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Gender Differences (PowerPoint)

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					Gender Differences
      SEX VS. GENDER


biology & behavior
     Gender in development
differences from the start…
• XX vs. XY
• girls = healthier and hardier at birth
• girls = more “verbal”
• boys = more “active”
       Gender in development
cognitive gender development…
Children first understand gender, then identify with
 it (cute/embarrassing stories)
• Constancy
age 3- identify, age 4- stability, age 5- constancy
• Stereotypes
age 2- clothes, 3- toys, 4- colors, 5-behavioral traits
  (boys before girls, Santa study, Simpson, 1982)
  (Damon, 1977 quotes)
         Gender in development
psychological differences…
(Maccoby & Jacklin, reviewed over 1500 studies)
• Girls = more verbal
• Boys = better spatial abilities
• Boys = better at arithmetic reasoning
  involving spatial skills
• Boys = show greater physical and verbal
  aggression
      Gender in development
also:
• Boys may be more active, explorative
• Boys may engage in more rough play
• Girls may be more responsive to infants
• Girls may be less demanding and more
  compliant to parents
      Gender in development
but…
GROUP AVERAGES!

unfounded…
• Girls = more social
• Girls = more suggestible
• Girls = lower self-esteem
• Boys = more analytic & logical
• Girls = less motivated
      Gender in development
Gender segregation…
• Dolls vs. trucks? (age 2)

• Same sex play
age 4: three times more likely
age 6-7: eleven times more likely

What’s causing this?
nature-nurture-
nature-nurture-
nature-nurture-
   nature…
 Adult Gender Differences and
          Research
• Cross-cultural adjective study: Williams &
  Best, 1990

• Biochemical differences (hormones)

• Brain differences (size and lateralization)
Why are gender differences
       important?
  What a man would say…
• Politics
• Power
• Dominance…
What a woman would say…

          • Relationships
          • Understanding…
               Homework
• Watch “the Hot Chick” no, seriously
• Three commercials (plus, your own scouting)
• Psych. Today article
• Taking sides article
• Kate Bornstein’s test & website
  (http://cydathria.com/ms_donna/ga_test.html)
Extra:
Yahoo news article & Parentsoup article

				
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