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Acupuncture is now widely used outside China by over 1,000,000 practitioners. In
fact, in a German pain clinic 90% of the Medics used acupuncture. Acupuncture
was first brought to Europe in the 17th Century but because of conflicts between
Eastern and Western therapies it was not widely used. The Traditional Chinese
Medicine (TCM) approach is based on holistic patterns and no linear logic, where
in contrast the Western approach is based on linear causal scientific theories.
Historical Development of Acupuncture in China
    3000 –476 BC Earliest records
    475 BC –24AD Theory of Meridians
    24 –265 Systemised Acupoints (349 points)
    265 – 581 Consolidation of knowledge
    581 – 907 Meridians Mapped Out
    907 – 1368 Acupoints
    1368 1644 Revision of previous work
    1644 – 1840 Decline of Acupuncture
    1841 – 1945 Pro-Western Medicine (365 points)
    1950 – now Systemised the basic theory. Clinical trials. Acupuncture
     Analgesia. Developing ear, foot and hand points. (1000+ points)

Over the last 20 years, controlled clinical trials on chronic pain have
demonstrated acupuncture helps 55 to 85% of patients 1 and has lead to causal
mechanisms for the effects to be identified. One of the major steps forward was
the finding that Acupuncture Analgesia was inhibited by Naloxone (Mayer et al,
1977 & Pomeranz, 1976) indicating a link to opiate like systems. Further work
was undertaken and found that neurotransmitters (monoamines) were involved in
the process of acupuncture analgesia.

Staffordshire Podiatric Acupuncture Group                                         1
Traditional Chinese Medicine focuses upon the effects on the vital energy / life
force (Qi). Apart from the polar system of yin and yang, there is a system of five
phases involving the elements of fire, wood, water, metal and earth all inter-
related and dependent upon each other. They are also related to body organs,
senses and emotions, as well as, external factors such as colour, weather,
seasons, direction and development.

Chinese syndromes are developed from assessment of key diagnostic criteria of
the interior / exterior, deficiency / excess, cold / heat and yin and yang.

      Comparison of Traditional Chinese Medicine Approach
            and Western Approach to Acupuncture

Table 1.

 Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM)                  Western Acupuncture

Formally an important part of the            Incorporating Acupuncture into
"Holistic Medicine". Now Western and         Western Medicine.
TCM are both offered in the medical          1. Does it rally relieve pain?
system in China.                             2. How does it work?
                                             3. Do meridians really exist?

Traditional Applications                     Applications
Dry Needling,                                Dry Needling,
Moxibustion,                                 Electroacupuncture,
Cupping,                                     TENS,
Acupressure.                                 Trigger Points,
Additional Applications                      Laser
Auricular,                                   Acupressure.
Scalp Acupuncture,
Injecting Acupuncture,

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2.     The Neurophysiology of Acupuncture

However the medical opinion at the time was that since there were no proven
physiological effects all of the treatment outcomes were due to other causes i.e.
hypnosis, placebo etc

2.1    The physiological mechanism of acupuncture

Of all the benefits of acupuncture (brochodilation in asthma, effects on gastric
motility, mood, addictive behaviour etc.), the analgesic effect of acupuncture has
received the most attention. The key research mechanisms of acupuncture
analgesia were the discovery of endogenous opioids and the neurochemical
process of pain.

The discovery of Acupuncture Analgesia and its inhibition by Naloxone

Acupuncture research made a substantial leap forward when two groups,
working independently, discovered that the opiate antagonist Naloxone blocked
acupuncture analgesia (Mayer et al, 1977; Pomeranz et al, 1976). These
substances are present in a multitude of centres in the central nervous system
and are also present in the nerve terminal of C-fibres in the periphery. They have
a range of effects on mood, control of breathing, coughing, possibly inflammation
and, of course analgesia. The function of these substances is directly related to
the specific receptors to which they bind (µ, , , ).

Staffordshire Podiatric Acupuncture Group                                       3
2.2    Sequence of Events

Over the last 20 years, controlled clinical trials on chronic pain have
demonstrated acupuncture helps 55 to 85% of patients (Lewith et al, 1983) and
has lead to causal mechanisms for the effects to be identified. One of the major
steps forward was the finding that Acupuncture Analgesia was inhibited by
Naloxone indicating a link to opiate like systems. Further work was undertaken
and found that neurotransmitters (monoamines) were involved in the process of
acupuncture analgesia.

The western theorisation of the acupuncture analgesia process relates the effects
of acupuncture to physiology. The simple insertion of a needle into the skin and
deeper tissues will result in an increase in endogenous opioids. The sensations
of tingling (A beta fibres), deep aching (A delta, C fibres) and distension or hot
sensations (A gamma fibres) are all frequently recognised and described by
patients. The sensations described are explained in Traditional Chinese Medicine
as Deqi.

Following stimulation of the nerve fibres, the spinal cord receives impulses at the
dorsal horn at various levels (Laminae II – A delta & C, Laminae V – A beta). The
gate theory gives an explanation for the reason why the painful stimuli are not
transmitted to the higher centres of the brain and the blocking of pain stimuli.
Further complex neurophysiological processes resulting in transmission of the
stimuli to the brain stem and cerebral cortex also occur and result in both
ascending and descending inhibitory systems being activated. The main
structures stimulated are periaquaductal grey, substansia nigra, nucleus raphe
magnus, reticular formation, limbic system, thalamus and cerebral cortex. The
overall chemical effects are given in table 2.

Staffordshire Podiatric Acupuncture Group                                        4
Table 2         Chemical Effects of Acupuncture

         Area                Chemical                   Effect
Local                        Histamine                 Healing Process
                             Phagocytic Activity

                             Endorphin                 Analgesia

Spinal Cord                  Serotonin                 Regulate Analgesia
                                                        Well Being

Central                      Endorphin                 Analgesia
                             Pituitary Function
                                   Endocrine Function

2.3      The Pain Pathway (See Diagram 1)
Nerve fibres:
Nerve Type             Structure                        Function
A beta                 Large diameter myelinated        touch,      vibration,   deep
A delta                Small diameter myelinated        Pain – sharp & localised
                                                        Acute pain)
A gamma                                                 Muscle fibres
C Fibres               Small diameter unmyelinated      Pain – diffuse, dull (chronic

Staffordshire Podiatric Acupuncture Group                                        5
A simple overview of the transmission of a painful stimulus would commence with
activation of A delta and C fibres. These fibres (1) carry the signal to the spinal
cord where the fibres synapse with cord cells (2&4) that carry the signal to the
cortex (5) via the thalamus (3) and limbic system (4).

2.4    Segmental Analgesia & Gate Control

Insertion of a needle into tissue and muscle will stimulate A delta & gamma fibres
(6) and transmit a signal to the spinal cord to the Anterior lateral Tract (ALT) (7).
This process also stimulates the "gate control" cell (8) which prevents
transmission of the original pain signal up the spinal cord. It is believed that this
process may occur via enkephalins and dynorphins (monoamine system).

This same gate control cell can also be activated via a second mechanism down
from the mid-brain (Dorsal lateral tract) (12). The ALT carries the signal to the
periaquaductal grey matter (9&10) from which it travels to the medulla oblongata
(11) and mid-brain (DLT) (12).

2.5    Systemic Mechanism

The signal from the ALT also travels to the pituitary & hypothalamus (13,14&15)
where it results in the release of b-endorphin, ACTH (cortisone = anti-
inflammatory) and enkephalins.

The emotional components of pain (depression, anxiety and attitudes) are
developed through the limbic system.

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         Acupuncture Needle                                        Painful Stimulus


             Muscle                                                                     1 C & A Delta

   Type II 6

Spinal                                                              8
Cord                                                                            E

               7                                                                    2      4



                 9              10
                                               11                       3                   System
                                           Midbrain           12
            Periaquaduactal Grey


                      14             15
                                                               Cerebral Cortex
            Pituitary Hypothalamus Complex

                                          Circulation          Diagram 1.
 ACTH to
 Adrenal Cortex                                                The Pain Pathway &
 + B Endorphins                                                Effects of Acupuncture

         Staffordshire Podiatric Acupuncture Group                                             7
               Direction of impulse                     Nerve cell

       Excitatory Synapse                   Inhibitory Synapse
  DLT Dorsolateral Tract                    ALT Anterolateral Tract
  STT Spinothalamic Tract                   M Monoamines
  E     Endorphins

2.6   Local / Distant needling

Local needling produces a fast intense analgesia which is short acting. Distant
needling produces a slower longer-term analgesia via the pituitary & thalamus
chemical release.

2.7   Electrical Effects

Low frequency (2-4Hz) high intensity stimulation produces an effect of the opoid
system (pituitary & Thalamus). Slow onset but long lasting analgesia, cumulative.

High frequency (50-200 Hz) low intensity stimulation produces an effect on the
gate control cell (dynorphin & enkephalin) fast onset but short-term analgesia, not

2.8   Manual Effects

Appears to act in a similar manor to low frequency stimulation.

Therefore, the best mechanism would be stimulate local and distant points over a
regular given period of time to develop the cumulative effect.

Note that some patients have limited endorphin receptors and therefore the
results of acupuncture are poor.

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3.    Equipment
Needles – mostly stainless steel solid needles, which are flexible and
unbreakable. The diameter varies from 0.2 to 0.5mm (gauge 26-32). Remember
the smaller the gauge the thicker the needle!

Commonly 30 gauge (0.3mm) are used of various lengths from 1 to 10cm. They
consist of tip, body and a handle. It is recommended that sheathed needles be
used until experience is gained in needling.

Use only sterile needles and never reuse.

4.    Safety and Contraindications

The following advice is provided to enable you to treat patients safely and should
therefore be thoroughly understood. The patient should be warned of fatigue
post treatment and the treatment protocol should be explained prior to
commencement of needling.

4.1   Contraindication to needling
1.    Avoid treating disturbed patients. For safety the patient must be able to
      cooperate with the therapist.

2.    Avoid treating fatigues patients.     Acupuncture can exacerbate existing
      fatigue. It can be treated, but this is not covered on this course.

3.    Avoid treating hungry patients and unstable diabetics, as low blood sugar
      levels could cause fainting.

4.    Do not treat patients with acute cardiac arrhytmias and heart failure.
      Needling can affect blood pressure and interfere with medication.

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5.    Avoid lumps and bumps. They might be malignant or a mass of unknown

6.    Do not treat pregnant women. We advise not to treat pregnant patients
      with acupuncture, as any problem during pregnancy could be attributed to
      it. Acupuncturists do treat pregnant women but this is beyond the scope
      of this course.

7.    Children. Although acupuncture is routinely used on children we do not
      recommend its use by students as they can react strongly.

8.    Avoid the traditional Forbidden Points of Traditional Chinese Medicine
      a) Ren 8 – over the umbilicus. This point only treated with moxibustion
         and never needled.
      b) Stomach 17 – Over the nipples. This point is used as a landmark for
         locating other acupuncture points.
      c) Heart 1 – In the axilla, due to it's proximity to delicate structures.

9.    Varicose veins, inflammation or unhealthy skin

               Caution is required when needling the following:-
1.    Patients on anticoagulants as bleeding can be expected.

2.    Patients on steroids. These patients respond less well to acupuncture and
      it is advisable to leave 3 months once steroids are stopped before using
      acupuncture, as the presence of steroids in the blood can reduce its

3.    Patients with impaired sensation. Extra care during treatment is required.

Staffordshire Podiatric Acupuncture Group                                         10
Be Careful when needling the following points.

1.    Stomach 30 – near to femoral artery.

2.    Bladder 1 and Stomach 1 – near the eye.

3.    Stomach 21 – on the right side, it overlies the gall bladder.

4.    Neck region – Ren 22, Colon 18, Stomach 17, Du 15 and Du 16. Due to
      their proximity to dangerous structures.

5.    Points over the chest
      -   Lung 1 and Gall bladder 21. Due to the danger of pneumothorax.
      -   Bladder 11 to 23. Posterior to the trunk/chest.

6.    Liver 3 – This point can be sensitive on some people.

7.    Lung 9 – Radial artery.

4.2   Possible complications

Methods of dealing with these complications will be dealt with during the course.
1.    Stuck needle

2.    Bent needle

3.    Broken needle

4.    Fainting and nauseating

5.    Bleeding

Staffordshire Podiatric Acupuncture Group                                      11
6.       Pneumothorax

7.       Delayed complication – hepatitis

8.       Allergy from swab

9.       Infection especially near the ear

10.      Delayed bleeding (patient on anticoagulant)

11.      Allergy to stainless steel

5.       Methods of Locating Acupuncture Points

5.1      Anatomical Landmarks

Prominent anatomical markings on the body surface can be used to locate
acupuncture points i.e. joint creases, the eyebrows, hairline the nipple etc.

Example: Yintang (Ext1) midpoint between the eyebrows
             Weizhong (B40) in the middle of the posterior crease of the knee joint

5.2      Finger Measurements

The Chinese 'body inch' or cun is the standard measurement.
     The breath of the distal phalanx of the thumb equals I cun.
     The distance between the interphalangeal creases of the middle phalanx of
      the middle finger equals 1 cun.
     The combined breath of the four fingers at the level of the proximal
      interphalangeal joint of the little finger equals 3 cun.
      (See Diagram 2)

Staffordshire Podiatric Acupuncture Group                                         12
   5.3         Using a cunometer

   A special designed pair of calipers which measure the patient's cun allows
   more accurate measurement especially if the patient's body differs widely for
   the therapist.

   Location by reference to another point
   Eg. Fenglong (St40) located 1 finger breath lateral to Tiaokou (St38).

   5.4         Proportional Measurements

   In an average person the points of the body are in proportional to each other.
   Eg. Between the two nipples = 8 cuns.
         Inferior margin of sternum to umbilicus = 8 cuns.
         (See diagram 2b)

   5.5         Using an Acupunctoscope

   The skin over an acupuncture point has a higher electrical conductivity due to
   lower electrical resistance.     Therefore an electronic point detector which
   flashes or sounds an alarm when it detects this can be used for locating
   acupuncture points.

Staffordshire Podiatric Acupuncture Group                                      13
6.      Deqi Techniques
        Deqi is the sensation experienced by patients receiving acupuncture when
        the needle reaches the correct depth. It is a mixed level of the sensations
        of fullness, heaviness, tingling or warmth.

        1.     Thrust and withdraw rapidly
        2.     Small rotations
        3.     Flicking needle handle
        4.     Scraping needle handle

7.      Tender Points (Ahshi points)

     Certain points on the body which may or may not coincide with acupuncture
     points become tender in certain conditions. There points can be needled to
     help relieve pain.

Staffordshire Podiatric Acupuncture Group                                       14
8.       Specific Acupuncture Points               Table 3
Effect               Point              Location
Analgesic            LI 4               Highest point m. adductor pollicis with the thumb
                                        and index finger adducted.
                     St 44              0.5cun prox to margin of web between 2/3 mets.
                     St 43              Depression distal to junction of 2/3 mets.
Tonifying            Ren 6              Midline 1.5cun below umbilicus
                     Ren 8              Umbilicus
                     St 36              Finger's width lateral to lower border of tibial
                                        tuberosity, 3cun below knee joint.
                     Sp 6               3cun above medial malleolus, dorsal to posterior
                                        border of tibia.
Sedative             Du 20              Line connecting lowest & highest points of ear,
                                        on median line of the head. 7cun above
                                        posterior & 5 cun behind anterior hair line.
                     Ex 6 (head)        4 points, 1 cun anterior, posterior, lateral (2) to
                     He 7               Transverse crease of wrist, radial, to tendon of
                                        m. flexor carpi ulnaris.
                     UB 62              0.5cun below lateral malleolus.
Homeostatic          LI 11              At end of lateral transverse elbow crease, when
                                        forearm is flexed at 90 deg.
                     Sp 6               As above.
                     St 36              As above.
Immune Enhancing     LI 11              As above.
                     Du 14              Below spinous process of C7
                     Du13               Below spinous process of T1

Staffordshire Podiatric Acupuncture Group                                     15
9.               The Extra-ordinary Points

     After the acupuncture points had been numbered in ancient times and placed
     in their appropriate channels, many new points were discovered during the
     course of the succeeding centuries. These new points are termed 'Extra-
     ordinary points'. While the majority fall outside the fourteen regular meridians,
     some are located on the course of a meridian, and a few even coincide with
     regular points of the meridians.

     Some of the commonly used Extra-ordinary points are:-

     1. Yintang       0.5 Cun Horizontally downwards.
     Location:        On the ridge of the nose, midway between the medial ends
                      of the two eyebrows
     Indications:     headache and rhinitis.

     2. Taiyang       0.5 Cun Perpendicularly.
     Location:        On the temple, in the depression 1 Cun directly posterior to
                      the midpoint of a line connection the outer end of the
                      eyebrow with the outer canthus of the eye.
     Indications:     headache, migraine, trigeminal neuralgia, toothache and

     3. Yuyao         0.5 Cun Horizontally along the skin.
     Location:        At the midpoint of the eyebrow, vertically above the midpoint
                      of the pupil.
     Indications:     Frontal sinusitis and facial paralysis.

     4. Heding        0.5 Cun Perpendicularly.
     Location:        On the midpoint of the upper border of the patella.

Staffordshire Podiatric Acupuncture Group                                          16
   Indications:    Disorder of the knee joint.

   5. Xiyan        0.5 Cun Perpendicularly or Obliquely towards lateral-Xiyan.
   Location:       In the depression of the medial side of the ligamentum
   Indications:    Disorders of the knee joint.

   6. Baxie        1 Cun obliquely and Proximally.
   Location:       On the dorsum of the hand, on the webs between the 5
                   fingers; 4 points in each hand, totaling 8 points.        These
                   points are best located having the patient form a fist.
   Indications:    Disorder of the fingers, rheumatoid arthritis, numbness of the
                   fingers, polyneuropathy.

   7. Bafeng       0.5 Cun Obliquely and Proximally.
   Location:       On the dorsum of the foot, 0.5 Cun proximal to the borders of
                   the webs between the 5 toes; 4 points on each foot, totaling
                   8 points.
   Indications:    Arthritis of the toes, numbness of the foot and the toes,

Staffordshire Podiatric Acupuncture Group                                       17
10.               Myofascial Trigger Points

   One of the characteristics of this type of pain is its tendency to become
   chronic if not treated appropriately and to be associated with trigger or tender
   points. These are exquisitely tender to mechanical stimulation points in the
   muscle proper, i.e. not at the musculotendinous junction and usually situated
   amidst an area of the muscle which feels like a taut band upon palpation.
   Palpation of a trigger point will elicit the pain which the patient is originally
   complaining.    According to Baldry (1993) trigger points are sites of
   hypersensitivity in muscles, tendons, ligaments and joint capsules. They can
   either be latent or active. If latent they are painful only when palpated, if
   active they are able to produce pain spontaneously.

   The formation and biology of the trigger point has been the point of
   controversy amongst scientists and clinicians alike. The current consensus is
   that these points are formed within the muscle fibres due to a local
   disturbance of the contractile apparatus of the muscle (i.e. the actin-myosin
   complex) which is caused either by local ischemia or disruption of the
   cascade of events governing muscle contraction (Mense 1997).             Travell
   (1952) postulated that when muscle sarcomeres, the muscle unit containing
   the contractile elements of actin an myosin, are damaged the calcium usually
   stored in the surrounding sarcoplastic reticulum pours out onto the actin and
   myosin filaments causing them to contract. When this occurs in a number of
   units the section of muscle tightens without stimulation by a nerve impulse.
   The tightness or spasm does not appear to fade as the calcium is gradually
   lost from the actin-myosin unit, as one would expect.

Staffordshire Podiatric Acupuncture Group                                        18
   The issue of the pattern of referral of the pain due to a trigger point has been
   extensively studied and it has been found that it is due to the complex
   neurophysiological connections of the afferents innervating the muscle. In
   short, each nociceptive afferent (i.e. a nerve fibre that transmits stimuli which
   are translated into pain in the brain) located in the muscle has a connection in
   the spinal cord and/or in the periphery with a nociceptive afferent which is
   responsible for an area on the skin, distal to that of the ailing muscle. For a
   very detailed description of these patterns of referral see Travell and Simons
   (1983) and Baldry (1993).

   Once trigger points are activated, tension will be produced in surrounding
   tissues.   This could cause the development of further trigger points or
   activation or pre-existing trigger points.   Trigger points in muscles could
   therefore stress other, non muscular soft tissue structures and produce trigger
   points. Like acupuncture points, there is consistency in the site of trigger
   points from person to person. The common clinical diagnostic criteria of a
   trigger point are summarised below:

   Table 4: Clinical characteristics of myofascial trigger points.

   1. Localized tenderness in a taut band of muscle
   2. Local twitch response to the contracted, taut band upon palpation
   3. Referred pain felt in a distant region
   4. Restricted movement
   5. Weakness
   6. Autonomic dysfunction (e.g. pilomotor effects, increased temperature etc.)
      (After Gerwin, 1994)

Staffordshire Podiatric Acupuncture Group                                        19
   Muscles with activated trigger points frequently have palpable taut bands
   which can be found as tight rope-like structures. Needling these taut bands
   can release the spasm almost immediately. If no taut bands can be found,
   trigger points can quickly be desensitized by needling. It may be necessary to
   needle repeatedly in the same muscle to desensitize each activated trigger
   point. The needles are left in place a matter of 30 seconds to a minute and
   then withdrawn.    Traditional acupuncture points are not used unless they
   correspond with trigger points although it has to be stressed that Fax,
   Melzack and Stillwell found a correlation of 91% between trigger points and
   acupuncture points. Baldry uses a shallow needling technique rarely using a
   needle longer than one inch in length. He believes it is not necessary to
   insert the needle deeply into muscle to release the trigger point.      Gunn,
   however uses a much deeper needling technique believing the needle should
   be inserted to the centre of the site in spasm.

   10.1      Myofascial Pain Syndrome & Fibromyalgia

   Occasionally in our clinics we come across patients who defeat our best
   efforts at diagnosis. Their history is non-specific and their pain pattern does
   not fit with any previously encountered conditions.      They are sometimes
   referred to as 'pain everywhere' patients. At the end of the assessment the
   therapist is often non-the-wiser as to the diagnosis.

   The typical presentation of multiple areas of pain, without a clear history can
   be very confusing. Tow syndromes have been described.

   What are now known as two conditions, myofascial pain syndrome and
   fibrositis have undergone several name changes and been the focus of
   considerable argument as to whether or not they are two extremes of one
   condition or two entirely separate conditions. For example summary of the
   history and development of this subject see PE Baldrys' Acupuncture, Trigger
   Points and Musculoskeletal pain (1993) Second Edition.

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   Although both have symptoms of muscle pain in common, myofascial pain
   syndrome pain is characteristically localized to one area of the body, although
   at times several sites maybe affected simultaneously.          Fibromyalgia pain
   symptoms are far more widespread. Myofascial pain syndrome effects men
   and women equally whereas fibromyalgia affects approximately 90% women.
   Myofascial pan syndrome often has an identifiable trauma as its origin, unlike
   fibromyalgia.    The American College of Rheumatology's Multi-centre
   Fibromyalgia Criteria Committee (Wolfe et al 1989) have found that the best
   criteria for diagnosis was widespread pain and the finding of 11 or more
   tender points on digital palpation at 18 possible sites.

   10.2      Treatment

   According to Baldry (1993) Myofascial pain syndrome can be effectively
   treated if the myofascial trigger points are desensitized by needling.
   Fibromyalgia however is more difficult to treat. Symptoms may be eased
   temporarily by needling but they generally return.         The trigger points are
   hypersensitised, possibly by an unrecognized noxious substance in the
   circulation, therefor efforts to desensitize these by needling tend to have only
   short term results. Diagnosis is not easy and what one may initially believe is
   fibromyalgia may turn out to be myofascial pain syndrome and respond well to
   acupuncture.    An open minded approach is recommended but with the
   realization fibromyalgia patients can become dependent upon the short term
   relief acupuncture can give.

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11. Common Podiatric Conditions of the Lower Limb
       and Associated Acupuncture Points

1.     Locomotor Disorders

The principles of treatment are

i)     to locate and needle the Ah Shi points
ii)    Treat the pain located to the channel both locally and distally
iii)   Select the corresponding axis
iv)    If muscle or tendon         - GB34 indicated
       If bone, joint or cartilage - UB11 indicated
       Analgesic points            - Co 4 & ST44 indicated

2.     Peripheral Blood Flow

TCM approach is that of stagnation of the Qi and blood with vigorous stimulation
of points.

Homeostatic points are Co11 and ST36 plus Blood vessels Lu9 & EX28, 36.

Other points include: UB15 Co4 GB34 Ren17 He3 Liv3

3.     Leg Ulcers & Wound Healing

Points should be proximal and distal to the ulcer site plus points located on ulcer
site or channel of opposite limb.

General points include: Lu7 & 9 Liv11 Sp6 Du14

4.     Eczema

TCM approach is a deficiency of Yin in the lung. Points are located through Lung
and Liver. Also requires a change in nutrition.

Points include: regional points + Du14 Liv 4 &11 He7 Sp6 &10 St36

5.     Psoriasis

Long term treatment of 2 to 4 cycles with 10 –12 sessions in each.

Points in affected area (surround the dragon) + Du20 Liv11 Lu5 & 7 Sp6, 10 & 36

Staffordshire Podiatric Acupuncture Group                                        22
6.    Lateral Ankle Pain (Peronneal)

B11 & 62 GB40,42,34 ST44

7.    Medial Ankle Pain (Posterior Tibialis and Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome)

Focus points on Kidney, Spleen and Liver channels

SP5 & 6 Liv 3 & 4 Ki 3,4 or 5       B11

8.    Dorsal / Anterior Ankle Pain (Extensors)

Focus on Stomach and Liver.

Liv 3 & 4 GB34 St41 & 42 B11

9.    Posterior Ankle Pain (Gastrocnemius Group / Tendon)

Focus on Kidney and Bladder.

Ki3 & 7 GB34 B11 &60 + B55 through to 67

10.   Mid tarsal Joint Pain

Points at location of pain + B11, 62 & 63 GB40 &41 Ki2 Liv3 St42,43 &44

11.   Metatarsals

Points at location of pain +
B62 & 63 GB42 & 43 Liv 1,2 & 3 Sp2 & 4 St43 & 44

12.   Medial Arch Pain

St44 Sp3 & 4 Liv 2 & 3

13.   Heel Pain Syndrome (inc Plantar Faciitis etc)

Points at trigger points of pain + ki1 Co4 St44

Periosteal pecking may be useful.

14.   Sesamoiditis

Sp 2 & 3 St44 B11 Liv1

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15.   Post Operative Pain

Dependent upon cause, area and meridian involved       + C04 and St44

16.   Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy

“Surround the dragon” + Co4 St44
Du14 for anti inflammatory & immune effect
Sp6 for influential point for skin

17.   Rheumatoid Arthritis

Known as Bi in TCM and is the result of a disturbance of Qi and Blood from wind,
cold, damp and loss of protective Wei Qi.

There are a number of syndromes with varying points. However, acutely inflamed
joints can be treated by local and distal meridian techniques.

Other conditions that could be considered

OA joints           Neuroma of intermetatarsal spaces


Knee pains + other joints as part of secondary therapy to orthosis.

Next follows Meridian points and a list of diagrams. Have not included due to size
of file.

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