy.

It was mentioned that development in a community revolves around
control/empowerment. It was pointed out that centrality of power is the dynamics of
development and this is mainly determined by the distribution of resources. Capacity
that was defined as promoting good followership is equally essential for development.
Capacity touches on involving the most affected in injustices to come up with
solutions affecting their own community. In essence, it was noted empowerment
could be summarised as “capacity and power to undertake own development”.

Characteristics of empowered employees were pointed out as:
Empowered employees

      Sense of determination and freedom to choose how to do their work
      Sense of meaning – they care about their work
      Sense of competence about their ability to perform
      Sense of impact: their ideas will be heard

It was also noted that the power of organised people ensures:
     Accountability
     Good governance

In conclusion, it was pointed out that: -
     Quick fixes lead to stalled and non-functioning projects
     Powerlessness is the major cause of poverty
     People in power should lower barriers that block empowerment
     There should be willingness to share power to raise capacity and potential that
       people have.
     Trust and participation is key to any empowerment processes.
     Equity, Justice and peace

Social Justice was defined as “A framework of objectives pursued through social
economic, environmental and political policies based on acceptance”.

It was mentioned the social justice incorporates protection and promotion of human
rights and it guarantees inclusion and respect for diversity. It was also pointed out
that social justice is when activities involve the participation of disadvantaged
communities and they have access to resources and opportunities.


    A COUNTRY REPORT By Faith Kisinga, MA & Michael Chelogoy, PhD
    (Ufadhili - The Center for Philanthropy and Social Responsibility)

    In the introductory remarks, it was mentioned that the research was done in various
    countries with each focusing on a specific area e.g. Kenya-focused on poverty as a
    gender based in the area of Social Justice, United States of America focused on race,
    while Peru focused on how CSR can be used to partner with philanthropists.

    In Kenya, information shows that in various areas, there is a lot of gender inequality
    especially among women. It was noted that a lower proportion for the unemployed
    were women and if employed, women are in the agricultural sector, at the low-income
    groups. It was also pointed out that policies are gender biased, as there are few
    women in positions of power, while 22% of the women are illiterate as compared to
    14% among men.

    7.1 Research Question

    Key Question:
    How does Social Justice Philanthropy (SJP) in Kenya take place?

    Auxiliary Questions:
       What is the nature and source of SJP in Kenya?
       What role have funding organizations played in advancing SJ in general and
           around gender equity in particular?


    Social Injustice (Parameter)

    Gender-Inequity:
    Income earning opportunities
    Education
    Health
    Participation in political decision-making


    Selection of Organizations:

    1. Analysis of nature, extent & determinants of inequality to determine selection
    2. Selection Criteria:
         Nature and Volume of Support
         Geographical Coverage

       Focus
       Evidence of Support
  3. Four-funding organizations selected.


  FUNDING            FAMILY             COMMUNITY         RELIGIOUS          SERVICE
  Incorporation      1956               1997              1961               1917
  SOURCE             Property           International     International      Rotary
                                        donor             donor              Foundation, club
                                        organisations,    organisations      members     and
                                        foreign private   and                partners.
                                        foundations.      international
  FOCUS              Education          Capacity          Equity,            Humanitarian
                     bursaries          building          empowerment,       intervention
                                        community asset   education     of
                                        development       women & girls
  VALUE     OF       $2.7 million       $933 000          $0.5 million       N/A
  FUNDS              $160    000    -   $1,573,000   to   $120,000/annum     Varies
  DISBURSED          $200,000/ annum    date to CBOs      for bursaries


  The facilitator mentioned that in a lot of organizations, especially when looking at the
  structure of the organization, board members were involved in decision-making but
  the individual officer was given the ability to make decisions related to Social Justice.

  Some of the points noted that were of significance during the research include:
      The need to advocate for role of individual officer
      Most if not all have never used the word Social Justice
      Some had a clear understanding of Social Justice and their mission statement
        captured the fundamentals of Social Justice.
      Community participation was key for Social Justice Philanthropy to be

  Decision-Making Process
      Structure of the funding organizations
      Role of the individual officer
      Perceptions of SJP

  Nature Of Support
 Consolidated approach: Traditional philanthropy and SJP
 Groups considered more deserving
            o Marginalized and vulnerable groups
            o Women

How Funding Organizations Support Social Justice

   Establishing community ownership and participation
   Tapping into existing social capital
   Tapping into local philanthropic traditions
   Ensuring sustainability of initiatives
   Building partnerships

7.6 Barriers to SJP

 Over-reliance on foreign funding
It was mentioned that the risks involved in philanthropy was especially due to reliance
on donor funding. It was pointed out that results may not come immediately and most
risks are as a result of donor support coming to an end. Participants were advised to
have local support, which was key to sustainability.
 Rigid structures and approaches
It was pointed out that most organisations had the fear of being vocal against the
powers to continue getting support. In addition, gender issues were approached with
caution to avoid conflict with community beliefs. It was noted that religious
organisations were useful in advocating for girls rights and were actively involved in
supporting the disadvantaged groups.
 Poor governance

It was mentioned that lack of accountability and transparency in most CBOs was a
major barrier to SJP
 Lack of an enabling environment

It was pointed out that creating linkages with the government was key in addressing
SJP. It was noted liaising with the government would spearhead advocacy for
policies that are of significance for communities. It was also pointed out that
initiatives to mobilize resources were hampered by regulations within government
policies e.g. tax rebates for givers.

7.6 Recommendations
1.Develop local support for social justice work
2.Enhancing and mobilizing social capital for gender-equity
3.Creating an enabling environment for SJP
4. Build the capacity of individual officials

7.7 Emerging Issues
One of the participants from Uganda mentioned that CBOs had been empowered to
advocate for land rights and were able to get title deeds for their land. It was
mentioned that that funding organization went further and facilitated establishment of
IGAs for the CBO members for them to desist from selling land because of abject

A participant from Tanzania pointed out that only one religious organization were
actively involved in supporting women, and taking them on board in the organization
to be part of decision makers. This was done to endure participation of women.
Schedules for activities have been worked out with the participation of women in the

During discussions, it was pointed out that organizations could be useful in supporting
SJP. An example was given of an organization that developed a rapport with the
community to enhance participation. It was mentioned that it is important to build
capacity of existing CBOs. It was further noted that building ties and bonds in
communities enabled CBOs to pull resources together. The facilitator challenged
philanthropists attending the workshop to strengthen even the unorganized groups.

Reference was made to a religious foundation that was interested in linking CBOs to
service clubs to ensure sustainability if the donors pulled out. The CBOs capacity had
been developed through partnerships.

It was also pointed out that media was useful in highlighting injustices leading to
mobilisation of persons that can address the injustices. It is one of the most effective
means of creating awareness and lobbying for policy changes.



“Social Justice Grantmaking can be defined as the funding through which
philanthropic institutions can determine causes of social inequalities and support
(activities) organisations that work for structural change in order to increase the
ability, opportunities and access to greater political, economic and social power to
those who are disadvantaged and marginalized in Society” M. Mutuku - EAAG

Social justice grantmaking is based on a belief that some aspects of society is
inequitable and needs to be changed to create fairer outcomes

       Emmett D. Carson, Ph.D.
       CEO, The Minneapolis Foundation

“Social Justice Grantmaking involves funding social change processes and asset
building interventions in order to reduce powerlessness and poverty”. M. Mutuku –

This can be done at two levels: upper stream measures or funding broader social
change or downstream measures through funding the development process largely at
the community level

Note the story of the general practitioner and the epidemiologist, pulling the bodies
from the river and going upstream to find-out where the bodies are coming from.


(Upper Stream Measures)

Social Change is linked to transformation of society with emphasis on access to
opportunities for development because:

   Marginalisation and poverty will not end without transformation of society
   “Transformation will not take place without meaningful and empowering
    participation by the poor and marginalized”

This requires grantmaking for work on structural change and could include a number
of broad categories of activities:

       Researching and disseminating information on the root causes of social
        problems – Street children, discrimination against women, land distribution –
        (58 people own 75% of Laikipia district), voting patterns – Kenyans vote for
        those who give them money.
       Protecting and enhancing the legal rights of those who are marginalized in
        society or discriminated against – A Kituo cha Sheria in every major
        town/district in Kenya
       Protecting environmental causes that ensure that disadvantaged groups are not
        disproportionately affected by harmful environmental practices
       Peace and reconciliation programmes that seek to understand and address
        causes of conflict – i.e. water resources, cattle, land etc.
       Advocacy and lobbying to enact changes in government policies, regulation
        and programmes affecting disadvantaged populations – how does Nyeri
        District get Ksh 500 million for water when 2/3 of Kenya is semi-arid?
       Economic activities including projects at the community level that increase the
        social economic activities of disadvantaged and disenfranchised population.
       Technical assistance – that includes improving skills in governance
        management, project design, implementation as well as democratic processes.


(The Downstream Measures)

“The Story Behind the Well”

Funding the development process: donors philanthropic/development) want to see
tangible results: roads, wells, the school, the hospital etc. and “Quickly too”

The result: Stalled, non-functioning the poorly maintained projects seen all over - all
by well meaning NGOs, International agencies and government.

The “Story Behind the Well” is about the development process:

          Decision-making: how were the decisions made? How were the
           discussions organised and held?
          Who participated and who were left out – the women, the poor, the youth
          How was the work organised, supervised and done?
          What about the unique skills, talents and community resources – were they
          Is the process promoting better leadership, governance and improved local
           capacity for creativity and production - growing indigenous capacity?
          Have a better appreciation and are growing desire for protection of human
           rights and an increasing ability to organise and get what the community
           needs – from government, NGOs etc becoming evident/ - The power of
           organised people (POA)
          The local politics: Are political careers at stake depending on success or
           failure of the project?

What would be preferred – special interests of the elite and local politicians regardless
of cost to the community on account of who gets the credit? i.e. the opponents?

Could people overcome entrenched fears and vote differently?

Grants would target two levels:

   1. CBO capacity building whereby:

          Women groups, youth groups, faith based groups and,
          Traditional social groups – clans, burial committees, merry – go – rounds
           and other social and welfare associations that always exist at the
           community level are funded.

Grants would support organisational/institutional development – a correlation
between lack of institutions and where a high level of poverty has been noted.

“Nothing is impossible without individuals but nothing is permanent without
institutions” – Lorenzo Rasenzweig – Mexican Fund for Conservation.

Funded activities and supplies would include:

      Renting a simple office in the local market – a solar panel would facilitate
       having a computer but a manual typewriter would do simple office supplies.
      Staff allowances – salaries distort the power relationships between CBO and

      Enhancing knowledge and skills – project design and management, proposal
       writing and resource mobilisation.
      Financial management – budgeting, banking, book-keeping – cashbooks
      Personnel issues – selection, appointments/contracts
      Management structure and governance – constitution and related legal status,
       elections, board/committees – training

2. Funding the community empowerment/process; the “ Story Behind the Well “
may require local experts in participatory development who understand its key
values of sitting, asking and listening:

      Sitting implies to hurry
      Asking implies humility and willingness to learn
      Listening implies respect – Community is the teacher

Study tours and exchange visits by community members and community workshops
on leadership, skills on farming and animal husbandry.
Participatory baseline data collection – Villages will bring data/information on poor
families, landless, children not in school or drop – outs. Water – permanent and
seasonal rivers. Health facilities, traditional medicine men and women and quality of
health care.

Identification of problems, prioritisation of needs, what the community can do and
what help is required from outside

On this basis then we can design our project – the well, the road and the school.


To empower people and strengthen their political voice, we need to help them gain
access to resources of power in our society. Typically those include assets such as
skills that are marketable, economic resources and social supports. This is essential if
we are to make a difference.
Geeta Rao Gupta


Some notions involve equality and the redistribution of power and resources. Others
frame around principles of deserving, fairness, entitlement, rights, equality, ethics and
/ or morality.
                      Emmett D. Carson:
Social Justice Grantmaking: Finding a Common Language

    9.0 PROJECTION (My Dream for East Africa)

    In this session, participants were asked to write their ideas on how they envision East
    Africa in 10 years. Their views were as follows:
    EAAG to become a vibrant association in partnership with corporates and the private
     sector (being a voice for poverty reduction in East Africa)
    An East Africa that values justice taps all resources e.g. social, political and
     distributes them equally to ensure justice for all.
    A self-reliant East Africa, whose development is driven and controlled by its people,
    EAAG should have established a common fund that could be used to promote
     training of skills and procuring of basic working tools for the trained youth and for
     organising those with like skills into production groups.
    Rich and harmonious E.A with supreme technology, abundant nutritious foods, easy
     transportation and highly skilled people
    Empowered communities, fully participating at all levels of decision making for
     equitable development.
    Self-reliant East Africa that does not depend on imports from other parts of the
     world, through use of local resources.
    Equal distribution of resources between men and women (Education, employment
     and political power.
    An E.A. that owns it development initiatives, and lives above poverty line.
    A wholly rounded nation of East Africans – highly skilled and ready to face
     challenges, and characterised by;
            o A united East Africa that cares for the people
            o Eradication of poverty
            o An educated nation of East Africa (free education at primary and
                secondary level and a highly subsidised at university level), education
                system that includes moral values.
            o Access to electricity and medical attention
    Changed education system
            o After primary and secondary school or university education, there should
                be provision for one or two years of skills training.
            o Training in entrepreneurship and business management skills
    Teaching people to know who they are – be masters of their own decisions as basis
     for sustainable development and growth.
    Have leadership that is community centred as opposed to self- centred leadership.
    Have leadership that promotes local expertise in exploiting natural resources
    Tackling street children problems by promoting integration of orphans in families
     that are economically empowered.

    10.0 WAY FORWARD

     Widening membership (revisit the criteria)
     Advocate for partnering between EAAG members and government to increase the
      implementation capability.
     Better exploitation of resources

 Member organisations to be empowered to conduct trainings on Social Justice
  Philanthropy through: TOT and Social Justice Philanthropy workbook.
 EAAG to explore ways of partnering with EAC on projects of common concern
 Mobilise faith-based organisations for advocacy on social justice in their
 Invite government officials in future workshops.

Mrs Vijoo Rattansi – EAAG chairman thanked the corporates and members of EAAG
who attended the workshop and made it a success. She also thanked the secretariat
for organising the workshop and taking care of all the logistical arrangements. She
further thanked the facilitators for their commitment to sharing information and
knowledge on Social Justice Philanthropy (the various aspects) and creating
understanding on its relevance to our work in various organisations.


1    Amon Mrutu     The Foundation for
                    Society (TZ)            P.O Box 7192 Dar es Salaam.
2   Beth Mutuku     Aga Khan Foundation (K)
                                            223951 / 0722 773595
3. Carole Opile EAAG              
                                            Tel: 315773
4   David         EAAG            
    Muema                                   Tel: 315773
5. Faith Kisinga Ufadhili         
                                            Tel: 343061
6. Fr.     Gallus World Conference on
    Marandu       Religions & Peace (TZ)    P.O Box 16, Bagamoyo TZ.
                                            Tel: 0744624399
7. George Jones United States International
                  University (USIU)
8. Gladys      k. Kenya          Community
    Miriti        Development Foundation    Tel: 0722675376
9. Jean Kiarie    East Africa Breweries Ltd
                                            0722 719070
10. Josephine     Human Rights Network
    Kampi                                   P.O Box 21256, Kampala
11 Joyce          Kabaka Foundation (UG)    Tel: 077 581183
12 Matiya         Kabaka Foundation
    Lubega                                  Tel: 077 740471
13. Michael       Ufadhili        
14. Mildred       Safaricom Foundation

    Otsieno                                  0722 711770
15. Monica        EAAG             
    Mutuku                                    020 315773
16 R.J.A          World Conference on
    Mwaisaku      Religion & Peace (TZ)      Tel: 0744 844225
17 Regina    C.   Unilever Tea (K) Ltd
    Kibwana                                  P.O Box 20, Kericho
18 Salim     A.   World Conference on
    Zagar         Religion & Peace (TZ)      P.O Box 76951, Dar es Salaam
19 Urbanus        Ndithini Community Dev.
    Mwania        Association (K)            Tel: 0724 854483
20 Valentine      Social Action Foundation
    Rweyemamu     Trust (TZ)                 P.O Box 101123, Dar es Salaam
    Vijoo         Rattansi Education Trust
    Rattansi                                 Tel: 020 220661


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