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06_woods_and_plastics

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									1. WOOD IN
    ARCHITECTURE
    1.01 Classification
    1.02 Structure
    1.03 Properties

                               BUILDING TECHNOLOGY I
    1.04 Defects
    1.05 Sawing Methods
2. LUMBER
    2.01 Classification
    2.02 Measure
    2.03 Seasoning
    2.04 Deterioration
    2.05 Preservation
    2.06 Treatment
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD
    3.01 For Construction
    3.02 Allowable Working
         Stresses
    3.03 Weights of Wood
    3.04 Physical Properties
4. WOOD COMPOSITES
    4.01 Plywood
    4.02 Hardboard
    4.03 Chipboard
    4.04 Fiberboard
    4.05 Gypsum Board
    4.06 Fibercement Board
    4.05 Particle Board
5. MILLWORK
    5.01 Mouldings
6. PLASTICS IN
   ARCHITECTURE
    6.01 Classification
    6.02 Thermoplastics
    6.03 Thermosetting
         Plastics
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
   FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
    ARCHITECTURE               1.   WOOD USED IN ARCHITECTURE
    1.01 Classification
    1.02 Structure
    1.03 Properties
    1.04 Defects
    1.05 Sawing Methods             Natural wood has certain properties that make it an
2. LUMBER
    2.01 Classification             attractive building material:
    2.02 Measure
    2.03 Seasoning
    2.04 Deterioration              • Natural warmth - to the touch; wood insulates
    2.05 Preservation
    2.06 Treatment                  • Workability, easily shaped with simple tools
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD                  • Infinite variety; no two trees, or even pieces from the
    3.01 For Construction
    3.02 Allowable Working            same tree, are alike
         Stresses
    3.03 Weights of Wood
                                    • strength-to-weight ratio for bridges, boats, homes,
    3.04 Physical Properties          furniture
4. WOOD COMPOSITES
    4.01 Plywood                    • Flexibility; watch how huge trees bend before the wind
    4.02 Hardboard
    4.03 Chipboard                  • Fire protection; wood chars and therefore burns slowly,
    4.04 Fiberboard
    4.05 Gypsum Board
                                      doesn‟t melt or crumble
    4.06 Fibercement Board          • Color: natural, through wood‟s ability to receive many
    4.05 Particle Board
5. MILLWORK
                                      types of stains and finishes
    5.01 Mouldings
6. PLASTICS IN
   ARCHITECTURE
    6.01 Classification
    6.02 Thermoplastics
    6.03 Thermosetting
         Plastics
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
   FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
    ARCHITECTURE               1.     WOOD USED IN ARCHITECTURE
    1.01 Classification
    1.02 Structure             1.01   CLASSIFICATION OF WOOD
    1.03 Properties
    1.04 Defects
    1.05 Sawing Methods               Woods are generally classified into:
2. LUMBER
    2.01 Classification
    2.02 Measure
    2.03 Seasoning
                                      a. Softwoods come from the conifers (evergreens)
    2.04 Deterioration                   which have needles instead of leaves, e.g. pine
    2.05 Preservation
    2.06 Treatment
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD                    b. Hardwoods come from the broad-leaved or
    3.01 For Construction
    3.02 Allowable Working               deciduous trees. Most Philippine timber are of this
         Stresses
    3.03 Weights of Wood                 latter kind
    3.04 Physical Properties
4. WOOD COMPOSITES
    4.01 Plywood                      The terms “hardwood” and “softwood” are often
    4.02 Hardboard
    4.03 Chipboard                    misleading because they have no direct relation to the
    4.04 Fiberboard
    4.05 Gypsum Board                 actual physical hardness or softness of the wood, so
    4.06 Fibercement Board            that a hardwood may actually be softer than a
    4.05 Particle Board
5. MILLWORK                           softwood.
    5.01 Mouldings
6. PLASTICS IN
   ARCHITECTURE
    6.01 Classification
    6.02 Thermoplastics
    6.03 Thermosetting
         Plastics
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
   FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
    ARCHITECTURE               1.     WOOD USED IN ARCHITECTURE
    1.01 Classification
    1.02 Structure             1.02   STRUCTURE OF WOOD
    1.03 Properties
    1.04 Defects
    1.05 Sawing Methods               a. Sapwood
2. LUMBER
    2.01 Classification
    2.02 Measure                         - is the softer, younger outer portion
    2.03 Seasoning
    2.04 Deterioration                     of a tree that lies between the
    2.05 Preservation                      cambium (formative layer just under
    2.06 Treatment
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD                         the bark) and the heartwood.
    3.01 For Construction
    3.02 Allowable Working
         Stresses
    3.03 Weights of Wood
                                         - It is more permeable, less durable
    3.04 Physical Properties               and usually lighter in color than the
4. WOOD COMPOSITES
    4.01 Plywood                           heartwood.
    4.02 Hardboard
    4.03 Chipboard
    4.04 Fiberboard
    4.05 Gypsum Board
    4.06 Fibercement Board
    4.05 Particle Board
5. MILLWORK
    5.01 Mouldings
6. PLASTICS IN
   ARCHITECTURE
    6.01 Classification
    6.02 Thermoplastics
    6.03 Thermosetting
         Plastics
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
   FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
    ARCHITECTURE               1.     WOOD USED IN ARCHITECTURE
    1.01 Classification
    1.02 Structure             1.02   STRUCTURE OF WOOD
    1.03 Properties
    1.04 Defects
    1.05 Sawing Methods               a. Sapwood
2. LUMBER
    2.01 Classification
    2.02 Measure                         - the portion of the log near
    2.03 Seasoning
    2.04 Deterioration                     the periphery which is
    2.05 Preservation                      generally lighter in color
    2.06 Treatment
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD                         than the central portion.
    3.01 For Construction
    3.02 Allowable Working
         Stresses
    3.03 Weights of Wood
                                         - contains living cells and
    3.04 Physical Properties               takes an active part in the
4. WOOD COMPOSITES
    4.01 Plywood                           life process of a tree.
    4.02 Hardboard
    4.03 Chipboard
    4.04 Fiberboard                      - Because it contains more
    4.05 Gypsum Board
    4.06 Fibercement Board                 organic matter than the
    4.05 Particle Board
5. MILLWORK
                                           central core of the log, it
    5.01 Mouldings                         is more susceptible to
6. PLASTICS IN                             blueing fungi and wood-
   ARCHITECTURE
    6.01 Classification                    boring insects, and is not
    6.02 Thermoplastics                    durable.
    6.03 Thermosetting
         Plastics
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
   FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
    ARCHITECTURE               1.     WOOD USED IN ARCHITECTURE
    1.01 Classification
    1.02 Structure             1.02   STRUCTURE OF WOOD
    1.03 Properties
    1.04 Defects
    1.05 Sawing Methods               b.    Heartwood
2. LUMBER
    2.01 Classification
    2.02 Measure                           - the older, harder central
    2.03 Seasoning
    2.04 Deterioration                       portion of a tree.
    2.05 Preservation
    2.06 Treatment
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD                         - usually contains deposits
    3.01 For Construction
    3.02 Allowable Working                   of various materials that
         Stresses
    3.03 Weights of Wood
                                             frequently give it a darker
    3.04 Physical Properties                 color than sapwood.
4. WOOD COMPOSITES
    4.01 Plywood
    4.02 Hardboard                         - is denser, less permeable
    4.03 Chipboard
    4.04 Fiberboard                          and more durable than
    4.05 Gypsum Board
    4.06 Fibercement Board                   the surrounding sapwood.
    4.05 Particle Board
5. MILLWORK
    5.01 Mouldings                         - The central core of the
6. PLASTICS IN                               log, it is composed of
   ARCHITECTURE
    6.01 Classification                      inactive cells and serves
    6.02 Thermoplastics                      only as a mechanical
    6.03 Thermosetting
         Plastics                            support
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
   FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
    ARCHITECTURE               1.     WOOD USED IN ARCHITECTURE
    1.01 Classification
    1.02 Structure             1.03   PROPERTIES OF WOOD
    1.03 Properties
    1.04 Defects
    1.05 Sawing Methods
2. LUMBER                             a. Hardness. This is measured by the compression
    2.01 Classification
    2.02 Measure                         which a piece of timber undergoes when a weight
    2.03 Seasoning                       is applied to it.
    2.04 Deterioration
    2.05 Preservation
    2.06 Treatment
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD                    b. Flexibility. The amount of piece will bend before
    3.01 For Construction                breaking . Softwoods are generally brittle while
    3.02 Allowable Working
         Stresses                        most hardwoods are flexible.
    3.03 Weights of Wood
    3.04 Physical Properties
4. WOOD COMPOSITES                    c. Strength
    4.01 Plywood
    4.02 Hardboard
    4.03 Chipboard
    4.04 Fiberboard                   d. Durability.
    4.05 Gypsum Board
    4.06 Fibercement Board
    4.05 Particle Board
5. MILLWORK
    5.01 Mouldings
6. PLASTICS IN
   ARCHITECTURE
    6.01 Classification
    6.02 Thermoplastics
    6.03 Thermosetting
         Plastics
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
   FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
    ARCHITECTURE               1.     WOOD USED IN ARCHITECTURE
    1.01 Classification
    1.02 Structure             1.04   DEFECTS OF WOOD
    1.03 Properties
    1.04 Defects
    1.05 Sawing Methods
2. LUMBER                             a. Decay – Caused by the attack
    2.01 Classification
    2.02 Measure                         of fungi.
    2.03 Seasoning
    2.04 Deterioration
    2.05 Preservation
    2.06 Treatment
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD                    b. Checks –Cracks or lengthwise
    3.01 For Construction                separation across the annual
    3.02 Allowable Working
         Stresses                        rings of growth caused by
    3.03 Weights of Wood
    3.04 Physical Properties             irregular shrinkage during         DECAY
4. WOOD COMPOSITES                       drying. Checks are formed
    4.01 Plywood
    4.02 Hardboard                       when the circumference
    4.03 Chipboard
    4.04 Fiberboard                      shrinks more than the interior
    4.05 Gypsum Board
    4.06 Fibercement Board               section of the log.
    4.05 Particle Board
5. MILLWORK
    5.01 Mouldings
6. PLASTICS IN                        c. Shakes – These are cracks        CHECKS
   ARCHITECTURE
    6.01 Classification
                                         between and parallel to the
    6.02 Thermoplastics
    6.03 Thermosetting
                                         annual rings of the growth.
         Plastics
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
   FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
    ARCHITECTURE               1.     WOOD USED IN ARCHITECTURE
    1.01 Classification
    1.02 Structure             1.04   DEFECTS OF WOOD
    1.03 Properties
    1.04 Defects
    1.05 Sawing Methods
2. LUMBER                             d. Knots – These are irregular
    2.01 Classification
    2.02 Measure                         growths in the body of a tree
    2.03 Seasoning                       which interrupt the smooth
    2.04 Deterioration
    2.05 Preservation                    curve of the grain. The fibers of
    2.06 Treatment
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD                       the tree are turned from their
    3.01 For Construction                normal course and grow around
    3.02 Allowable Working
         Stresses                        the knot at that point of the tree.
    3.03 Weights of Wood
    3.04 Physical Properties
4. WOOD COMPOSITES
    4.01 Plywood
    4.02 Hardboard                    e. Pitchpockets – These are well-           KNOTS
    4.03 Chipboard
    4.04 Fiberboard                      defined openings between
    4.05 Gypsum Board
    4.06 Fibercement Board               annual rings containing solid or
    4.05 Particle Board
                                         liquid pitch.
5. MILLWORK
    5.01 Mouldings
6. PLASTICS IN
   ARCHITECTURE
    6.01 Classification
                                      f. Wane – This is the lack of wood
    6.02 Thermoplastics
    6.03 Thermosetting
                                         on the edge or corner of a
         Plastics                        piece.                                PITCHPOCKETS
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
   FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
    ARCHITECTURE               1.     WOOD USED IN ARCHITECTURE
    1.01 Classification
    1.02 Structure             1.04   DEFECTS OF WOOD
    1.03 Properties
    1.04 Defects
    1.05 Sawing Methods               g.   Warping - Any variation with
2. LUMBER
    2.01 Classification                    the plane surface of the piece
    2.02 Measure                           caused by unequal shrinkage
    2.03 Seasoning
    2.04 Deterioration                     of the board. There are
    2.05 Preservation
    2.06 Treatment                         several forms of warp:
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD
    3.01 For Construction
    3.02 Allowable Working                 Crook –a distortion of the board
         Stresses                          in which the edge is convex or
    3.03 Weights of Wood
    3.04 Physical Properties               concave longitudinal.
4. WOOD COMPOSITES
    4.01 Plywood
    4.02 Hardboard
                                           Bow –a distortion of the
    4.03 Chipboard
    4.04 Fiberboard
                                           board in which the face is
    4.05 Gypsum Board                      convex or concave
    4.06 Fibercement Board
    4.05 Particle Board                    longitudinal.
5. MILLWORK
    5.01 Mouldings                         Cup –a distortion of the board
6. PLASTICS IN                             in which the face is convex or
   ARCHITECTURE
    6.01 Classification                    concave across the board.
    6.02 Thermoplastics
    6.03 Thermosetting
         Plastics
                                           Twist –a distortion of the board
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,                         in which one corner is raised.
   FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
    ARCHITECTURE               1.     WOOD USED IN ARCHITECTURE
    1.01 Classification
    1.02 Structure             1.05   METHODS OF SAWING WOOD
    1.03 Properties
    1.04 Defects
    1.05 Sawing Methods               A log of wood can be cut in two different ways to make
2. LUMBER
    2.01 Classification               lumber:
    2.02 Measure
    2.03 Seasoning
    2.04 Deterioration                a. Plainsawing
    2.05 Preservation                 refers to lumber cut tangent to the annual rings or growth
    2.06 Treatment
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD                    or, in commercial practice, cut with annual rings at an angle
    3.01 For Construction
    3.02 Allowable Working            0 to 45.
         Stresses
    3.03 Weights of Wood
    3.04 Physical Properties          Plainsawn limber is preferable when a pleasing pattern is
4. WOOD COMPOSITES
    4.01 Plywood                      required, as in wall paneling.
    4.02 Hardboard
    4.03 Chipboard
    4.04 Fiberboard
    4.05 Gypsum Board
    4.06 Fibercement Board
    4.05 Particle Board
5. MILLWORK
    5.01 Mouldings
6. PLASTICS IN
   ARCHITECTURE
    6.01 Classification
    6.02 Thermoplastics
    6.03 Thermosetting
         Plastics
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
   FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
    ARCHITECTURE               1.     WOOD USED IN ARCHITECTURE
    1.01 Classification
    1.02 Structure             1.05   METHODS OF SAWING WOOD
    1.03 Properties
    1.04 Defects
    1.05 Sawing Methods
2. LUMBER
                                      b. Quartersawing
    2.01 Classification               refers to wood cut radially to the annual rings of growth
    2.02 Measure
    2.03 Seasoning                    parallel to the rays or, in commercial practice, cut with the
    2.04 Deterioration
    2.05 Preservation                 annual growth rings at an angle 45 to 90.
    2.06 Treatment
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD
    3.01 For Construction             Quartersawn lumber is desirable because it has less
    3.02 Allowable Working
         Stresses                     shrinkage than plainsawn lumber, and this is important
    3.03 Weights of Wood              where joints must be kept tight.
    3.04 Physical Properties
4. WOOD COMPOSITES
    4.01 Plywood
    4.02 Hardboard
    4.03 Chipboard
    4.04 Fiberboard
    4.05 Gypsum Board
    4.06 Fibercement Board
    4.05 Particle Board
5. MILLWORK
    5.01 Mouldings
6. PLASTICS IN
   ARCHITECTURE
    6.01 Classification
    6.02 Thermoplastics
    6.03 Thermosetting
         Plastics
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
   FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
    ARCHITECTURE               2.     LUMBER
    1.01 Classification
    1.02 Structure             2.01   CLASSIFICATION OF LUMBER
    1.03 Properties
    1.04 Defects
    1.05 Sawing Methods               Wood that is used in construction is called LUMBER.
2. LUMBER
    2.01 Classification
    2.02 Measure
    2.03 Seasoning
                                      Lumber is classified by its size or dimensions measured
    2.04 Deterioration                in inches, for example, a piece of lumber measuring 2
    2.05 Preservation
    2.06 Treatment                    inches by 4 inches is called 2 x 4.
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD
    3.01 For Construction
    3.02 Allowable Working            Generally, they are available in even-numbered widths:
         Stresses
    3.03 Weights of Wood              4, 6, 8, 10,12 inches.
    3.04 Physical Properties
4. WOOD COMPOSITES
    4.01 Plywood                      There are four available classifications of lumber:
    4.02 Hardboard
    4.03 Chipboard
    4.04 Fiberboard                   a.   Strips. Lumber less than 2” thick and less than 8”
    4.05 Gypsum Board
    4.06 Fibercement Board                 wide.
    4.05 Particle Board
                                      b.   Board Lumber. Pieces less than 2” thick and at
5. MILLWORK
    5.01 Mouldings                         least 8” wide.
6. PLASTICS IN                        c.   Dimension Lumber. Pieces more than 2” and less
   ARCHITECTURE
    6.01 Classification
                                           than 5” in any dimension.
    6.02 Thermoplastics
    6.03 Thermosetting
                                      d.   Timbers. Pieces 5” or more on the smallest
         Plastics                          dimension
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
   FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
    ARCHITECTURE               2.     LUMBER
    1.01 Classification
    1.02 Structure             2.01   CLASSIFICATION OF LUMBER
    1.03 Properties
    1.04 Defects
    1.05 Sawing Methods
2. LUMBER                             The two most common classifications are
    2.01 Classification
    2.02 Measure                      - Dimension Lumber and
    2.03 Seasoning
    2.04 Deterioration                - Board Lumber.
    2.05 Preservation
    2.06 Treatment
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD                    It is important to realize that the stated size of lumber is
    3.01 For Construction
    3.02 Allowable Working            not its actual finished size.
         Stresses
    3.03 Weights of Wood
    3.04 Physical Properties          Nominal size is the size of lumber when it is cut from the
4. WOOD COMPOSITES
    4.01 Plywood                      log. After cutting, the lumber is dried and then planed on
    4.02 Hardboard                    all four sides to achieve smoothness. The finished size is
    4.03 Chipboard
    4.04 Fiberboard
    4.05 Gypsum Board
                                      therefore smaller.
    4.06 Fibercement Board
    4.05 Particle Board
5. MILLWORK
    5.01 Mouldings
6. PLASTICS IN
   ARCHITECTURE
    6.01 Classification
    6.02 Thermoplastics
    6.03 Thermosetting
         Plastics
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,                                STRIP LUMBER            DIMENSION LUMBER
   FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
    ARCHITECTURE               2.     LUMBER
    1.01 Classification
    1.02 Structure             2.01   CLASSIFICATION OF LUMBER
    1.03 Properties
    1.04 Defects
    1.05 Sawing Methods
2. LUMBER                                         NOMINAL SIZE   ACTUAL SIZE
    2.01 Classification
    2.02 Measure                      For Dimension Lumber:
    2.03 Seasoning
    2.04 Deterioration
    2.05 Preservation                                 2 x 4        1½ x 3½
    2.06 Treatment
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD                                    2 x 6        1½ x 5½
    3.01 For Construction
    3.02 Allowable Working                            2 x 8        1½ x 7½
         Stresses
    3.03 Weights of Wood                             2 x 10        1½ x 8½
    3.04 Physical Properties
4. WOOD COMPOSITES                                   2 x 12       1½ x 11½
    4.01 Plywood
    4.02 Hardboard
    4.03 Chipboard                    For Board Lumber:
    4.04 Fiberboard
    4.05 Gypsum Board                                 1 x 4        ¾ x 3½
    4.06 Fibercement Board
    4.05 Particle Board                               1 x 6        ¾ x 5½
5. MILLWORK
    5.01 Mouldings                                    1 x 8        ¾ x 7½
6. PLASTICS IN
   ARCHITECTURE                                      1 x 10        ¾ x 9½
    6.01 Classification
    6.02 Thermoplastics                              1 x 12        ¾ x 11½
    6.03 Thermosetting
         Plastics
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
   FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
    ARCHITECTURE               2.       LUMBER
    1.01 Classification
    1.02 Structure             2.02     MEASUREMENT OF LUMBER
    1.03 Properties
    1.04 Defects
    1.05 Sawing Methods
2. LUMBER
                                        Lumber is sold in lengths from 6‟ up to 20‟ in increments
    2.01 Classification                 of 2‟. Special lengths greater than 20‟ are also available
    2.02 Measure
    2.03 Seasoning                      but cost more per board foot than the standard lengths.
    2.04 Deterioration
    2.05 Preservation
    2.06 Treatment                      Lumber measure is the board foot which may be
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD                      described as the measure of a piece of wood 1” thick,
    3.01 For Construction
    3.02 Allowable Working              12” (or 1‟) wide and 12” (or 1‟) long.
         Stresses
    3.03 Weights of Wood
    3.04 Physical Properties          Board Feet = Thickness (in.) x Width (in.) x Length (ft.)
4. WOOD COMPOSITES
    4.01 Plywood
                                                                  12
    4.02 Hardboard
    4.03 Chipboard
    4.04 Fiberboard
    4.05 Gypsum Board
    4.06 Fibercement Board
    4.05 Particle Board
5. MILLWORK
    5.01 Mouldings
6. PLASTICS IN
   ARCHITECTURE
    6.01 Classification
    6.02 Thermoplastics
    6.03 Thermosetting
         Plastics
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
   FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
    ARCHITECTURE               2.     LUMBER
    1.01 Classification
    1.02 Structure             2.02   MEASUREMENT OF LUMBER
    1.03 Properties
    1.04 Defects
    1.05 Sawing Methods
2. LUMBER
    2.01 Classification
                                      Examples:
    2.02 Measure
    2.03 Seasoning                    Compute the number of board feet in (a) a piece of ¾” x
    2.04 Deterioration
    2.05 Preservation                 8” x 10‟; (b) 10 pcs. of 2” x 6” x 14‟; (c) 5 pcs. of 1” x 4” x
    2.06 Treatment
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD
                                      10‟
    3.01 For Construction
    3.02 Allowable Working            1 x 1 x 8 x 10        =    6-2/3 or 7 bd. ft.
         Stresses
    3.03 Weights of Wood                      12
    3.04 Physical Properties          10 x 2 x 6 x 14       =     140 bd. ft.
4. WOOD COMPOSITES
    4.01 Plywood                              12
    4.02 Hardboard
    4.03 Chipboard                     5 x 1 x 4 x 10       =     16 – 2/3 or 17 bd. ft.
    4.04 Fiberboard
    4.05 Gypsum Board                         12
    4.06 Fibercement Board
    4.05 Particle Board
5. MILLWORK                           All lumber is sized according to its rough dimensions
    5.01 Mouldings
6. PLASTICS IN
                                      as it comes from the saw. It size, however, is reduced
   ARCHITECTURE                       after being surfaced or dressed by a planer.
    6.01 Classification
    6.02 Thermoplastics
    6.03 Thermosetting
                                      Thus, for example, 2 x 4 surfaced on four sides
         Plastics                     (S4S) will only be 1-3/4 x 3-3/4. Dressed lumber costs
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,                    slightly more than rough.
   FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
    ARCHITECTURE               2.     LUMBER
    1.01 Classification
    1.02 Structure             2.03   SEASONING OF LUMBER
    1.03 Properties
    1.04 Defects
    1.05 Sawing Methods
2. LUMBER
                                      Moisture has a big influence on the behavior and
    2.01 Classification               properties of wood. While water has been in wood
    2.02 Measure
    2.03 Seasoning                    since its formation, yet after a tree is cut, water
    2.04 Deterioration
    2.05 Preservation                 becomes detrimental to it. It makes wood liable to the
    2.06 Treatment
                                      attack of insects and fungi and unfit for use.
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD
    3.01 For Construction
    3.02 Allowable Working
         Stresses                     Water occurs in wood as free water found in cell
    3.03 Weights of Wood              cavities and intercellular spaces of the wood, and as
    3.04 Physical Properties
4. WOOD COMPOSITES                    absorbed or hygroscopic water held in the cell walls.
    4.01 Plywood
    4.02 Hardboard                    When surface moisture comes in contact with the air
    4.03 Chipboard
    4.04 Fiberboard                   it evaporates, the water equilibrium in the log is upset
    4.05 Gypsum Board
    4.06 Fibercement Board
                                      and moisture from the interior travels towards the
    4.05 Particle Board               surface.
5. MILLWORK
    5.01 Mouldings
6. PLASTICS IN                        This is the beginning of the drying of wood in the log.
   ARCHITECTURE                       The free water passes out first before the absorbed
    6.01 Classification
    6.02 Thermoplastics               water in the cell wall vaporizes.
    6.03 Thermosetting
         Plastics
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
   FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
    ARCHITECTURE               2.     LUMBER
    1.01 Classification
    1.02 Structure             2.03   SEASONING OF LUMBER
    1.03 Properties
    1.04 Defects
    1.05 Sawing Methods
2. LUMBER                             When all free water is removed but all absorbed
    2.01 Classification
    2.02 Measure                      water remains, the so-called “fiber-saturation point”
    2.03 Seasoning                    (approximately 30% moisture content (M.C.) for all
    2.04 Deterioration
    2.05 Preservation
    2.06 Treatment
                                      species) is reached.
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD
    3.01 For Construction
    3.02 Allowable Working            Shrinkage of the wood occurs at moisture content
         Stresses                     percentages below the fiber saturation point.
    3.03 Weights of Wood
    3.04 Physical Properties
4. WOOD COMPOSITES                    The drying of the wood continues until the vapor
    4.01 Plywood
    4.02 Hardboard
    4.03 Chipboard
                                      pressure in the air just balances the vapor pressure
    4.04 Fiberboard                   on the wood surface.
    4.05 Gypsum Board
    4.06 Fibercement Board
    4.05 Particle Board
                                      This condition of dryness of the wood is called
5. MILLWORK
    5.01 Mouldings                    “equilibrium moisture content” (E.M.C.) and in the
6. PLASTICS IN                        Philippines this is equivalent to from 12 to 16 percent
   ARCHITECTURE
    6.01 Classification               moisture content.
    6.02 Thermoplastics
    6.03 Thermosetting
         Plastics
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
   FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
    ARCHITECTURE               2.     LUMBER
    1.01 Classification
    1.02 Structure             2.03   SEASONING OF LUMBER
    1.03 Properties
    1.04 Defects
    1.05 Sawing Methods
2. LUMBER
                                      The process of removing moisture from green wood
    2.01 Classification               (wood from freshly-cut logs) is called seasoning.
    2.02 Measure
    2.03 Seasoning                    Seasoning may done by:
    2.04 Deterioration
    2.05 Preservation
    2.06 Treatment                    a. AIR-DRYING in which the lumber is exposed to the air.
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD
    3.01 For Construction
    3.02 Allowable Working
         Stresses
    3.03 Weights of Wood
    3.04 Physical Properties
4. WOOD COMPOSITES
    4.01 Plywood
    4.02 Hardboard
    4.03 Chipboard
    4.04 Fiberboard
    4.05 Gypsum Board
    4.06 Fibercement Board
    4.05 Particle Board
5. MILLWORK
    5.01 Mouldings
6. PLASTICS IN
   ARCHITECTURE
    6.01 Classification
    6.02 Thermoplastics
    6.03 Thermosetting
         Plastics
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
   FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
    ARCHITECTURE               2.     LUMBER
    1.01 Classification
    1.02 Structure             2.03   SEASONING OF LUMBER
    1.03 Properties
    1.04 Defects
    1.05 Sawing Methods
2. LUMBER
                                      b. KILN-DRYING in which warm moist air or superheated
    2.01 Classification                  steam is used to heat the wood and drive out moisture.
    2.02 Measure
    2.03 Seasoning
    2.04 Deterioration
    2.05 Preservation                   The ideal condition in seasoning is for the moisture
    2.06 Treatment
                                        from the interior of the wood to replace the surface
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD
    3.01 For Construction               moisture which vaporizes. When the moisture from the
    3.02 Allowable Working
         Stresses                       surface escapes faster than that which travels from the
    3.03 Weights of Wood                interior to the surface, then there is equal drying in the
    3.04 Physical Properties
4. WOOD COMPOSITES                      board and if the difference in moisture content is big,
    4.01 Plywood
    4.02 Hardboard                      shrinkage and then stress in the wood develops,
    4.03 Chipboard
    4.04 Fiberboard                     causing seasoning checks.
    4.05 Gypsum Board
    4.06 Fibercement Board
    4.05 Particle Board
5. MILLWORK
    5.01 Mouldings
6. PLASTICS IN
   ARCHITECTURE
    6.01 Classification
    6.02 Thermoplastics
    6.03 Thermosetting
         Plastics
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
   FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
    ARCHITECTURE               2.     LUMBER
    1.01 Classification
    1.02 Structure             2.03   SEASONING OF LUMBER
    1.03 Properties
    1.04 Defects
    1.05 Sawing Methods               Seasoned lumber has many advantages over green
2. LUMBER
    2.01 Classification               lumber:
    2.02 Measure
    2.03 Seasoning                    a. It lessens the liability of the wood to be attacked by the
    2.04 Deterioration
    2.05 Preservation                    fungi causing blueing and decay, and by some wood-
    2.06 Treatment
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD
                                         boring insects.
    3.01 For Construction
    3.02 Allowable Working            b. Reduction of weight.
         Stresses
    3.03 Weights of Wood
    3.04 Physical Properties          c. Increased strength.
4. WOOD COMPOSITES
    4.01 Plywood                      d. Minimum shrinkage after the lumber is in place (thus
    4.02 Hardboard
    4.03 Chipboard                       avoids opening up of joints in doors, windows, siding,
    4.04 Fiberboard
    4.05 Gypsum Board                    etc.).
    4.06 Fibercement Board
    4.05 Particle Board
5. MILLWORK
                                      e. Reduced checking and warping.
    5.01 Mouldings
6. PLASTICS IN                        f. Increased nail-holding power of the wood (nails do not
   ARCHITECTURE                          hold well when driven into green or unseasoned lumber
    6.01 Classification
    6.02 Thermoplastics                  because of its softness).
    6.03 Thermosetting
         Plastics
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,                    g. Improvement of the wood for the application of paint
   FILM AND FOAM                         and to receive wood preservatives, fire retardants.
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
    ARCHITECTURE               2.     LUMBER
    1.01 Classification
    1.02 Structure             2.03   SEASONING OF LUMBER
    1.03 Properties
    1.04 Defects
    1.05 Sawing Methods
2. LUMBER
                                      The advantages of kiln-drying over air-drying are:
    2.01 Classification
    2.02 Measure
    2.03 Seasoning                    a.   Greater reduction in weight.
    2.04 Deterioration
    2.05 Preservation
    2.06 Treatment
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD
                                      b.   Control of moisture content to any desired value.
    3.01 For Construction
    3.02 Allowable Working
         Stresses                     c.   Reduction in drying time.
    3.03 Weights of Wood
    3.04 Physical Properties
4. WOOD COMPOSITES                    d.   Killing of any fungi or insects.
    4.01 Plywood
    4.02 Hardboard
    4.03 Chipboard
    4.04 Fiberboard                   e.   Setting the resins in resinous wood.
    4.05 Gypsum Board
    4.06 Fibercement Board
    4.05 Particle Board               f.   Less degrade (Degrade is the loss in quality during
5. MILLWORK                                seasoning of the lumber through unequal shrinkage
    5.01 Mouldings
6. PLASTICS IN                             which causes checks and loosening of knots,
   ARCHITECTURE                            warping).
    6.01 Classification
    6.02 Thermoplastics
    6.03 Thermosetting
         Plastics
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
   FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
    ARCHITECTURE               2.     LUMBER
    1.01 Classification
    1.02 Structure             2.04   DETERIORATION OF LUMBER
    1.03 Properties
    1.04 Defects
    1.05 Sawing Methods               a. Decay
2. LUMBER
    2.01 Classification
    2.02 Measure                        Molds, stains and decay in
    2.03 Seasoning
    2.04 Deterioration                  wood are caused by fungi.
    2.05 Preservation                   Their growth depends on mild
    2.06 Treatment
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD                      temperatures and dampness.
    3.01 For Construction
    3.02 Allowable Working
         Stresses
                                        Most decay occurs in wood with
    3.03 Weights of Wood                a moisture content above the
    3.04 Physical Properties
4. WOOD COMPOSITES                      fiber saturation point. Usually
    4.01 Plywood                        wood maintained at 20% M.C.
    4.02 Hardboard
    4.03 Chipboard
    4.04 Fiberboard
                                        or less is safe from fungus
    4.05 Gypsum Board                   damage.
    4.06 Fibercement Board
    4.05 Particle Board
5. MILLWORK                             Wood that under water or continuously dry will not
    5.01 Mouldings
6. PLASTICS IN
                                        decay. Care should be taken not to use wood where
   ARCHITECTURE                         moisture can collect and remain.
    6.01 Classification
    6.02 Thermoplastics
    6.03 Thermosetting
         Plastics
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
   FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
    ARCHITECTURE               2.     LUMBER
    1.01 Classification
    1.02 Structure             2.04   DETERIORATION OF LUMBER
    1.03 Properties
    1.04 Defects
    1.05 Sawing Methods               b. Insects
2. LUMBER
    2.01 Classification
    2.02 Measure                        There are several types of insects that attack wood:
    2.03 Seasoning
    2.04 Deterioration
    2.05 Preservation                   • Subterranean termites which live in the ground and
    2.06 Treatment
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD
                                          build earthen tubes to reach their food – cellulose
    3.01 For Construction                 which includes wood primarily but also paper and
    3.02 Allowable Working
         Stresses                         pulp products. The channels formed as they eat all
    3.03 Weights of Wood                  the wood substance tends to follow the grain.
    3.04 Physical Properties
4. WOOD COMPOSITES
    4.01 Plywood
    4.02 Hardboard
    4.03 Chipboard
    4.04 Fiberboard
    4.05 Gypsum Board
    4.06 Fibercement Board
    4.05 Particle Board
5. MILLWORK
    5.01 Mouldings
6. PLASTICS IN
   ARCHITECTURE
    6.01 Classification
    6.02 Thermoplastics
    6.03 Thermosetting
         Plastics
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
   FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
    ARCHITECTURE               2.     LUMBER
    1.01 Classification
    1.02 Structure             2.04   DETERIORATION OF LUMBER
    1.03 Properties
    1.04 Defects
    1.05 Sawing Methods               b. Insects
2. LUMBER
    2.01 Classification
    2.02 Measure                        • Subterranean termites
    2.03 Seasoning
    2.04 Deterioration                     In general, a complete barrier must be made
    2.05 Preservation
    2.06 Treatment                         between the wood and possible earthen tubes of the
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD
    3.01 For Construction                  termites by:
    3.02 Allowable Working
         Stresses
    3.03 Weights of Wood                    installing a shield made of metal or special
    3.04 Physical Properties
4. WOOD COMPOSITES
                                             termite-proof materials.
    4.01 Plywood
    4.02 Hardboard
    4.03 Chipboard                          Termite proofing the wood used for construction
    4.04 Fiberboard
    4.05 Gypsum Board                        close to earth;
    4.06 Fibercement Board
    4.05 Particle Board
5. MILLWORK                                 Poisoning the soil adjacent to the building.
    5.01 Mouldings
6. PLASTICS IN                          It is good practice to make a periodic check around
   ARCHITECTURE
    6.01 Classification                 the building and under it for evidence of termites such
    6.02 Thermoplastics
    6.03 Thermosetting                  as earthen tubes. If signs of termites are noted,
         Plastics                       intermediate destruction of the tubes and poisoning of
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
   FILM AND FOAM
                                        the surrounding earth is necessary.
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
    ARCHITECTURE               2.     LUMBER
    1.01 Classification
    1.02 Structure             2.04   DETERIORATION OF LUMBER
    1.03 Properties
    1.04 Defects
    1.05 Sawing Methods               b. Insects
2. LUMBER
    2.01 Classification
    2.02 Measure                        • Non-Subterranean termites
    2.03 Seasoning
    2.04 Deterioration                     The only relatively permanent method of arresting
    2.05 Preservation
    2.06 Treatment                         attack is to use lumber that has been given full-
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD
    3.01 For Construction                  length termite proofing with wood preservatives.
    3.02 Allowable Working
         Stresses
                                           Attention to structural features and sanitation are
    3.03 Weights of Wood                   also important.
    3.04 Physical Properties
4. WOOD COMPOSITES
    4.01 Plywood
    4.02 Hardboard                      • Carpenter Ants and Powder-Pest Beetles
    4.03 Chipboard
    4.04 Fiberboard                        use wood for shelter rather than for food, but if they
    4.05 Gypsum Board
    4.06 Fibercement Board                 are not found and are left undisturbed they can do
    4.05 Particle Board
5. MILLWORK
                                           extensive damage. They convert wood to powder,
    5.01 Mouldings                         shredded fibers or pellets. Their channels are likely
6. PLASTICS IN
   ARCHITECTURE
                                           to cut across the grain. The damage to wood by the
    6.01 Classification                    various marine organisms, mollusks and
    6.02 Thermoplastics
    6.03 Thermosetting                     crustaceans in salt water or brackish water is best
         Plastics                          arrested by heavy, thorough treatment with coal-tar
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
   FILM AND FOAM                           creosote or creosote-coal tar solutions.
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
    ARCHITECTURE               2.     LUMBER
    1.01 Classification
    1.02 Structure             2.05   PRESERVATION OF LUMBER
    1.03 Properties
    1.04 Defects
    1.05 Sawing Methods               Wood can be treated to prevent or at least delay
2. LUMBER
    2.01 Classification               destruction by fungi, insects, bacteria, marine organisms,
    2.02 Measure                      and fire.
    2.03 Seasoning
    2.04 Deterioration
    2.05 Preservation
    2.06 Treatment                    Wood preservatives used to forestall attack by decay,
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD                    fungi, harmful insects and marine borers are divided into
    3.01 For Construction
    3.02 Allowable Working            two general groups
         Stresses
    3.03 Weights of Wood
    3.04 Physical Properties          a. Oil-Type Wood Preservatives
4. WOOD COMPOSITES
    4.01 Plywood
    4.02 Hardboard                       • Coal-tar creosotes.
    4.03 Chipboard
    4.04 Fiberboard                        Black or brownish oil made
    4.05 Gypsum Board
    4.06 Fibercement Board                 from distilling coal tar.
    4.05 Particle Board
5. MILLWORK
                                           Advantages are: highly toxicity
    5.01 Mouldings                         to wood-destroying
6. PLASTICS IN
   ARCHITECTURE
                                           organisms; insolubility in
    6.01 Classification                    water; ease of application.
    6.02 Thermoplastics
    6.03 Thermosetting                     Disadvantages are its strong,
         Plastics                          unpleasant odor, cannot be
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
   FILM AND FOAM                           painted, easily ignited when
8. LAMINATES                               first applied .
1. WOOD IN
    ARCHITECTURE               2.     LUMBER
    1.01 Classification
    1.02 Structure             2.05   PRESERVATION OF LUMBER
    1.03 Properties
    1.04 Defects
    1.05 Sawing Methods               a. Oil-Type Wood Preservatives
2. LUMBER
    2.01 Classification
    2.02 Measure
                                        • Creosotes derived from wood, oil, and water gas.
    2.03 Seasoning
    2.04 Deterioration                    Has same advantages as coal-tar creosote but is
    2.05 Preservation
    2.06 Treatment                        less effective .
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD
    3.01 For Construction               • Creosotes solutions
    3.02 Allowable Working
         Stresses
    3.03 Weights of Wood                  a mixture of coal-tar or petroleum oils and 50 to 80%
    3.04 Physical Properties              by volume of coal-tar creosotes.
4. WOOD COMPOSITES
    4.01 Plywood
    4.02 Hardboard                        Has same advantages as coal-tar creosotes but is
    4.03 Chipboard
    4.04 Fiberboard                       less effective
    4.05 Gypsum Board
    4.06 Fibercement Board
    4.05 Particle Board
5. MILLWORK
    5.01 Mouldings
6. PLASTICS IN
   ARCHITECTURE
    6.01 Classification
    6.02 Thermoplastics
    6.03 Thermosetting
         Plastics
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
   FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
    ARCHITECTURE               2.     LUMBER
    1.01 Classification
    1.02 Structure             2.05   PRESERVATION OF LUMBER
    1.03 Properties
    1.04 Defects
    1.05 Sawing Methods               a. Oil-Type Wood Preservatives
2. LUMBER
    2.01 Classification
    2.02 Measure
                                        • Pentachlorophenol
    2.03 Seasoning
    2.04 Deterioration                    a mixture of petroleum         oils   and   5%   and
    2.05 Preservation
    2.06 Treatment                        pentachlorophenol.
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD
    3.01 For Construction
    3.02 Allowable Working
                                          Has high protection against decay fungi and
         Stresses                         termites; can be painted; has no unpleasant odor;
    3.03 Weights of Wood
    3.04 Physical Properties              is less easily ignited than coal-tar creosotes.
4. WOOD COMPOSITES
    4.01 Plywood                          Provide less protection against marine borers.
    4.02 Hardboard
    4.03 Chipboard
    4.04 Fiberboard                       Pentachlorophenol is also dissolved in oil, leaving a
    4.05 Gypsum Board
    4.06 Fibercement Board                clean brown-colored surface. It was used
    4.05 Particle Board                   extensively for lumber and posts when introduced
5. MILLWORK
    5.01 Mouldings                        in the 1930s, but now is specified almost
6. PLASTICS IN                            exclusively for the treatment of utility poles and
   ARCHITECTURE
    6.01 Classification
                                          cross arms.
    6.02 Thermoplastics
    6.03 Thermosetting
         Plastics
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
   FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
    ARCHITECTURE               2.     LUMBER
    1.01 Classification
    1.02 Structure             2.05   PRESERVATION OF LUMBER
    1.03 Properties
    1.04 Defects
    1.05 Sawing Methods               b. Water-borne Wood Preservatives
2. LUMBER
    2.01 Classification
    2.02 Measure
                                        • Chromated Zinc Chloride.
    2.03 Seasoning
    2.04 Deterioration                    Gives protection against decay, insects and fire;
    2.05 Preservation
    2.06 Treatment                        can be painted; has no objectionable odor.
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD
    3.01 For Construction
    3.02 Allowable Working
                                          Disadvantages are: wood cannot be used in
         Stresses                         contact with the ground or water
    3.03 Weights of Wood
    3.04 Physical Properties
4. WOOD COMPOSITES                      • Chromated Copper Arsenate (CCA)
    4.01 Plywood
    4.02 Hardboard
    4.03 Chipboard
    4.04 Fiberboard
    4.05 Gypsum Board
    4.06 Fibercement Board
    4.05 Particle Board
5. MILLWORK
    5.01 Mouldings
6. PLASTICS IN
   ARCHITECTURE
    6.01 Classification
    6.02 Thermoplastics
    6.03 Thermosetting
         Plastics
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
   FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
    ARCHITECTURE               2.     LUMBER
    1.01 Classification
    1.02 Structure             2.05   PRESERVATION OF LUMBER
    1.03 Properties
    1.04 Defects
    1.05 Sawing Methods               b. Water-borne Wood Preservatives
2. LUMBER
    2.01 Classification                  • Ammoniacal Copper Arsenate (ACA)
    2.02 Measure
    2.03 Seasoning
    2.04 Deterioration                    CCA and ACA are dissolved in water for pressure
    2.05 Preservation                     treating, producing a product that is clean and
    2.06 Treatment
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD                        odorless.
    3.01 For Construction
    3.02 Allowable Working
         Stresses
                                          Both preservatives bond with the wood after
    3.03 Weights of Wood                  pressure treating in a chemical process known as
    3.04 Physical Properties
4. WOOD COMPOSITES                        fixation, producing treated wood that is highly
    4.01 Plywood
    4.02 Hardboard                        leach-resistant and safe to use in applications with
    4.03 Chipboard
    4.04 Fiberboard
                                          regular human contact.
    4.05 Gypsum Board
    4.06 Fibercement Board                Provides good protection against decay and
    4.05 Particle Board
5. MILLWORK
                                          insects; can painted; has no objectionable odor.
    5.01 Mouldings
6. PLASTICS IN                            Wood can be used in contact with the ground but
   ARCHITECTURE                           generally recommended for contact with water.
    6.01 Classification
    6.02 Thermoplastics
    6.03 Thermosetting
         Plastics
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
   FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
    ARCHITECTURE               2.       LUMBER
    1.01 Classification
    1.02 Structure             2.05     PRESERVATION OF LUMBER
    1.03 Properties
    1.04 Defects
    1.05 Sawing Methods                 b. Water-borne Wood Preservatives
2. LUMBER
    2.01 Classification
    2.02 Measure
    2.03 Seasoning
                                    Preservative        Applications
    2.04 Deterioration
    2.05 Preservation               Creosote            Railway ties, mine timbers, poles,
    2.06 Treatment                                      foundation piles, marine piles and
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD
    3.01 For Construction                               bulkheads
    3.02 Allowable Working
         Stresses                   Pentachlorophenol   Utility poles, cross arms, bridge timbers
    3.03 Weights of Wood
    3.04 Physical Properties                            and ties
4. WOOD COMPOSITES
    4.01 Plywood                    ACA                 Piles, utility poles, marine timbers,
    4.02 Hardboard
    4.03 Chipboard                                      construction lumber
    4.04 Fiberboard
    4.05 Gypsum Board               CCA                 Guide rail posts, utility poles, bridge
    4.06 Fibercement Board
    4.05 Particle Board                                 timbers, piles, structural glued-laminated
5. MILLWORK
    5.01 Mouldings                                      timbers, landscape timbers, posts,
6. PLASTICS IN                                          boardwalks, permanent wood
   ARCHITECTURE                                         foundations and residential construction,
    6.01 Classification
    6.02 Thermoplastics                                 decking and fencing
    6.03 Thermosetting
         Plastics
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
   FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
    ARCHITECTURE               2.     LUMBER
    1.01 Classification
    1.02 Structure             2.05   PRESERVATION OF LUMBER
    1.03 Properties
    1.04 Defects
    1.05 Sawing Methods               The methods of applying preservatives are:
2. LUMBER
    2.01 Classification
    2.02 Measure
                                      a. Pressure treatment. Consists in placing the
    2.03 Seasoning                       wood in cylinders into which the preservative is
    2.04 Deterioration
    2.05 Preservation                    pumped under pressure
    2.06 Treatment
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD
    3.01 For Construction             b. Hot and Cold Bath Method. This consists first in
    3.02 Allowable Working
         Stresses                        placing the wood in a bath of hot preservative for
    3.03 Weights of Wood
    3.04 Physical Properties             an hour or more. It is then withdrawn and quickly
4. WOOD COMPOSITES                       placed in a bath of cold preservative. This is
    4.01 Plywood
    4.02 Hardboard                       generally used for creosote preservative
    4.03 Chipboard
    4.04 Fiberboard
    4.05 Gypsum Board
    4.06 Fibercement Board            c. Dipping or immersing the wood in a hot
    4.05 Particle Board
5. MILLWORK
                                         preservative for a short time
    5.01 Mouldings
6. PLASTICS IN
   ARCHITECTURE                       d. Brushing
    6.01 Classification
    6.02 Thermoplastics
    6.03 Thermosetting
         Plastics
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
   FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
    ARCHITECTURE               2.     LUMBER
    1.01 Classification
    1.02 Structure             2.06   TREATMENT OF LUMBER
    1.03 Properties
    1.04 Defects
    1.05 Sawing Methods               There are two methods of treating wood to increase its
2. LUMBER
    2.01 Classification               fire-resistance:
    2.02 Measure
    2.03 Seasoning                    a. Covering the wood with a compound or material.
    2.04 Deterioration
    2.05 Preservation                    Such superficial coatings or layers protective materials
    2.06 Treatment
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD                       retard the normal increases in temperature under fire
    3.01 For Construction                conditions and thereby decrease the rate of flame
    3.02 Allowable Working
         Stresses                        spread. This in turn lessens the rate of flame penetration
    3.03 Weights of Wood
    3.04 Physical Properties             and therefore the destruction of wood in contact with fire.
4. WOOD COMPOSITES
    4.01 Plywood
    4.02 Hardboard
                                        Coatings or layers of protective material over the surface
    4.03 Chipboard                      are good only for interior purposes because they are not
    4.04 Fiberboard
    4.05 Gypsum Board                   durable when exposed to the weather. These are water-
    4.06 Fibercement Board
    4.05 Particle Board                 soluble, fire retardant chemicals generally are trade-
5. MILLWORK                             marked formulation of ammonium phosphate, borax or
    5.01 Mouldings
6. PLASTICS IN
                                        sodium silicate combined with other materials to provide
   ARCHITECTURE                         adherence to the wood, brush-ability, appearance and
    6.01 Classification                 color.
    6.02 Thermoplastics
    6.03 Thermosetting
         Plastics                       There are also chemicals with low water soluble such as
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,                      zinc borate, chlorinated paraffin and chlorinated rubber
   FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES                            which are used for fire retardant coatings.
1. WOOD IN
    ARCHITECTURE               2.     LUMBER
    1.01 Classification
    1.02 Structure             2.06   TREATMENT OF LUMBER
    1.03 Properties
    1.04 Defects
    1.05 Sawing Methods
2. LUMBER                             b. Impregnating the wood with a chemical which the
    2.01 Classification
    2.02 Measure                         wood itself not support combustion. The chemicals
    2.03 Seasoning
    2.04 Deterioration
                                         commonly used for impregnation are:
    2.05 Preservation
    2.06 Treatment                      -   monobasic ammonium phosphate
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD
    3.01 For Construction               -   dibasic ammonium phosphate
    3.02 Allowable Working              -   ammonium sulfate
         Stresses
    3.03 Weights of Wood                -   borax, boric acid and
    3.04 Physical Properties
4. WOOD COMPOSITES                      -   zinc chloride
    4.01 Plywood
    4.02 Hardboard
    4.03 Chipboard                    PRESSURE TREATED LUMBER AND PLYWOOD:
    4.04 Fiberboard
    4.05 Gypsum Board
    4.06 Fibercement Board
    4.05 Particle Board
                                      WOLMANIZED Lumber and Plywood
5. MILLWORK                             Preservative : Wolman salts.
    5.01 Mouldings                    TANALIZED Lumber and Plywood
6. PLASTICS IN
   ARCHITECTURE
                                        Preservative - Tanalith G Wood Preservative salts.
    6.01 Classification               PERMANIZED Lumber and Plywood
    6.02 Thermoplastics
    6.03 Thermosetting                  Preservative – B-S-25.
         Plastics                     BOLIDEN Lumber and Plywood.
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
   FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
    ARCHITECTURE               4.     WOOD COMPOSITES
    1.01 Classification
    1.02 Structure                    Wood Composites are those products made from a
    1.03 Properties
    1.04 Defects
    1.05 Sawing Methods
                                      mixture of wood and other materials. Most wood
2. LUMBER                             composites are produced in large sheets, usually
    2.01 Classification
    2.02 Measure                      1220mm (4‟) x 2440mm (8‟).
    2.03 Seasoning
    2.04 Deterioration
    2.05 Preservation          4.01   PLYWOOD
    2.06 Treatment
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD
    3.01 For Construction             Plywood is the most common
    3.02 Allowable Working            wood composite. It gets its
         Stresses
    3.03 Weights of Wood              name from its construction: it is
    3.04 Physical Properties
4. WOOD COMPOSITES                    made of several thin plies, or
    4.01 Plywood                      veneers, of wood that have
    4.02 Hardboard
    4.03 Chipboard                    been glued together. Each ply
    4.04 Fiberboard
    4.05 Gypsum Board                 or veneer is glued so that its
    4.06 Fibercement Board
    4.05 Particle Board               grain is at right angles to the
5. MILLWORK                           grain of the previous ply.
    5.01 Mouldings
6. PLASTICS IN
   ARCHITECTURE                       The outside plies are called the face and the back, and
    6.01 Classification
    6.02 Thermoplastics
                                      the center plies are called the core. The cross-layering
    6.03 Thermosetting                make plywood very stable and strong.
         Plastics
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
   FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
    ARCHITECTURE               4.     WOOD COMPOSITES
    1.01 Classification
    1.02 Structure             4.01   PLYWOOD
    1.03 Properties
    1.04 Defects
    1.05 Sawing Methods
2. LUMBER
    2.01 Classification
                                      Coatings or layers of
    2.02 Measure
    2.03 Seasoning
                                      protective material over
    2.04 Deterioration                the surface are good
    2.05 Preservation
    2.06 Treatment                    only for interior purposes
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD                    because they are not
    3.01 For Construction
    3.02 Allowable Working            durable when exposed to
         Stresses
    3.03 Weights of Wood              the weather.
    3.04 Physical Properties
4. WOOD COMPOSITES
    4.01 Plywood
    4.02 Hardboard                    These are water-soluble, fire retardant chemicals
    4.03 Chipboard                    generally are trade-marked formulation of ammonium
    4.04 Fiberboard
    4.05 Gypsum Board
    4.06 Fibercement Board
                                      phosphate, borax or sodium silicate combined with
    4.05 Particle Board               other materials to provide adherence to the wood,
5. MILLWORK                           brush-ability, appearance and color.
    5.01 Mouldings
6. PLASTICS IN
   ARCHITECTURE                       There are also chemicals with low water soluble such
    6.01 Classification
    6.02 Thermoplastics               as zinc borate, chlorinated paraffin and chlorinated
    6.03 Thermosetting
         Plastics
                                      rubber which are used for fire retardant coatings.
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
   FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
    ARCHITECTURE               4.     WOOD COMPOSITES
    1.01 Classification
    1.02 Structure             4.01   PLYWOOD
    1.03 Properties
    1.04 Defects
    1.05 Sawing Methods               a. Standard Sizes of Plywood:
2. LUMBER
    2.01 Classification
    2.02 Measure
    2.03 Seasoning                      Plywood is commonly available in:
    2.04 Deterioration
    2.05 Preservation                   3‟ x 6‟ (900mm x 1800mm) and
    2.06 Treatment                      4‟ x 8‟ (1220mm x 2440mm)
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD
    3.01 For Construction
    3.02 Allowable Working              Standard thicknesses are:
         Stresses
    3.03 Weights of Wood                3/16” (4.5mm) for double wall partitions and ceilings
    3.04 Physical Properties
4. WOOD COMPOSITES                      ¼”     (6.0mm) for double wall partitions
    4.01 Plywood
    4.02 Hardboard
                                        3/8” (10.0mm) for drawers and shelves
    4.03 Chipboard                      ½”   (12.0mm) for drawers and shelves
    4.04 Fiberboard
    4.05 Gypsum Board                   ¾”   (19.0mm) for drawers, shelves, cabinet and
    4.06 Fibercement Board
    4.05 Particle Board                                  closet doors
5. MILLWORK                             1”   (25.0mm) for cabinet and closet doors, and sub-
    5.01 Mouldings
6. PLASTICS IN
                                                         floors
   ARCHITECTURE
    6.01 Classification
    6.02 Thermoplastics
    6.03 Thermosetting
         Plastics
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
   FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
    ARCHITECTURE               4.     WOOD COMPOSITES
    1.01 Classification
    1.02 Structure             4.01   PLYWOOD
    1.03 Properties
    1.04 Defects
    1.05 Sawing Methods               b. Advantages of Plywood:
2. LUMBER
    2.01 Classification
    2.02 Measure
    2.03 Seasoning                      • the approximate equalization of strength properties
    2.04 Deterioration
    2.05 Preservation                     along its length and width;
    2.06 Treatment
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD
    3.01 For Construction               • greater resistance to checking and splitting; and
    3.02 Allowable Working
         Stresses
    3.03 Weights of Wood
    3.04 Physical Properties
                                        • less change in dimension due to moisture content
4. WOOD COMPOSITES
    4.01 Plywood
    4.02 Hardboard                    c. Types of Plywood:
    4.03 Chipboard
    4.04 Fiberboard
    4.05 Gypsum Board                   •   Ordinary Plywood
    4.06 Fibercement Board
    4.05 Particle Board                 •   Form Plywood
5. MILLWORK                             •   Marine Plywood – waterproofed
    5.01 Mouldings
6. PLASTICS IN
                                        •   Fancy Plywood:
   ARCHITECTURE                                  Narra bookmatched          Dao bookmatched
    6.01 Classification
    6.02 Thermoplastics                          Kalantas Rotary cut        Rosewood
    6.03 Thermosetting                           Tanguile Ribbon-grained   Tanguile
         Plastics
                                                 Lauan Rotary cut
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
   FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
    ARCHITECTURE               4.     WOOD COMPOSITES
    1.01 Classification
    1.02 Structure             4.02   HARDBOARD
    1.03 Properties
    1.04 Defects
    1.05 Sawing Methods               This is a paneling material
2. LUMBER
    2.01 Classification               made by reducing and
    2.02 Measure
    2.03 Seasoning                    refining wood chips into
    2.04 Deterioration
    2.05 Preservation                 small, threadlike fibers, and
    2.06 Treatment                    then pressing them under
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD
    3.01 For Construction             heat in hydraulic pressure
    3.02 Allowable Working
         Stresses                     into dense, smooth, and
    3.03 Weights of Wood              very rigid panels.
    3.04 Physical Properties
4. WOOD COMPOSITES
    4.01 Plywood                      In the production process the pulp is exploded under
    4.02 Hardboard
    4.03 Chipboard                    pressure. Heat and steam is applies to leave a fine, fluffy
    4.04 Fiberboard
    4.05 Gypsum Board                 brown fibers. These fibers are transformed into mats,
    4.06 Fibercement Board            which are held together with lignum and other glues. The
    4.05 Particle Board
5. MILLWORK                           mats are than pressed between steam-heated metal
    5.01 Mouldings                    plates to give grainless sheets with one smooth, glossy
6. PLASTICS IN
   ARCHITECTURE                       surface and one textured surface. To prevent warping,
    6.01 Classification               moisture is added in a humidification chamber.
    6.02 Thermoplastics
    6.03 Thermosetting
         Plastics
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
   FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
    ARCHITECTURE               4.     WOOD COMPOSITES
    1.01 Classification
    1.02 Structure             4.02   HARDBOARD
    1.03 Properties
    1.04 Defects
    1.05 Sawing Methods               Hardboards are a cheaper option than plywood
2. LUMBER
    2.01 Classification               where strength is not required.
    2.02 Measure
    2.03 Seasoning
    2.04 Deterioration
    2.05 Preservation                 Hardboard has a smooth surface on one side and a
    2.06 Treatment                    screened surface on the other. It is sometimes
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD
    3.01 For Construction             known as Masonite, after the man who invented it.
    3.02 Allowable Working
         Stresses
    3.03 Weights of Wood              There are three types of hard board:
    3.04 Physical Properties
4. WOOD COMPOSITES
    4.01 Plywood                      a.   Standard hardboard
    4.02 Hardboard
    4.03 Chipboard
    4.04 Fiberboard                        is light brown in color and has a fairly hard, smooth
    4.05 Gypsum Board
    4.06 Fibercement Board
                                           surface on one side and a screened impression on
    4.05 Particle Board                    the other. It is flexible and easy to bend. It is suitable
5. MILLWORK                                for interior use only and where it is not subject to
    5.01 Mouldings
6. PLASTICS IN                             moisture.
   ARCHITECTURE
    6.01 Classification               b.   Panel hardboard
    6.02 Thermoplastics
    6.03 Thermosetting
         Plastics
                                           is somewhat denser than the Standard but not as
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,                         dense as Tempered.
   FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
    ARCHITECTURE               4.     WOOD COMPOSITES
    1.01 Classification
    1.02 Structure             4.02   HARDBOARD
    1.03 Properties
    1.04 Defects
    1.05 Sawing Methods               c. Tempered hard board
2. LUMBER
    2.01 Classification                 is the densest type, made by impregnating standard
    2.02 Measure
    2.03 Seasoning                      board with tempering compound of oils and resins and
    2.04 Deterioration
    2.05 Preservation                   baking it polymerize the tempering materials. It is dark
    2.06 Treatment
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD                      brown in color, brittle and stiff, with improved machining
    3.01 For Construction               qualities and greater resistance to moisture and water
    3.02 Allowable Working
         Stresses                       penetration, making it ideal for exterior use
    3.03 Weights of Wood
    3.04 Physical Properties
4. WOOD COMPOSITES
    4.01 Plywood                      Hardboard is usually in panel size of 4‟x8‟ (1220mm x
    4.02 Hardboard
    4.03 Chipboard                    2440mm) with thicknesses of 3mm 1/8” (), 3/16” (4.5mm)
    4.04 Fiberboard
    4.05 Gypsum Board                 or ¼” (6mm), and is obtainable either with a plain,
    4.06 Fibercement Board            textured, or perforated surface.
    4.05 Particle Board
5. MILLWORK
    5.01 Mouldings                    Brand names of Hardboard:
6. PLASTICS IN
   ARCHITECTURE                       LAWANIT standard and tempered boards
    6.01 Classification               LAWANEX panel boards
    6.02 Thermoplastics
    6.03 Thermosetting                MASONITE standard, panel and tempered hard board
         Plastics
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
   FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
    ARCHITECTURE               4.     WOOD COMPOSITES
    1.01 Classification
    1.02 Structure             4.03   CHIPBOARD
    1.03 Properties
    1.04 Defects
    1.05 Sawing Methods               Chipboard is made by bonding together wood particles
2. LUMBER
    2.01 Classification               with an adhesive under heat and pressure to form a
    2.02 Measure                      rigid board with a relatively smooth surface, often
    2.03 Seasoning
    2.04 Deterioration                faced with veneer. It is made by binding phenolic resin
    2.05 Preservation
    2.06 Treatment                    or urea formaldehyde glue.
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD
    3.01 For Construction
    3.02 Allowable Working
         Stresses
    3.03 Weights of Wood
    3.04 Physical Properties
4. WOOD COMPOSITES
    4.01 Plywood
    4.02 Hardboard
    4.03 Chipboard
    4.04 Fiberboard
    4.05 Gypsum Board
    4.06 Fibercement Board
    4.05 Particle Board               Chipboard is available in a number of densities;
5. MILLWORK                           normal, medium and high-density.
    5.01 Mouldings
6. PLASTICS IN                         - Normal density is fairly soft and 'flaky„
   ARCHITECTURE
    6.01 Classification
    6.02 Thermoplastics                - High-density is very solid and hard (often used for
    6.03 Thermosetting
         Plastics                        worktops and fire doors)
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
   FILM AND FOAM                       - Medium density is somewhere in between
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
    ARCHITECTURE               4.     WOOD COMPOSITES
    1.01 Classification
    1.02 Structure             4.04   FIBERBOARDS and MEDIUM DENSITY FIBERBOARDS
    1.03 Properties
    1.04 Defects
    1.05 Sawing Methods
2. LUMBER                             Fiberboards are finishing materials made from
    2.01 Classification               vegetable fibers such as corn or sugarcane stalks
    2.02 Measure
    2.03 Seasoning                    pressed into sheets. It is not very strong, but has
    2.04 Deterioration
    2.05 Preservation                 good insulating properties therefore it is usually used
    2.06 Treatment
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD                    for ceiling only.
    3.01 For Construction
    3.02 Allowable Working
         Stresses
    3.03 Weights of Wood
                                      It is generally 4‟x8‟ (1220mm x 2440mm) panel size, in
    3.04 Physical Properties          thicknesses of 3/16” (4.5mm) or ¼” (6mm), ½” (12mm)
4. WOOD COMPOSITES
    4.01 Plywood                      and ¾ “ (19 mm).
    4.02 Hardboard
    4.03 Chipboard
    4.04 Fiberboard                   Acoustic fiber board is manufactured from wood, straw,
    4.05 Gypsum Board
    4.06 Fibercement Brd              bagasse pulp pressed into boards with or without holes or
    4.05 Particle Board
5. MILLWORK
                                      slots. Thicknesses of acoustic fiber board vary from ½ “
    5.01 Mouldings                    to 2” (12 to 50mm) in ½” (12mm) increments.
6. PLASTICS IN
   ARCHITECTURE
    6.01 Classification               Brand names of Fiberboard:
    6.02 Thermoplastics
    6.03 Thermosetting                CELOTEX, CANEX, HOMASOTE, PHILTEX, BONOTEX
         Plastics
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
   FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
    ARCHITECTURE               4.     WOOD COMPOSITES
    1.01 Classification
    1.02 Structure             4.04   FIBERBOARDS and MEDIUM DENSITY FIBERBOARDS
    1.03 Properties
    1.04 Defects
    1.05 Sawing Methods               MDF is a type of hardboard
2. LUMBER
    2.01 Classification               which is made from wood
    2.02 Measure                      fibers glued under heat and
    2.03 Seasoning
    2.04 Deterioration                pressure. MDF has many
    2.05 Preservation
    2.06 Treatment                    qualities that make it an ideal
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD                    alternative to plywood or
    3.01 For Construction
    3.02 Allowable Working            chipboard.
         Stresses
    3.03 Weights of Wood
    3.04 Physical Properties
4. WOOD COMPOSITES
                                      It is dense, flat, stiff, has no
    4.01 Plywood                      knots and is easily machined.
    4.02 Hardboard
    4.03 Chipboard                    Its fine particles provide a
    4.04 Fiberboard
    4.05 Gypsum Board                 material without a recognizable
    4.06 Fibercement Brd
    4.05 Particle Board               "grain".
5. MILLWORK
    5.01 Mouldings
6. PLASTICS IN                        Unlike plywood, MDF contains no internal voids, and will
   ARCHITECTURE
    6.01 Classification               produce better edges providing that it is correctly
    6.02 Thermoplastics
    6.03 Thermosetting                machined.
         Plastics
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
   FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
    ARCHITECTURE               4.     WOOD COMPOSITES
    1.01 Classification
    1.02 Structure             4.05   GYPSUM BOARDS
    1.03 Properties
    1.04 Defects
    1.05 Sawing Methods               This is a non-combustible
2. LUMBER
    2.01 Classification               building board with a gypsum
    2.02 Measure                      core enclosed in tough,
    2.03 Seasoning
    2.04 Deterioration                smooth paper. It is designed to
    2.05 Preservation
    2.06 Treatment                    be used without addition of
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD                    plaster for walls, ceilings or
    3.01 For Construction
    3.02 Allowable Working            partitions. It is extensively used
         Stresses
    3.03 Weights of Wood              in “dry-wall” construction,
    3.04 Physical Properties
4. WOOD COMPOSITES
                                      where plaster is eliminated
    4.01 Plywood
    4.02 Hardboard                    Brand Names:
    4.03 Chipboard
    4.04 Fiberboard                   BORAL
    4.05 Gypsum Board
    4.06 Fibercement Brd              ELEPHANT
    4.05 Particle Board
5. MILLWORK
    5.01 Mouldings
6. PLASTICS IN
   ARCHITECTURE                         Square Edge (S.E.)            Tapered Edge (T.E.)
    6.01 Classification
    6.02 Thermoplastics                 for coverstrip jointing;      for smooth seamless
    6.03 Thermosetting                  visible butt - jointed
         Plastics                                                     jointing; jointless wall
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,                      panelling with clamp fixing   and ceiling panelling
   FILM AND FOAM                        and free suspension.
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
    ARCHITECTURE               4.     WOOD COMPOSITES
    1.01 Classification
    1.02 Structure             4.05   GYPSUM BOARDS
    1.03 Properties
    1.04 Defects
    1.05 Sawing Methods               The types of Gypsum Board are:
2. LUMBER
    2.01 Classification
    2.02 Measure                      a. Wall Board
    2.03 Seasoning
    2.04 Deterioration                This type is used for surface layer on interior walls and
    2.05 Preservation
    2.06 Treatment                    ceilings. The regular wallboard comes with grey liner
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD
    3.01 For Construction             paper backing and special paper finish on the facing
    3.02 Allowable Working
         Stresses
                                      and edges suitable for decoration. The foil-backed
    3.03 Weights of Wood              gypsum board has aluminum foil bonded to the liner
    3.04 Physical Properties
4. WOOD COMPOSITES                    paper to serve as vapor barrier and thermal insulation.
    4.01 Plywood                      Predecorated gypsum board comes with a decorative
    4.02 Hardboard
    4.03 Chipboard
    4.04 Fiberboard
                                      vinyl or paper sheet on its face.
    4.05 Gypsum Board
    4.06 Fibercement Brd
    4.05 Particle Board               b. Backing Board
5. MILLWORK
    5.01 Mouldings                    This is used as base layer in multi-ply construction,
6. PLASTICS IN                        where several layers of gypsum boards are desired for
   ARCHITECTURE
    6.01 Classification               high fire resistance, sound control and strength in walls.
    6.02 Thermoplastics
    6.03 Thermosetting
         Plastics
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
   FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
    ARCHITECTURE               4.     WOOD COMPOSITES
    1.01 Classification
    1.02 Structure             4.05   GYPSUM BOARDS
    1.03 Properties
    1.04 Defects
    1.05 Sawing Methods               c. Core Board
2. LUMBER
    2.01 Classification               To save space, this type is used as a base in a multi-ply
    2.02 Measure
    2.03 Seasoning                    construction of self-supporting (studless) gypsum walls.
    2.04 Deterioration
    2.05 Preservation                 It comes in 1” (25mm) thickness or 2- factory-laminated,
    2.06 Treatment
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD                    ½ “ thick layers of backing board .
    3.01 For Construction
    3.02 Allowable Working
         Stresses
    3.03 Weights of Wood
                                      d. Type X Gypsum Board
    3.04 Physical Properties
4. WOOD COMPOSITES                    For use in fire-rated assemblies, this may be wallboard,
    4.01 Plywood                      backing board, or coreboard made more fire-resistant
    4.02 Hardboard
    4.03 Chipboard
    4.04 Fiberboard
                                      by addition of glass-fiber or other reinforcing materials
    4.05 Gypsum Board
    4.06 Fibercement Brd
    4.05 Particle Board               e. Water-Resistant Backing Gypsum Board
5. MILLWORK
    5.01 Mouldings                    This type comes with water-resistant gypsum core and
6. PLASTICS IN                        water-repellant face paper. It maybe used as base for
   ARCHITECTURE
    6.01 Classification               walls of bathrooms, showers, and other areas exposed
    6.02 Thermoplastics               to wetting.
    6.03 Thermosetting
         Plastics
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
   FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
    ARCHITECTURE               4.     WOOD COMPOSITES
    1.01 Classification
    1.02 Structure             4.05   GYPSUM BOARDS
    1.03 Properties
    1.04 Defects
    1.05 Sawing Methods
2. LUMBER                             f. Gypsum Sheathing
    2.01 Classification
    2.02 Measure                      This type is used as fire protection and bracing of
    2.03 Seasoning
    2.04 Deterioration
    2.05 Preservation
                                      exterior frame walls. It must be protected from the
    2.06 Treatment                    weather by an exterior facing.
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD
    3.01 For Construction
    3.02 Allowable Working            g. Gypsum Formboard
         Stresses
    3.03 Weights of Wood
    3.04 Physical Properties          This type is used as a permanent form in the casting of
4. WOOD COMPOSITES                    gypsum concrete roof decks.
    4.01 Plywood
    4.02 Hardboard
    4.03 Chipboard
    4.04 Fiberboard
    4.05 Gypsum Board
    4.06 Fibercement Brd
    4.05 Particle Board
5. MILLWORK
    5.01 Mouldings
6. PLASTICS IN
   ARCHITECTURE
    6.01 Classification
    6.02 Thermoplastics
    6.03 Thermosetting
         Plastics
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
   FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
    ARCHITECTURE               4.     WOOD COMPOSITES
    1.01 Classification
    1.02 Structure             4.06   FIBERCEMENT BOARDS
    1.03 Properties
    1.04 Defects
    1.05 Sawing Methods
2. LUMBER                             Fiber-reinforced cement board is comprised of 72%
    2.01 Classification
    2.02 Measure                      Portland Cement, 20% mineralized cellulose fibers
    2.03 Seasoning
    2.04 Deterioration
                                      derived from recycled materials, and 8% calcium
    2.05 Preservation                 carbonate.
    2.06 Treatment
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD
    3.01 For Construction
    3.02 Allowable Working
         Stresses
    3.03 Weights of Wood
    3.04 Physical Properties
4. WOOD COMPOSITES
    4.01 Plywood
    4.02 Hardboard
    4.03 Chipboard
    4.04 Fiberboard
    4.05 Gypsum Board
    4.06 Fibercement Brd
    4.05 Particle Board
5. MILLWORK
    5.01 Mouldings
6. PLASTICS IN
   ARCHITECTURE
    6.01 Classification
    6.02 Thermoplastics
    6.03 Thermosetting
         Plastics
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
   FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
    ARCHITECTURE               4.     WOOD COMPOSITES
    1.01 Classification
    1.02 Structure             4.07   PARTICLE BOARD
    1.03 Properties
    1.04 Defects
    1.05 Sawing Methods
2. LUMBER                             Particleboard is made of small wood chips and base
    2.01 Classification
    2.02 Measure                      materials including cotton stalk, rice straw, bagasse,
    2.03 Seasoning
    2.04 Deterioration
                                      conventional wood chips and sawdust that have been
    2.05 Preservation                 pressed and glued together.
    2.06 Treatment
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD
    3.01 For Construction
    3.02 Allowable Working
         Stresses
    3.03 Weights of Wood
    3.04 Physical Properties
4. WOOD COMPOSITES
    4.01 Plywood
    4.02 Hardboard
    4.03 Chipboard
    4.04 Fiberboard
    4.05 Gypsum Board
    4.06 Fibercement Brd
    4.05 Particle Board
5. MILLWORK
    5.01 Mouldings
6. PLASTICS IN
   ARCHITECTURE
    6.01 Classification
    6.02 Thermoplastics
    6.03 Thermosetting
         Plastics
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
   FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
    ARCHITECTURE               5.     MILLWORK
    1.01 Classification
    1.02 Structure                    Millwork consists of finished lumber which is further cut
    1.03 Properties
    1.04 Defects
    1.05 Sawing Methods
                                      and processed at a lumber mill. Millwork includes doors,
2. LUMBER                             windows, mouldings, trim and other ornamental forms of
    2.01 Classification
    2.02 Measure                      wood.
    2.03 Seasoning
    2.04 Deterioration
    2.05 Preservation          5.01   TYPES OF WOOD MOULDINGS
    2.06 Treatment
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD
    3.01 For Construction             Types of wood mouldings are:
    3.02 Allowable Working
         Stresses                     a. crown
    3.03 Weights of Wood              b. bed
    3.04 Physical Properties
4. WOOD COMPOSITES                    c. cove
    4.01 Plywood
    4.02 Hardboard                    d. quarter-round
    4.03 Chipboard                    e. half-round
    4.04 Fiberboard
    4.05 Gypsum Board
    4.06 Fibercement Brd
                                      f. nose and cove
    4.05 Particle Board               g. stop
5. MILLWORK
    5.01 Mouldings
                                      h. astragal
6. PLASTICS IN                        i. Screen moulding
   ARCHITECTURE                       jj. panel strip
    6.01 Classification
    6.02 Thermoplastics               k. picture moulding
    6.03 Thermosetting
         Plastics
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
   FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
    ARCHITECTURE               5.     MILLWORK
    1.01 Classification
    1.02 Structure
    1.03 Properties            5.01   TYPES OF WOOD MOULDINGS
    1.04 Defects
    1.05 Sawing Methods
2. LUMBER
    2.01 Classification
    2.02 Measure
    2.03 Seasoning
    2.04 Deterioration
    2.05 Preservation
    2.06 Treatment
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD
    3.01 For Construction
    3.02 Allowable Working
         Stresses
    3.03 Weights of Wood
    3.04 Physical Properties
4. WOOD COMPOSITES
    4.01 Plywood
    4.02 Hardboard
    4.03 Chipboard
    4.04 Fiberboard
    4.05 Gypsum Board
    4.06 Fibercement Brd
    4.05 Particle Board
5. MILLWORK
    5.01 Mouldings
6. PLASTICS IN
   ARCHITECTURE
    6.01 Classification
    6.02 Thermoplastics
    6.03 Thermosetting
         Plastics
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
   FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
    ARCHITECTURE               6.   PLASTICS USED IN ARCHITECTURE
    1.01 Classification
    1.02 Structure
    1.03 Properties                 The term PLASTICS is essentially a commercial
    1.04 Defects
    1.05 Sawing Methods             classification to which no strict scientific definition can be
2. LUMBER                           applied. It is used to describe a product of synthetic origin
    2.01 Classification
    2.02 Measure
    2.03 Seasoning
                                    which is capable of being shaped at some stage of its
    2.04 Deterioration              manufacture, but is not rubber, wood, leather or metal.
    2.05 Preservation
    2.06 Treatment
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD
    3.01 For Construction
                                    It is made from a number of common substances such as
    3.02 Allowable Working          coal, salt, natural gas, cotton, wood and water, from
         Stresses
    3.03 Weights of Wood            which relatively simple chemicals known as monomers
    3.04 Physical Properties        are built up into chainlike molecules of high molecular
4. WOOD COMPOSITES
    4.01 Plywood                    weight called polymers.
    4.02 Hardboard
    4.03 Chipboard
    4.04 Fiberboard
    4.05 Gypsum Board               These polymers have low extensibility, can be molded,
    4.06 Fibercement Brd            extruded, cut or worked into a variety of shapes and
    4.05 Particle Board
5. MILLWORK                         objects, rigid or non-rigid, relatively light, which are
    5.01 Mouldings                  formed by condensation polymerization and by vinyl
6. PLASTICS IN
   ARCHITECTURE                     polymerization.
    6.01 Classification
    6.02 Thermoplastics
    6.03 Thermosetting              Plastics can be hard, soft, clear, opaque, light, heavy,
         Plastics                   heat resistant or easily softened by hot water.
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
   FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
    ARCHITECTURE               6.     PLASTICS USED IN ARCHITECTURE
    1.01 Classification
    1.02 Structure
    1.03 Properties            6.01   CLASSIFICATION OF PLASTICS
    1.04 Defects
    1.05 Sawing Methods               In a broad sense, there are three (3) types of Plastics:
2. LUMBER
    2.01 Classification
    2.02 Measure
                                           - Cellulose plastics
    2.03 Seasoning                         - Synthetic resin plastics
    2.04 Deterioration
    2.05 Preservation                      - Plastics derived from proteins and natural
    2.06 Treatment
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD
                                               resins
    3.01 For Construction
    3.02 Allowable Working            Synthetic resin plastics are subdivided into two (2) classes:
         Stresses
    3.03 Weights of Wood              a. Thermoplastics
    3.04 Physical Properties
4. WOOD COMPOSITES                      soften when heated and harden when cooled
    4.01 Plywood
    4.02 Hardboard                      regardless of the number of times the process is
    4.03 Chipboard
    4.04 Fiberboard                     repeated. They have a molecular structure which is
    4.05 Gypsum Board
    4.06 Fibercement Brd                essentially linear or threadlike in form.
    4.05 Particle Board
5. MILLWORK                           b. Thermosetting plastics
    5.01 Mouldings
6. PLASTICS IN                          Thermosetting plastics, sometimes called thermocuring
   ARCHITECTURE                         plastics, set into shape permanently when heat and
    6.01 Classification
    6.02 Thermoplastics                 pressure are applied during the forming stage. They
    6.03 Thermosetting
         Plastics                       have a molecular structure in a 3-dimensional
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,                      arrangement
   FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
    ARCHITECTURE               6.     PLASTICS USED IN ARCHITECTURE
    1.01 Classification
    1.02 Structure
    1.03 Properties            6.02   EXAMPLES OF THERMOPLASTICS
    1.04 Defects
    1.05 Sawing Methods
2. LUMBER                             a. ACRYLIC
    2.01 Classification
    2.02 Measure
    2.03 Seasoning                     Popular brands are “LUCITE” and “PLEXIGLASS”, this
    2.04 Deterioration
    2.05 Preservation                  material combines the transparency of glass (but not
    2.06 Treatment                     scratch-proof quality) with plastics‟ shatterproof quality.
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD
    3.01 For Construction              Used principally for skylights, skydomes, safety glass,
    3.02 Allowable Working
         Stresses
                                       paints, adhesives, finish hardware lighting fixtures
    3.03 Weights of Wood
    3.04 Physical Properties
4. WOOD COMPOSITES
    4.01 Plywood
    4.02 Hardboard
    4.03 Chipboard
    4.04 Fiberboard
    4.05 Gypsum Board
    4.06 Fibercement Brd
    4.05 Particle Board
5. MILLWORK
    5.01 Mouldings
6. PLASTICS IN
   ARCHITECTURE
    6.01 Classification
    6.02 Thermoplastics
    6.03 Thermosetting
         Plastics
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
   FILM AND FOAM                                              PLEXIGLASS
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
    ARCHITECTURE               6.     PLASTICS USED IN ARCHITECTURE
    1.01 Classification
    1.02 Structure
    1.03 Properties            6.02   EXAMPLES OF THERMOPLASTICS
    1.04 Defects
    1.05 Sawing Methods
2. LUMBER                             b. CELLULOSICS
    2.01 Classification
    2.02 Measure
    2.03 Seasoning
    2.04 Deterioration
                                       primarily cellulose acetate or butyrate, used principally
    2.05 Preservation                  for paints and lacquers, and transparent sheeting.
    2.06 Treatment
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD
    3.01 For Construction
    3.02 Allowable Working
         Stresses                     c. POLYETHYLNE (PE)
    3.03 Weights of Wood
    3.04 Physical Properties
4. WOOD COMPOSITES                     - Ziegler PE is a hard, strong,
    4.01 Plywood
    4.02 Hardboard                     tough and rigid thermoplastic for
    4.03 Chipboard
    4.04 Fiberboard                    household and industrial
    4.05 Gypsum Board                  applications.
    4.06 Fibercement Brd
    4.05 Particle Board
5. MILLWORK
    5.01 Mouldings                     - ICI PE developed by Imperial Chemical Industries
6. PLASTICS IN                         of Britain is a high-pressure, low-density PE that is
   ARCHITECTURE
    6.01 Classification                flexible, tough and slightly resilient thermoplastic used
    6.02 Thermoplastics                in construction as pond or lagoon lining, and water-
    6.03 Thermosetting
         Plastics                      vapor barriers and dampproofing.
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
   FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
    ARCHITECTURE               6.     PLASTICS USED IN ARCHITECTURE
    1.01 Classification
    1.02 Structure
    1.03 Properties            6.02   EXAMPLES OF THERMOPLASTICS
    1.04 Defects
    1.05 Sawing Methods
2. LUMBER                             d. POLYSTYRENE
    2.01 Classification
    2.02 Measure
    2.03 Seasoning                     In spite of its sensitivity to solvent action, its is one of
    2.04 Deterioration
    2.05 Preservation                  most important thermoplastics because of its excellent
    2.06 Treatment                     transparency and rigidity and its easy moldability. It is
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD
    3.01 For Construction              non-water absorbent, it is found in colorful, but brittle
    3.02 Allowable Working
         Stresses
                                       wall tiles. It is one of several plastics used in lighting
    3.03 Weights of Wood
    3.04 Physical Properties
                                       fixture diffusers. In foam form, it has become an
4. WOOD COMPOSITES                     important thermal insulator. Also found in paint for
    4.01 Plywood
    4.02 Hardboard                     concrete.
    4.03 Chipboard
    4.04 Fiberboard
    4.05 Gypsum Board
    4.06 Fibercement Brd
    4.05 Particle Board
5. MILLWORK
    5.01 Mouldings
6. PLASTICS IN
   ARCHITECTURE
    6.01 Classification
    6.02 Thermoplastics
    6.03 Thermosetting
         Plastics
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
   FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
    ARCHITECTURE               6.     PLASTICS USED IN ARCHITECTURE
    1.01 Classification
    1.02 Structure
    1.03 Properties            6.02   EXAMPLES OF THERMOPLASTICS
    1.04 Defects
    1.05 Sawing Methods
2. LUMBER                             e. POLYVINYL CHLORIDE (PVC)
    2.01 Classification
    2.02 Measure
    2.03 Seasoning                     is a largely amorphous, rigid, tough, solvent-resistant,
    2.04 Deterioration
    2.05 Preservation                  flame-resistant thermoplastic. Used for resilient floor
    2.06 Treatment                     tile, films, pipes, and for paint lacquers, adhesives and
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD
    3.01 For Construction              safety glass.
    3.02 Allowable Working
         Stresses
    3.03 Weights of Wood
    3.04 Physical Properties
4. WOOD COMPOSITES
    4.01 Plywood
    4.02 Hardboard
    4.03 Chipboard
    4.04 Fiberboard
    4.05 Gypsum Board
    4.06 Fibercement Brd
    4.05 Particle Board
5. MILLWORK
    5.01 Mouldings
6. PLASTICS IN
   ARCHITECTURE
    6.01 Classification
    6.02 Thermoplastics
    6.03 Thermosetting
         Plastics
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
   FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
    ARCHITECTURE               6.     PLASTICS USED IN ARCHITECTURE
    1.01 Classification
    1.02 Structure
    1.03 Properties            6.02   EXAMPLES OF THERMOPLASTICS
    1.04 Defects
    1.05 Sawing Methods
2. LUMBER                             f. POLYCARBONATES
    2.01 Classification
    2.02 Measure
    2.03 Seasoning                     a family of linear polyesters, is a white, substantially
    2.04 Deterioration
    2.05 Preservation                  amorphous, very tough and strong material with good
    2.06 Treatment                     heat resistance up to 150 deg C and excellent
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD
    3.01 For Construction              dimensional stability. It is injection-molded to produce
    3.02 Allowable Working
         Stresses
                                       plates, rods, gears, and other shaped parts that
    3.03 Weights of Wood
    3.04 Physical Properties
                                       advantageously replace die-cast metal parts. Used for
4. WOOD COMPOSITES                     skylights.
    4.01 Plywood
    4.02 Hardboard
    4.03 Chipboard
    4.04 Fiberboard
    4.05 Gypsum Board
    4.06 Fibercement Brd
    4.05 Particle Board
5. MILLWORK
    5.01 Mouldings
6. PLASTICS IN
   ARCHITECTURE
    6.01 Classification
    6.02 Thermoplastics
    6.03 Thermosetting
         Plastics
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
   FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
    ARCHITECTURE               6.     PLASTICS USED IN ARCHITECTURE
    1.01 Classification
    1.02 Structure
    1.03 Properties            6.02   EXAMPLES OF THERMOPLASTICS
    1.04 Defects
    1.05 Sawing Methods
2. LUMBER                             g. POLYPROPYLENE
    2.01 Classification
    2.02 Measure
    2.03 Seasoning                     tough plastic with good resistance to heat and chemical
    2.04 Deterioration
    2.05 Preservation                  action.
    2.06 Treatment
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD
    3.01 For Construction
    3.02 Allowable Working
         Stresses
    3.03 Weights of Wood
    3.04 Physical Properties
4. WOOD COMPOSITES
    4.01 Plywood
    4.02 Hardboard
    4.03 Chipboard
    4.04 Fiberboard
    4.05 Gypsum Board
    4.06 Fibercement Brd
    4.05 Particle Board
5. MILLWORK
    5.01 Mouldings
6. PLASTICS IN
   ARCHITECTURE
    6.01 Classification
    6.02 Thermoplastics
    6.03 Thermosetting
         Plastics
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
   FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
    ARCHITECTURE               6.     PLASTICS USED IN ARCHITECTURE
    1.01 Classification
    1.02 Structure
    1.03 Properties            6.02   EXAMPLES OF THERMOPLASTICS
    1.04 Defects
    1.05 Sawing Methods
2. LUMBER                             h. NYLONS
    2.01 Classification
    2.02 Measure
    2.03 Seasoning                     The term nylon refers to a family of polymers called
    2.04 Deterioration
    2.05 Preservation                  linear polyamides. It is desired for the following
    2.06 Treatment                     properties: exceptionally strong, elastic, abrasion
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD
    3.01 For Construction              resistant, easy to wash, resistant to damage from oil
    3.02 Allowable Working
         Stresses
                                       and many chemicals, can be precolored or dyed in
    3.03 Weights of Wood
    3.04 Physical Properties
                                       wide range of colors, and resilient .
4. WOOD COMPOSITES
    4.01 Plywood
    4.02 Hardboard
    4.03 Chipboard
    4.04 Fiberboard
    4.05 Gypsum Board
    4.06 Fibercement Brd
    4.05 Particle Board
5. MILLWORK
    5.01 Mouldings
6. PLASTICS IN
   ARCHITECTURE
    6.01 Classification
    6.02 Thermoplastics
    6.03 Thermosetting
         Plastics
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
   FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
    ARCHITECTURE               6.     PLASTICS USED IN ARCHITECTURE
    1.01 Classification
    1.02 Structure
    1.03 Properties            6.02   EXAMPLES OF THERMOPLASTICS
    1.04 Defects
    1.05 Sawing Methods
2. LUMBER                             i. FLUOROPLASTICS
    2.01 Classification
    2.02 Measure
    2.03 Seasoning                     are a class of paraffinic polymers that have some or all
    2.04 Deterioration
    2.05 Preservation                  of the hydrogen replaced by fluorine. The fluoroplastic
    2.06 Treatment                     group is characterized by excellent chemical
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD
    3.01 For Construction              resistance, excellent heat resistance, good electrical
    3.02 Allowable Working
         Stresses
                                       properties, and excellent wear resistance. However,
    3.03 Weights of Wood
    3.04 Physical Properties
                                       despite these attributes, perhaps the most desired
4. WOOD COMPOSITES                     characteristic of this group of plastics is their ability to
    4.01 Plywood
    4.02 Hardboard                     resist abrasion .
    4.03 Chipboard
    4.04 Fiberboard
    4.05 Gypsum Board
    4.06 Fibercement Brd
    4.05 Particle Board
5. MILLWORK
    5.01 Mouldings
6. PLASTICS IN
   ARCHITECTURE
    6.01 Classification
    6.02 Thermoplastics
    6.03 Thermosetting
         Plastics
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
   FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
    ARCHITECTURE               6.     PLASTICS USED IN ARCHITECTURE
    1.01 Classification
    1.02 Structure
    1.03 Properties            6.02   EXAMPLES OF THERMOPLASTICS
    1.04 Defects
    1.05 Sawing Methods
2. LUMBER                             j. ACRYLONITRILE BUTADIENE STYRENE (ABS)
    2.01 Classification
    2.02 Measure
    2.03 Seasoning                     is a styrenic resin with improved toughness and heat
    2.04 Deterioration
    2.05 Preservation                  resistance. ABS exhibits high gloss, low shrinkage, and
    2.06 Treatment                     good dimensional stability, is widely used in injection
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD
    3.01 For Construction              molding of appliances, furniture, and automotive parts.
    3.02 Allowable Working
         Stresses
                                       ABS also has high melt strength suitable for the
    3.03 Weights of Wood
    3.04 Physical Properties
                                       production of extruded sheet, some of considerable
4. WOOD COMPOSITES                     size and thickness. Applications include panels for
    4.01 Plywood
    4.02 Hardboard                     large appliances and thermoformed items such as hot
    4.03 Chipboard                     tubs and recreational vehicle parts .
    4.04 Fiberboard
    4.05 Gypsum Board
    4.06 Fibercement Brd
    4.05 Particle Board
5. MILLWORK
    5.01 Mouldings
6. PLASTICS IN
   ARCHITECTURE
    6.01 Classification
    6.02 Thermoplastics
    6.03 Thermosetting
         Plastics
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
   FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
    ARCHITECTURE               6.     PLASTICS USED IN ARCHITECTURE
    1.01 Classification
    1.02 Structure
    1.03 Properties            6.03   EXAMPLES OF THERMOSETTING PLASTICS
    1.04 Defects
    1.05 Sawing Methods
2. LUMBER                             a. MELAMINE and UREA
    2.01 Classification
    2.02 Measure
    2.03 Seasoning                     hard, durable and dimensionally stable, these similar
    2.04 Deterioration
    2.05 Preservation                  plastics are resistant to chemicals, electric potential,
    2.06 Treatment                     and heat. Melamine is well known for its use in molded
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD
    3.01 For Construction              dishes, while urea is useful for incandescent light
    3.02 Allowable Working
         Stresses
                                       diffusion and for baked enamels .
    3.03 Weights of Wood
    3.04 Physical Properties
4. WOOD COMPOSITES
    4.01 Plywood
    4.02 Hardboard
    4.03 Chipboard
    4.04 Fiberboard
    4.05 Gypsum Board
    4.06 Fibercement Brd
    4.05 Particle Board
5. MILLWORK
    5.01 Mouldings
6. PLASTICS IN
   ARCHITECTURE
    6.01 Classification
    6.02 Thermoplastics
    6.03 Thermosetting
         Plastics
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
   FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
    ARCHITECTURE               6.     PLASTICS USED IN ARCHITECTURE
    1.01 Classification
    1.02 Structure
    1.03 Properties            6.03   EXAMPLES OF THERMOSETTING PLASTICS
    1.04 Defects
    1.05 Sawing Methods
2. LUMBER                             b. EPOXY
    2.01 Classification
    2.02 Measure
    2.03 Seasoning                     used in buildings for its remarkable adhesive qualities.
    2.04 Deterioration
    2.05 Preservation                  It may also be used for special paints that are
    2.06 Treatment                     chemically resistant and for special caulking
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD
    3.01 For Construction              compounds.
    3.02 Allowable Working
         Stresses
    3.03 Weights of Wood
    3.04 Physical Properties
4. WOOD COMPOSITES
    4.01 Plywood
    4.02 Hardboard
    4.03 Chipboard
    4.04 Fiberboard
    4.05 Gypsum Board
    4.06 Fibercement Brd
    4.05 Particle Board
5. MILLWORK
    5.01 Mouldings
6. PLASTICS IN
   ARCHITECTURE
    6.01 Classification
    6.02 Thermoplastics
    6.03 Thermosetting
         Plastics
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
   FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
    ARCHITECTURE               6.     PLASTICS USED IN ARCHITECTURE
    1.01 Classification
    1.02 Structure
    1.03 Properties            6.03   EXAMPLES OF THERMOSETTING PLASTICS
    1.04 Defects
    1.05 Sawing Methods
2. LUMBER                             c. ALKYDS
    2.01 Classification
    2.02 Measure
    2.03 Seasoning                     appear chiefly as molded electrical parts, and as the
    2.04 Deterioration
    2.05 Preservation                  vehicle in paints, lacquers, and enamels .
    2.06 Treatment
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD
    3.01 For Construction
    3.02 Allowable Working
         Stresses
    3.03 Weights of Wood
    3.04 Physical Properties
4. WOOD COMPOSITES
    4.01 Plywood
    4.02 Hardboard
    4.03 Chipboard
    4.04 Fiberboard
    4.05 Gypsum Board
    4.06 Fibercement Brd
    4.05 Particle Board
5. MILLWORK
                                      d. PHENOLICS
    5.01 Mouldings
6. PLASTICS IN                         used for paints, baked enamels, adhesives,
   ARCHITECTURE
    6.01 Classification                impregnating resins for paper and wood, and finish
    6.02 Thermoplastics
    6.03 Thermosetting                 hardware.
         Plastics
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
   FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
    ARCHITECTURE               6.     PLASTICS USED IN ARCHITECTURE
    1.01 Classification
    1.02 Structure
    1.03 Properties            6.03   EXAMPLES OF THERMOSETTING PLASTICS
    1.04 Defects
    1.05 Sawing Methods
2. LUMBER                             e. POLYESTER
    2.01 Classification
    2.02 Measure
    2.03 Seasoning
    2.04 Deterioration
                                       the plastic most commonly
    2.05 Preservation                  used in large glass-fiber
    2.06 Treatment
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD                     reinforced translucent
    3.01 For Construction              panels that are strong,
    3.02 Allowable Working
         Stresses                      rigid, and impact-resistant.
    3.03 Weights of Wood
    3.04 Physical Properties           Also used for impregnating
4. WOOD COMPOSITES                     paper and wood, as
    4.01 Plywood
    4.02 Hardboard                     laminating material, and for
    4.03 Chipboard
    4.04 Fiberboard                    contact adhesive.
    4.05 Gypsum Board
    4.06 Fibercement Brd
    4.05 Particle Board
5. MILLWORK
    5.01 Mouldings
6. PLASTICS IN
   ARCHITECTURE
    6.01 Classification
    6.02 Thermoplastics
    6.03 Thermosetting
         Plastics
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
   FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
    ARCHITECTURE               6.     PLASTICS USED IN ARCHITECTURE
    1.01 Classification
    1.02 Structure
    1.03 Properties            6.03   EXAMPLES OF THERMOSETTING PLASTICS
    1.04 Defects
    1.05 Sawing Methods
2. LUMBER
    2.01 Classification
                                      f. URETHANES
    2.02 Measure
    2.03 Seasoning                         used in paint coatings, and as foams, are self-adhesive.
    2.04 Deterioration
    2.05 Preservation
    2.06 Treatment
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD
    3.01 For Construction
    3.02 Allowable Working
         Stresses
    3.03 Weights of Wood
    3.04 Physical Properties
4. WOOD COMPOSITES
    4.01 Plywood
    4.02 Hardboard
    4.03 Chipboard
    4.04 Fiberboard
    4.05 Gypsum Board
    4.06 Fibercement Brd
    4.05 Particle Board
5. MILLWORK                           g.     SILICONES
    5.01 Mouldings
6. PLASTICS IN                               used for clear, water-
   ARCHITECTURE
    6.01 Classification
                                             repellant paints for
    6.02 Thermoplastics
    6.03 Thermosetting
                                             concrete and masonry
         Plastics                            surfaces above grade .
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
   FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
    ARCHITECTURE               7.   PLASTICS SHEETS, FILM AND FOAM
    1.01 Classification
    1.02 Structure
    1.03 Properties                 a. SHEETS
    1.04 Defects
    1.05 Sawing Methods
2. LUMBER
    2.01 Classification
                                     Usually made of acrylate, polyester, or polystyrene
    2.02 Measure
    2.03 Seasoning
                                     plastics, either plain or reinforced with glass-fiber, are
    2.04 Deterioration               available in flat or corrugated sheets and various
    2.05 Preservation
    2.06 Treatment                   deformed shapes.
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD
    3.01 For Construction
    3.02 Allowable Working           Thicknesses vary from 1.5mm to 2.38mm (1/16 to 3/32
         Stresses
    3.03 Weights of Wood             inches).
    3.04 Physical Properties
4. WOOD COMPOSITES
    4.01 Plywood                     Plastic sheets can be used to replace glass in any type
    4.02 Hardboard
    4.03 Chipboard                   of windows or doors, skylights, shower enclosures, or in
    4.04 Fiberboard                  any area where a translucent, transparent or opaque
    4.05 Gypsum Board
    4.06 Fibercement Brd
    4.05 Particle Board
                                     material in a wide variety of colors are needed in the
5. MILLWORK                          interior.
    5.01 Mouldings
6. PLASTICS IN
   ARCHITECTURE
                                     As corrugated sheet, plastics make good roofing
    6.01 Classification              material and other similar uses as sheet plastic .
    6.02 Thermoplastics
    6.03 Thermosetting
         Plastics
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
   FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
    ARCHITECTURE               7.   PLASTICS SHEETS, FILM AND FOAM
    1.01 Classification
    1.02 Structure
    1.03 Properties                 b. FILM SHEETS
    1.04 Defects
    1.05 Sawing Methods
2. LUMBER
    2.01 Classification              As water barrier or dampproofing material, it is
    2.02 Measure
    2.03 Seasoning                   generally made of polyethylene and polyvinyl and
    2.04 Deterioration               come in thicknesses ranging from 1 to 10 mils
    2.05 Preservation
    2.06 Treatment                   (0.001 to 0.01 inch) and in rolls of 50‟ length and 3‟
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD
    3.01 For Construction            to 40‟ width.
    3.02 Allowable Working
         Stresses
    3.03 Weights of Wood             For building construction, 2, 4 and 6 mils are most
    3.04 Physical Properties
4. WOOD COMPOSITES                   commonly used.
    4.01 Plywood
    4.02 Hardboard
    4.03 Chipboard
    4.04 Fiberboard
                                     Over tamped earth or sand fill, use 4 mil.
    4.05 Gypsum Board
    4.06 Fibercement Brd
    4.05 Particle Board              Over gravel and stone, use 6 mil.
5. MILLWORK
    5.01 Mouldings
6. PLASTICS IN
                                     Use the widest width possible and lap 6” (150mm)
   ARCHITECTURE                      where necessary .
    6.01 Classification
    6.02 Thermoplastics
    6.03 Thermosetting
         Plastics
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
   FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
    ARCHITECTURE               7.   PLASTICS SHEETS, FILM AND FOAM
    1.01 Classification
    1.02 Structure
    1.03 Properties                 c. FOAM
    1.04 Defects
    1.05 Sawing Methods
2. LUMBER
    2.01 Classification              Used as flotation material, thermal insulators, and
    2.02 Measure
    2.03 Seasoning                   shock-resistant mountings. Offers possibilities for
    2.04 Deterioration               lightweight materials of high strength .
    2.05 Preservation
    2.06 Treatment
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD
    3.01 For Construction
    3.02 Allowable Working
         Stresses
    3.03 Weights of Wood
    3.04 Physical Properties
4. WOOD COMPOSITES
    4.01 Plywood
    4.02 Hardboard
    4.03 Chipboard
    4.04 Fiberboard
    4.05 Gypsum Board
    4.06 Fibercement Brd
    4.05 Particle Board
5. MILLWORK
    5.01 Mouldings
6. PLASTICS IN
   ARCHITECTURE
    6.01 Classification
    6.02 Thermoplastics
    6.03 Thermosetting
         Plastics
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
   FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
    ARCHITECTURE               8.   LAMINATES
    1.01 Classification
    1.02 Structure
    1.03 Properties                 Lamination is the process applied to paper or fabric
    1.04 Defects
    1.05 Sawing Methods             impregnated with thermosetting resins.
2. LUMBER
    2.01 Classification
    2.02 Measure                    Cotton cloth and paper are used as filler materials,
    2.03 Seasoning
    2.04 Deterioration              usually in sheet forms, that are bonded together by
    2.05 Preservation               heat and pressure to form an integral body.
    2.06 Treatment
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD
    3.01 For Construction           The thickness of the laminate is determined by the
    3.02 Allowable Working
         Stresses
                                    number of sheets placed between the two steel pans
    3.03 Weights of Wood            or platens of the press used in the process.
    3.04 Physical Properties
4. WOOD COMPOSITES
    4.01 Plywood                    Decorative laminates of various wood-grain, marble,
    4.02 Hardboard                  and colored patterns are extensively used for
    4.03 Chipboard
    4.04 Fiberboard                 tabletops and wall facings .
    4.05 Gypsum Board
    4.06 Fibercement Brd
    4.05 Particle Board
5. MILLWORK
    5.01 Mouldings
6. PLASTICS IN
   ARCHITECTURE
    6.01 Classification
    6.02 Thermoplastics
    6.03 Thermosetting
         Plastics
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
   FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES
1. WOOD IN
    ARCHITECTURE
    1.01 Classification
    1.02 Structure
    1.03 Properties
    1.04 Defects
    1.05 Sawing Methods
2. LUMBER
    2.01 Classification
    2.02 Measure
    2.03 Seasoning
    2.04 Deterioration
    2.05 Preservation
    2.06 Treatment
3. PHILIPPINE WOOD
    3.01 For Construction
    3.02 Allowable Working
         Stresses
    3.03 Weights of Wood
                                         End of
    3.04 Physical Properties   Div 06 WOODS AND PLASTICS
4. WOOD COMPOSITES
    4.01 Plywood
    4.02 Hardboard
    4.03 Chipboard
    4.04 Fiberboard
    4.05 Gypsum Board
    4.06 Fibercement Brd
    4.05 Particle Board
5. MILLWORK
    5.01 Mouldings
6. PLASTICS IN
   ARCHITECTURE
    6.01 Classification
    6.02 Thermoplastics
    6.03 Thermosetting
         Plastics
7. PLASTIC SHEETS,
   FILM AND FOAM
8. LAMINATES

								
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