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					California Water Plan Update 2009                             Pre-Administrative DRAFT                        Ch 8 Tulare Lake Hydrologic Region
Volume 3 Regional Reports


                                                                      Contents
Chapter 8             Tulare Lake Hydrologic Region ..................................................................................... 8-3
 Setting ...................................................................................................................................................... 8-3
   Watersheds .......................................................................................................................................... 8-3
   Groundwater Basins and Recharge Areas ........................................................................................... 8-7
   Ecosystems .......................................................................................................................................... 8-8
   Climate .............................................................................................................................................. 8-10
   Demographics .................................................................................................................................... 8-10
      Population ...................................................................................................................................... 8-10
   Land Use Patterns .............................................................................................................................. 8-12
 Regional Water Conditions ................................................................................................................... 8-13
   Environmental Water ......................................................................................................................... 8-14
      Background.................................................................................................................................... 8-14
      Current ........................................................................................................................................... 8-14
   Water Supplies................................................................................................................................... 8-16
   Water Uses ........................................................................................................................................ 8-19
   Water Quality .................................................................................................................................... 8-19
   Project Operations ............................................................................................................................. 8-21
   Water Governance ............................................................................................................................. 8-22
   Flood Management ............................................................................................................................ 8-24
      Historic Floods .............................................................................................................................. 8-24
      Flood Hazards................................................................................................................................ 8-25
      Institutions ..................................................................................................................................... 8-25
      Existing Flood Damage Reduction Measures ................................................................................ 8-26
 Relationship with Other Regions ........................................................................................................... 8-29
   Air Quality Issues in the SJV ............................................................................................................ 8-29
 Regional Water and Flood Planning and Management ......................................................................... 8-29
   Integrated Regional Water Management ........................................................................................... 8-30
   Accomplishments .............................................................................................................................. 8-33
   Challenges ......................................................................................................................................... 8-35
   Drought and Flood Planning .............................................................................................................. 8-38
      Concerning Flood Activities .......................................................................................................... 8-39
 Looking to the Future ............................................................................................................................ 8-39
   Future Scenarios ................................................................................................................................ 8-40
   Climate Change ................................................................................................................................. 8-40
   Response Strategies ........................................................................................................................... 8-41
   Implementation: Next Steps .............................................................................................................. 8-41
 Water Portfolios from 2002–2005 ......................................................................................................... 8-42


Tables
PLACEHOLDER: Table 8-x Watershed characteristics of Tulare Lake Basin .......................................... 8-6
PLACEHOLDER: Table 8-xx Watershed groups in California’s Central Valley ....................................... 8-6
Table 8-x Flood parameters for principal streams, Tulare Lake Hydrologic Region .................................. 8-7
Table 8-x Tulare Basin current and historical acres of riparian habitat ....................................................... 8-9
Table 8-x Surface water deliveries to Kern National Wildlife Refuge (acre-feet) .................................... 8-15
Table 8-x Reservoir statistics, Tulare Lake Hydrologic Region ................................................................ 8-16
PLACEHOLDER Table 8-1 Tulare Lake Hydrologic Region water balance summary (taf) .................... 8-18
PLACEHOLDER Table 8-3 Tulare Lake Hydrologic Region water use and distribution of dedicated
supplies (taf) .............................................................................................................................................. 8-18
PLACEHOLDER Table 8-4 Tulare Lake region water portfolio (taf) ...................................................... 8-19
Table 8-x Agencies and roles in relation to DWR water management strategies ...................................... 8-23
Table 8-x Selection of organizations in Tulare Lake region involved in water governance...................... 8-24
Table 8-x Flood control reservoirs, Tulare Lake Hydrologic Region........................................................ 8-26
Table 8-x Flood emergency response organizations, Tulare Lake Hydrologic Region ............................. 8-28



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California Water Plan Update 2009                               Pre-Administrative DRAFT                          Ch 8 Tulare Lake Hydrologic Region
Volume 3 Regional Reports

Table 8-x Strategies of Integrated Regional Water Management efforts in Tulare Lake Hydrologic Region
................................................................................................................................................................... 8-31
PLACEHOLDER Table 8-2 Percentage of acreage of each crop category by irrigation method used, Kern
County ....................................................................................................................................................... 8-42

Figures
PLACEHOLDER Figure 8-x Tulare Lake Hydrologic Region (image) ..................................................... 8-3
PLACEHOLDER Figure 8-x Group interests (2 charts) ............................................................................. 8-6
Placeholder Figure 8-XX Groundwater basins in the Tulare Lake Region. ................................................ 8-7
PLACEHOLDER Figure 8-xx Rate of population growth, running 5-year rate, 1960-2006 .................... 8-11
PLACEHOLDER: Figure 8-3 Tulare Lake region water balance for water years 1998-2005 .................. 8-19
PLACEHOLDER: Figure 8-xx Trends in water use from 1998-2005 for agriculture, urban, and
environmental uses .................................................................................................................................... 8-19
PLACEHOLDER Figure 8-x Drinking water quality in Tulare County ................................................... 8-21
Figure 8-xx Water agency map ................................................................................................................. 8-21
Figure 8-X Integrated Regional Water Management efforts in Tulare Lake Hydrologic Region ............. 8-32
Figure 8-XX Movement of salt in Central Valley ..................................................................................... 8-37
Figure 8-XX Groundwater basins in the Tulare Lake Region ................................................................... 8-43
Figure 8-xx Rate of population growth, running 5-year rate, 1960-2006 .................................................. 8-44

Boxes
PLACEHOLDLER: Box 8-x California Watershed Council ...................................................................... 8-6
PLACEHOLDER: Box 8-xx Recent Legislation and Agency and Watershed Community Activities in
California ..................................................................................................................................................... 8-6
PLACEHOLDER: Box 8-xx Q&A from Regional Economic Vitality Conversations, San Joaquin Region ...
................................................................................................................................................................... 8-11
PLACEHOLDER: Box 8-xx Work Group: Water Quality, Supply, Reliability and Environmental
Restoration................................................................................................................................................. 8-30




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California Water Plan Update 2009        Pre-Admin DRAFT            Ch 8 Tulare Lake Hydrologic Region
Volume 3 Regional Reports



          Chapter 8 Tulare Lake Hydrologic Region
The Tulare Lake Hydrologic Region covers approximately 10.9 million acres (17,650 square
miles) and includes all of Kings and Tulare counties and most of Fresno and Kern counties
(Figure XX). The southern portion of the San Joaquin Valley is subdivided into two separate
basins, the San Joaquin and the Tulare, by a rise in the valley floor resulting from an
accumulation of alluvium between the San Joaquin River and the Kings River fan called the
Sanjon de San Jose. The valley floor in this region was a complex series of interconnecting
natural sloughs, canals, and marshes.

              PLACEHOLDER Figure 8-x Tulare Lake Hydrologic Region (image)
The economic development of the region is tightly linked to the surface water and groundwater
resources of the Tulare Basin. Major rivers draining into the Tulare Basin include the Kings,
Kaweah, Tule, and Kern rivers. The ecological original character of the area has changed
dramatically, largely being developed for farming with the taming of the local rivers. Significant
geographic features include the southern half of the San Joaquin Valley, the Temblor Range to
the west, the Tehachapi Mountains to the south, and the southern Sierra Nevada to the east.

The Tulare Lake region is one of the nation’s leading agricultural production areas growing a
wide variety of crops on about 3 million irrigated acres. Agricultural production has been a
mainstay of the region since the late-1800s. However, since about the mid 1980s, other economic
sectors, particularly the service sector, have been growing.


                                            Setting
The Tulare Basin, now the driest region of the Central Valley, once contained the largest single
block of wetland habitat in California and provided over 500,000 acres of permanent and seasonal
wetlands. This provided habitat for millions of migrant waterfowl and shorebirds. Today, these
areas are intensively farmed supporting one of the most prosperous agricultural regions in the
world.

The largest river, in terms of runoff is the Kings River, which flows west from the Sierra Nevada
near the northern border of the region. However, the Kern River contains the largest drainage
basin area producing the second highest runoff. The California Aqueduct extends the entire length
of the west side of the region, delivering water to the State Water Project (SWP) and Central
Valley Project (CVP) contractors in the region and exporting water over the Tehachapi
Mountains to Southern California. The other significant rivers in the region, the Kaweah and Tule
rivers, drain into the valley floor of this hydrologically closed region. No significant rivers or
creeks drain eastward from the Coast Ranges into the valley.


Watersheds
The Tulare Lake Basin comprises the drainage area of the San Joaquin Valley south of the San
Joaquin River and encompasses approximately 17,650 square miles. It is divided into several
main hydrologic subareas: the alluvial fans from the Sierran foothills, and the basin area (in the
vicinity of the Kings, Kaweah, and Tule rivers and their distributaries), the Tulare lakebed, and
the southwestern uplands. The alluvial fan/basin subarea is characterized by southwest- to south-
flowing rivers, creeks, and irrigation canal systems that convey surface water from the Sierra



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Nevada. The dominant hydrologic features in the alluvial fan/basin subarea are the Kings,
Kaweah, Tule, and Kern rivers and their major distributaries.

Critical concerns for watersheds in the basin are varied depending upon the particular watershed
in question. In the Sierra, some of the concerns among stakeholders include,
      Soil Erosion
      Watershed/Wetlands
      Agriculture/Rangeland
      Vegetation Management
      Wildlife Habitat
      Environmental Education
      Air Quality
      Weed control – noxious weeds
      San and Gravel Mines within rivers and streams
      Water Rights on rivers
      Funding for water conservation projects

In the San Joaquin Valley portion of the basin, concerns include,
      Salinity
      Water erosion,
      Wind erosion,
      Brackish agricultural drainage water
      Areas of toxic salt accumulation
      Excess use of ground water and water penetration problems
      Extensive flooding
      Perched water conditions
      Water quality and quantity
      Erosion and Sedimentation both in agricultural lands and subdivisions
      Irrigation Water Management Problems
      Rangeland - Fire and Brush Control
      Drainage problems both Surface and Subsurface
      Environmental Education
      Alternate Energy Sources
      Groundwater Depletion/Recharge
      Groundwater/Surface Water Quantity/Quality
      Surface/Irrigation Water management/Availability
      Flooding
(from RCDs in Tulare Lake Basin; Critical Concerns section)

The watersheds east of the valley floor range in elevation from 381 feet, the mean elevation is
4,080 feet, and the maximum elevation is 14478 feet (DWR 2005). The Tulare Lake Basin


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watershed is essentially a closed basin because surface water drains north into the San Joaquin
River only in years of extreme rainfall. The 10 subwatersheds comprising the basin are:
      Kings River subwatershed,
      Kaweah River subwatershed,
      Kern River subwatershed,
      South Valley Floor subwatershed,
      Grapevine subwatershed,
      Coast Range subwatershed,
      Fellows subwatershed,
      Temblor subwatershed,
      Sunflower subwatershed, and
      Southern Sierra subwatershed.

The valley floor makes up slightly less than one-half the total basin land area. The Kings,
Kaweah, Tule, and Kern rivers, which drain the west face of the Sierra Nevada, provide the bulk
of the local surface water supply native to the basin. Major reservoirs are Pine Flat, Kaweah,
Success, and Isabella. Imported surface water enters the basin through the San Luis
Canal/California Aqueduct System, Friant-Kern Canal, and the Delta-Mendota Canal. Only one
subwatershed is impaired from irrigated agriculture. This subwatershed comprises the entire
valley floor and is called the South Valley Floor subwatershed (SVFS).

The majority of urban areas and agriculture in the basin are in the SVFS. The dominant land use
and industry in the SVFS is agriculture. The SVFS consists of many water districts delivering
local and imported surface water to irrigated fields. During high flow, the Tulare Lake bed serves
as the terminus for both eastern and western valley streams. This lakebed, with a bottom elevation
of 175 feet is effectively closed. The only natural outlet is the San Joaquin River to the north at an
elevation of 207 feet. Water has not risen to this elevation and naturally flowed out of the basin
since the 1870s. Development of intensive agriculture in the tributary basins, construction of
reservoirs and other flood and water control measures, and land reclamation in the lakebed, have
greatly reduced the likelihood of future natural outflows (Kings River Conservation District
2004). Agriculture is the largest land use type, using approximately 66 percent (3,485,592 acres)
of the total land use in the subwatershed; urban land uses combine for about 6 percent (305,153
acres); 28 percent consists of native vegetation, water surfaces and barren land.

The easterly subwatersheds receive most of the basin’s snow and produce the majority of runoff,
much of it controlled by numerous reservoirs. This area of the Sierra Nevada include Kings
Canyon and Sequoia National Parks and scattered minor urban development. The majority of land
use within these watersheds is made up of native vegetation such as conifer, hardwood,
herbaceous, and shrub. Agricultural development is minor.

The remaining western and southern subwatersheds primarily receive seasonal rainfall and
produce ephemeral streams. The land use is primarily native categories ranging from the mid to
high 90 percentage, the highest urban percentage of 2 in the Grapevine subwatershed and the
highest agricultural percentage of 3.3 in the Temblor subwatershed (Irrigated Lands Program;
Central Valley Existing Conditions Report (ECR); Central Valley Regional Water Quality
Control Board; February 2006).




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The State and Regional Water Boards are responding to these challenges with the Watershed
Management Initiative (WMI). The WMI is designed to integrate various surface water and
groundwater regulatory programs while promoting cooperative, collaborative efforts within a
watershed
(http://www.swrcb.ca.gov/centralvalley/water_issues/watershed_management/r5_wmi_chapter.sh
tml).

         PLACEHOLDER: Table 8-x Watershed characteristics of Tulare Lake Basin

PLACEHOLDLER: Box 8-x California Watershed Council

PLACEHOLDER: Box 8-xx Recent Legislation and Agency and Watershed
Community Activities in California
         PLACEHOLDER: Table 8-xx Watershed groups in California’s Central Valley
[From (below) http://endeavor.des.ucdavis.edu/groups/results.html]

                      PLACEHOLDER Figure 8-x Group interests (2 charts)
Add brief overview of local regional activities and groups]

[Below text added/revised by flood team]

All of the Tulare Lake Hydrologic Region’s streams are diverted for irrigation or other purposes,
except in the wettest years. Historically, they drained into Tulare Lake, Buena Vista Lake, or
adjacent Kern Lake. The latter basins ultimately drained to Tulare Lake, which is about 30 feet
lower. Four main rivers emanate from the western flanks of the southern Sierra Nevada and one
substantial creek enters from the Coast Range. The Kern River originates in Inyo and Sequoia
National Forests and Sequoia National Park, flowing southward into Lake Isabella. The river
downstream of Isabella Dam flows southwest and, in high discharge years, empties into the
ancient Buena Vista Lake bed; in very high discharge years, Buena Vista Lake will spill into
Tulare Lake via sloughs and floodwater channels.

Three of the rivers historically flowed directly into Tulare Lake. The Tule River begins in
Sequoia National Forest and flows southwest through Lake Success into Tulare Lake near the
town of Corcoran. The Kaweah River begins in Sequoia National Park, flows west and southwest,
is impounded by Terminus Dam, and subsequently spreads into many distributaries around
Visalia and Tulare before reaching Tulare Lake. The forks of the Kings River originate high in
Kings Canyon Nation Park and generally trend southwest until meeting in the foothills above
Pine Flat Lake. Downstream of Pine Flat Dam the river flows south and west, normally entering
Tulare Lake from the north near Stratford. During high water, distributaries of the Kings River
near the town of Laton flow northwest into the Fresno Slough/James Bypass system, which
empties into the San Joaquin River near Mendota. Los Gatos Creek, arising in the Coast Range
west of Corcoran, joins the Kings River north of Tulare Lake. Flood parameters for all the major
streams are listed in Table 8-x.

Snow makes up a substantial proportion of precipitation that falls in the Tulare Lake Hydrologic
Region, thus prolonged flooding often occurs in late spring due to snowmelt runoff. Heavy rain in
late fall and winter in the mountains and valleys can also produce floodwaters. Normally-dry
Tulare Lake is managed for farming, and lake flooding from accumulated water resulting from
sustained inflow is a significant danger in the region.


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      Table 8-x Flood parameters for principal streams, Tulare Lake Hydrologic Region
                                                        Mean annual      Peak stage       Peak discharge
       Stream                       Location             runoff (taf)   of record (ft)    of record (cfs)
 Kern R.                   near Democrat Springs            480             30.7              40,000
 South Fork Kern R.        near Onyx                         90             18.9              28,200
                                                                2                1
 Kern R.                   near Kernville                   344             24.4              60,000
                                                                                 1
 South Fork Tule R.        near Reservation Boundary         23             13.0               5,060
                                              3                 2
 Middle Fork               near Potwisha Camp               105             29.0              46,800
 Kaweah R.
                                                                                   1
 Los Gatos Cr.             above Nuñez Canyon, near          44             14.0              5,700
                           Coalinga
 North Fork Kings          below Dinkey Creek, near         248             19.2              27,400
 R.                        Balch Camp
                                                                  2
 North Fork Kings          near Cliff Camp                   33             18.0              14,000
 R.
1 Different date than peak discharge.
2 Most recent but less than period of record.
3 Low flow gage only, beginning 2004.


Snow makes up a substantial proportion of precipitation that falls in the Tulare Lake Hydrologic
Region, thus flooding often occurs in late spring due to snowmelt runoff. Heavy rain in late fall
and winter in the mountains and valleys can also produce substantial floodwaters. A significant
snowpack, followed by warm winter storms from the Pacific Ocean, can cause catastrophic
flooding due to both heavy rainfall and premature melting of snow.


Groundwater Basins and Recharge Areas
The Tulare Lake Hydrologic Region has 12 distinct groundwater basins and 7 subbasins of the
San Joaquin Valley Groundwater Basin, which crosses north into the San Joaquin River
Hydrologic Region (Figure 8-XX). These basins underlie approximately 5.33 million acres (8,330
square miles) or 49 percent of the entire HR area. Groundwater has historically been important to
both urban and agricultural uses, accounting for 41 percent of the region’s total annual supply and
35 percent of all groundwater use in the state. Groundwater use in the region represents about 10
percent of the state’s overall supply for agricultural and urban uses.

            Placeholder Figure 8-XX Groundwater basins in the Tulare Lake Region.
Water agencies in the Tulare Lake region have been practicing conjunctive use for many years to
manage groundwater and assist dry year supplies. Groundwater recharge is primarily from rivers
and natural streams, irrigation water percolating below the root zone of irrigated fields, direct
recharge from developed ponding basins and water banks, and in-lieu recharge where surface
water is made available in-lieu of groundwater pumping. Some water agencies accomplish
recharge by directing available water into existing natural streams and sloughs while others
encourage application of water, when available, on farmed fields. The Deer Creek and Tule River
Authority provides an excellent example of how groundwater management activities can be
coordinated with other resources. The authority, in conjunction with the US Bureau of
Reclamation, has constructed more than 200 acres of recharge basins as part of its Deer Creek
Recharge-Wildlife Enhancement Project. When available, the project takes surplus water during
winter months and delivers it to the basins, which serve as winter habitat for migrating waterfowl,
creating a significant environmental benefit. Most of the water also recharges into the underlying
aquifer, thereby benefiting the local groundwater system
(http://www.dpla2.water.ca.gov/publications/groundwater/bulletin118/Bulletin118-Chapter3.pdf).



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Some of the developed groundwater recharge facilities in the Tulare Lake Basin are
      Kern Water Bank
      Arvin-Edison Water Storage District
      Rosedale-Rio Bravo WSD
      Semitropic WSD
      North Kern WSD
      Tehachapi-Cummings County Water District
      Lower Tule Irrigation District
      City of Clovis
      City of Fresno
      Fresno Metropolitan Flood Control District
      Consolidated ID
      Fresno ID
      Apex Conjunctive Use Project (Kings Countyu WD – proposed)
      McMullin Recharge Group (Raisin City area-proposed)



Ecosystems
The Tulare Lake Hydrologic Region once supported vast Tule marshes, riparian corridors, and
other wetlands; however, development of the area largely for farming, and the taming of the
region’s major rivers, has changed the ecological character dramatically. The valley portion of the
region once supported a diverse array of perennial bunchgrass ecosystems including prairies, oak-
grass savannas, desert grasslands, as well as a mosaic of riparian woodlands, freshwater marshes,
and vernal pools. In its original state, it comprised one of the most diverse, productive, and
distinctive grasslands in temperate North America and over 500,000 acres of permanent and
seasonal wetlands (www.worldwildlife.org, California Central Valley grasslands (NA0801).

Although most basins in California have lost the majority of their wetlands habitat, changes in the
Tulare Basin have been especially detrimental for waterfowl. Tulare Basin once contained a
series of shallow lakebeds that provided 260,000 acres of seasonal wetlands and over 250,000
acres of permanent and semi-permanent tule marshes.

The Central Valley provides some of the most important bird habitat in North America, hosting
one of the largest concentrations of migratory birds in the world during the fall and winter. More
than 95 percent of historical wetlands and 98 percent of all riparian habitats have been destroyed
or modified (Table 8-X Tulare Basin current and historical acres of riparian habitat). The remnant
intensively managed wetlands and associated agricultural habitats now support an average of 5.5
million waterfowl annually. Few places on earth have greater concentrations of wintering
waterfowl than the Central Valley. Of the approximate 205,000 acres of managed wetlands
remaining in the Central Valley, two-thirds are in private ownership.




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             Table 8-x Tulare Basin current and historical acres of riparian habitat
Basin       Current acres      Historic acres
Tulare      7,195              272,158

Annual water requirements (acre-feet per acre) by habitat type and basin
Basin    Seasonal      Semi-permanent        Winter flooded
         wetlands      wetlands              agriculture
         (af/acre)     (af/acre)             (af/acre)
Tulare   5.25          8                     0

Total annual water needs for existing wetland habitats in Tulare Basin
Basin     Seasonal wetland Seasonal wetland      Semi-permanent          Semi-permanent      Total
                             water needs         wetland water needs     wetland water needs
          (acres)            (af)                (acres)                 (af)                (af)
Tulare    20,212             106,113             2,245                   17,960              124,073

Total annual water needs for additional wetland habitats that must be restored to fully meet
integrated bird habitat objectives
Basin      Seasonal wetland Seasonal wetland     Semi-permanent        Semi-permanent        Total
                               water needs       wetland water needs wetland water needs
           (acres)             (af)              (acres)               (af)                  (af)
Tulare      21,263             111,631           5,935                 47,480                159,111

Total annual water needs for wetland and winter-flooded agricultural habitats in the Central Valley
when integrated bird habitat objectives are met.
Basin     Seasonal wetland Semi-permanent          Agricultural winter Total
                              wetland water needs   flooding
          (af)                (af)                  (af)               (af)
Tulare    217,744             65,440                0                  283,184

(Central Valley Joint Venture, 2006 Implementation Plan)
(San Joaquin River National Wildlife Refuge, Comprehensive Conservation Plan, USFW 2006

Interest in restoring historical wetland habitat conditions within the Tulare Basin has greatly
increased since the passage of the Central Valley Project Improvement Act (CVPIA). While
private wetlands within this area did not directly benefit from provisions of the CVPIA, the vast
improvements that have resulted in other wetland basins that receive CVPIA water supplies has
sparked renewed discussion at regional, State, and federal levels in the Tulare Basin.

The Tulare Basin is the heart of some of the most intensively farmed and agriculturally
productive lands in the world. It is also one of the fastest growing regions in California. There is
no ―silver bullet‖ strategy for finding more water for wetlands in Tulare Basin as may have been
the case with implementation of the CVPIA elsewhere in the Central Valley. The basin suffers
from chronic water shortages, and the impacts of having its imported water supplies significantly
reduced, as a result of new laws or regulations, have not been resolved. It is facing significant
new water demands for river and fishery habitat restoration and, due to its proximity to urban
Southern California, has the potential to become a new source of water to meet the increasing
water needs of that region. Only now are the existing and future wetlands needs of the Tulare
Basin getting serious consideration in state and federal water and environmental forums (Central
Valley Joint Venture, 2006 Implementation Plan).

Regarding plant communities, perennial grasses that were adapted to cool-season growth
dominated the original habitats in the Tulare Lake Basin. Most growth occurred in the late spring
after winter rains and the onset of warmer and sunnier days. Riparian forests once bordered many


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of the valley’s major rivers and their tributaries. Willows, Western Sycamore, Box elder, Fremont
Cottonwood, and the Valley Oak (Quercus lobata) were dominant tree species. The extensive
rivers and lakes once supported vast freshwater marshlands dominated by rushes, bulrushes
(tules), sedges, cattails, willows, and floating plants.

Virtually all valley habitats have been altered. Introduced annual grasses now dominate grassland
habitats. Agricultural development, urban expansion, alteration of hydrologic regimes and
channelization, grazing by domestic livestock, fires, and introduced plants and animals have all
contributed to the pervasive destruction of native habitats. The largest blocks of desert grassland
and scrub are owned by oil companies in the southern portion of the region. Small patches of
riparian forests, woodlands, and marshlands are scattered throughout the region. The Kaweah
Oaks Preserve near Visalia and the Creighton Ranch near Corcoran conserve remnant oak
savanna. The huge Carrizo Plain natural area (3,180,000 acres) in the Temblor Range in western
Kern County, but representative of the San Joaquin Valley, embraces extensive stands of saltbush
scrub, desert grassland, alkali scrub, and wetlands. Remaining patches of relatively undisturbed
native habitats are all severely fragmented and isolated. Loss of habitat linkages are likely to be
most significant for species that rely on contiguous riparian woodlands for dispersal corridors,
such as migratory warblers, cuckoos, and reptiles and amphibians. Remaining native habitats are
threatened by continuing habitat clearance for agriculture, alteration of hydrologic regimes, dams,
channelization, fires, grazing by domestic livestock, and alien species. (www.worldwildlife.org,
California Central Valley grasslands (NA0801).


Climate
The climate in combination with the fertile soil in the valley portion of the region is well-suited
for farming. Runoff from the adjacent Sierra Nevada provide a supply of good quality water well
suited for irrigation. The San Joaquin Valley’s long growing season (April-October), warm/hot
summers, and a fall harvest period usually sparse in rain provides a near ideal environment for
production of many crops. Winters are moist and often blanketed with tule fog. Nearly all of the
year's precipitation falls in the six months from November to April. The valley floor is
surrounded on three sides by mountain ranges, resulting in a comparative isolation of the valley
from marine effects. Because of this and the comparatively cloudless summers, normal maximum
temperature advances to a high of 101 °F during the latter part of July. Valley winter
temperatures are usually mild but during infrequent cold spells air temperature occasionally drops
below freezing. Heavy frost occurs during the winter in most years, and the geographic
orientation of the valley generates prevailing winds from the northwest.

The mean annual precipitation in the valley portion of the region ranges from about 6 to 11
inches, with 67 percent falling from December through March, and 95 percent falling during the
winter months from October through April. The Tulare Lake Region enjoys a very high
percentage of sunshine, receiving more than 70 percent of the possible amount during all but the
four months of November, December, January, and February. During periods of tule fog, which
can last up to two weeks, sunshine is reduced to a minimum.


Demographics

Population
Until the recent housing slow down, the rate of population growth throughout the San Joaquin
Valley had been among the highest in the state, creating a strong demand for housing and urban


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infrastructure (Figure 8-xx Rate of population growth, running 5-year rate, 1960-2006). The rate
of growth since the late 1990 far exceeded the statewide rate.

  PLACEHOLDER Figure 8-xx Rate of population growth, running 5-year rate, 1960-2006
The region is home to many American Indian Tribes. There are five federally recognized tribes in
the Tulare Lake Basin, residing on the Santa Rosa, Tule River, Table Mountain, Big Sandy, and
Cold Springs Rancherias. However, there are many more non-recognized tribes and members not
residing on Rancherias, with some involved in efforts to become federally recognized. The Table
Mountain, Big Sandy, and Cold Spring Rancherias are near the San Joaquin River and Millerton
Lake. The Santa Rosa Rancheria is located south of the City of Lemoore and is situated on the
southern end of Mud Slough. The Tule River Rancheria is south of Porterville and is the only
Tribe in the region to date to have entered into water rights settlement negotiations. All of the
rancherias operate gaming facilities except the Cold Springs Rancheria. For many tribes, the
gaming facilities are providing much needed funding and allowing the exercise of sovereignty
long neglected due to inadequate funding from historical sources.

The population in the Tulare Lake region is now about XX percent of the entire San Joaquin
Valley population. Although many communities in the region welcome the growth and income
from a diversifying economy, the rapid urban growth is generate negative impacts on farming and
the agricultural industry. Much of the development is occurring on prime soils and creating
housing tracts directly abutting fields under intensive agricultural production creating conflicts
along this fringe. In six years, between 1992 and 1998, nearly XXXX acres of farmland were
converted to urban uses according to Department of Conservation statistics. Recently the
American Farmland Trust released the publication highlighting how one of California’s most
precious natural resources–its highly productive farmland–is being lost at an alarming rate. This
report, ―Paving Paradise‖, indicates unless a different approach to land-use planning and
development is adopted, another 2 million acres could be gone by mid-century. Of greater
concern, however, is that the land most likely to be lost is also the very best, most productive
farmland that has more fertile soils and more reliable water supplies tends to produce consistently
higher crop yields at lower cost. The report calls for improving the efficiency of development,
which includes increasing population densities in already urbanized areas to contain sprawl;
designing more livable, efficient urban communities; and limiting haphazard ―ranchette‖
development in agricultural areas. In addition, the report points out that farm and ranch lands help
control flooding, protect wetlands and watersheds. and help maintain air quality. They also can
absorb and filter wastewater and provide groundwater recharge. New energy crops that can be
turned into ethanol have the potential to reduce UnitedStates’ dependence on fossil fuels. Even
though there is a concern about accelerated urbanization and the subsequent conversion of
farmland, relatively few private agricultural preservation efforts exist in the San Joaquin Valley.
The largest regional population centers are the Fresno/Clovis metropolitan area and the cities of
Bakersfield and Visalia along the highway 99 corridor. Other smaller population centers include
the cities of Tulare, Hanford, Porterville, and Delano.

PLACEHOLDER: Box 8-xx Q&A from Regional Economic Vitality Conversations,
San Joaquin Region




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Land Use Patterns
Add comments about corn acreage and ethanol-appendices on crops?

According to DWR land use surveys, the amount of land cultivated in the region was XXX acres
in 2005. This compares to XX in 1985. The amount of land area identified as urban in 1985 was
XX, while in 2005 XX acres was identified, a XX acreage increase. State and federal land have
remained relatively stable at XX and XX acres respectively. Most of the urban growth has
occurred adjacent to the agricultural towns along Highway 99. Cities such as Fresno, Visalia, and
Bakersfield have become major urban centers, with between 100,000 and 500,000 residents.
Metropolitan Fresno now approaches 1 million people.

A large portion of the land area in the Tulare Lake Basin consists of forest and similar land cover
in the foothill and mountain areas of the region, with a large part of that consisting of in federal or
other public lands. The State and federal government agencies own about 30 percent of the land
in the region, including about 1.7 million acres of national forest, 0.8 million acres of national
parks and recreation areas, and 1 million acres of land managed by the U.S. Bureau of Land
Management. Privately owned land totals about 7.4 million acres.

Most of the valley floor is under private ownership and intensively farmed. However,
urbanization of the valley floor has grown rapidly in the last century, and especially in the last 25
years, as the region is capturing an increasing share of the state’s population. There are many
reasons for the perpetuation of sprawl-as-usual in the Central Valley. Rapid population growth is
the driving force, but State and local policies exert a powerful influence on the market and largely
determine the direction and type of development. Though the State bears a share of the
responsibility for inefficient development patterns that are consuming the valley's best farmland,
it is local policy especially driving land use plans and their implementation, that seem to have the
greatest impact.

The interpreted trend in acreage between 2006 and 1984 is declining field crop acreage and rising
acreage of deciduous, truck crops, and urban related land use. DWR 1958 and 2005 surveys
indicates a 20 percent overall increase in irrigated cropped acreage in Kern north to Stanislaus
County. See tables in appendix: Table 8-xx Change in cropped acreage by county from DWR
land use survey, 1984 and 2006 and Table 8-xx Irrigated cropped acreage, Kern north to
Stanislaus County percent change, 1958-2005 (DWR surveys)

Tulare County is the largest dairy county in the state. Bulk milk production was 10,585,433
pounds in 2007, nearly twice that produced in Stanislaus County, second dairy county in
California. The region also contains about 37 percent of the state’s total diaries, however, these
dairies account for over 56 percent of the total number of cows. The average number of cows per
dairy in the region is 1,678, 76 percent higher than the state average.

Summarize market value of agricultural product sales. See table in appendix.

Agriculture will continue to dominate land uses in the Tulare Lake region. It will also continue to
be an important economic driver in the regional economy as well as a factor in the socioeconomic
structure of the San Joaquin Valley and will likely continue to play a decisive role as it adapts to
changing market, technological, and regulatory forces. Increased public concerns about clean
water, pesticide use, groundwater contamination, air quality, food safety, and long-term impacts
on ecosystems will likely increasingly shape the future role of agriculture in the Tulare Lake




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Hydrologic Region and the entire Central Valley. Intensification of production in fruits and nuts
and vegetables and movement away from field crop acreage is likely to continue in coming years.

Tribal Lands

There are five Indian Rancherias in the Tulare Lake Hydrologic Region. Big Sandy, Cold
Springs, and Table Mountain Rancherias are in Fresno County. The Tule River Reservation is in
Tulare County, and the Santa Rosa Rancheria is in Kings County. The acreage of the Rancherias
vary widely: Big Sandy, 228 acres; Cold Springs, 155 acres (of which 25 acreage are allotted);
Santa Rosa, 170 acres; Table Mountain, 61 acres; and Tule River, 55,356 acres. Except for the
Santa Rosa Rancheria, most of the land is remote and located in the foothills and not
economically viable farming crops. Ranching livestock is more suited for these areas. The Santa
Rosa Rancheria is in the San Joaquin Valley but the soils were originally very poor with salinity
and alkalinity problems.

There are also about 35 public domain allotments in the Tulare Lake region. They consist of
about 3,148 acres in the counties of Kern (1192 acres), Tulare (520 acres), and Fresno (1,436
acres).


                               Regional Water Conditions
Tulare Lake region’s groundwater use rises and falls contingent on the availability of both local
and imported surface supplies. The management of water resources within the Tulare Lake Basin
is a complex activity and is critical to the region’s agricultural operations. Local annual surface
supplies are determined by the amount of runoff occurring from the Sierra Nevada watersheds,
the flows captured in local reservoirs, and carry-over storage over a series of years. However,
imported surface supply availability is contingent not only on runoff in any year or series of years
but also by regulations determining the amount of water that can be pumped month to month
from the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta due to fishery and other concerns. The recent San
Joaquin River settlement will reduce the overall volume of water available for diversion into the
Friant-Kern Canal.

The region was developed with the prospects of a water-short year or possibility of experiencing
drought conditions in any year. The region has developed multiple layers of water sources,
conveyance systems, and water management practices that provide some insurance during dry
times. Surface water is highly utilized and/or banked directly or indirectly (in-lieu) in water-
plentiful years, for use in dry years, while in water-short years, the use of groundwater rises
replacing surface water cuts. In addition, summer row crop acreage may decline due to fallowing,
winter crops may increase, and drought tolerant crops plantings may occur, all done to adjust
current year water use to water availability. Also, water management both on-farm and by water
agencies continues to evolve improving water use efficiency and reducing energy needed to move
water around through the use of agency water exchanges. These arrangements have resulted in
the increased occurrence of interconnected water distribution systems among water agencies,
increasing the ability to ―wheel‖ water where and when needed, and optimizing the use of an
often short resource. In addition, several water banks have agreements to store surface water from
agencies outside the basin. During water-short years, stored water will be pumped and delivered
or arrangements by locals made to use the out-of-basin agency’s banked water in exchange for
the local surface water reducing energy usage. Some locally stored water has also been used in
fulfilling the needs of the Environmental Water Account.




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Groundwater recharge is primarily from stream recharge, from deep percolation of applied
irrigation water, and from impoundment of surface water in developed water bank/percolation
ponds.

Any reductions in imported supplies interfere with carefully planned long-term water
management strategies of many areas in the Tulare Lake region and result in more reliance on
stressed groundwater supplies.

Increasing salinity is an important issue in the Tulare Lake Basin. Solution to salinity impairment
in the Central Valley will depend upon development and successful implementation of effective
land use, water supply, and water quality policies, in conjunction with the removal of institutional
barriers. Sources of salt can be categorized according to the type of entity discharging the salt;
e.g. from agricultural, municipal, industrial, or natural discharges. Source can also be categorized
according to its origin: (1) evapoconcentrated from supply water; (2) added through dissolution of
naturally occurring salts; or (3) through an explicit addition of salts, e.g. fertilizers or in food
processing. In general the largest sources of salts are derived from agricultural activities that
mobilize salts in soils and add imported salts from supply water. The State Water Project (SWP)
and the Delta-Mendota Canal (DMC) import on average 1.4-million tons of salt per year to the
Tulare Lake and San Joaquin River basins (SJVDIP, 1998). Increased salt loads and elevated
water table elevations in the San Joaquin River Basin are causing groundwater accretions to the
San Joaquin River to contribute, on average, 30 percent of the annual salt load in the river
(CVRWQCB, 2004). Shallow groundwater, collected in subsurface drains and conveyed to the
San Joaquin River also accounts for another 17 percent of the average annual total salt load in the
river.

Environmental Water



Background
The natural communities in the Tulare Lake Hydrologic Region include the mountain and
foothill, valley, the riverine (intermittent and continuous), lacustrine, and estuarine (wetland)
communities. Efforts continue to secure water for riverine and wetland environments. In addition,
efforts to protect areas containing remaining natural vernal pools (valley and terrace) have
increased the past several years.

All of the major rivers in the Tulare Lake Hydrologic Region are regulated. The last rivers with
active anadromous fish populations were the San Joaquin and Kings rivers. The San Joaquin
system supported large populations of anadromous fish, which used the rivers to varying degrees.
By far the most abundant and widely distributed of these were the chinook salmon, though
steelhead and white sturgeon were reported in the system as far as the Kings River and Tulare
Lake.


Current
In 1988, Natural Resource Defense Council (NRDC) and a broad coalition of anglers and
conservation groups brought suit in US district court in an effort to bring the San Joaquin River
and its native fisheries back to life. Sixteen years later, in August 2004, the coalition achieved a
landmark victory when the court ruled that the operation of Friant Dam violates one of
California's most important fishery protection statutes. The San Joaquin River Settlement Act



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(H.R. 24 and S. 27: January 2007) aims to restore continuous flows downstream of Friant Dam
and revive the river’s fabled salmon runs. The settlement also mitigates water supply impacts and
provides certainty to Friant water users. It will have far-reaching benefits for all of California,
including improved water quality, enhanced flood protection, healthier wildlife habitat, economic
development, and recreational opportunities. It is strongly supported by state and federal officials
and already has bipartisan support in Congress.

Some recent efforts to restore and enhance environmental water needs have been addressed
through the following,

    CVPIA (there are several programs here, but below are a few)
     o Anadromous Fish Restoration Program
     o Riparian Habitat Protection Program
     o Refuge Water Supply
     o Central Valley Joint Venture

The Wild and Scenic water dedications in the Tulare Lake region are for the designated stretches
along the Kings and Kern Rivers and are based on unimpaired runoff or natural flows. The
following table presents flows for the years 1998-2005,

Dedicated Wild Natural Flow (1,000 af)
and Scenic Reaches           1998 1999              2000      2001    2002       2003    2004    2005
Kings River                                                                              695.2   1,210.6
Kern River – No. Fork                                                                    370.0   871.4
Kern River – So. Fork                                                                    32.8    202.7

In addition, water is delivered to the Kern National Wildlife Refuge. The surface water received
by the refuge is a direct result of the CVPIA. Reported deliveries for 1998-2005 are in Table 8-x
(Surface water deliveries to Kern National Wildlife Refuge (acre=feet).


         Table 8-x Surface water deliveries to Kern National Wildlife Refuge (acre-feet)
Source       1998          1999     2000       2001         2002        2003        2004         2005
CVPIA        12,223      14,859     7,544      18,784       19,315      21,060      23,421       19,900


At Pine Flat Dam on the Kings River, the Kings River Fisheries Management Program was
established in 1999. The program is a cooperative effort between Kings River Conservation
District, the Kings River Water Association, and the California Department of Fish and Game.
The program endeavors to enhance the fishery and wildlife resources below the Dam and protect
the water rights held by Kings River water users.

It should be noted that 60 percent of California's water originates from small streams in the Sierra
Nevada, for the Tulare Lake Region it is nearly all the local water. However, little information is
known about how these streams flowing into the region are affected at the source by land
management activities such as dams, diversions, logging, etc. Forest Service managed land
provides much of the local source water that supplies users in the Valley portion of the San
Joaquin Valley. The quality of aquatic and riparian ecosystems associated with the rivers and




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streams flowing into the Tulare Lake region is directly related to the condition of adjacent
uplands within their watersheds.


Water Supplies
Numerous water supply issues have arisen in the Tulare Lake Region. A growing urban footprint
and population increases have resulted in new demand for water for M&I purposes. However,
even though the region enjoys significant natural and imported water supplies, these supplies are
already allocated, and in some cases, are over-allocated, making it difficult to accommodate new
demands.

Runoff from local streams within the region, most of which is from the Kings, Kern, Kaweah, and
Tule rivers, is stored in reservoirs or is distributed in most years except the very wet with the
Basin Table 8-X Reservoir statistics). Most of this water is conveyed via gravity through natural
stream channels (St. Johns River, Deer Creek, James By-Pass, etc) and constructed canals and
ditches, along with routine pumping of surface water into canal and rivers within the Basin. In
general, surface waters do not leave the Basin in average and drier years. However, surface
waters in the Kern Water Bank and Cross Valley Canal may be mixed with pumped groundwater
that occasionally flows to the California Aqueduct in drier years. (Tulare Lake Basin; Hydrology
and Hydrography: A Summary of the Movement of Water and Aquadic Species; 12Apr07; for
EPA by ECORP Consulting, Inc.).

                 Table 8-x Reservoir statistics, Tulare Lake Hydrologic Region
                           Year Completed           Capacity (af)             Operator
Kings River
Pine Flat Dam              1952                     1,000,000                 USACOE
Courtwright Reservoir      1958                     123,300                   PG&E
Wishon Reservoir           1957                     128,600                   PG&E
Kaweah River
Terminus Dam               1951                     143,000                   USACOE
 Spillway raise            2004                     185,630
Tule River
Success Dam                1961                     82,300                    USACOE
Kern River
Isabella Dam               1953                     568,000                   USACOE

Most of the agricultural water districts below the western slopes of the Sierra Nevada Mountains
capture and use runoff from major and minor streams as well as rely on groundwater supplies.
Multiple purpose reservoirs have been constructed on all major streams for flood control and
storage. These are multi-purpose reservoirs and provide conservation of water for flood control,
fish and wildlife protection, recreation, irrigation, and [municipal and industrial] water supplies,
and hydroelectric power generation. Long held water rights determine the amount of water that
can be delivered to any particular user in any particular year based on projected volume of runoff.
Water districts located in the western area of the valley floor depend heavily on imported water
from the CVP and SWP and corresponding contracts. These two projects follow a coordinated
operation agreement for water shortages, water quality, and environmental requirements.
Groundwater quality is often poor and availability is highly variable. In addition, drainage
problem areas have developed with high water tables.

Water management is a high priority in the region. Projects and programs to augment water
supplies through infrastructure improvements and management have resulted in the extension of



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available supplies. Improvements in conjunctive use, on-farm water management and irrigation
systems, water exchange agreements, water optimization studies and projects, water transfers and
the utilization of water banking facilities all emphasize long-term water management objectives.
Several water banking efforts include agencies from other regions whose water is banked during
sufficient water supply years while in water supply deficient years the surface supply of districts
in the Region is conveyed out of region while becoming more reliant on local groundwater.

CALFED was started as a way to forestall what many believed could have resulted in
significantly reduced water supplies due to possible non-compliance of the CVP and the parallel
State Water Project (SWP) with Clean Water Act and Endangered Species Act (ESA)
requirements. Implementation of these laws combined with the CVPIA in 1992 (which included a
dedication of 0.8 million acre-feet of CVP water supplies to fish and wildlife) have resulted in
reduced water deliveries to agricultural contractors in some cases and remain an ongoing tension
for water management and water supply reliability in the Tulare Lake region.

Rising population and a growing economy result in a growing need for water for municipal and
industrial uses. To the extent the region receives significant local and imported water, these
supplies are technically already allocated. The extent to which water delivered via federal
facilities is available to be used, or chosen to be used, by agriculture is an issue of utmost concern
in the San Joaquin Valley, and critical to the long-term development and vision for the valley.
Generally speaking, water allocation decisions (water rights decisions) are made by State
government. However, significant quantities of water are governed by federal contracts, and
deliveries in certain circumstances might be reduced in cases where project operations must meet
certain federal environmental regulations. The contractual obligations of the federal government
to deliver water must be considered in contemplating any changes in project water use. Further,
the State’s ability to reallocate water without compensating water rights holders has been called
into question. Consequently, any change in overall water use in the short term (at least as a
practical matter) is likely to occur only between willing sellers and willing buyers, except for
cases where project operations are found to violate state and/or federal law.

Water is used by several American-Indian Tribes in the region. The Tule River Reservation is
about 20 miles east of Porterville adjacent to Sequoia National Park. The Tule River serves as a
source of water to the reservation. The Tule River Reservation encompasses 55,356 acres.

HR 2535, the Tule River Tribe Water Development Act was introduced in late 2007 which would
have provided feasibility authorization.

The tribe's ultimate goal is to confirm federally reserved water rights sufficient to secure
permanent self-sustaining homeland for the tribe. The agreed upon water right was determined to
be 5,828 acre-feet (af) per year. The tribe would like to construct a 5,000 af reservoir. The tribe is
cautiously optimistic that the ongoing negotiations will result in a fair settlement of the tribe's
federally reserved water rights. (from Tule Tribe Web site) & (Statement of Robert Quint, Deputy
Commissioner, USBR).

The Big Sandy Rancheria lies on the western edge of the Sierra National Forest. A portion of the
property lies in a floodplain, which hinders the community’s ability to expand. The Rancheria
surface waters include the headwaters of Backbone Creek and three unnamed tributaries.
Groundwater is used as the drinking water source for the Rancheria. Water is provided by five
community wells, eight domestic wells, and one open well. These wells produce water from near-
surface alluvium and deeper fractured bedrock.




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The surface water quality assessment was detained due to funding constraints. However, the tribe
has received a Clean Water Act Section 106 grant to resume the assessment. The tribe is currently
establishing water quality standards for the rancheria using funds from the General Assistance
Plan and Clean Water Act Section 106 Program.

The Santa Rosa Rancheria is in Kings County just outside Lemoore with about 520 people living
on the property. Water is provided by groundwater wells, and the tribe maintains its own sewer
system. Even though the rancheria is located in the valley floor, farming was hindered by the poor
alkali soils dominating the areas.

The tribe operates a gaming facility providing revenue to the rancheria and having positive
impact to the rancheria. A Tribal Environmental Plan (TEP) has been adopted and outlines
tribally identified environmental and public health concerns, set priorities, and forge
comprehensive solutions for future years.

Located in Fresno County, Cold Springs Rancheria is in remote Sycamore Valley, about 40 miles
east of Fresno. A water and sewer system installed through Bureau of Indian Affairs serves the
approximate population of 170. The rancheria encompasses about 155 acres. The source of water
is from local groundwater. These wells produce water from near-surface alluvium and deeper
fractured bedrock. Community wells are used for drinking water, and for landscaping and fire
protection. Over the last several years funding has been received through the Indian
Environmental General Assistance Program and Water Pollution Control State and Interstate
Program Support to address some water- and sewer-related issues.

The Table Mountain Rancheria is in Fresno County near the town of Friant and Millerton Lake.
The rancheria consists of 61 acres of rolling hills and table top hills. The reported population is
around 11 with about 34 people in the adjacent population. The rancheria is the site of the Table
Mountain Casino. Groundwater from fractured rock is not available in volumes to sustain the
casino, and potable water is trucked in for use. A wastewater treatment plant serves a population
of approximately 10,000, largely originating from the tribal casino. The facility also serves about
30 private residential connections and a church, and does not accept wastewater from any
industrial facilities.

The water balance table for the Tulare Lake Hydrologic Region (Table 8-1) summarizes all of the
water supplies, uses, and outflows for years XXXX, XXXX, and XXXX and is supplemented by
the detailed regional water accounting information in Table 8-3. As shown in Table 8-x,
groundwater supplements available surface water each year to meet the region’s needs. In wet
years like XXXX, surface water adds to groundwater storage through a variety of recharge
mechanisms. In a drier year like XXXX, groundwater is pumped to meet water needs and results
in a removal of groundwater from storage. Table XX (in large format at the end of this chapter)
provides more specific information about the developed or dedicated component of water
supplies for agricultural, urban, and environmental purposes, as assembled from actual data for
XXXX, XXXX, and XXXX. In XXXX, an average water year, about XX percent of the Tulare
Lake region’s developed water supply came from local surface sources, XX percent was from
imported surface supplies, and groundwater provided about XX percent of the water supply.

  PLACEHOLDER Table 8-1 Tulare Lake Hydrologic Region water balance summary (taf)

  PLACEHOLDER Table 8-3 Tulare Lake Hydrologic Region water use and distribution of
                             dedicated supplies (taf)




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               PLACEHOLDER Table 8-4 Tulare Lake region water portfolio (taf)
About XX percent of the developed supply, excluding surface water and groundwater reuse, was
used for dedicated natural flows to meet instream flow requirements. Figure 8-XX and Table 8-
XX summarize all of the developed urban, agricultural, and dedicated environmental water uses
in this region for years XXXX, XXXX, and XXXX .

  PLACEHOLDER: Figure 8-3 Tulare Lake region water balance for water years 1998-2005
Groundwater pumping continues to be a major source of water supply for the Tulare Lake region,
and in many districts is managed in conjunction with surface supplies. Over the long-term,
groundwater extraction cannot continue to meet all of the current and projected water demands
without causing negative impacts on the groundwater basins.


Water Uses
[Describe regional water uses, major demand factors and trends, conveyance, uses by sector,
competing uses, constraints, issues, etc.]

Table 8-XX (Tulare Lake Hydrologic Region Water Balance Summary (taf)) summarizes all of
the water supplies, uses, and outflows for years XXXX, XXXX, and XXXX and is supplemented
by the detailed regional water accounting information in Table X.

Agricultural water use is the region’s largest user of water, follow by environmental and urban.
On average agriculture water use is XX percent, environmental XX percent and urban water use
is XX percent. The percentage of urban water use has been increasing over the years, climbing
from XX percent in 1980 to XX in 2005. Over the years agriculture water use has remained
relatively constant as irrigated acreage has risen, a credit to water use efficiency efforts in the
industry.

Normally, all native surface water supplies, imported water supplies, and direct precipitation
percolate into valley ground water if not lost through consumptive use, evapotranspiration, or
evaporation. Because of the closed nature of the Tulare Lake Basin, there is little subsurface
outflow. Thus, salts accumulate within the basin due to importation and evaporative use of the
water.

  PLACEHOLDER: Figure 8-xx Trends in water use from 1998-2005 for agriculture, urban,
                             and environmental uses


Water Quality
The Tulare Lake Hydrologic Region corresponds to approximately the southern one-third of
Regional Water Quality Control Board’s Region 5.

Overarching Water Quality Issues: Salinity is the primary contaminant affecting water quality
and habitat in the Tulare Lake Region. The groundwater basin in the San Joaquin Valley portion
of the region is an internally drained and closed basin. It has no appreciable surface or subsurface
outflow, except in extremely wet years. Salts (generally measured as total dissolved solids [TDS])
are introduced into the basin with imported water supplies. In addition, many of the naturally
occurring deposits along the western portion of the region are of marine origin and, therefore,
have high salt content. Although the water may leave the basin by evaporation or
evapotranspiration, the majority of the salts stay behind, potentially leading to a build-up of salt


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in the soil and groundwater. A number of regulated point sources discharge treated wastewater
into the region’s surface waters (including municipal sewage treatment plants, and food
processing, manufacturing, and oil and gas facilities).

Pollutants associated with agricultural irrigation and production: The Central Valley which
covers San Joaquin River, as well as the Sacramento River and Tulare Lake basins--has 40 water
bodies impaired due to agriculture, including 800 miles of waterways, and 40,000 acres in the
Delta. The pollutants associated with agricultural irrigation and production include nutrients,
selenium, boron, organophosphate pesticides (such as diazinon and chlorpyrifos), and toxicity of
unknown origin.

Drainage Issues: The most significant drainage issue in the Tulare Lake Basin concerns drainage
disposal, finding a cost effective and environmentally acceptable way to dispose of high TDS
drainage effluent.

In 2002, the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation released the San Luis report, which declared that an ―in-
Valley‖ solution to the drainage problem on the Valley’s Westside should be implemented. The
proposed alternative includes the following features: a drainwater collection system, regional
drainwater reuse facilities, selenium treatment, reverse osmosis treatment for the Northerly Area,
and evaporation ponds for salts disposal. Work on any resolution has yet to begin.

Considerable increase in groundwater TDS and nitrate occurs in San Joaquin Valley as result of
surface disposal of municipal wastewater and agricultural operations resulting in the deep
percolation of fertilizer and natural minerals. Contribution of TDS occurs from agricultural water
users, Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs), urban water users, rural water users,
environmental water uses, industrial users, water providers, petroleum production among others.

Consumptive use of water increases salinity and surface disposal of water results in deep drainage
which eventually reaches the water table. All of these activities contribute to salinity impairments
in surface and groundwaters, essentially identifying most of society a contributor to the problem.
It is essential that locals are part of the solution through development and implementation of
salinity management plan. Because these salinity concentrations typically occur very slowly,
surface and groundwater impairments can be difficult to measure and quantify.

According to the CVRWCB, ―The Central Valley Regional Water Quality Control Board and
State Water Resources Control Board have initiated a comprehensive effort to address salinity
problems in California’s Central Valley and adopt long-term solutions that will lead to enhanced
water quality and economic sustainability. Central Valley Salinity Alternatives for Long-Term
Sustainability (CV-SALTS) is an effort to develop and implement a comprehensive salinity
management program. The goal of CV-SALTS is to maintain a healthy environment and a good
quality of life for all Californians by protecting our most essential and vulnerable resource:
WATER.‖

DWR and other groups are working to explore ways to reduce the volume drainage effluent
through various means such as Integrated On-Farm Drainage Management (IFDM), Drainage
Treatment (by reverse osmosis, reducing and removing selenium through biological processes,
and managing salt by using solar salt-gradient ponds and agro forestry), Drainage Monitoring,
Desalination, and Proposition 204 solicitations and proposals.

Dairies, Stockyards, and Poultry Ranches: Concern in the region for their loadings of
pathogens, nutrients, salts, and emerging contaminants (such as antibiotics) to water bodies has



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increased. Some dairies and other agricultural operations are already subject to regulatory review.
There are approximately 675 dairy operations within the region (37 percent of state’s total), the
majority of them located in Tulare County (332). Of these, approximately 575 are of sufficient
size to meet the federal definition of a large CAFO, based on a threshold of 700 mature dairy
cows. Historically, most dairies in the region operated under a waiver of waste discharge
requirements; this waiver expired in January 2003 (California’s San Joaquin Valley: A Region in
Transition, December 12, 2005). According to an analysis by Western United Dairymen (WUD),
the cost to comply with the permits will be $40,000 initially and $30,000 annually.

Pesticides: Organophosphorous pesticide control generally has been identified as a priority for
the basin. (Add issues and current Status)

Delta Drinking Water Policy: Establishing a policy for protecting Delta drinking water quality
was seen as a priority by the Central Valley Regional Water Quality Control Board.

Erosion: Erosion of Westside streams is the primary source of organochlorine pesticides in the
San Joaquin River. (Add issues and current Status)

Depleted freshwater flows (Add issues and current Status)

Increasing Urbanization: While agricultural land use currently impacts water quality, rapid
urbanization of the Central Valley, conversion of undeveloped or agricultural lands to residential
and commercial use may present different or new water quality problems in the future. The
Central Valley Water Board has recently begun requiring many municipal dischargers to
implement costly tertiary treatment of wastewater.

Groundwater Quality: Naturally occurring arsenic and man-made organic chemicals—
pesticides and industrial chemicals— in some instances have contaminated groundwater used as
domestic water supplies in this region. Tulare County has been addressing nitrates in groundwater
for years. Figure 8-XX shows a drinking water quality map for Tulare County. County officials
estimate that at least 20 percent of the nearly 400 small, public drinking water supply systems in
the county are polluted, with nitrate levels exceeding the federal limit of 45 parts per billion.

              PLACEHOLDER Figure 8-x Drinking water quality in Tulare County
[Water quality information added by Water Quality Team Aug. 19, 2008, placed as appendix.
Summary paragraph will be added here. Content will be reduced in size, perhaps added to
appendices or refer reader to State Water Board’s Web site.]


Project Operations
The two largest water projects in the region are the CVP (Friant and San Luis units) delivering
water along the eastern areas of the San Joaquin Valley and the State Water Project (California
Aqueduct) delivering most water along the western San Joaquin Valley from Kings County south.
The majority of local surface water originates from the reservoir projects on the Kings, Kern,
Kaweah and Tule Rivers delivering water to numerous eastside water agencies and Kern County
water agencies (see Figure 8-XX, Water Agency Map).

                                    Figure 8-xx Water agency map




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Water Governance
Today’s water governance in the Tulare Lake Hydrologic Region is strongly tied to the period
following the Gold Rush, reclamation law, the passage of the Wright Act in the 1860s, the
Municipal Utility District Act of 1921, and various related historical legislation. Most of the large
irrigation districts can trace their origins to private investors efforts to build water distribution
systems to divert local rivers and streams to outlying land and expansion of farmland, land
reclamation and levee maintenance.

The region’s water management, planning, and flood control activities are generally governed by
counties, cities, private companies, and special districts created to perform specific functions.
Table 8-X (Agencies and roles in relation to DWR water management strategies) lists various
types of special districts. Water agencies/companies are highly visible to the average citizen; less
visible are water wholesaling and water recycling entities. There are 23 different types of
districts, local agencies, and entities identified in the California Water Code that have some
responsibility for the provision of safe, affordable water. County Local Agency Formation
Commissions (LAFCO) oversee the creation or change to public agencies. Water supply
considerations must be integrated into LAFCO boundary change decisions.




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       Table 8-x Agencies and roles in relation to DWR water management strategies




The interregional water conveyance systems of the CVP and SEP are operated by the federal and
state governments respectively. Local developed surface water systems include the diversion
points and canals along the Kings River for the Fresno Irrigation District, Alta ID, Consolidated
ID, along the Tule River for Porterville ID and Lower Tule River ID and along the Kern River for
Kern Delta ID and North Kern Water Storage District to name a few.


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There are many organizations involved in the sale, delivery, management, maintenance, planning,
reuse, and flood control aspects of water in the Tulare Lake Region. Table 8-XX (Selection of
organizations in Tulare Lake Hydrologic Region involved in water governance) lists a selection
of organizations involved in water governance in the region.

 Table 8-x Selection of organizations in Tulare Lake region involved in water governance
                        Entity                         Type                     Task
         U.S. Bureau of Reclamation               F            Operation of Friant Dam
         U.S. Corps of Engineers                  F            Operation of Pine Flat, Isabella,
                                                               Kaweah Dams
         Kern County Water Agency                 S            Water Supply and Flood Control
         Friant-Kern Canal (CVP)                  F            Inter-regional water supply
         State Water Project                      S            Inter-regional water supply
         Kings River Conservation District        L            flood protection, water supply,
                                                               power
         Kings River Water Agency                 L            Kings River entitlements, deliveries,
                                                               water quality environment
         Kaweah Delta Water Cons Dist.            L            Management of Kaweah River
                                                               water
         Fresno Metro Flood Control District      L            Local Flood Control
         Friant Water Authority                   L            Friant-Kern Canal maintenance
         Tulare Lake Drainage District            L             Drainage Management
         Tulare Lake Basin WSD                    L            Delivery, storage of SWP water
         Alpaugh Joint Powers Authority           L            Alpaugh ID and Tulare Co. Water
                                                               Works District
         Bear Valley Springs CSD                  L            water, police, roads, wastewater,
                                                               Solid waste
         City of Fresno, Water Division            L           water
         Deer Creek and Tule River Authority      L            water conservation, groundwater
                                                               management
         Dudley Ridge Water District              L            SWP contractor
         Henry Miller Rec District 2131           L            evacuate runoff and maintain
                                                               internal drainage
         Panoche Drainage District                L            maintain internal drainage
         Pinedale CWD                             L            water, wastewater, solid waste
         So. San Joaquin Municipal Ut. Dist.      L            agricultural water from CVP, WAPA
                                                               Power
        F (federal), S (state), L (local)


Flood Management
[Text for next 8 sections provided by flood team; may be shortened and parts placed in Flood
appendix]


Historic Floods
A family of cyclones from the mid-Pacific Ocean poured rain and snowmelt on low elevations of
the Tulare Lake Hydrologic Region in December 1955, inundating 183,000 acres of agricultural
land and the towns of Visalia, Three Rivers, and Exeter. Flooding during the 1966-1967 water
year took three lives and drowned 142,000 acres of agricultural land. Heavy precipitation plus a
prodigious snowpack in January and February 1969 caused flooding throughout the region and
re-inundated 89,000 acres of the Tulare Lake bed. An El Niño year contributed a string of
subtropical storms that walloped the region in March 1995, which resulted in severe flooding and
destroyed an Interstate 5 bridge near Coalinga. Heavy precipitation in January 1997 flooded the
region, submerging 50,000 acres of agricultural lands in the Tulare Lake bed. In 1998 heavy



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snowpack and warm rains produced flooding in the White River that flooded the City of
Earlimart and closed US 99 for a week.


Flood Hazards
While significant progress has been made to contain floodwaters in the Tulare Lake Hydrologic
Region, improvements to the flood control system are still needed to lessen the flood risk to
citizens and property.

    Flood control structures to protect the California Aqueduct from floodwaters flowing
     through tributaries of Arroyo Pasajero are inadequate.
    Little regulation of floodwaters from Caliente Creek and associated tributaries continually
     threatens agricultural and residential areas around Bakersfield.
    The Kings River near Laton lacks the channel capacity to contain 100-year floodflows.
    The White River west of Tulare County Road 208 lacks the channel capacity to contain
     100-year flood flows.
    Many levees in the Visalia area are not maintained and in poor condition.
    The flood storage capacity of Lake Success has been reduced due to dam instability.
    The leak in Lake Isabella’s auxiliary dam has reduced flood storage capacity, threatening
     communities along the Lower Kern River and Bakersfield.
    Proliferation of Arundo Donax in Valley waterways; the plant is extremely fast growing, a
     high water user, increases siltation, and interferes with the flow of water in a stream or
     channel.


Institutions
The region is home to various flood-control works. Dams have been constructed on the four
major rivers, which has substantially decreased flooding risks to urban and agricultural lands.
Many streams within Bakersfield, Visalia, and Fresno have been realigned and channelized.
Bypasses have been dug that reroute flood flows towards undeveloped areas. Small detention
basins pepper the landscape and prohibit flooding due to small creeks and washes.

Dams, detention basins, and channel improvements are constructed by the US Army Corps of
Engineers, with financial contributions from local flood control, water district, and public works
agencies. The National Resources Conservation Service and local agencies have also built flood
control structures (e.g., detention basins). Local agencies (e.g., Kern River Levee District) are
responsible for maintaining the integrity of levees, channels, and detention basins.

Emergency response is provided under the Standardized Emergency Management System
(SEMS) in order of available resources by local agencies, county emergency management
organizations, Office of Emergency Services (OES) regions, OES headquarters, with the DWR
Flood Operations Center and the Corps of Engineers supporting throughout. The Corps of
Engineers supports recovery of federal facilities; local and private facilities, housing, businesses,
and infrastructure depend on local resources and the allocation of event-specific federal or state
funds.




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Existing Flood Damage Reduction Measures
Flood damage reduction methods include structural works (e.g., dams, levees); land use policies
(e.g., zoning ordinances); and emergency measures (e.g., flood forecasting, flood insurance).


Constructed Flood Protection Facilities
Floodwaters from Big Dry and Dog creeks headed toward Fresno and Clovis are captured by Big
Dry Creek Dam and rerouted via a diversion channel into Little Dry Creek. The Redbank and
Fancher Creeks Project enlarged Big Dry Creek Dam and constructed Fancher Dam, Redbank
Detention Basin, Pup Creek Detention Basin, and Alluvial Detention Basin. With the exception of
Fancher Creek, these features provide 200-year protection to the Cities of Clovis and Fresno. The
Fancher Creek Detention Basin is currently being constructed as a local multi-year phased project
to further control flows in Fancher Creek before they reach the urban area of Fresno. The Fancher
Creek Detention Basin can now provide protection to the southeast Fresno area from the 100-year
event. A project with both agricultural drainage and flood control functions consisting of channel
modifications, pipelines, and an off-stream sump have been constructed on Stone Corral Creek,
resulting in protection for 11,000 acres of agricultural lands around Visalia. A sedimentation
basin and intertie between the Kern River and California Aqueduct has been constructed, which
funnels floodflows from the Kern into the aqueduct for beneficial uses in Southern California.

Reservoirs constructed on the region’s four major rivers all have as their primary function
containing floodwaters. These reservoirs and their pertinent parameters are listed in Table 8-x
Flood control reservoirs, Tulare Lake Hydrologic Region.

               Table 8-x Flood control reservoirs, Tulare Lake Hydrologic Region
Reservoir      Stream     Owner     Flood control     Protects                      Level of Protection
                                    capacity, (taf)
Pine Flat L.   Kings R.   USACE     136               340,000 A. ag in Tulare L.    1:100 rain, 1:50 snow
                                                      and along Kings R.            along Kings R.; 1:10 in
                                                                                    Tulare L.
L. Kaweah      Kaweah     USACE     185               386,000 A. ag along           1:50 along Kaweah R.;
               R.                                     Kaweah R. and in Tulare       1:10 in Tulare L.
                                                      L.; Visalia
L. Success     Tule R.    USACE     48                320,000 A. ag along Tule      1:50 along Tule R.; 1:10
                                                      R. and in Tulare L.;          in Tulare L.
                                                      Porterville
L. Isabella    Kern R.    USACE     159               610,000 A. of ag and oil      1:100 in Bakersfield;
                                                      fields along Kern R. and in   1:25 in western Kern R.
                                                      Tulare L.; Bakersfield        floodplain
Big Dry        Big Dry    USACE     32                Fresno, Clovis, and           1:200
Creek          Cr.                                    adjoining suburban areas
Diversion
Redbank        Redban     USACE     1                 Fresno and Clovis             1:200
Detention      k Creek
Basin
Fancher        Fancher    USACE     10                Fresno and Clovis
Dam            Creek
Fancher        Fancher    FMFCD                       Fresno and Clovis             1:100
Creek          Creek
Detention
Basin




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The California Data Exchange Center (CDEC) provides real-time flow and stage data for the
Kings, Tule and Kern rivers. CDEC also provides statistics relevant to flooding for dams in all
four of the region’s major drainages.


Flood Governance
The Central Valley Flood Protection Board has designated the following streams as floodways:
Kings, Kaweah, Tule, and Kern rivers; and Porter Slough. Fresno, Kings, Tulare, and Kern
counties regulate floodplain development and restrict floodway encroachment with their zoning
ordinances. General plans for the four counties discuss flood hazards and control measures in the
context of projected population growth, and provide guidelines for future flood control strategies.

DWR’s Awareness Floodplain Mapping project provides an easy-to-use computer interface that
allows a quick determination of a channel’s 100-year floodplain. All of Fresno and Tulare
counties have been mapped as part of the project; large swaths of Kern and Kings counties have
yet to be evaluated. However, 100-year floodplains in all developing areas within Kings and Kern
counties should be demarcated by 2012.

Most urban areas in the region have been mapped by FEMA. FIRMs were completed for the
flood-prone cities of Fresno and Clovis in 2001; numerous revisions have occurred since then. In
Tulare County, Porterville and Three Rivers were mapped in 1985 and 1986, respectively; FIRMs
became effective for Visalia and unincorporated areas in 1998. In Kern County, FIRMs were
established for Bakersfield and surrounding areas in the mid 1980s; a few subsequent revisions
have taken place. FEMA is currently updating all flood-zone maps for California.

Of 35 cities and four counties within the region, one city and two counties participate in the
National Flood Insurance Program Community Rating System. As of October, 2007, Kern and
Fresno counties and the City of Fresno were in CRS Class 8.


Operating Procedures
Flood reservation space in the region’s reservoirs is determined by a trapezoidal diagram of space
against date; the space is modified toward the end of the flood season. Diagrams usually require
an increasing flood reservation space through fall, which then declines through spring to early
summer. Conditional reservation space in Pine Flat Lake can be credited to Wishon and
Courtright reservoirs if the upstream lakes together contain more than 20,000 acre-feet of space.
Runoff forecasts or antecedent precipitation indices (API) are superimposed upon the diagrams to
better gauge the amount of flood reservation space required. The trapezoid and time period are
both reduced in API-controlled diagrams; conversely, those diagrams controlled by runoff
increase both the trapezoid and the time frame.

No coordinated agreements currently exist for the Tulare Lake Hydrologic Region. However,
during high water periods reservoir operators coordinate with DWR and the Corps of Engineers
during daily operations conferences at the Flood Operation Center in Sacramento. These
conferences often result in changes to reservoir operations.

Accurate hydrologic and hydraulic models inform the design of effective flood control structures
and emergency actions before, during, and after floods. The National Weather Service’s
Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service uses historical data, current river and watershed
conditions, and near-term meteorological outlooks to forecast river flows. The service is publicly



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available for all four of the major Tulare Lake Hydrologic Region’s streams just below their
respective reservoirs.

A number of other models describing the hydrology of the region’s rivers are available that
provide data relevant to flooding issues. The Kings River Water Agency (KRWA) has an
operational streamflow-prediction model that is used to estimate the amount of water available
for beneficial uses. The Kings River Conservation District and Upper Kings Basin Water Forum
have developed a regional model which simulates the ground- and surface-water systems of the
Kings Basin. Norman Miller at the Berkeley National Laboratory has modeled Kings River flows
based on two climate change scenarios (one dry and cool, the other wet and warm). For the Tule
River, a conjunctive use model has been created by researchers at the University of California,
Davis; Lyle Engineering has modeled the river’s hydraulics near East Porterville for a bridge
replacement project. The Central Valley Ground-Surface Water model (CVGSM) calculates a
water budget for all four of the region’s major rivers.


Emergency Procedures
Under the Standard Emergency Management System (SEMS), emergency response is first
undertaken by the local, responsible agency. Once the local agency’s resources are exhausted,
they are supplemented by the county emergency management organization. If necessary,
additional support is coordinated by the Inland Region of the Office of Emergency Services
(OES). Assistance from any state agency can be obtained through OES regional and headquarters
offices. The DWR Flood Operations Center is usually called early in a flood event to facilitate the
flow of information, provide field-situation analysis, and contribute flood-fighting expertise. Dire
situations requiring OES involvement may recruit emergency response by the Corps of Engineers
via DWR requests. Table 8-x (Flood emergency response organizations, Tulare Lake Hydrologic
Region) is a listing of specific response organizations.

Recovery may be bolstered by the Corps of Engineers if damaged facilities are components of
federal projects. Distribution of resources to repair local and private facilities, remove
floodwaters, and restore buildings is dependent on the severity of the event and the allocation of
event-specific federal and/or State funds.

    Table 8-x Flood emergency response organizations, Tulare Lake Hydrologic Region
Responder                                       Level    Comment
Emergency Services Units of the 35 cities in    1        Any emergency
the region
Emergency Services Units of the four            1 or 2   Any emergency, and by request from Level 1
counties in the region                                   responders
Department of Water Resources                   2        Flood Operations Center, flood fight, and Corps
                                                         liaison
Office of Emergency Services, Inland            3        Any emergency, entire hydrologic region, by request
Region                                                   of county
U. S. Army Corps of Engineers                   3        Specified water-related emergencies by request of
                                                         DWR
California Conservation Corps                   3        Personnel and equipment for flood fight
Department of Forestry and Fire Protection      3        Personnel and equipment for flood fight
Office of Emergency Services                    4        All emergencies, entire hydrologic region, by request
                                                         of OES Region




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                          Relationship with Other Regions
[Text provided by flood team]

In flood events, the Kings River may spill into the San Joaquin River via Fresno Slough and
James Bypass. Coordination of reservoir releases to both rivers is paramount to minimizing
flooding risks in the San Joaquin and Tulare Lake hydrologic regions. Thus, Kings River Water
Authority and the Corps of Engineers cooperate closely on reservoir operations during high water
periods. These agencies also participate in daily conferences at the State-Federal Flood
Operations Center in Sacramento. Additionally, cooperation between Pacific Gas and Electric
Company and the Corps of Engineers in the Kings River Basin has resulted in more effective
reservoir flood control operations.


Air Quality Issues in the SJV
The SJV has some of the worst air quality in the nation. The district is one of only two in the
United States classified by EPA as ―extreme nonattainment‖ for ozone. Ozone also causes crop
damage, by interfering with photosynthesis. According to the SJV Air Pollution Control District
(SJVAPCD), ―Studies have shown reductions of up to 20 percent in yields of grapes, cotton,
oranges, alfalfa, and tomatoes due to ozone exposure. As in Los Angeles, the Valley’s main local
source of pollution is a category labeled ―mobile sources‖ — principally cars and trucks. In part,
the Valley’s lack of progress may be due to the importance of air pollutants transported into it
from outside — principally from the Bay area.

Under EPA regulations promulgated in the spring of 2004, the SJV has until June 2013 to achieve
compliance with the ozone standard. EPA has also designated the SJV a ―serious‖ nonattainment
area for particulates (PM10). Since agriculture-related sources account for more than half of all
directly emitted PM10 in the Valley, growers will be required to participate in a Conservation
Management Practices Program to reduce emissions.


          Regional Water and Flood Planning and Management
Tulare Lake regions’ growing interest in the regional planning process is indicated by the rising
number of proposals submitted for funding considerations to DWR and SWRCB. Some of the
factors that are commonly considered in these regional planning efforts include:

      Population growth, impacts, and resulting water needs
      Groundwater overdraft and associated problems
      Preservation of prime agricultural lands
      Reliability of water supplies in foothill and mountain communities
      Reliability of water supplies for fish, refuges, and the environment
      Potential water transfers and exchanges and their effects
      Groundwater banking programs
      Groundwater quality issues, particularly for drinking and municipal use
SWRCB and DWR coordinated the technical review process of proposals based on criteria
outlined in the IRWM Implementation Grant Proposal Solicitation Packages (PSPs). Application
can be for Planning Grants or Implementation Grants.



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From California Partnership for the SJV, Strategic Plan
The California Partnership for the San Joaquin Valley has developed a strategic plan to address
water planning and is currently working to develop a Regional Water Plan. Several other local
groups are in the process of developing IRWM plans. In addition, the Council of Governments
within the Tulare Basin are activity involved in a Blueprint Planning process in an attempt to
reconcile ―pro-growth‖ and ―anti-growth‖ forces and attitudes, such as concerns about the need
for housing production and regional economic development, on the one hand, and resistance to
community change and environmental disruption, on the other. Blueprint planning seeks mainly
to coordinate long-range regional and local plans for transportation investment, air quality, and
housing, although in some cases such policy areas as energy and habitat planning are also
incorporated. An exception is the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA) – California’s
version of NEPA.

PLACEHOLDER: Box 8-xx Work Group: Water Quality, Supply, Reliability
and Environmental Restoration

Integrated Regional Water Management
There are currently three Integrated Regional Water Management Plans (IRWMPs) in the Tulare
Lake HR at varying stages of function and development. An additional plan is currently being
redeveloped. These IRWMPs are located throughout the HR, but portions of the HR are void of
IRWM planning

The three IRWM planning regions within this hydrologic region are all in the San Joaquin Valley
floor and cover major populated areas of the HR. The Upper Kings River IRWM is located in the
northern central portion of the HR. The Poso Creek IRWM is located in the southern portion of
HR. The Westside IRWM spans both the San Joaquin River HR and the Tulare Lake HR. Within
the Tulare Lake HR, the Westside IRWM generally occupies the north western portion. The area
of the HR falling outside current IRWM planning efforts represents opportunities for additional
future IRWM planning. These observations are made based on known IRWM regions at the time
this report was written. These statements do not preclude the formation of new regions or
modifications of existing regions as IRWM plans are living documents. Table XX and Figure XX
present the IRWM planning regions within the hydrologic region. . IRWMPs are living
documents and IRWMPs may change as planning efforts mature, opportunities for collaboration
and partnership are discovered, and State guidance is further refined.




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                 Table 8-x Strategies of Integrated Regional Water Management efforts in Tulare Lake
                                                   Hydrologic Region
                                                                                                                              Kaweah Delta
                                                                                                          Westside           Regional Water
                                                                                        Upper        Integrated Water         Management
                                                                    Poso Creek          Kings         Resources Plan         Implementation
                                                                      IRWMP            IRWMP             (May 2007              Program
                                                                                                                                          2
                       Plan strategies                              (July 2007)       (Jul 2007)          revised)1            (Nov 2006)
Addresses water quality in returning water to the CA                     
Aqueduct and the Friant-Kern Canal
Adopt water dispute resolution procedure                                                                                           
Conduct groundwater models                                                                                                         
Conjunctive water management                                                                                                     
Contribute in-kind services to evaluate pipeline connection               
Conveyance facilities improvement                                                         
Desalination (R/O)                                                                         
Ecosystem restoration                                                                                        
Environmental and habitat protection and improvement                                                         
Evaluate conjunctive management of connecting Friant-                     
Kern Canal to proposed flood control structure
Expand direct recharge                                                    
Expand in-lieu service areas                                              
Flood management                                                                                             
Follow proper well abandonment procedure                                                                                           
Follow proper well construction procedure                                                                                          
Get stakeholders involved                                                                                                          
Groundwater management                                                                                      
Groundwater and surface water monitoring                                                                                          
Groundwater overdraft mitigation                                                                                                   
Implement groundwater banking projects                                    
Implement non-structural projects: water exchanges and                    
groundwater banking
Implement third-party banking programs                                    
Implement wellhead protection                                                                                                      
Imported water                                                                             
Increase operational flexibility                                          
Land acquisition                                                                           
Land use planning                                                                                                                 
Mitigation of contaminated groundwater                                                                                             
Monitoring inelastic land subsidence due to water pumping                                                                          
NPS pollution control                                                                      
Participate in Regional Groundwater Committee                             
Prevent saline water intrusion                                                                                                     
Recreation                                                                                                   
Secure grant funding to offset capital cost                               
Storm water capture and management                                                                           
Strengthen relationship and cooperation with other agencies                                                                        
Support conjunctive management related to San Joaquin                     
River Restoration Flows
Support construction of wildlife enhancement components                   
Support District’s water supply pricing policy                            
Surface storage                                                                            
Update and implement groundwater management plan                          
Water and wastewater treatment                                                             

             1 The Westside Integrated Water Resources Plan regional boundaries overlap multiple CWP regions. This plan can also
             be found in the San Joaquin River HR section.
             2
               The Kaweah Delta Regional Water Management Implementation Program consisted of a groundwater management
             plan, water management agreement and supporting elements, and it was used as a functionally equivalent IRWM plan.



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                                                                                                                Kaweah Delta
                                                                                              Westside         Regional Water
                                                                              Upper      Integrated Water       Management
                                                           Poso Creek         Kings       Resources Plan       Implementation
                                                             IRWMP           IRWMP           (May 2007            Program
                                                                                                                            2
                        Plan strategies                    (July 2007)      (Jul 2007)        revised)1          (Nov 2006)
Water conservation                                                                               
Water quality protection and improvement                                                        
Water recycling                                                                                  
Water supply reliability                                                                         
Water transfers                                                                                                      
Watershed planning                                                               
Wetlands enhancement and creation                                                                



             The Kaweah Delta Regional Water Management Implementation Program consisted of a
             groundwater management plan, water management agreement, and supporting elements. The
             Kaweah Delta Water Conservation District used it as a functionally equivalent IRWM plan since
             2005-2006. A new IRWM Plan has been under development.

             The Tule River IRWM Plan and the Kern County IRWM Plan are proposed for development.




                 Figure 8-X Integrated Regional Water Management efforts in Tulare Lake Hydrologic
                                                      Region



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[Text provided by flood team]

            Flood Management provisions in IRWMPs
                 o Subject: Poso Creek IRWMP, Kaweah Delta IRWMP, Upper Kings Basin
                    Water Forum/IRWMP, Westside Regional Drainage Plan/IRWMP, Lower Tule
                    IRWMP
                 o Source:
                      http://www.sierranevadaalliance.org/programs/db/pics/1180464520_42
                      04.f_pdf.pdf, DFM Staff (Chris Adams), Map of IRWMPS.pdf.


Accomplishments
[Some text added by flood team]

The region has always strived to ensure adequate, reliable supply of water to supplement local
surface and groundwater and incorporation of water management strategies and infrastructure that
improves water use efficiency at all levels. Many projects and programs have minimized
flooding, saving lives and millions of dollars over the years. The following is a list of
accomplishments within the region toward this effort;

    Agricultural Water Management Planning and adoption of EWMPs; 27 of the 79 signatories
     are in the TLR accounting for 43 percent of the irrigated acreage (see Table 8-XX).
    Kern County, California Multi-Hazard Mitigation Plan, adopted in 2005
    Pine Flat Lake, 1954
    Lake Kaweah (Terminus Dam), 1962
    Terminus Dam Enlargement, 2005
    Lake Success, 1961
    Lake Isabella, 1953
    Big Dry Creek Diversion and Dam Project, 1993
    Kern River-California Aqueduct Intertie, 1977
    Redbank Detention Basin, 1990
    Fancher Dam, 1991
    Fancher Creek Detention Basin, year
    Little Panoche Reservoir, 1966
    Stone Corral Creek Project, 1978
    Lower Kings River Channel Improvements, 1976
    Pup Creek and Alluvial Drain detention basins, 1993
    Jerry Slough Improvements, 1969
    Conservation efforts of the Tulare Basin Wildlife Partners
    Water districts are working with individual growers to improve on-farm irrigation water
     management systems and efficiency through loans, irrigation services, delivery scheduling
     changes/modification, water transfers and other resources.
    Growers are steadily accomplishing irrigation system changes/upgrades, especially in
     permanent crops allowing more efficient application of irrigation.



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    Increasing grower adoption of irrigation scheduling programs and data which is reducing
     applied water requirements; fertigation, fertilizing through irrigation systems, particularly
     micro irrigation systems which is reducing leaching of fertilizer below crop root zone.
    Efforts to reconcile inconsistent year to year contract deliveries from the CVP and SWP
     through local optimization studies, shared infrastructure and cooperation.
    Urban Water Management Plans; increasing number of urban areas preparing UWMPs and
     becoming members of the California Urban Water Conservation Council and ―MOU‖, cities
     with approved plans, Table XX; BMPs, DMMs; SB 221 & SB 610
    Increasing number of areas with prepared Groundwater Management Plans; Groundwater
     Management Act of 1992, AB 3030, areas with approved GWM Plans Table XX; AB 255;
     AB 255; SB 1938
    Diversifying urban water sources and increasing water quality delivered; several urban
     areas are adding surface water treatment plants
    New sewage treatment systems are improving quality of water release back into the
     environment, into recharge basins and for irrigation.
    Increasing number of cooperative conjunctive use projects, distribution system
     interconnections, management strategies, water banks, etc.
    U.S.D.A. and U.S. Natural Resources Conservation Service agricultural and environmental
     enhancement programs
    The Lake Kaweah Enlargement Project
    The Coordinated Resource Management and Planning (CRMP) groups in the Tulare Lake
     region include the Panoche/Silver Creek CRMP, the Stewards of the Arroyo Pasajero
     Watershed CRMP, and the Cantua/Salt Creek Watersheds CRMP.
    Kern County Water Agency’s Kern River Restoration and Water Supply Improvement
     Program

The Tulare Basin Wildlife Partners is a leadership and advocacy organization with a local focus
that works to form partnerships, implement projects, educate the public and secure funding for
wildlife and their habitats in the Tulare Lake Basin. It cooperates, coordinates, and collaborates
with individual business, non-profit and agency partners to maximize the benefits of our shared
wetland and upland resources. It strives to develop a regional identity where freshwater and saline
wetlands and upland natural communities in the Basin can be protected, enhanced, and restored as
a microcosm of the historic natural richness in a way that compliments agricultural productivity
and recognizes and expands the economy of the Southern San Joaquin Valley, see Appendix XX
(from TBWPTLBWP Background membership handout Jan. 2008).

In 1990, the California legislature passed the Agricultural Water Suppliers Efficient Water
Management Practices Act, referred to as AB 3616. The Agricultural Water Management Council
was formed as an outgrowth of the AB 3616 legislation. It was established as a non-profit
organization dedicated to bringing together all interested parties in agricultural water
management with the expressed goal to achieve greater water management efficiency. There are
several documents that guide AWMC activities.

The Governor's policy and the MOU focus on a consensus-based, voluntary agreements between
all water interests. All members of the Council are signatories to the MOU.




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California does not have a statewide program to manage groundwater or a mandatory State
groundwater management statute. Groundwater management in California is a local responsibility
accomplished under the authority of the California Water Code and a number of court decisions.
There are six possible methods for groundwater management under present law. Groundwater
management is achieved by a combination of one or more of the following; overlying rights, local
agencies, adjudicated basins, Special Act Districts with groundwater management authority, AB
3030, and local groundwater ordinances. More detailed information can be found at DWR’s
groundwater web site,
http://www.groundwater.water.ca.gov/technical_assistance/gw_management/index.cfm

In California, 107 groundwater management plans have been adopted, 25 of the areas lie within
the TLR.

Surface water availability can vary widely year to year in the Tulare Lake Region. Consequently,
local conjunctive use water management and groundwater banking projects have been utilized for
years and are continually being expanded and updated. Recently, the Upper Kings Basin Water
Forum received a $6 million grant to help reverse the depletion of groundwater. Nearly $3.6
million of it would go to a local water banking project in northern Kings County. The grant
money is part of the state Department of Water Resources' $3.4 billion program enabled by
Proposition 50 passed by California voters in 2002. The forum achieved that through the
development of an integrated regional water management plan for the upper Kings River region,
which spans from Fresno to Kings counties.

The $6 million grant will be used for the following two projects:

    For the Fresno Irrigation District and Kings County Water District to expand the existing
     Kings County Water District Apex Ranch Water Banking Facility south of Kingsburg by
     220 acres for recharge and recovery to provide 10,000-14,000 acre-feet of dry-year water
     yield;
    For the Alta Irrigation District to construct the proposed Traver Groundwater Banking
     Facility in northwest Tulare County to capture surface water to enhance local groundwater
     level and later support a surface water treatment plant that would reduce the use of
     groundwater for municipal purposes in the future. The district had just completed its Harder
     groundwater recharge project not too far from Traver.


The Kings County Water District began a ground water banking project with the land purchased
in 2002, which is currently storing 22,000 acre feet of water. The banking not only helps the
recharge efforts, but is also a tool that allows the district to extract water in dry year. The project
allows for water to be pumped out of wells and put into ditches for farmers to use at a later date.

According to the Kings River Conservation District, over the past 40 years, overdraft in the Kings
Basin approaches 6.6 maf. The water quality problems around the Cutler-Orosi area should
benefit from these projects. (Hanford Sentinel ―County reaps grant for water project‖, May 8,
2008).


Challenges
            Challenges in ameliorating the hazards listed above.
                o Source: DFM Staff, Author.



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Topics - water supply, allocation, groundwater matters, salinity, urbanization, air quality, water
quality, poverty and jobs

The SJV has experienced several significant environmental and natural resource challenges over
the past two decades, most notably issues surrounding water supply and quality, air quality, and
growth and urban sprawl. While significant progress has been achieved in addressing some of
these issues, the SJV continues to face major environmental issues that are closely related to
existing economic sectors and can affect economic development planning for the future. This
includes prosperous growing urban economies, maintaining prosperous agricultural, diary, and
processing industries economies, to name a few. The geography and climate of the SJV make the
basin vulnerable to air pollution from outside the region and the area’s rapid growth over the past
decade has increased air pollution problems. Particulate pollution is a significant concern, with
some SJV cities among the worst in the United States (California’s San Joaquin Valley: A Region
in Transition, Dec. 12, 2005). Transportation sources are a major contributor.

Numerous water supply issues have arisen in the SJV. Growing urbanization and population
increases have resulted in new demand for water for M&I purposes; local environmental
enhancement efforts have increased the need for water; Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta water
quality needs and environmental needs are reducing the export volume of water pumped and
available in the TLR; the San Joaquin River Settlement will impact water diverted into the Friant-
Kern Canal; water costs influence the crop types that can be grown profitable; water delivery
contractual obligations and priority of water use brings many questions.

The SJV has experienced several significant environmental and natural resource challenges over
the past two decades, most notably issues surrounding water supply and quality, air quality, and
growth and urban sprawl. While significant progress has been achieved in addressing some of
these issues, the SJV continues to face major environmental issues that are closely related to
existing economic sectors and can affect economic development planning for the future.

Some of the challenges ahead related to flood protection include,

[Text added by flood team]

    The structural deficiencies of the Lake Success and Lake Isabella Auxiliary dams need to be
     repaired immediately to return the respective reservoirs to their full flood reservation
     storage capacities.
    Construction of flood control infrastructure on Fancher and Redbank creeks east of Clovis
     and Fresno needs to be expedited to protect these communities.
    Strategies that attenuate floodflows from Caliente Creek need to be identified and
     implemented in order to minimize damage to lands around Bakersfield.
    200-year flood protection needs to be provided to the California Aqueduct and Interstate 5
     to reduce flood damage caused by Arroyo Pasajero.
    Resources need to be provided to restore, analyze, ands certify levees in Tulare County in
     order to contain the 200-year floodflow.
    The floodplain around Exeter needs to be mapped as quickly as possible in order to provide
     sound guidelines for flood control projects and flood insurance rates.




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    Flood map updates should be expedited for Visalia, Porterville, Bakersfield, and
     surrounding areas to reflect recent changes in flood control infrastructure (e.g., structural
     and operational changes to dams).
    High water coordination of San Joaquin and Kings rivers flows using coordination
     agreements should become more formalized.

Whenever a region looks outside of its borders for more water, statewide water management and
integrated resource planning become important considerations. These decisions and
considerations must assess and compare the cost of increased water reliability against the
economic, environmental, and social costs of potential shortages.

In the short term, those areas of California that rely on the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta for all
or a portion of their surface water face an unreliable supply due to the evolving protections for
aquatic species and water quality. At the same time, California’s water supply infrastructure is
severely limited in its capacity to transfer marketed water through the Delta due to those same
operating constraints. Until solutions to complex Delta problems are identified and put in place
and demand management and supply augmentation options are implemented, some water-
dependent regions will experience imported water shortfalls. Such limitations of surface water
deliveries will continue to exacerbate groundwater overdraft in the Tulare Lake region because
groundwater is used to replace much of the shortfall in surface water.




                          Figure 8-XX Movement of salt in Central Valley
For many years, portions of the Tulare Lake region have experienced significant drainage
problems. The need for proper drainage of agricultural return flows has long been recognized by
federal and State agencies. In 1997 member agencies of the San Joaquin Valley Drainage


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Implementation Program and the University of California initiated a plan to review and evaluate
the 1990 Plan and update its recommendations. Eventually, the San Joaquin Valley Drainage
Authority, which includes districts in the Grassland, Westlands, and Tulare subareas, was formed
to develop a long-term solution for drainage problems in the valley, which could include out-of-
valley disposal. Studies continue in pursuit of cost-effective ways to dispose of the drainage
water. Salt movement in the Central Valley is illustrated in Figure XX.

In 2002 the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation released a new San Luis report, which declared that an
―in-Valley‖ solution to the drainage problem on the valley’s west side should be implemented.
The proposed alternative contains features that include a drainwater collection system, regional
drainwater reuse facilities, selenium treatment, reverse osmosis treatment for the Northerly Area,
and evaporation ponds for disposal of accumulated salts. Also in 2002 the Westlands Water
District and the United States reached a settlement agreement regarding the drainage of lands that
the federal government was legally obligated to provide to west side farmers.

In July 2006, the Bureau of Reclamation issued a final environmental impact statement that
described alternative means of providing drainage service to the San Luis Unit. Preliminary
feasibility estimates show neither identified alternatives costing greater than $2.2 Billion with
none of the alternatives being a net positive national benefit nor economically justified. Currently
the Bureau is working with the San Luis Unit’s local entities to develop a memorandum of
understanding that addresses a collaborative resolution of the drainage issue.
http://www.swrcb.ca.gov/rwqcb5/water_issues/salinity/initial_development/swrcb-02may06-ppt.pdf




Drought and Flood Planning
Add info about Drought Contingency requirement from UWMP and AWMP; along with historical
mgt. for such periods (conj use, idling of crops, water trading and supplemental purchases;
deficit irrigation; Urban Drought Guidebook; influence on increasing WUE

Defining when a drought begins is a function of the impacts of dry conditions on water users.
California’s extensive system of water supply infrastructure – reservoirs, managed groundwater
basins, and inter-regional conveyance facilities – mitigates the effect of short-term dry periods.
Hydrologic conditions constituting a drought for water users in one location may not constitute a
drought for water users in a different part of the state or with a different water supply. The Tulare
Lake Region has experienced water short conditions for over one hundred years which has
resulted in a water industry that has consciously developed, through careful planning,
management and facility design, the possibility of a shortage occurring in any year. Water
demand is more or less controlled by available, reliable long-term water supplies. Over the years,
agricultural acreage has risen and then dropped largely based on water supplies. The region
initially developed on surface water supplies which soon taught local water users could widely
vary in volume year to year and could develop into drought conditions. The introduction deep
well turbines resulted in a dramatic rise in groundwater use in the early 1900’s and provided a
supply of water that could be used during surface water deficient years. This resulted in a regional
reliance on conjunctive water use in the development of the local water economy.

During drought periods in the region, those who feel the effects of water shortages the most are
small water systems and their customers whose reliance on marginal wells, springs, and small
creeks make them especially sensitive to annual rainfall totals. Following a recommendation
made by the Governor’s Advisory Drought Planning Panel, California Rural Water Association
will bring small water systems a myriad of resources to aid in dealing with water shortages.


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Concerning Flood Activities
Program Assistance or Functional Assistance: The Emergency Services Act establishes the
Governor's Office of Emergency Services; provides for the evaluation of hazards and preparation
of emergency plans to deal with a wide range of disaster events including drought, and provides
for emergency powers at the local and state levels to respond to disasters posing threats to life and
property. California Office of Emergency Services (OES) monitors situations which may evolve
into disaster situations and participates on the state drought task force together with the California
Department of Water Resources and other state agencies.

Statute or Authority: CA Gov't code sections 8550-8668

[Text added by flood team]

The Fresno Metropolitan Flood Control District is a special district formed under the State Water
Code with a board of Directors appointed by the cities of Fresno and Clovis and Fresno County. It
has the authority to finance and construct flood control infrastructure between the San Joaquin
and Kings rivers in Fresno County. The district is responsible for both flood control and storm
drainage, and has a district services plan that describes, integrates, and organizes these tasks.
Kern County Water Agency, through Improvement Districts 1 and 3, is charged with curtailing
flooding in Weldon Valley and Rosedale with structural works.

In 2000, Congress enacted the Disaster Mitigation Act, which made available pre- and post-
disaster mitigation funds for states and local entities that drafted Hazard Mitigation Plans
(HMPs). Through multi-jurisdictional cooperation, these HMPs were to identify natural hazards
within the entities’ boundaries, assess the possible impacts of the hazards on infrastructure and
communities, and develop and implement mitigation strategies for reducing the loss of lives and
property to natural disasters. Kern County has adopted an HMP that identifies flood-prone areas
and presents measures for lessening the impacts of floods.

FloodSAFE is a strategic initiative of the Department of Water Resources that is guiding
development of regional flood management plans. These plans will encourage regional
cooperation in identifying and addressing flood hazards, and will include flood-hazard
identification, risk analyses, existing measures, and potential projects and funding strategies. The
plans will emphasize multiple objectives, system resiliency, and compatibility with State goals
and IRWMPs.

Looking to the future, the Governor’s Plan for California’s water future proposes to invest $4.5
billion to develop additional surface and groundwater storage to capture more water from storms
and prepare California for the impacts of global warming, invest $1 billion to protect the
Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta following the recommendation of the Delta Vision Blue Ribbon
Commission Task Force, and provide $450 million for restoration and conservation projects
throughout the state.


                                    Looking to the Future
Major water agencies and counties within the Tulare Lake region have been proactive for many
years in all facets of water use and supply planning. The efficiency of water diversions from local
rivers and streams is continually being optimized to meet agricultural and urban purposes. In
addition, when it became apparent that the groundwater supply was not sustainable for meeting
all future water demands, water agencies worked with the CVP and SWP to find ways to improve



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delivery capabilities. The predominantly agricultural economy is now adapting to share water
resources with the rapidly growing urban economy. New projects have been identified as
necessary to better manage the local water supplies, as well as to adhere to more stringent water
quality standards and environmental regulations. IRWM will be an important part of the region’s
future water management and projects. Supply augmentation, water use efficiency, demand
reduction, and salt management will all be part of the effort of meeting this challenge.


Future Scenarios
To be added


Climate Change
Climate change promises to present difficult challenges to the Tulare Lake Hydrologic Region.
Many models predict an increase in the rain to snow ratio, which would decrease lag times and
recurrence intervals. As a result, flood control infrastructure would be tested more frequently.
Stages for 100-year floodflows could increase, rendering structures previously built to contain
such flows insufficient. 100-year floodplains would be likely to grow and raise the number of
people required to purchase flood insurance. Extremely high flows could become common,
exacerbating levee erosion and causing more frequent and costly maintenance. Very high flows
could also result in more destructive floods due to increased suspension of large material (e.g.,
cobble-sized rocks, large woody debris), and higher stages that yield more stream power.

In general, models are predicting temperature rises in California of up to 4°C on an annual
average basis and of up to 5 °C on a monthly basis with the smallest increase in the TLR.
Increases in temperature were shown to be greatest in the central and northern areas of California.
The months of February, March, and May were shown to have the largest temperature response.
The net result is milder winter temperatures, an earlier arrival of spring, and increased summer
temperatures. Snow accumulation was significantly decreased in all months and regions, with
snow accumulation still beginning in November but lower monthly accumulations and ending
about a month earlier (large decreases in April 1 snowpack.) The impact would be much less in
the higher elevation of southern Sierra. For example in the San Joaquin/Tulare Lake region about
seven-tenths of snow zone would remain. The pattern of precipitation in models indicates a large
reduction in the months of December through April and smaller decreases in May to November
with the larger declines in the southern regions of California. The overall wet season ends up
slightly reduced in length. The models suggest that water demands will rise while the total
amount of water will decrease. The time when runoff occurs will change creating difficulties
meeting the periods when water is in greatest demand creating difficulties in the managing water
storage facilities for flood protection and water carryover. A reduced snowpack, coupled with
increased rainfall may require a change in the operating procedures for our existing dams and
conveyance facilities. These possible changes may require more sophisticated conjunctive
management programs in which the aquifers are more effectively used as storage facilities. It is
anticipated the overall ET will increase while soil moisture will generally decline except in areas
where precipitation will significantly increase. The higher water consumption with warmer
temperatures will likely only be partially offset by the carbon dioxide-based reductions. Thus, the
net result could be slightly higher agricultural water requirements. Warmer winter temperatures
between storms would be expected to increase ET, thereby drying out the soil between storms.
Work is needed to identify threatened lakes in California and projected impacts of such events on
downstream flows and groundwater recharge. Changes in recharge will result from changes in




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effective rainfall as well as a change in the timing of the recharge season. Paper No. 02153 of the
Journal of the American Water Resources Association (JAWRA)

The direct effects of climate change on ecosystems will be complex. The length of the overall
growing season was shown to increase. However, the economics of crop changes and quantitative
water use figures are subjects for future research. Ironically, areas such as the San Joaquin Valley
could be subjected to both increases in droughts and increases in floods if climate becomes more
variable. Studies suggest that changes in precipitation will affect water quantity, flow rates, and
flow timing. Decreased flows can exacerbate temperature increases, increase the concentration of
pollutants, increase flushing times, and increase salinity (Schindler 1997, Mulholland et al. 1997).

The Central Valley Project and the State Water Project are each operated under strict guidelines,
with constraints that have to be met prior to water being available for export. Even under existing
supply and demand patterns, water requirements are barely met under dry and critical water years.
Climate change will certainly impact water exports under current guidelines. Climate changes
that reduce overall water availability or change the timing of that availability have the potential to
adversely affect the productivity of Sierra Nevada hydroelectric facilities. Dams, canals, irrigation
systems and other water infrastructure are designed using historical past hydrologic records to
guide decisions along with information on temperature, water availability, and soil water
requirements. Consequently, continued reliance on the historical records now may lead incorrect
and potentially dangerous or expensive decisions. Given that risk, one of the most important
coping strategies must be to try to understand what the consequences of climate change will be
for water resources and to begin planning for those changes.


Response Strategies
Many areas within the Tulare Lake Hydrologic region are highly urbanized. Additionally, the
region is known worldwide as a top agricultural producer. As a result, the cost of damages to the
area could be astronomically high. Coupled with the likely growth of 100-year floodplains,
building or retrofitting flood control infrastructure to contain at least 200-year floodflows is a
sound, needed strategy for minimizing flooding threats.

A growing population, large irrigated acreage, and a heightened appreciation of California’s
natural resources, exacerbated by the implications of climate change, require the efficient and
sustainable use of every drop of water in the Tulare Lake Hydrologic Region. The San Joaquin
River Restoration Program will no doubt affect the Tulare Lake Basin, enhancing the need for
additional infrastructure and new water supplies. Hence, new projects should not only include
flood control components, but consider ways in which floodwaters could be maximized for
beneficial uses.

Table 8-XX presents the current list of statewide Resources Management Strategies. Each region
in the state will have a developed set of Regional Response Packages. These packages are
determined by the Regional Objectives and proposed RMS for each HR. The TLR Regional
Package includes ???? (needs to be developed.)


Implementation: Next Steps
(need local input here)




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California Water Plan Update 2009        Pre-Admin DRAFT            Ch 8 Tulare Lake Hydrologic Region
Volume 3 Regional Reports


The flood control benefits of lakes Isabella and Success are substantial when both reservoirs are
operating at full capacity. Thus, repairs to both reservoirs’ dams need to be expedited to return
full flood reservation spaces as quickly as possible. In the meantime, the Corps of Engineers,
FEMA, and local agencies should continue and complete preliminary emergency plans in the
event of dam failure.

Through the mechanisms of FloodSAFE, a more formal, streamlined, and available operational
plan for reservoirs in the San Joaquin and Tulare Lake basins could be created.

Continue efforts to identify the interrelationship of water agencies within a region and between
regions regarding water and resource management. Pursue regional meetings among interested
local water, flood and energy agencies, municipalities, and private organizations. Key issues will
include alternatives for water conservation, storage, WUE, water conveyance, treatment,
distribution, use, air quality. Addition efforts may include
      Financing – developing a plan to include grants to pursue, loans, etc
      Develop additional IRWM Plans
      Continued long-term planning – such as regular updates of the IRWMP
      Develop a Regional Response Package
      Coordinate and complete environmental process outlined in the (CEQA)
      and National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)
      Execute operating agreements
      Construct new facilities/ construction/implementation
      Improve and/or institute monitoring – such as monitoring of groundwater levels, water
       quality, water supply, etc.
      Improve basin understanding – such as, modeling USGS study, etc.
      Groundwater protection
      Governance – explore ways to improve water governance/regional authority
      Water agencies need to reach out to city and county planning agencies
      Include county health departments (vectors and recharge facilities)
      Land use planning and development needs to relate to water supply (―will serve‖ and
       entitlement conditions)
      Salinity/Water Quality objectives
      Climate Change, develop plans and alternatives



                          Water Portfolios from 2002–2005
    PLACEHOLDER Table 8-2 Percentage of acreage of each crop category by irrigation
                            method used, Kern County
Detailed information about actual water supplies and water uses (called ―water portfolios‖) for
water years 1998-2005 is presented in tables 8-XX – 8-XX and figures XX - XX.

The following three figures present some statistics about trends in agricultural production within
the Tulare Lake Region and state since 1960.



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California Water Plan Update 2009                  Pre-Admin DRAFT                 Ch 8 Tulare Lake Hydrologic Region
Volume 3 Regional Reports




                     Figure 8-XX Groundwater basins in the Tulare Lake Region
List of Basins, Basin/Subbasin (Basin Name) - 5-22 (San Joaquin Valley), 5-22.08 (Kings), 5-22.09 (Westside), 5-22.10
(Pleasant Valley), 5-22.11 (Kaweah), 5-22.12 (Tulare Lake), 5-22.13 (Tule), 5-22.14 (Kern County), 5-23 (Panoche
Valley), 5-25 (Kern River Valley), 5-26 (Walker Basin), Creek Valley, 5-27 (Cummings Valley), 5-28 (Tehachapi Valley
West), 5-29 (Castaic Lake Valley), 5-71(Vallecitos), Creek Valley, 5-80 (Brite Valley), 5-82 (Cuddy Canyon Valley), 5-83
(Cuddy Ranch Area), 5-84 (Cuddy Valley), 5-85 (Mil Potrero Area)




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California Water Plan Update 2009                                                                              Pre-Admin DRAFT                        Ch 8 Tulare Lake Hydrologic Region
Volume 3 Regional Reports


                                                                    Figure 8-xx Rate of population growth, running 5-year rate, 1960-2006


                                                                                 Rate of Po pu lation G ro w th, Runn ing F ive Year Rate
                                                                                                           1960 to 2005
                                                                    22




                                                                    15




                                                                     7
                                                                                                                  Legend
                                                                                                                 Region
                                                                                                                 Tular e
                                                                                                                 Kings
                                                                                                                 Ker n
        Pe rc e nt a ge G row th, Fiv e Ye a r Running Av e ra ge




                                                                                                                 Fr esno
                                                                                                                 S tatewide

                                                                     0
                                                                         1 965     1 973           1 981                      1 989         1 997       200 5

                                                                                                              Year




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California Water Plan Update 2009                                                                                                                                                                 Pre-Admin DRAFT                                       Ch 8 Tulare Lake Hydrologic Region
Volume 3 Regional Reports




                                                                                                                                                 TR EN D S IN A GR IC U LTU R A L PR OD U C TION , K ER N C OU N TY
                                                                                                                                                                IN D E X , A N N U A L Y IE LD /A C TO B A S E Y E A R 1960 Y IE LD /A C
                                                                                                         10




                                                                                                             8
                                                                                                                                                                    Legend
         IN D EX - A N N U A L YIELD /C A TO 1960 YIELD /A C




                                                                                                                                                      ST AT EW IDE T OT AL
                                                                                                                                                      W HE AT
                                                                                                                                                      T OM AT OES
                                                                                                                                                      AL F AL F A
                                                                                                                                                      AL M ONDS
                                                                                                             6




                                                                                                             4




                                                                                                             2




                                                                                                             0
                                                                                                              1960                                   1970                          1980                     1990                       2000                2010

                                                                                                                       In d e x - 1 9 6 0 = 1 .0 0                                            YEA R




                                                                                                                                TR EN D S IN A GR IC U LTU R A L PR OD U C TION , C R OP C A TEGOR Y A N D STA TE TOTA LS
                                                                                                                                                                             IN D E X , A N N U A L Y IE LD /A C TO B A S E Y E A R 1960 Y IE LD /A C
                                                                                                                 2.4

                                                                                                                                                                                          Legend
                                                                                                                                                                               ST AT EW IDE T OT AL

                                                                                                                                                                               VEGET ABL ES AND M EL ONS
                                                               INDEX, ANNUAL YIELD/CA TO 1 9 6 0 YIEL D/CA




                                                                                                                                                                               F RUIT AND NUT S
                                                                                                                 2.0
                                                                                                                                                                               F IEL D




                                                                                                                 1.6




                                                                                                                 1.2




                                                                                                                 0.8




                                                                                                                 0.4
                                                                                                                       1960                                   1970                            1980                           1990                   2000           2010

                                                                                                                             Index - 1960 = 1.00
                                                                                                                                                                                                           YEA R




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California Water Plan Update 2009                           Pre-Admin DRAFT             Ch 8 Tulare Lake Hydrologic Region
Volume 3 Regional Reports




                            Trends in Agricultural Production Value and
                          Cropland Acreage, 1960-2005 - Tulare Lake Region
                 1300


                                           Legend
                                  Irrigated Crop Land
                 1040             T otal Agricultural Production




                 780
         Index




                 520




                 260




                   0
                   1960                 1970              1980          1990          2000         2010

                        Index N umber 1960 = 100
                                                                 YEAR




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Description: Ppt on Safety in Contracts ,Chapter3 document sample