Production Adn Operations Management

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					    Chapter 15

    Geology and
Nonrenewable Mineral
     Resources
     Chapter Overview Questions
 What  major geologic processes occur within
  the earth and on its surface?
 What are nonrenewable mineral resources
  and where are they found?
 What are rocks, and how are they recycled
  by the rock cycle?
 How do we find and extract mineral
  resources from the earth’s crust, and what
  harmful environmental effects result from
  removing and using these minerals?
Chapter Overview Questions (cont’d)
 Willthere be enough nonrenewable mineral
  resources for future generations?
 Can we find substitutes for scarce
  nonrenewable mineral resources?
 How can we shift to more sustainable use of
  nonrenewable mineral resources?
                        Updates Online
    The latest references for topics covered in this section can be found at
    the book companion website. Log in to the book’s e-resources page at
    www.thomsonedu.com to access InfoTrac articles.

   InfoTrac: Residents discuss towns' deaths. Daily Oklahoman (Oklahoma
    City, OK) August 2, 2006.
   InfoTrac: All that glitters: the demand for gold is soaring. Jane Perlez,
    Kirk Johnson. New York Times, May 8, 2006 v138 i14 p12(6) .
   InfoTrac: In Old Mining Town, New Charges Over Asbestos. Kirk
    Johnson. The New York Times, April 22, 2006 pA1(L).
   Science Daily: Putting Coal Ash Back Into Mines A Viable Option For
    Disposal, But Risks Must Be Addressed
   National Park Service: Mining Operations Management
   Arizona Mining Association: From the Ground Up: Mining/Mineral
    Resource Development
            Core Case Study: The
          Nanotechnology Revolution
 Nanotechnology  uses science and
 engineering to create materials out of
 atoms and molecules at the scale of less
 than 100 nanometers.
     Little environmental harm:
       • Does not use renewable resources.
     Potential biological concerns.
       • Can move through cell membranes:



                                             Figure 15-1
         GEOLOGIC PROCESSES
 The  earth is made up of a core, mantle, and
  crust and is constantly changing as a result
  of processes taking place on and below its
  surface.
 The earth’s interior consists of:
     Core: innermost zone with solid inner core and
      molten outer core that is extremely hot.
     Mantle: solid rock with a rigid outer part
      (asthenosphere) that is melted pliable rock.
     Crust: Outermost zone which underlies the
      continents.
      GEOLOGIC PROCESSES




 Majorfeatures of the earth’s crust and upper
 mantle.
                                        Figure 15-2
                                                               Folded
                                                               mountain
                                               Volcanoes       belt
                                                                            Abyssal plain
                Abyssal Oceanic   Abyssal
Abyssal hills                               Trench
                 floor   ridge     floor                              Craton



Oceanic crust                                                Continental     Continental
(lithosphere)                                                shelf           slope
                                                                               Continental
                                                                               rise
                                                     Continental crust (lithosphere)
                                                     Mantle (lithosphere)




                                                                              Fig. 15-2, p. 336
                                    Spreading
Collision between                    center                               Ocean
two continents                                                            trench



                                       Oceanic      Oceanic
                     Subduction                      crust
                                        crust
                     zone
            Continental                                            Continental
            crust                                                  crust
                                    Material cools Cold dense
                                    as it reaches material falls
                                      the outer back through
                                       mantle        mantle
                                             Hot
                             Mantle       material
                           convection       rising
                              cell         through
                                              the
                                            mantle

             Two plates move                                        Mantle
             towards each other.
             One is subducted           Hot outer
             back into the mantle       core Inner
             on a falling convection
             current.                            core


                                                                                 Fig. 15-3, p. 337
         GEOLOGIC PROCESSES
 Huge volumes of heated and molten rack
 moving around the earth’s interior form
 massive solid plates that move extremely
 slowly across the earth’s surface.
     Tectonic plates: huge rigid plates that are
      moved with convection cells or currents by
      floating on magma or molten rock.
The Earth’s Major Tectonic Plates




                             Figure 15-4
  The Earth’s Major Tectonic Plates




 The extremely slow movements of these
 plates cause them to grind into one another
 at convergent plate boundaries, move apart
 at divergent plate boundaries and slide past
 at transform plate boundaries.
                                        Figure 15-4
Fig. 15-4, p. 338
                                                      EURASIAN PLATE
              NORTH                        ANATOLIAN
              AMERICAN                       PLATE
              PLATE
JUAN DE                   CARIBBEAN                        CHINA
FUCA PLATE                PLATE                          SUBPLATE
                                             ARABIAN
                                      AFRICAN PLATE                 PHILIPPINE
                                      PLATE                           PLATE
  PACIFIC
                        SOUTH
   PLATE
                        AMERICAN
                  NAZCA PLATE                             INDIA-
                  PLATE                SOMALIAN         AUSTRALIAN
                                       SUBPLATE           PLATE



                             ANTARCTIC PLATE

Divergent plate                  Convergent plate            Transform
boundaries                       boundaries                  faults
                                                                 Fig. 15-4a, p. 338
                                Trench   Volcanic island arc         Craton

                                                                 Transform
                                                                    fault

                                           Lithosphere
                                          Rising
               Lithosphere                                           Lithosphere
                                         magma
            Asthenosphere    Asthenosphere                           Asthenosphere

Divergent plate boundaries   Convergent plate boundaries   Transform faults




                                                                        Fig. 15-4b, p. 338
GEOLOGIC PROCESSES


            The San
            Andreas Fault is
            an example of a
            transform fault.




                     Figure 15-5
Wearing Down and Building Up the
         Earth’s Surface

                      Weathering     is
                       an external
                       process that
                       wears the
                       earth’s
                       surface
                       down.


                              Figure 15-6
Parent material
    (rock)




   Biological         Chemical             Physical weathering
   weathering         weathering           (wind, rain, thermal
   (tree roots and    (water, acids,       expansion and
   lichens)           and gases)           contraction, water
                                           freezing)




            Particles of parent material                  Fig. 15-6, p. 340
  MINERALS, ROCKS, AND THE
        ROCK CYCLE
 The earth’s crust consists of solid inorganic
 elements and compounds called minerals
 that can sometimes be used as resources.
     Mineral resource: is a concentration of
      naturally occurring material in or on the earth’s
      crust that can be extracted and processed into
      useful materials at an affordable cost.
      General Classification of
  Nonrenewable Mineral Resources
 TheU.S. Geological Survey classifies
 mineral resources into four major categories:
     Identified: known location, quantity, and quality
      or existence known based on direct evidence and
      measurements.
     Undiscovered: potential supplies that are
      assumed to exist.
     Reserves: identified resources that can be
      extracted profitably.
     Other: undiscovered or identified resources not
      classified as reserves
    General Classification of
Nonrenewable Mineral Resources
                  Examples    are
                  fossil fuels (coal,
                  oil), metallic
                  minerals (copper,
                  iron), and
                  nonmetallic
                  minerals (sand,
                  gravel).


                               Figure 15-7
                                 Undiscovered                 Identified




                                                                                Economical
Decreasing cost of extraction


                                                              Reserves




                                     Other




                                                                                Not economical
                                   resources




                                Decreasing certainty          Known

                                                  Existence
                                                                           Fig. 15-7, p. 341
         GEOLOGIC PROCESSES
 Deposits  of nonrenewable mineral resources
  in the earth’s crust vary in their abundance
  and distribution.
 A very slow chemical cycle recycles three
  types of rock found in the earth’s crust:
     Sedimentary rock (sandstone, limestone).
     Metamorphic rock (slate, marble, quartzite).
     Igneous rock (granite, pumice, basalt).
Rock Cycle




             Figure 15-8
                                             Erosion
                   Transportation


                                                                   Weathering

              Deposition


                                                                                            Igneous rock
Sedimentary                                                                                 Granite,
rock                                                                                        pumice,
Sandstone,                                                                                  basalt
limestone
                                                 Heat, pressure


                                                                                  Cooling
                 Heat, pressure,
                                                                    Magma
                     stress
                                                                  (molten rock)



                                                         Melting



                                    Metamorphic rock
                                    Slate, marble,
                                    gneiss, quartzite
                                                                                        Fig. 15-8, p. 343
  ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF
  USING MINERAL RESOURCES




 Theextraction, processing, and use of
 mineral resources has a large environmental
 impact.
                                      Figure 15-9
Surface   Metal ore   Separation    Smelting         Melting   Conversion     Discarding of
mining                of ore from                    metal     to product     product
                      gangue                                                  (scattered in
                                                                              environment)
                                         Recycling




                                                                            Fig. 15-9, p. 344
                              Natural Capital Degradation
        Extracting, Processing, and Using Nonrenewable Mineral and Energy Resources

Steps                                                             Environmental effects
Mining                                                            Disturbed land; mining
                                                                  accidents; health hazards,
Exploration,                                                      mine waste dumping, oil
extraction                                                        spills and blowouts; noise;
Processing                                                        ugliness; heat

Transportation,                                                   Solid wastes; radioactive
                                                                  material; air, water, and
purification,
                                                                  soil pollution; noise;
manufacturing                                                     safety and health
Use                                                               hazards; ugliness; heat

Transportation or                                                 Noise; ugliness; thermal
transmission to                                                   water pollution; pollution
                                                                  of air, water, and soil;
individual user,                                                  solid and radioactive
eventual use, and                                                 wastes; safety and health
discarding                                                        hazards; heat




                                                                             Fig. 15-10, p. 344
      ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF
      USING MINERAL RESOURCES
 Minerals  are removed through a variety of
  methods that vary widely in their costs, safety
  factors, and levels of environmental harm.
 A variety of methods are used based on
  mineral depth.
     Surface mining: shallow deposits are removed.
     Subsurface mining: deep deposits are removed.
Open-pit Mining
           Machines   dig
            holes and
            remove ores,
            sand, gravel,
            and stone.
           Toxic
            groundwater can
            accumulate at
            the bottom.

                       Figure 15-11
Area Strip Mining
           Earth  movers
            strips away
            overburden, and
            giant shovels
            removes mineral
            deposit.
           Often leaves highly
            erodible hills of
            rubble called spoil
            banks.
                        Figure 15-12
Contour Strip Mining
             Used    on hilly or
              mountainous
              terrain.
             Unless the land is
              restored, a wall of
              dirt is left in front
              of a highly
              erodible bank
              called a highwall.

                           Figure 15-13
Undisturbed land


    Overburden




              Pit
                    Bench




                            Spoil banks

                                          Fig. 15-13, p. 346
Mountaintop Removal
            Machinery
             removes the tops
             of mountains to
             expose coal.
            The resulting
             waste rock and dirt
             are dumped into
             the streams and
             valleys below.

                         Figure 15-14
Mining Impacts

       Metal  ores are
        smelted or treated
        with (potentially toxic)
        chemicals to extract
        the desired metal.




                        Figure 15-15
        SUPPLIES OF MINERAL
            RESOURCES
 The   future supply of a resource depends on
  its affordable supply and how rapidly that
  supply is used.
 A rising price for a scarce mineral resource
  can increase supplies and encourage more
  efficient use.
SUPPLIES OF MINERAL
    RESOURCES
           Depletioncurves
           for a renewable
           resource using
           three sets of
           assumptions.
               Dashed vertical
                lines represent
                times when 80%
                depletion occurs.

                            Figure 15-16
                     A    Mine, use, throw away;
                          no new discoveries;
                          rising prices

                                  Recycle; increase reserves
                                  by improved mining
                                  technology, higher prices,
Production



                          B       and new discoveries

                                          Recycle, reuse,
                                          reduce consumption;
                                          increase reserves by
                                          improved mining
                                          technology, higher
                              C           prices, and new
                                          discoveries




             Present Depletion Depletion Depletion
                      time A    time B    time C
                                   Time                          Fig. 15-16, p. 348
        SUPPLIES OF MINERAL
            RESOURCES
 New  technologies can increase the mining of
  low-grade ores at affordable prices, but
  harmful environmental effects can limit this
  approach.
 Most minerals in seawater and on the deep
  ocean floor cost too much to extract, and
  there are squabbles over who owns them.
Getting More Minerals from the
           Ocean
                Hydrothermal
                 deposits form when
                 mineral-rich
                 superheated water
                 shoots out of vents
                 in solidified magma
                 on the ocean floor.


                                Figure 15-17
                 Black         White
                 smoker        smoker

                 Sulfide
                 deposits



        Magma

White     White clam
crab                   Tube
                       worms




                                        Fig. 15-17, p. 350
   USING MINERAL RESOURCES
       MORE SUSTAINABLY
 Scientistsand engineers are developing new
  types of materials as substitutes for many
  metals.
 Recycling valuable and scarce metals saves
  money and has a lower environmental impact
  then mining and extracting them from their
  ores.
                   Solutions
 Sustainable Use of Nonrenewable Minerals

• Do not waste mineral resources.

• Recycle and reuse 60–80% of mineral resources.

• Include the harmful environmental costs of
  mining and processing minerals in the prices
  of items (full-cost pricing).

• Reduce subsidies for mining mineral resources.

• Increase subsidies for recycling, reuse, and
  finding less environmentally harmful substitutes.

• Redesign manufacturing processes to use less
  mineral resources and to produce less pollution
  and waste.

• Have the mineral-based wastes of one
  manufacturing process become the raw
  materials for other processes.

• Sell services instead of things.

• Slow population growth.
                                                      Fig. 15-18, p. 351
              Case Study:
       The Ecoindustrial Revolution
 Growing  signs point to an ecoindustrial
  revolution taking place over the next 50
  years.
 The goal is to redesign industrial
  manufacturing processes to mimic how
  nature deals with wastes.
     Industries can interact in complex resource
      exchange webs in which wastes from
      manufacturer become raw materials for another.
       Case Study:
The Ecoindustrial Revolution




                           Figure 15-19
                                                  Sludge

                          Pharmaceutical plant                Local farmers
                                                                      Sludge
 Greenhouses                   Waste
                                heat



                 Waste heat                                   Fish farming


  Oil refinery   Surplus      Electric power
                 natural gas       plant
Surplus                       Waste
 sulfur                     calcium
                                                           Cement manufacturer
                             sulfate



 Sulfuric acid
  producer
                              Wallboard factory              Area homes
                                                                   Fig. 15-19, p. 352

				
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