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									                     Merit Badges that Prepare Missionaries

American Business

   5. Run a small business involving a product or service for at least 3 months. First
      find out the need for it. For example: a newspaper route, lawn mowing, sales of
      things you have made or grown. Keep records showing the costs, income and
      profit. * Report:

           1. How service, friendliness, hard work, and salesmanship helped build your
           2. The benefits you and others received because you were in business.

American Cultures

Choose TWO groups that have different racial, cultural, national, or ethnic backgrounds.
Use these groups to meet requirements 1, 2, and 3. Also complete requirement 4 and
either requirement 5a or 5b.

   1. Do TWO of the following, choosing a different group for each:
           a. Go to a festival, celebration, or other event identified with one of the
              groups. Report on what you see and learn.
           b. Go to a church, clubhouse, school, or other institution identified with one
              of the groups. Report on what you see and learn.
           c. Talk with a person from one of the groups about the heritage and
              traditions of the group. Report on what you learn.
           d. Learn a song or dance or poem or story which is traditional to one group,
              and teach it to a group of your friends.
           e. Go to a library or museum to see a program or exhibit featuring one
              group's traditions. Report on what you see and learn.
   2. Imagine that one of the groups had always lived alone in a city or country to
      which no other groups ever came. Tell what you think the city or country might
      be like today. Now tell what you think it might be like if both groups lived there
      at the same time.
   3. Tell about some differences between the religions and social customs of the two
      groups. Tell about some ideas, or ways of doing things, which are almost the
      same in both groups.
   4. Tell about a contribution made to our country by three different people each from
      a different background such as black American, white American, native
      American, Hispanic-American, Asian-American, or any other background of your
      choosing. Their backgrounds may be religious, as well, such as Jews, Muslims,
      Hindus, etc.
   5. Do ONE of the Following:
           a. Give a talk to your troop or school class on how people from different
              groups have gotten along together. Lead a discussion on what can be done
              to help various groups understand one another better.

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             b. Tell about some achievements of the United Nations accomplished by
                people of many cultures and beliefs working in one organization. Tell how
                the U.N. has dealt with some problems caused by conflicts between
                different groups.

American Heritage

   1. Do ONE of the following:
         a. Make a map of your area. Mark the points of historical interest. Show your
            map in your classroom or troop meeting place. Tell about the points of
            historical interest.
         b. Research an event of historical importance that took place in or near your
            area. If possible, visit the place where the event took place. Tell your class
            or troop about the event and its impact on local history. Describe what it
            looked like then and now.
         c. Find out when, why, and how your town or neighborhood started. What
            ethnic, national, or racial groups played a part? Find out how it has
            changed over the past 50 years. Try to explain why.

   3. Choose ONE of the following; describe its adoption; tell about any changes since
      its adoption.

              a. The flag.
              b. The Pledge of Allegiance
              c. The seal
              d. The motto
              e. The national anthem
   4      Choose an event, a period, or person from United States history that you would
          like to know more about. Do FOUR of the following for the subject chosen.
              c. Read a biography, approved by your counselor, of the person chosen. Tell
                  some things you admire about the person. Tell about some of the thing you
                  do not admire. Explain why you think this person had made a good or bad
                  contribution to America's heritage.
              d. Read about the subject in three sources. List the major points upon which
                  all agree. List areas of disagreement. Decide which source is mostly true.
                  Tell how you decided.
              e. Read a historical novel or see a television show, a play, or a movie about
                  your subject. Tell how true you think it was. Tell how it added to your
                  understanding of the subject.
              f. Select an important speech related to your subject and tell when and why
                  it was made. Read the speech to your class or troop. Then lead a
                  discussion about the effect it had at the time.
              g. Gather records of four songs that are related to your subject or be able to
                  sing or play them yourself. Play the records, or play or sing the songs
                  yourself, for your class or troop. Tell about each song.

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            h. Collect copies of four cartoons about your subject or draw two in the style
               of the period. Tell about the meaning of the cartoons.
            i. Collect copies of paintings about your subject. Show them to your class or
               troop. Tell about them Discuss their accuracy or symbolism.
            j. Collect copies of photographs about your subject. Show them to your class
               or troop. Tell how they reflect the photographer's point of view.
            k. Build a model to show something about your subject. Show the model to
               your class to troop. Tell about what it shows.
            l. Visit a historic site related to your subject. Tell your class or troop about
               the visit. Tell how it has enlarged your view of the subject.
            m. Make a time-line for your subject. Tell how the main events on your chart
               have affected life in America today.

   5. Do ONE of the following:

            a. Take an active part in a program about a historic event or person. Report
               to your Class or troop about the program, the part you took, and the
            b. Pick and organization that is directly concerned with the preservation or
               perpetuation of local, state, or national history. Talk with an officer of the
               organization about its goals. Find out how you can help meet these goals.
               Carry out a project that will help meet the goals.
            c. Set up a historic trail or walk in your area. Prepare a guidebook. Include
               maps and related local history. Develop and carry out a plan to bring your
               trail to the attention of your community.


   1. Qualify in one event, for your weight, in each of the groups below.

                                Under Under Under Under Under Under 200
                Under Under
GROUP 1                         110   125   140   160   175   200   lbs. or
                75 lbs. 95 lbs.
                                lbs.  lbs.  lbs.  lbs.  lbs.  lbs.  over
Running long
                10'2"    11'6"   12'      13'      14'      15'      16'     14'      10'
Running high
                3'2"     3'6"    3'9"     4'       4'3"     4'2"     4"      3'6"     3'
Standing long
                5'10"    6'3"    6'9"     7'2"     7'4"     7'6"     7'4"    6'       5'
Standing high
                2'6"     3'      3'2"     3'4"     3'6"     3'8"     3'5"    3'       2'4"
GROUP 2         sec      sec     sec      sec    sec    sec    sec           sec    sec
50-yard dash    8        7-4/5   7-3/5    7-1/5 7       6-3/5 7              7-3/5 8-2/5
100-yard dash                    13       12-3/5 12-2/5 12-4/5 14            15-3/5

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6-potato race    36       28       27       26       25       24      28      32        36
GROUP 3          sec      sec      sec      sec      sec      sec     sec     sec       sec
20-yard swim     19-3/5   18-2/5   17-4/5   17-1/5   16-3/5   16      15      15-4/5    18-3/5
40-yard swim     47       40       39       38       37       36      35      39        40
                                                     10       12      10                4
Pull-up          3 times 5 times 6 times 8 times                              6 times
                                                     times    times   times             times
8-lb. shot put   15'      20'    24'        28'      32'      34'     36'     37'       38'
Push-up from                     10         12       14       16      17      12        8
                 7 times 9 times
floor                            times      times    times    times   times   times     times
1. Baseball
throw for
accuracy         42'      48'      51'      54'      57'      65'     70'     60'       50'
3 strikes, 6
2. Baseball
throw for        120'     150'     175'     195'     210'     220'    230'    200'      175'
3. Basketball
                                                                      10 in
goal shooting    5 in 8   5 in 8 6 in 9     7 in 10 8 in 11 9 in 12           8 in 12 6 in 15
(30 sec.)

This will get them in shape to tract and ride a bike.

Auto Mechanics

   1. Discuss with your counselor the safety equipment, tools, and clothing used while
      checking or repairing a motor vehicle. Use the equipment, tools, and/or clothing
      (when needed of called for) in meeting the requirements for this merit badge.
   2. Explain how an internal combustion engine operates and the differences between
      gasoline and diesel engines.
   3. Demonstrate you knowledge of general maintenance. Do the following:
         a. Demonstrate how to check the fluid level of the following:
                  Brake Fluid
                  Engine Oil
                  Coolant
                  Power steering fluid
                  Windshield washer fluid
                  Transmission fluid (automatic and standard)
         b. Check battery fluid, if possible, and the condition of battery terminals.
         c. Show the location of fuse boxes and the size of fuses, and demonstrate the
             proper replacement of burned-out fuses.

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          d. Review the maintenance chart in the owner's manual. Explain the
             requirements and time limits.
                1. Choose a care cleaner and wax product for the vehicle. explain
                    clear-coat paint and the precautions necessary for care. Clean and
                    wax the vehicle, both inside and out.
                2. Use a vinyl and rubber protectant (on vinyl tops, rubber door seals,
                    sidewalls, etc.) and explain the importance of this protectant.
          e. Demonstrate how to check the condition and tension of belts and hoses.
          f. Demonstrate the following:

                 1.Check the lighting in the vehicle, including instrument, warning, and
                    exterior bulbs.

                 2.Check headlight alignment

        g. Demonstrate how to check the vehicle exhaust system.
   4. Demonstrate your knowledge of the following:

               1. Explain the difference between tire and vehicle manufacturer's
                   information specifications and demonstrate where to find these
   2. Demonstrate how to check pressure and properly inflate a tire.
               1. Using the manufacturer's jack supplied with the vehicle:
                       1. Demonstrate how to engage the jack correctly on the
               2. Demonstrate how to correctly change a tire.

                      1. Explain the difference between bias-belted tires and radial-
                          belted tires.
                      2. Diagram and explain in writing how to rotate bias-belted
                          and radial-belted tires.
                      3. Using the manufacturer's guidelines, rotate the tires on the
                      4. Explain the camber, caster, and toe-in adjustments on
                          wheel alignment.
                      5. Explain why wheel alignment is important to the life of a
               1. Explain the purpose of the lateral-wear bar indicator.
               2. Explain how to dispose of old tires properly.
          b. Demonstrate your knowledge of engine lubrication. Do the following:
               0. Explain the purpose of motor oil.
               1. Explain where to find the recommended type and amount of oil to
                  be used in the vehicle engine.
               2. Explain the difference in viscosity (10W/30 versus SAE 30).
               3. Perform an oil change and oil filter change on a vehicle.
               4. Explain how to dispose of the used oil and filter properly.

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           c. Cooling system Do the following:
                  0. Explain the need for coolant in the cooling system.
                  1. Flush and change the engine coolant in the vehicle according to the
                     manufacturer's instructions.
                  2. Explain how to dispose of used coolant properly.
           d. Demonstrate your knowledge of a fuel system. Do the following:
                  0. Explain how the air and fuel system work together.
                  1. Explain how a carburetor works and how a fuel- injection system
                  2. Explain how an on-board computer works with the fuel injection
                     system. Show where the computer is located.
                  3. Explain why it is necessary to have an air filter and a fuel filter.
                     Locate them and change them according to the manufacturer's
                  4. Explain what fuel additives are. for both the carburetor and the fuel
                     injection systems.
           e. Demonstrate your knowledge of ignition and electrical systems. Do the
                  0. Diagram and explain the parts of the electrical system.
                  1. Explain the cylinder engine sequence.
                  2. Explain the spark plug gap and if practical, change the spark plug.
                     (Use an engine with spark plugs that can be reached without tilting
                     the engine.)
                  3. Demonstrate how to connect jumper cables on your battery
                     properly. Explain how to jump-start a vehicle.
                  4. Explain the difference between electronic and point ignition
           f. Demonstrate your knowledge of a drive train. Do the following:
                  0. Diagram the drive train and explain the different parts.
                  1. Explain the difference between automatic and standard
                  2. Explain the types of automatic transmission fluid.
                  3. Explain the types of lubricants used in a standard transmission and
                     in the differential.
                  4. Explain the difference between front-wheel, rear- wheel, and four-
                     wheel drive.
                  5. Explain the gear ratio of the differential.
           g. Demonstrate your knowledge of a brake system. Do the following:
                  0. Explain the brake system (including anti-lock systems) and how it
                  1. Explain the differences between disk and shoe systems.
                  2. Demonstrate checking conditions on a vehicle brake system. After
                     checking make a recommendation for repairs (if necessary).
           h. Explain the purpose, importance, and limitations of passive restraints.

This will help if they have to drive or take care of a car.

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   1. Show that you know first aid for injuries or illnesses that could occur while
       backpacking, including hypothermia, heatstroke, heat exhaustion, frostbite,
       dehydration, sunburn, insect stings, tick bites, snakebite, blisters, and
   2. Do the following:
           a. List 10 items which are essential to be carried on any overnight
              backpacking trek and explain why each item is necessary.
           b. Describe 10 ways you can limit the weight and bulk to be carried in your
              pack without jeopardizing your health and safety.
   3. Do the following:
           a. Define limits on the number of backpackers that should be on a
              backpacking crew.
           b. Explain the reason for the upper limit and the lower limit in a backpacking
   4. Tell environmental considerations that are important for backpackers and describe
       five ways to lessen their impact on the environment. Describe proper methods for
       disposing of solid and liquid wastes.
   5. Demonstrate two ways to purify water and tell why water purification is essential.
   6. Demonstrate that you can read topographic maps. While on a hike, use a map and
       compass to establish your position on the terrain at random times and places.
   7. Tell how to prepare properly for and deal with inclement weather while on a
       backpacking trek.
   8. Do the following:
           a. Explain the advantages and disadvantages of three different types of
              backpacking stoves using at least three different types of fuel.
           b. Demonstrate that you know how to operate a backpacking stove safely and
              to handle liquid fuel safely.
           c. Prepare at least three meals using a stove and fuel you can carry in a
   9. Do the following:
           a. Plan a patrol backpacking hike.
           b. Properly pack your own gear and your share of the crew equipment and
              food. Protect it against inclement weather. Show that your pack allows
              you to get quickly to items you may need on the trail and provides for
              comfort, balance, and neatness. Show how to use effectively a pack frame
              and hip strap to distribute the weight on your body.
           c. Conduct a prehike inspection of the patrol and its equipment.
           d. Carrying your pack, complete a hike of at least 2 miles.
   10. Take three backpacking treks. Each must consist of at least 3 days duration with
       two different overnight campsites, and each must cover at least 15 miles. Carry
       everything you will need throughout the trek.
   11. Do the following:

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          a. In addition, assist in planning and take a backpacking trek of at least 5
             days with at least three different campsites, and covering at least 30 miles.
             Your written plan submitted to your counselor must include route, food
             and menus, equipment, and emergency notification. Prepare lightweight,
             reasonably priced trail menus. Carry everything you need throughout the
             entire trek.
          b. On returning, tell what you did to get in shape for this trek and how you
             might do it differently again.

Citizenship in the Community

   4. Attend ONE of the following:

           a. County board meeting
           b. City council meeting
           c. School board meeting
           d. Municipal, county, or state court session.
   6. After visiting the governmental meeting, obtain a copy of that body's published
       budget. Review the major sources of income and expenses for its operation with
       your counselor.
   7. List the services your community provides to the citizens in return for the taxes
       paid by you and your parents.
   8. Select a city county, or school problem or issue under consideration from the local
       newspaper or news broadcast and write a letter expressing your views to the
       mayor, administrator, or school board president. Show this letter and any response
       to your counselor.
   9. List and describe the work of five volunteer organizations through which people
       in your community work together for the good of your community.
   10. Tell how to report an accident or an emergency in your community.
   11. List five ways you can demonstrate good citizenship in your community, religious
       institution, school, or Scouting unit.

Citizenship in the Nation

   1. After reading, discuss with your counselor the following documents:
   2. Declaration of Independence
   3. Preamble to the Constitution
   4. Constitution
   5. Bill of Rights
   6. Amendments to the Constitution
   7. Name the three branches of government and explain their functions. Explain the
      checks and balances on each branch of government.
   8. Outline the relationships between state and federal governments.
   9. Do ONE of the following:
          a. Visit the National Capitol.

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             b. Visit your state capitol.
             c. Tour a federal installation.

          Explain your experiences to your counselor.

   10. Name your two senators and the congressman from your congressional district.
       Write a letter to one of these elected officials on a national issue sharing your
       view with him or her. Show your letter and any response to your counselor.
   11. What are five important functions of your national government? Explain how
       these functions affect your family and local community.

Citizenship in the World

   1. Answer the following:
         a. What is citizenship? How does one become a citizen in the United States?
             How does one become a citizen in other countries?
         b. What rights, duties, and obligations does an American citizenship entail?
             How are these similar to or different from the way citizenship is
             experienced in two other countries?
   2. Do the following:
         a. Discuss the concept of national interest.
         b. Explain how a country's security, economy, and values relate to its
             national interest.
   3. Explain one of the following to your counselor:
         a. How communications and transportation have changed relationships
             between countries
         b. How changing national interest, democratic values, and global economic
             partnerships are affecting the relationships between countries.
   4. Do the following:
         a. Tell how the geography, natural resources, and climate of a country affect
             its economy.
         b. Using a map of the world, select two countries. Describe how geography,
             natural resources, and climate are important in defining each country's
             national interest. Explain how these interests affect relations with at least
             two other countries
   5. Do the following:
         a. Explain international law and how it differs from national law. What role
             does international law perform in the international system? Describe how
             international law can be used as a tool for conflict resolution.
         b. Select TWO of the following global issues and explain how they have
             been affected by international agreements and treaties:
                  1. Environmentalism
                  2. Terrorism

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                 3. International trade
                 4. Communications
                 5. Transportation
                 6. Famine relief
                 7. Disease control
                 8. International sports
         c. Select TWO of the following organizations and describe their role in the
             international system:
                 1. The United Nations
                 2. The World Court
                 3. World Organization of the Scout Movement
                 4. The World Health Organization
                 5. Amnesty International
                 6. The International Red Cross
                 7. Americas Watch
                 8. CARE
   6. Do the following:
         a. Explain to your counselor what is meant by
                 1. International trade agreement
                 2. Foreign exchange
                 3. Balance of payments
                 4. Tariffs
                 5. Free trade
         b. Explain how world trade and global competition affect the economy of
             your state and your community.
                 1. Locate the listing of foreign currency exchange rates in the
                     financial section of the newspaper. Select three major foreign
                     currencies and explain the rates of exchange between these
                     currencies and the American dollar.
                 2. Select a foreign currency and price a product in that currency.
                     Explain how fluctuations in currency exchange rates affect the
                     price of that product if you are exporting it from the United States.
                     Explain how fluctuations in currency exchange rates affect the
                     price of the product if you are importing it into the United States.
   7. Do the following:
         a. Discuss the differences between constitutional and non-constitutional
         b. Name at least five different types of government currently in power in the
         c. Show on a world map countries that use each of these five different forms
             of government.
   8. Do the following:
         a. Explain how a government is represented abroad. How is the United States
             government accredited to international organizations?
         b. Describe the roles of the following in the conduct of foreign relations:
                 1. Ambassador

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                2. Consul
                3. United States Information Agency
                4. Agency for International Development
                5. Foreign Commercial Service
         c. Explain the purpose of a passport and visa for international travel.
   9. Do ONE of the following:
         a. Attend a world jamboree.
         b. Take part in an international event in your area.
         c. Visit with a foreign exchange student and discuss his or her country and
         d. Study a foreign language for a year.
         e. Write an embassy or consulate for material about its country and discuss
            the material with your counselor.
         f. Examine a particular international issue and give a brief oral presentation
            and a written report to your counselor.


   1. Show that you know first aid for injuries or illnesses that may occur during
      climbing activities, including hypothermia, blisters, sprains, abrasions, and
   2. Location. Do the following:
          a. Evaluate the safety of a particular climbing area. Consider weather,
              visibility, the condition of the climbing surface, and any environmental
          b. Determine how to summon aid to the climbing area in case of an
   3. Verbal signals. Explain the importance of using verbal signals during every
      climb and rappel. With the help of the merit badge counselor or another Scout,
      demonstrate the verbal signals used by each of the following:
          a. Climbers
          b. Rappellers
          c. Belayers
   4. Rope. Do the following:
          a. Describe the kind of rope acceptable for use in climbing and rappelling.
          b. Show how to examine a rope for signs of wear or damage.
          c. Discuss ways to prevent a rope from being damaged.
          d. Explain when and how a rope should be retired.
          e. Properly coil a rope.
   5. Knots. Demonstrate the ability to tie each of the following knots. Give at least
      one example of how each knot is used in belaying, climbing, or rappelling.
          a. Figure eight on a bight
          b. Figure eight follow-through
          c. Water knot
          d. Grapevine knot

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          e. Bowline on a coil
   6. Harnesses. Correctly put on at least ONE of the following:
          a. Commercially made climbing harness
          b. Knotted leg-loop seat sling
          c. Swiss seat sling
          d. Diaper sling
   7. Belaying. Do the following:
          a. Explain the importance of belaying every climber and rappeller.
          b. Belay three different climbers ascending a rock face or climbing wall.
          c. Belay three different rappellers descending a rock face or climbing wall.
   8. Climbing. Do the following:
          a. Show the correct way to tie into a belay rope.
          b. Climb at least three different routes on a rock face or climbing wall,
               demonstrating good technique and using verbal signals with a belayer.
   9. Rappelling. Do the following:
          a. Using carabiners and a rappel device, secure your climbing harness or seat
               to a rappel rope.
          b. Tie into a belay rope set up to protect rappellers.
          c. Rappel down three different rock faces or three rappel routes on a
               climbing wall. Use verbal signals to communicate with a belayer, and
               demonstrate good rappelling technique.
   10. Demonstrate ways to store rope, hardware, and other gear used for climbing,
       rappelling, and belaying.


   1. Develop a plan to teach a skill. Have your merit badge counselor approve the
      plan. Make teaching aids. Carry out your plan. With your counselor, check to see
      if you have successfully taught the skill.
   2. Choose a product or service. Build a sales plan based on its good points. Try to
      "sell" your merit badge counselor on buying it from you. Talk with the counselor
      about how well you did in telling about the product or service and convincing the
      counselor to buy it.
   3. Do the following:
          a. Show how you would make a telephone call inviting an expert in the field
              of your choice to give a demonstration to your unit on that person's area of
          b. Show how to create an effective recorded message and how to leave a
              voice-mail message.
   4. Do the following:
          a. Write a 5-minute speech. Give it at a meeting of a group.
          b. Show how to introduce a guest speaker.
   5. Attend a town meeting where two or three points of view are being given. Listen
      and take notes. Make a report from your notes. Tell your troop or patrol what you
      think you heard.

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   6. Do ONE of the following:
          a. Write to the editor of a magazine or your local newspaper to express your
              opinion or share information (on any subject you choose). Or, write to an
              individual or organization to request information (on any subject). Send
              your message by fax or electronic mail, if possible. Otherwise, mail a
              traditional paper letter.
          b. Create a page on the World Wide Web for yourself or to give information
              about your unit, school, or other organization. Include at least one article
              and one photograph or illustration.
          c. Use desktop publishing to produce a newsletter, brochure, flier, or other
              printed material for your unit, school, chartered organization, or other
              group. Include at least one article and one photograph or illustration.
   7. Plan a troop court of honor or campfire program. Give it to the patrol leader's
      council for approval. Write the script. Prepare the program for reproduction. Act
      as master of ceremonies.
   8. Prepare an autobiographical resume that you would use in applying for a job.
   9. Check careers in the field of communications. Choose one career and discuss with
      your counselor the qualifications and preparation needed for it.


   1. Do THREE of the following:
         a. Use a database manager to create a troop roster, providing name, rank,
            patrol, and telephone number of each Scout. Sort the register by rank, by
            patrol, and alphabetically by name.
         b. Use a spreadsheet program to develop a weekend campout food budget for
            your patrol.
         c. Use a word processor to write a letter to parents of your troop's Scouts,
            inviting them to a court of honor. Use the mail merge feature to make a
            personalized copy of the letter for each family.
         d. Use a computer graphics program to design and draw a camp-site plan for
            your troop.


   1. Show that you know first aid for injuries or illnesses that could occur while
      cooking, including burns and scalds.
   2. Plan menus for 3 straight days (nine meals) of camping. Include the following:
         a. A camp dinner with soup; meat, fish or chicken; two fresh vegetables;
             drink; and dessert. All are to be cooked.
         b. A one-pot dinner. Use foods other than canned.
         c. A breakfast, lunch, and dinner good for a trail or backpacking trip where
             light weight is important. Use as much dehydrated or dry frozen foods as
             you can. Get them from local food stores (not specialty stores). You

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             should be able to store all foods used for several days without
             refrigeration. The lunch planned should not need cooking at the time of
             serving. The dinner must include hot soup or a salad; meat, fish or
             chicken; vegetable and starch food or a second vegetable; baked biscuits;
             and drink. (The menus for the other two breakfasts and two lunches shall
             be the kind you can prepare in camp or on the trail.)
   3. Do the following:
         a. Make a food list, showing cost and amount needed to feed three or more
             boys using the menus planned in requirement 2.
         b. List the utensils needed to cook and serve these meals.
         c. Figure the weight of the foods in requirement 2c.
   4. Using the menus planned in requirement 2:
         a. Prepare and serve for yourself and two others, the three dinners, the lunch,
             and the breakfast planned in requirement 2. Time your cooking so that
             each course will be ready to serve at the proper time.*
         b. For the meals prepared in requirement 4a, for which a fire is needed, pick
             a good spot for your fire. Build a fireplace. Include a support for your
             cooking utensils from rocks, logs, or like material. (Where local laws do
             not allow you to do this, the counselor may change the requirement to
             meet the law.) The same fireplace may be used for more than one meal.
             Use charcoal as a fuel in cooking at least one meal.
         c. For each meal prepared in requirement 4a, use safe food-handling
             practices. Use the correct way to get rid of garbage, cans, foil, paper, and
             other rubbish by burning and using a tote-litter bag. After each meal, clean
             up the site thoroughly.

Crime Prevention

   1. Do the following:
         a. Inspect your neighborhood for opportunities that may lead to crime. Learn
              how to do a crime prevention survey.
         b. Using the checklist in the pamphlet, conduct a security survey of your
              home and discuss the results with your family.
   2. Teach your family or patrol members how to protect themselves from crime at
      home, at school, in your community, and while traveling.
   3. Visit a jail or detention facility. Discuss your experience with your counselor.
   4. Discuss with your counselor the purpose and operation of agencies in your
      community that help law enforcement personnel prevent crime, and how the
      agencies help in emergency situations.
   5. Discuss the following with your counselor:
         a. How drug abuse awareness programs, such as "Drugs: A Deadly Game,"
              help prevent crime
         b. Why alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana are sometimes called "gateway
              drugs" and how "gateway drugs" can lead to the use of other drugs.

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           c. Three resources in your city where a person with a drug problem or drug-
              related problem can go for help.
           d. How the illegal sale and use of drugs lead to other crimes
           e. How to recognize child abuse
           f. The "three Rs" of Youth Protection


   1. Show that you know first aid for injuries or illnesses that could occur while
      cycling, including hypothermia, heatstroke, heat exhaustion, frostbite,
      dehydration, sunburn, insect stings, tick bites, snakebite, blisters, and
   2. Clean and adjust a bicycle. Prepare it for inspection using a bicycle safety
      checklist. Be sure the bicycle meets local laws.
   3. Show your bicycle to your counselor for inspection. Point out the adjustments or
      repairs you have made. Do the following:
          a. Show all points that need oiling regularly.
          b. Show the points that should be check regularly to make sure the bicycle is
              safe to ride.
          c. Show how to adjust brakes, seat level and height, and steering post.
   4. Describe how to brake safely with foot brakes and with hand brakes.
   5. Show how to repair a flat. Use an old bicycle tire.
   6. Take a road test with your counselor and demonstrate the following:
          a. Proper mounting, pedaling, and braking including emergency stops.
          b. On an urban street with light traffic, properly execute a left turn from the
              center of the street; also demonstrate an alternate left turn technique used
              during periods of heavy traffic.
          c. Properly execute a right turn.
          d. Demonstrate appropriate actions at a right-turn- only lane when you are
              continuing straight.
          e. Show proper curbside and road-edge riding. Show how to safely ride
              along a row of parked cars.
          f. Cross railroad tracks properly.
   7. Describe your traffic laws for bicycles. Compare them with motor-vehicle laws.
      Know the bicycle-safety code.
   8. Avoiding main highways, take two rides of ten miles each, two rides of fifteen
      miles each, and two rides of twenty-five miles each. You must make a report of
      the rides taken. List dates, routes traveled, and interesting things seen.
   9. After fulfilling requirement 8, lay out on a road map a 50-mile trip. Stay away
      from main highways. Using your map, make this ride in 8 hours.

Disabilities Awareness

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   1. Visit an agency that works with the physically, sensory, or mentally handicapped.
      Collect publications about the agency's on behalf of its members. Learn what is
      being done through training, employment, and education of their members.
   2. Speak to a person with a disability or read an article or book about a person with a
      disability and report to your counselor what you learned about that person's
      experiences in dealing with a disability.
   3. Spend 15 hours within a 3-month period in ONE of the following ways:
          a. Visit a special Cub Scout pack or Boy Scout troop. that works with Scouts
              with disabilities. Learn about their activities, assist the leaders, and work
              with the members of the group.
          b. Enlist the help of your unit leader and the parents or guardians of someone
              with a disabling condition and invite the disabled individual to join your
              troop, team, or post. Help him or her become a participating member.
   4. Locate and study literature about the accessibility or nonaccessibility of public or
      private places to the disabled individuals. Observe and discuss with your
      counselor the accessibility or nonaccessibility for disabled people in the
          a. Five places with good accessibility,
          b. Five places with poor accessibility,
          c. Your school, church, synagogue, or mosque
          d. Your Scout camping site.
   5. Display in a public place the material you have collected for the other
      requirements of this merit badge so that others can be made more aware of
      citizens with disabilities.
   6. Make a commitment to your merit badge counselor as to what you will do in the
      future for those people with disabling conditions. Discuss how your awareness
      has changed as a result of what you learned.

Emergency Preparedness

   1. Earn First Aid merit badge.
   2. Do the following:
         a. Tell what you would do to prevent injury and possible loss of life to
             yourself and others in each of the following emergencies: fire or explosion
             at home and in a public building, car stalled in a blizzard or desert, motor
             vehicle accident, mountain accident, food poisoning, boating accident,
             search for lost person, lost or marooned group, gas leak, earthquake, flood,
             tornado or hurricane, atomic emergency, and avalanche (snow or rock).
         b. Show that you know what to do in at least TWO of the above.
   3. Show how you could safely save a person from the following:
         a. Touching a live electric wire.
         b. A room with carbon monoxide or other fumes or smoke.
         c. Clothes on fire.
         d. Drowning using nonswimming rescues (including ice accidents).

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   4. Tell the things a group of Scouts should be prepared to do, the training needed,
      and the safety precautions to be taken for the following emergency service:
          a. Crowd and traffic control
          b. Messenger service and communication.
          c. Collection and distribution services.
          d. Group feeding, shelter, and sanitation.
   5. Take part in an emergency service project, either real or a practice drill.
   6. Show three ways of attracting and communicating with rescue planes.
   7. With another person, show a good way to move an injured person out of a remote
      and rugged area, conserving the energy of all the rescuers.
   8. Do the following:
          a. Prepare a written plan for mobilizing your troop when needed to do
              emergency service. If there is a plan, explain it. Tell your part in making it
          b. Take part in at least troop mobilization. Describe your part.
          c. Show the personal "emergency pack" which you have prepared to be ready
              for a mobilization call. Show a family kit (suitcase or box) for use by your
              family in case an emergency evacuation is needed. Explain the need.
   9. Show proper use of ropes and lines for rescue work by doing the following:
          a. Tie knots for joining lines. Tie knots for shortening or adjusting lines. Tie
              knots for lashings.
          b. Lower a person from a height sufficient to show how.
          c. Coil and accurately throw light and heavy 50-foot heaving lines.

Environmental Science

Develop a plan that would help solve an environmental problem, reduce an
environmental impact, or affect environmental awareness in your community. Include
plans for a specific project that could be done by your patrol or troop.

Family Life

   1. Prepare an outline and discuss with your merit badge counselor what a family is
      and how the actions of one member can affect other members.
   2. List 10 reasons why you are important to your family. Review these points with
      your parents or guardians and with your merit badge counselor.
   3. Prepare a list of your regular home duties or chores (at least five) and do them for
      90 days. Keep a record of how often you do each of them.
   4. With the approval of your parent/guardians and your merit badge counselor,
      decide on and carry out a project that you would do around the house that would
      benefit the family. Submit a report to your merit badge counselor outlining how
      the project benefited the family.
   5. Plan and carry out a project that involves the participation of your family. After
      carrying out the project, discuss the following with your merit badge counselor:
          a. The objective or goal of the project.

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         b. How individual members of your family participated
         c. The results of the project
   6. Do the following:
         a. Discuss with your merit badge counselor how to plan and carry out a
             family discussion.
         b. After this discussion, plan and carry out a family discussion to include the
             following subjects:
                 1. How to avoid the use of drugs and drug abuse
                 2. Understand the growing-up process, how the body changes and
                    making responsible decisions dealing with sex
                 3. Personal and family finances

First Aid

   1. Satisfy your counselor that you have current knowledge of all first aid
      requirements for Tenderfoot, Second Class, and First Class ranks.
   2. Do the following:
          a. Explain how you would obtain emergency medical assistance from your
              home, on a wilderness camping trip, and during an activity on open water.
          b. Prepare a first aid kit for your home. Display and discuss its contents with
              your counselor.
   3. Do the following:
          a. Explain what action you should take for someone who shows signs of a
              heart attack.
          b. Identify the conditions that must exist before performing CPR on a person.
          c. Demonstrate proper technique in performing CPR using a training device
              approved by your counselor.
          d. Show the steps that need to be taken for someone suffering from a severe
              laceration on the leg and on the wrist. Tell the dangers in the use of a
              tourniquet and the conditions under which its use is justified.
          e. Explain when a bee sting could be life threatening and what action should
              be taken for prevention for first aid.
          f. Explain the symptoms of heat stroke and what action needs to be taken for
              first aid and for prevention,
   4. Do the following:
          a. Describe the signs of a broken bone. Show first aid procedures for
              handling fractures, including open (compound) fractures of the forearm,
              wrist, upper leg, and lower leg using improvised materials.
          b. Describe the symptoms and possible complications and demonstrate
              proper procedures for treating suspected injuries to the back, neck, and
              head. Explain what measures can be taken to reduce the possibility of
              further complicating these injuries.
   5. Describe the symptoms, proper first aid procedures, and possible prevention
      measures for the following conditions:
          a. Hypothermia

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         b. Convulsions
         c. Frostbite
         d. Bruises, strains, sprains
         e. Burns
         f. Abdominal pain
         g. Broken, chipped, or loosened tooth
         h. Knocked out tooth
         i. Muscle cramps
   6. Do the following:
         a. If a sick or injured person must be moved, tell how you would determine
             the best method.
         b. With helpers under your supervision, improvise a stretcher and move a
             presumably unconscious person.
   7. Teach another Scout a first aid skill selected by your counselor.

Fire Safety

   1. Explain the chemistry and physics of fire. Name the parts of the fire tetrahedron.
      Explain why vapors are important to the burning process. Name the products of
      combustion. Give an example of how fire grows and what happens.
   2. Name the most frequent causes of fire in the home and give examples of ways it
      can be prevented.
   3. List the actions that cause seasonal fires and explain how these fires can be
   4. List common circumstances that cause holiday-related fires and explain how these
      fires can be prevented.
   5. List the most frequent causes of burn injuries.
   6. Conduct a home safety survey with the help of an adult, then do the following:
          a. Draw a home fire escape plan, create a home fire drill schedule, and
              conduct a home fire drill.
          b. Test a smoke alarm and demonstrate regular maintenance of a smoke
          c. Explain what to do when you smell gas and when you smell smoke.
          d. Explain how you could call in a fire alarm.
          e. Explain what fire safety equipment may be found in public buildings.
          f. Explain who should use fire extinguishers and when they can be used.
   7. Do the following:
          a. Demonstrate lighting a match safely.
          b. Demonstrate the safe way to start a charcoal fire.
          c. Demonstrate how to extinguish a grease pan fire.
          d. Demonstrate the safe way to melt wax.
   8. Explain the difference between combustible and noncombustible liquids and
      between combustible and noncombustible fabrics.
   9. Do the following:
          a. Demonstrate the safe way to fuel a lawnmower.

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          b. Demonstrate the safe way to fuel auxiliary heating appliances.
          c. Demonstrate the technique of stop, drop, roll, and cool. Explain how burn
               injuries can be prevented.
   10. Do the following:
          a. Explain the costs of outdoor and wildland fires and how to prevent them.
          b. Demonstrate setting up and putting out a cooking fire.
          c. Demonstrate using a camp-stove and lantern.
          d. Explain how to set up a campsite safe from a fire.
   11. Visit a fire station. Identify the types of fire trucks. Find out about the fire
       prevention activities in your community.


   1. Explain the meaning of genealogy and genealogical resources.
   2. Begin a pedigree chart with yourself and fill it in as far as you can at the
      beginning of your project. Add any additional names, dates, or places that you
   3. Show yourself as a child on a family group record form, and show one of your
      parents as a child on another family group record form.
   4. Interview an older relative to obtain information about your family. This
      interview may be in person, by telephone, or by letter. Add any information
      obtained to your pedigree chart and family group records.
   5. Obtain at least one genealogical document showing proof of some information on
      your pedigree chart or family group records. This document may be located in
      your home, a courthouse, an archive, or library, etc.
   6. Tell how you would evaluate genealogical information.
   7. Do ONE of the following:
          a. Do a time line for yourself or for a close relative.
          b. Keep a journal for 6 weeks, writing in at least once weekly.
          c. Write a short history of yourself or of a close relative.
   8. Do ONE of the following:
          a. Tell how the development of computers is affecting the world of
          b. Tell how the development of photography (including microfilming) had
              influenced genealogy.
          c. Tell how personal and family history have begun to influence the way
              society looks at local, national, and international history.
   9. Contact ONE if the following and ask a question relating to its genealogical
      services or activities; report the results:
          a. A lineage society
          b. A surname organization
          c. A professional genealogist
          d. A genealogical education facility or institution.
          e. A genealogical record repository of any type (courthouse, genealogical
              library, state archives, state library, national archives, etc. )

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   10. Tell where you would find current information about genealogical records and
       research methods.


   1. Show that you know first aid for injuries or illnesses that could occur while
      hiking, including hypothermia, heatstroke, heat exhaustion, frostbite, dehydration,
      sunburn, insect stings, tick bites, snakebite, blisters, and hyperventilation.
   2. Explain and show, where possible, the main points of good hiking practices.
   3. Make a written plan for a 10-mile hike. Including map routes, a clothing and
      equipment list, and a list of things for a trail lunch.
   4. Take five hikes, each on a different day, and each of at least ten continuous miles.
   5. Take a hike of 20 continuous miles in 1 day.
   6. After each hike, write a short report of your experience. Give dates and
      descriptions of routes covered, weather, and any interesting things you saw.

Home Repairs

   1. Know where your main electric switch is. Replace a fuse or reset the circuit
       breaker in an electric entrance switch box.
   2. Waterproof a basement wall.
   3. Repair or put in drapery or curtain rods. Hang draperies or curtains.
   4. Build or fix a stair or porch handrail.
   5. Repair furniture.
   6. Repair window screen or screen door.
   7. Repair sagging door or gate.
   8. Repair a picture frame.
   9. Clean a clogged drain or trap.
   10. Repair or replace a sash cord.
   11. Repair a leaky water faucet or valve.
   12. Repair a break in a cement walk, drive, garage floor, or in an asphalt surface.
   13. Repair a fence.
   14. Recondition a garden tool.
   15. Repair an electric cord, plug, or lamp socket.
   16. Replace a broken pane of glass.
   17. Mend china.
   18. Paint or varnish a piece of furniture, door, or part of the trim on a house. Clean
       brush afterward.
   19. Repair a leaky hose.
   20. Caulk cracks or joints open to the weather.
   21. Put in fixtures for storing equipment or tools.
   22. Paint a wall or ceiling. Clean brush afterward.
   23. Lay floor tile or repair a worn spot.
   24. Solder.

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   25. Put new cords in a Venetian blind.
   26. Build a workbench.
   27. Repair a flushing mechanism in toilet.
   28. Clean or replace a grass sprinkler water head.
   29. Install insulation in attic, wall or crawl space.


   1. Do ONE of the following:
         a. Read two different newspapers and two different newsmagazines. From
             each of these, cut out stories about the same event. Put each item on a
             separate sheet of paper. Write an analysis of each, explaining where and in
             what way each story is objective or subjective and why each publication
             handled the story differently for a different purpose or audience.
         b. Listen to two radio news broadcasts and watch two television news
             broadcasts on the same day. List the different news items, features and
             editorials on the broadcasts. Note the time in minutes and seconds for each
             story. Write an analysis explaining where and in what way each story is
             objective or subjective, and why the stories were treated differently for
             each audience by the two media.
   2. Do either a or b:
         a. Newspaper and magazine journalism:
                 1. Visit a newspaper or magazine office. Ask for a tour of the various
                     divisions (editorial, business, and printing). During your tour talk
                     to an executive from the business side of management's relation
                     with reporters, editors, and photographers and what makes a
                     "good" newspaper or magazine. If possible, go with a reporter to
                     cover a news event.
                 2. With the help of your counselor, prepare a newspaper layout, edit
                     copy, and proofread a story after it has been set up in type, and be
                     able to explain the printing process.
         b. Radio and television journalism:
                 1. Visit a radio or television station. Ask for a tour of the various
                     departments, concentrating on those related to news broadcasts.
                     During your tour, talk to the station manager or other station
                     management executive about station operations, particularly how
                     management and the news staff work together, and what makes a
                     "good" station. If possible, go with a reporter to cover a news
                 2. With the help of your counselor prepare a radio or television news
                     show format. Edit an audio tape or a video tape. Explain what it
                     takes to put a radio or television news broadcast on the air.
   3. Do ONE of the following:
         a. Attend a news event. Write a newspaper news story about the event, a
             sidebar feature, and an editorial or critical review of the event.

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          b. For the same event, for radio or television, write a news story, a color
              story and an editorial or critical review.
          c. For the same event, take a series of photographs that would help to tell the
              story in pictures, including some news photos and some feature photos.
              Write captions for your photos and a brief story of the event.
   4. Answer at least three of five questions about qualifications, educational
      preparation, training opportunities, wages, and personal satisfaction in a career in


   1. Tell what a contract is. Must all contracts be in writing? Explain. Tell about
      several laws that have been passed to protect the consumer and the seller. Tell
      about several organizations there are to help them.
   2. Do ONE of the following:
          a. Attend a session of a civil or criminal court. Write 250 words or more on
              what you saw.
          b. Plan and conduct a mock trial with your troop or school class. After the
              trail is over, discuss it with the group.

   5. Tell where a person can go if he needs the help of a lawyer but is unable to pay
      for one. Tell what he can do if he can afford a lawyer but does not know of any in
      his area.


   1. Sing or play a simple song or hymn picked by your counselor using good
      technique, phrasing, tone, rhythm, and dynamics. Read all the signs and terms of
      the score.
   2. Name the four general groups of musical instruments. Tell how you get tones
      from one instrument in each group.
   3. Do TWO of the following:
          a. Go to a classical or semiclassical musical performance; or listen to 3 hours
              of such programs on radio, television, tapes, records, compact discs, or
              videos. Report what you heard. Name the composers, artists, and
              conductors. Know the story of any program music or opera you heard.
              Talk over how you feel about the music.
          b. Outline the development of music in the United States. Show that you
              know the lives and works of five better-known American composers and
              musical artists.
          c. Serve for 6 months as a member of a school, church, Scout unit, or other
              local musical organization; or perform as a soloist in public six times.
   4. Do ONE of the following:
          a. Teach three songs to a group of people. Lead them in singing the songs.
              Use proper hand motions.

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           b. Compose and write the score for a piece of music 12 measures or more.
           c. Make a primitive instrument. Learn to play it.
           d. Catalog your own or your family collection of 12 or more tapes, records,
              or compact discs. Show how to handle and store them.


           a. Point out and name five major terrain features on a map and in the field.
           b. Point out and name 10 symbols often found on a topographic map.
           a. Explain how a compass works. Describe the features of an orienteering
              compass and their uses.
           b. in the field, show how to take a compass bearing and how to follow one.
           a. Explain the meaning of declination. Tell why declination must be taken
              into consideration when using a map and compass together.
           b. Provide a topographic map of your area with magnetic north-south lines.
           c. Show how to transfer a direction on a map to your compass.
           a. Show how to measure distances, using a scale on an orienteering compass.
           b. Set up a 300m pace course. Figure out your running pace for 100 meters.
           a. Explain a descriptive clue. Tell how it is used in orienteering.
           b. Explain how to use an attack point. Describe the offset technique. Tell
                what is meant by collecting features.
   6.   Do the following:
           a. Take part in three orienteering events. One of these must be a cross-
                country course.
           b. After each course, write a report with
                    1. a copy of the master map and descriptive clues,
                    2. a copy of the route you took on the course,
                    3. a discussion of how you could improve your time between points,
                    4. list of your major weaknesses on this course . Describe what you
                        could do to improve.
   7.   Do ONE of the following:
           a. Set up a cross-country course of at least 2,000 m long with five control
                markers. Prepare master map. Mark the descriptive clues.
           b. Set up a score-orienteering course with 12 points and a time limit of 60
                minutes. Prepare the master map. Set the descriptive clues, and point value
                for each control on this course.
   8.   Act as an official during an orienteering event. (This may be during the running
        course you set up for requirement 8.)
   9.   Teach orienteering techniques to your patrol, troop or post.

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Personal Fitness

           a. Before you try to meet any other requirements, have your physician give
               you a thorough health examination. He or she is to use the Scout medical
               examination form. Describe the examination. Tell what questions you
               asked about your health. Tell what recommendations your doctor made.
               Report what you have done about them. Explain the following:
                   1. Why physical exams are important
                   2. Why preventative habits are important in maintaining good health.
                   3. Diseases that can be prevented and how.
                   4. The seven warning signs of cancer.
           b. Have an examination made by your dentist. Get a statement saying that
               your teeth have been checked and cared for. Tell how you care for your
   2. Explain to your merit badge counselor verbally or in writing what personal fitness
      means to you, including:
           a. Components of personal fitness
           b. Reasons for being fit in all components.
           c. What it means to be mentally healthy
           d. What it means to be physically healthy and fit.
           e. What it means to be socially healthy. Discuss several healthy social traits.
           f. What can you do to prevent social, emotional, or mental problems.
   3. From the PERSONAL FITNESS merit badge pamphlet, answer the questions
      titled "Evaluating Your Personal Fitness" and list several signs of poor personal
      fitness. Describe your activity in the eight areas listed.
   4. With your counselor answer and discuss the following questions:
           a. Are you free from all curable diseases? Are you living in such a way that
               your risk of preventable diseases is minimized?
           b. Are you immunized and vaccinated according to the advice of your family
               and school physicians?
           c. Do you understand the meaning of a nutritious diet and know why it is
               important for you? Does your diet include foods from all the food groups?
           d. Is your body weight and composition what you would like it to be and do
               you know how to modify it safely through exercise, diet, and behavior
           e. Do you carry out daily activities without noticeable effort? Do you have
               extra energy for other activities?
           f. Are you free from habits relating to nutrition and the use of alcohol,
               tobacco, drugs, and other practices that could be harmful to your health?
           g. Do you participate in a regular exercise program or recreational activities?
           h. Do you sleep well at night and wake up feeling refreshed and energized
               for the new day?
           i. Are you actively involved in the religious organization of your choice and
               do you participate in their youth activities?

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          j. Do you spend quality time with your family and friends in social and
              recreation activities?
          k. Do you support family activities and efforts to maintain a good home life?
   5. Explain the following about physical fitness:
          a. The components of physical fitness
          b. Your weakest and strongest component of physical fitness
          c. The need to have a balance in all four components of personal fitness
              relate to the Scout Laws and Scout Oath
   6. Explain the following about nutrition:
          a. The importance of good nutrition
          b. What good nutrition means to you
          c. How good nutrition is related to the other components of personal fitness
          d. The three components of a sound weight (fat) control program.
   7. From the PERSONAL FITNESS merit badge pamphlet, perform the physical
      fitness test (chapter 8) with your patrol leader, Scoutmaster, parent, or adviser
      before doing the next two requirements. Be evaluated above the 50th percentile in
      the aerobic endurance test, flexibility test, and muscular strength test.


   1. Tell what makes a good picture. Show your understanding of these as you take
      pictures for requirement 2.
   2. Do the following:
          a. Take pictures illustrating at least eight of the following picture-taking
              techniques. Use comparisons to illustrate your points.
                  1. Camera steadiness.
                  2. Rule of thirds.
                  3. Level horizon.
                  4. Moving in close. Fill the frame.
                  5. Framing.
                  6. Direction of light. Front, side, and backlighting.
                  7. Quality of light. Flat light, bright sunlight and time of day.
                  8. Point of view. Eye level, high and low angle.
                  9. Use of leading lines.
                  10. Flash. Proper range and reflective surfaces.
          b. Do the following, utilizing techniques of planning a photo report. Start
              with planning cards; then do your photography and editing, and complete
              the requirements by presenting your report in an organized manner to your
                  1. Expose a roll of print film, and select 5 to 10 good pictures for
                      your picture story. Mount the pictures on a large art board or in a
                      photo album.
                  2. Expose 50 feet of movie film and edit it at least 25 feet of quality
                      movies that tell your story.

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                 3. Expose a roll of slide film and select 10 or more good slides to tell
                     your story.
   3. Explain how photographic film is processed and tell how black-and-white prints
      are made, or process and print your own pictures and show your counselor,
      explaining the steps you took.
   4. Do the following:
          a. Explain to your counselor the basic parts common to all cameras using a
             diagram you prepared.
          b. Explain common photographic terms such as lens, shutter, view-finder,
             camera angle, exposure, negative, transparency, f/number, and planning


   1. Demonstrate how to tie the following seven basic knots: square knot, timber hitch,
      clove hitch, bowline, sheepshank, sheet bend, and roundturn with two half-
      hitches. Also select five more knots found in the PIONEERING merit badge
      pamphlet. Tie each one for the examiner, and tell where it could be used in
      pioneering, camping, or other Scout activities.
   2. Demonstrate how to make the back splice, eye splice, and short splice using 1/4-
      inch three-strand rope.
   3. Construct a device or machine to make rope. Then use the device with binder
      twine to make a 6-foot length of rope consisting of three strands, each having
      three yarns. Also demonstrate one method of whipping the end of the rope.
   4. Build a three-two-one or a log-and-stakes anchor using pioneering stakes. Build
      the anchor at a size suitable to anchor one end of a monkey bridge.
   5. Demonstrate the use of rope tackle to life a weight of 25 pounds. Pull a log at
      least 6 inches in diameter and 6 feet long with the tackle. Use the tackle to put a
      strain on a line.
   6. By yourself, build an H-frame trestle with ropes and spars using square and
      diagonal lashings. Demonstrate how to tie two spars together using a west country
      shear lashing.
   7. With a group of Scouts, build a pioneering project. Before building, present a
      rough sketch of the project and a list of the ropes and spars needed to build it.


   1. Do the following:
         a. Make a drawing and explain the way hot- and cold- water supply system
             in your home or that of a neighbor works. Tell how you would make it
             safe from freezing.
         b. Make a drawing and explain the drainage system of the plumbing in a
             house. Show and explain the use of drains and vents.
   2. Show how to use five important plumber's tools.

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   3. Identify and describe the use of each of the following: washer, cap nut, force cup,
      half-and-half solder, flux, elbow, tee, nipple, float, coupling, plug, union, trap,
      drainpipe, water meter.
   4. Tell what kinds of pipe are most often used in a plumbing system. Tell why.
   5. Cut, thread, and connect two pieces of galvanized pipe.
   6. Using a gas torch under supervision, solder three copper tube connections.
      Include one tee, two straight pieces, and one coupling.
   7. Do the following:
          a. Replace a washer in a faucet.
          b. Clean out a sink or lavatory trap.
   8. Make a list of five important local health regulations related to plumbing.

Public Health

   1. Explain how the following diseases are contracted: tetanus, influenza, syphilis,
      hepatitis, emphysema, AIDS, encephalitis, meningitis, salmonellosis, Lyme
      disease, herpes, and lead poisoning.
   2. Do the following:
          a. Explain the meaning of immunization.
          b. Name five diseases against which a young child should be immunized.
          c. Name two diseases against which you should be reimmunized
   3. Visit a restaurant or other commercial food service facility and observe food
      preparation, handling, and storage. Interview a food service inspector and explain:
          a. How foods can become contaminated.
          b. What conditions allow microorganisms to increase in number in food.
          c. How microorganisms in food can be killed.
          d. How dishes and utensils should be washed in camp and at home.
   4. Do the following:
          a. Show two ways of making water safe to drink under camping conditions.
          b. Visit a water treatment facility and describe the steps used in making
              public drinking water safe; OR visit the drinking-water quality-control
              agency in your community. Describe how water quality is monitored.
   5. Do the following:
          a. Explain how household insects and rodents can be controlled in your
              home, community, and camp.
          b. Visit a municipal wastewater treatment facility and a solid-waste
              management operation in your community. Describe how sewage and
              waster water disposal is done safely in urban and rural environments, and
              under wilderness camping conditions.
   6. Do the following:
          a. Describe the health dangers from air, water, and noise pollution.
          b. Describe health dangers from tobacco use and alcohol and drug abuse.

Public Speaking

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   1. Do the following:
          a. Prepare a written speech of 750 words.
                 1. Give the main idea or topic of the speech in one complete
                 2. Tell the kind of audience for whom it was prepared.
                 3. Describe your purpose. Tell what main idea you want the audience
                     to remember about your speech.
          b. Show the following:
                 1. The ideas list you used in preparing your outline.
                 2. The outline.
                 3. The final text.
          c. Give this speech before an audience.
   2. Give a 10-minute speech on a subject other than the one used in requirement 1.
      Use a visual or audio aid.
   3. Give an impromptu talk of at least 2 minutes, either as part of a group discussion
      or before your counselor. Use a subject interesting to you but for which you do
      not have time to prepare.
   4. Read aloud a selection of 500 words you have never seen.
   5. Show you know parliamentary procedure by leading a discussion or meeting
      according to accepted rules of order; or answer questions on the rules of order


   1. Learn how to use the library (card file or computer), and with the assistance of
      your counselor or your librarian, select six books of four diverse types (such as
      poetry, drama/plays, fiction, nonfiction, and biographies). After you have read
      this material, discuss your reading with the counselor or librarian. Using a log as a
      reference, explain why you chose the material, whether you enjoyed it and what it
      meant to you.
   2. Read two books or material from any two sources (magazines, newspapers, field
      manuals, etc.) about the world around you (sports, environmental problems,
      politics, religion, etc.) and discuss your reading with your counselor.
   3. From a catalog of your choice, fill out the application as if you intended to place
      an order, and discuss it with your counselor.
   4. Choose ONE of the following activities and devote 4 hours of service to that
          a. Read to a sick, blind (contact the American Foundation for the Blind at 1-
              800-232-5463), or homebound person, in a hospital, or in an extended care
          b. Perform volunteer work at your school or public library.
          c. Read stories to younger children in a group or individually.

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           d. Assist in a literacy program (Project Literacy may be contacted at 1-800-
              228-8843 for information about the nearest library center) and discuss
              your participation with your counselor.


   1. Prepare a safety notebook to include:
          a. Newspaper and other stories showing common kinds and causes of
              accidents in the home.
          b. Newspapers and other stories showing common kinds of crimes against
              families like yours.
          c. Facts you have obtained concerning the frequency of accidents and crimes
              involving families in your locality.
          d. A paragraph or more written by you explaining how your family life could
              be changed by serious fire, accident, or crime.
          e. A list of safe practices and safety devices currently used in your family's
              home and automobile.
   2. Do the following:
          a. Using a safety checklist approved by your counselor, make an inspection
              of your home. Explain the hazards found and how they can be corrected.
          b. Review or develop your family's plan of escape in case of fire in your
   3. Do the following:
          a. Discuss with your counselor how you contribute to the safety of yourself,
              your family, and your community.
          b. Show your family members how to protect themselves and your home
              from accidents, fire, theft, robbery, and assault.
   4. Show your family exits you would use from different public buildings (such as
      church, theater, municipal building, library, supermarket, shopping center) ion the
      event of an emergency. Teach your family what do in the event of a panic.
   5. Make a plan for accident prevention programs for five family activities outside
      the home (at church, at a theater, on a picnic, at the beach, and while traveling, for
      example). Each plan should include an analysis of possible hazards, proposed
      action to correct hazards, and reasons for the corrections you propose.
   6. Plan and complete a safety project approved by your counselor in your home,
      school, church, or community.


   1. Explain the responsibilities of a salesman, how he serves his customers, and how
      he helps the economy grow.
   2. Do ONE of the following (including the keeping of records):

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            a. Help your unit raise funds through sales either of merchandise or of tickets
                 to a Scout event such as a circus or show, accounting for more than your
                 proportionate share of the sales.
            b. Earn money for yourself through retail selling, such as in a store.
   3.   Explain the value to a salesman of the following points, with regard to the item he
        is selling:
            a. Properly researching the market for the potential salability of the item.
            b. Proper training in sales, particularly concerning the item he wants to sell.
            c. If possible, visiting the plant that produces the item and seeing the
                 manufacturing process.
            d. Continuing the follow-up with accounts after their primary purchase.
   4.   Develop and present to your counselor a sales program for a territory and product
        assigned by the counselor.
   5.   Assume you have the proper background and traits for a sales job that appeals to
        you. Prepare a written statement of your qualifications and experience that you
        could send to a prospective employer.
   6.   Interview a salesman and a retailer who buys from salesman. Submit your
        answers to your counselor.
   7.   Make a sales presentation of a product assigned by your counselor of a reasonable


   1. Do ONE of the following:
          a. Show that you have had an average grade of 82 (B) or above for one term
             or semester.
          b. Show that for one term or semester you have improved your school grades
             over the previous period.
   2. Do the following:
          a. Make a list of educational places where you live (other than schools). Visit
             one. Report on how you used the place for self-education.
          b. Interview two people other than teachers or school people. Find out the
             following: Where were they educated? What were they trained in? How
             did this help prepare them for the life they now live? Find out how each
             continues to educate himself. Write a report of your findings.
   3. Get a note from the principal of your school* that during the past year your
      behavior, leadership, and service have been better than average.
   4. Show that you have taken part in a school extracurricular activity.
   5. Write an essay of 400 words on "How School Training Will Be of Value to Me in
      the Future."

Soil and Water Conservation

   1. Do the following:
         a. Tell what soil is. Tell how it is formed.

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           b. Describe the three main plant nutrients in fertile soil. Tell how they can be
               put back when used up.
   2.   Do the following:
           a. Define soil erosion.
           b. Tell why it is important. Tell how it affects you.
           c. Name three kinds of soil erosion. Describe each.
           d. Take pictures or draw two kinds of soil erosion.
   3.   Do the following:
           a. Tell what is meant by conservation practices.
           b. Describe the effect of three kinds of erosion- control practices.
           c. Take pictures or draw three kinds of erosion- control practices.
   4.   Do the following:
           a. Explain what a watershed is.
           b. Outline the smallest watershed that you can find on a contour map.
           c. Then outline on your map, as far as possible, the next larger watershed
               which also has the smallest in it.
           d. Explain what a river basin is. Tell why all people living in it should be
               concerned about land and water use on it.
   5.   Do the following:
           a. Make a drawing to show the water cycle.
           b. Show by demonstration at least two of the following actions of water to
               the soil: percolation, capillary action, precipitation, evaporation,
           c. Explain how removal of vegetation will affect the way water runs off a
           d. Tell how uses of forest, range, and farm land affect usable water supply.
           e. Explain how industrial use affects water supply.
   6.   Do the following:
           a. Tell what is meant by water pollution.
           b. Describe the common sources of water pollution and explain the effects.
           c. Tell what is meant by "primary water treatment," "secondary waste
               treatment," and "biochemical oxygen demand."
           d. Make a drawing showing the principles of complete waste treatment.
   7.   Do TWO of the following:
           a. Make a trip to two of the following places. Write a report of more than
               500 words about the soil and water and energy conservation practices you
                   1. an agricultural experiment.
                   2. a managed forest or woodlot, range, or pasture.
                   3. a wildlife refuge or a fish or game management area.
                   4. A conservation-managed farm or ranch.
                   5. A managed watershed.
                   6. A waste-treatment plant.
                   7. A public drinking water treatment plant.
                   8. Industry water use installation.
                   9. Desalinization plant.

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           b. Plant 100 trees, bushes and/or vines for a good purpose.
           c. Seed an area of at least 1/5 acre for some worthwhile conservation
              purpose, using suitable grasses or legumes alone or in a mixture.
           d. Study a soil survey report. Describe the thing in it. On tracing paper over
              any of the soil maps, outline an area with three or more different kinds of
              soil. List each kind of soil by full name and map symbol.
           e. Make a list of places in your neighborhood, camps, school ground, or park
              having erosion, sedimentation, or pollution problems. Describe how these
              could be corrected through individual or group action.
           f. Carry out any other soil and water conservation project approved in


   1. Show that you know first aid for injuries or illnesses that could occur while
      playing sports, including hypothermia; heatstroke; heat exhaustion; frostbite;
      dehydration; sunburn; blisters; hyperventilation; bruises; strains; sprains; muscle
      cramps; broken, chipped, loosened, or knocked-out teeth; bone fracture; nausea;
      and suspected injuries to the back, neck, and head.
   2. Explain sportsmanship. Tell why it is important. Give several examples of good
      sportsmanship in sports. Relate at least one of these to 4 citizenship off the sports
   3. Take part for one full season as a member of an organized team in ONE of the
      following sports: baseball, basketball, bowling, cross country, diving, fencing,
      field hockey, football, golf, gymnastics, ice hockey, lacrosse, rugby, skating (ice
      or roller), soccer, softball, swimming, team handball, tennis, track and field,
      volleyball, water polo, and wrestling. (Or any other recognized team sport
      approved in advance by your counselor, except boxing and karate.)
   4. Take part in ONE of the following sports on a competitive basis in two organized
      meets or tournaments: archery, badminton, bait or fly casting, bowling, canoeing,
      cycling, diving, fencing, fishing, golf, gymnastics, handball, horsemanship,
      horseshoes, judo, orienteering, paddleball, rifle or shotgun shooting, sailing,
      skating (ice or roller), skiing, swimming, table tennis, track and field, waterskiing,
      and wrestling. (Or any other recognized sport approved in advance by your
      counselor, except boxing and karate.)*
   5. Make a set of training rules for the sports you picked. Tell why these rules are
      important. Follow these rules. Design exercises for these sports. Keep a record of
      how you do in these sports for one season. Show how you have improved.
   6. Show proper techniques in your two picked sports.
   7. Explain the attributes (qualities) of a good team leader and a good team player.
   8. Draw diagrams of the playing areas for your two sports.
   9. Explain the rules and etiquette for your two sports. List the equipment needed.
      Describe the protective equipment. Tell why it is needed. Tell what it does.


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   1. See or read three full-length plays. These can be from the stage, movies, or
      television. Write a review of each. Comment on the story, acting, and staging.
   2. Write a one-act play. It must take 8 minutes or more to put on. It must have a
      main character, conflict, and a climax.
   3. Do THREE of the following:
          a. Act a major part in a full-length play; or act a part in three one-act plays.
          b. Direct a play. Cast, rehearse, and stage it. The play must be 10 or more
               minutes long.
          c. Design the setting for a play. Make a model of it.
          d. Design the costumes for five characters in one play set in a time before
          e. Show skill in stage makeup. Make up yourself or a friend as an old man or
               woman, and Indian, a clown, or a monster as directed.
          f. Help with the building of scenery for one full- length or two one-act plays.
          g. Design the lighting for a play; or handle the lighting for a play under
   4. Pantomime any ONE of the following picked by your counselor.
          a. You have come into a large room. It is full of pictures, furniture, other
               things of interest.
          b. As you are getting on as bus, your books fall into a puddle. By the time
               you pick them up, the bus has driven off.
          c. You have failed a school test. You are talking with your teacher. He does
               not buy your story.
          d. You are at a camp with a new Scout. You try to help him pass a cooking
               test. He learns very slowly.
          e. You are at a banquet. The meat is good. You don't like the vegetable. The
               dessert is ice cream.
   5. Explain the following: proscenium, central or arena staging, spotlight, floodlight,
      flies, highlight, lowlight, scene paint, stage brace, cleat, stage crew, batten foyer.
   6. Do two short entertainment features that you could give either alone or with
      others for a troop meeting or campfire.

Traffic Safety

   1. Do the following:
         a. Explain and answer questions about the seriousness and the size of the
             street and highway traffic safety problem in the United States, your state,
             and your community.
                 1. Make a scrapbook containing 10 newspaper articles about serious
                     traffic crashes.
                 2. List what driving and/or safety rules were violated. Tell how these
                     crashes might have been prevented.

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                    3. Give one other cause which might have contributed to each crash.
            c. Tell why driving while impaired by alcohol or other drugs is such an
                important problem.
            d. Explain how highway design, road conditions, and roadside hazards relate
                to the occurrence and seriousness of traffic crashes.
            e. Check tires for wear and proper inflation.
   2.   Describe two safety programs designed to control and reduce the serious effects
        of the highway traffic safety problem.
   3.   Do the following:
            a. List 10 automotive features that reduce the seriousness of injuries when
                crashes occur.
            b. Tell why safety features are important when buying a car.
            c. Demonstrate how to adjust lap and shoulder belts. Explain why it is
                important to wear them at all times.
   4.   Do the following to show your knowledge of car care for safety maintenance:
            a. Check operation of all exterior lights.
            b. Check operation of all interior lights.
            c. Locate a fuse or circuit breaker on the light or horn circuit.
            d. Check windshield wiper blade and smear-and-clear test. Replace the
                blade, if needed, and tests.
   5.   Do the following:
            a. In a location away from traffic hazards, measure with a tape measure --
                not in a car -- and mark off with stakes the distance that a car may travel
                during the time needed for decision and reaction, and the braking distance
                necessary to stop a car traveling 30, 45, and 70 miles an hour on dry
                pavement. Discuss additional allowance that bad weather and road
                conditions would require.
            b. Using a bicycle, demonstrate four safe practices common to bicycle and
                automobile driving.
            c. Using the chart of international traffic signs and control devices, explain
                the meaning of each.
            d. Demonstrate the difference in visibility at night between bicycle and rider
                properly lighted and marked with a reflectorized material and a bicycle
                and rider at night with dark clothing and an unlighted bicycle.
   6.   Do ONE of the following:
            a. Observe, study, and prepare a report on one important community activity
                for traffic safety.
            b. Report on a traffic safety project in which you participated with your
                troop, post, or school.
            c. Report on an individual project that you carried out in promoting traffic


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   1. Define meteorology. Explain how the weather affects farmers, sailors, aviators,
      and the outdoors construction industry. Tell why weather forecasts are important
      to each of these groups.
   2. Name five dangerous weather-related conditions. Give the safety rules for each
      when outdoors and explain the difference between a severe weather watch and a
      warning. Discuss the safety rules with your family.
   3. Draw cross sections of a cold front and a warm front showing the location and
      movements of the cold and warm air, the frontal slope, the location and types of
      clouds associated with the front, and the location of rain. Tell the differences
      between a cold front and a warm front.
   4. Tell what causes wind, why it rains, and how lightning and hail are formed.
      Explain the difference between high and low pressure systems in the atmosphere
      and tell which is related to good and poor weather.
   5. Identify and describe clouds in the low, middle, and upper levels of the
      atmosphere. Relate these to specific types of weather.
   6. Draw a diagram of the water cycle and label its major processes. Explain the
      water cycle to your counselor.
   7. Define acid rain. Identify which human activities pollute the atmosphere as well
      as the effects such pollution can have on people.
   8. Do ONE of the following:
          a. Make one of the following instruments: wind vane, anemometer, rain
              gauge, hygrometer. Keep a daily weather log for 1 week using information
              from this instrument as well as from other sources such as local radio and
              television stations or NOAA Weather Radio. The following information
              should be recorded at the same time every day: wind direction and speed,
              temperature, precipitation, and types of clouds. Be sure to make a note of
              any morning dew or frost. In the log, also list the weather forecasts from
              radio or television at the same time each day and show how the weather
              turned out.
          b. Visit a National Weather Service office or talk with a local radio or
              television weathercaster, private meteorologist, local agricultural
              Extension service office, or university meteorology instructor. Find out
              what type of weather is most dangerous or damaging to your community.
              Determine how severe weather and flood warnings reach the homes in
              your community.
   9. Do ONE of the following:
          a. Give a talk of more than 5 minutes to your unit explaining the camping
              safety rules in the event of lightning, flash floods, and tornadoes. Before
              your talk, show your outline to your counselor for approval.
          b. Read several articles about acid rain and give a prepared talk of more than
              5 minutes about the articles to your unit. Before your talk, show your
              outline to your counselor for approval.

Wilderness Survival

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   1. From memory, describe the priorities for survival in a backcountry or wilderness
   2. Describe ways to
           a. avoid panic and
           b. maintain a high level of morale when lost.
   3. Show that you know firsthand aid for injuries or accidents likely to occur in
       backcountry outings, including hypothermia, hyperthermia, heat stroke, heat
       exhaustion, frostbite, dehydration, sunburn, stings, ticks, snakebite, blisters, and
   4. Tell what you would do to survive in the:
           a. Cold and snowy
           b. Wet (forest)
           c. Hot and dry (desert)
           d. Windy (mountains or plains)
           e. Water (ocean or lake)
   5. Make up a small survival kit an be able to explain how each item in it is useful.
   6. Show that you can start fires using three methods other than matches.
   7. Do the following:
           a. Tell five different ways of attracting attention when lost.
           b. Show how to use a signal mirror to attract attention when lost.
           c. From memory, describe five international ground-to- air signals and tell
               what they mean.
   8. Show that you can find and improvise a natural shelter minimizing the damage to
       the environment.
   9. Spend a night in your shelter.
   10. Explain how to protect yourself against insects, reptiles, rodents, and bears.
   11. Show three ways to purify water.
   12. Show that you know the proper clothing to be worn in your area on an overnight
       in extremely hot weather and extremely cold weather.
   13. Explain why it usually is not wise to eat edible wild plants or wildlife in a
       wilderness survival situation.

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