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ANALYSIS OF COLLECTED BULKY WASTE CA SITE REUSE

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					Analysis of bulky waste collections and bulky CA residue in Essex and Thurrock     Katarina McCartney
- Identifying opportunities for diversion and reuse                              ECORRN/WasteWISE




           (UNPUBLISHED DRAFT FOR COMMENT/IMPROVEMENT)




             ANALYSIS OF BULKY
          WASTE COLLECTIONS AND
          BULKY CA WASTE RESIDUE
            IN ESSEX & THURROCK


               BASE DATA FOR
       IDENTIFYING OPPORTUNITIES
        FOR DIVERSION AND REUSE



                                Katarina McCartney
                           ECORRN / WasteWISE Researcher
                               kat@mccats.plus.com
                                   07841 346672


                             Lewis Herbert
              ECORRN Network Organiser/WasteWISE Consultant
                      lewisherbert@btconnect.com
                             0774 853 6153



                                                                                                    1
Analysis of bulky waste collections and bulky CA residue in Essex and Thurrock     Katarina McCartney
- Identifying opportunities for diversion and reuse                              ECORRN/WasteWISE


Contents
Executive Summary

1.0 Introduction

   Table 1 – Purposes of the report

   Table 2 – Routes that bulky waste becomes a council responsibility

2.0 Bulky Waste

2.1 What bulky household waste consists of ?

   Table 3 – Six major categories adopted for bulky waste analysis

2.2 Assumptions in calculating tonnages

   Table 4 – Assumptions

3.0 Bulky Waste Collection Stages

3.1 Five stages in households obtaining a bulky collection

4.0 Bulky waste collections in Essex

   Table 5 – Current bulky collection methods and staffing

4.1 Demand for bulky waste collections in Essex

   Table 6 – Bulky waste collection charges

   Table 7 – Analysis of collection trips made in Essex – 2003/04

   Graph 1 – Frequency that average Essex householders require a bulky waste collection

4.2 The impact of charging rates

   Graph 2 - Correlation between demand for bulky waste collection and charging

4.3 Quantities of bulky waste collected by Essex districts/unitaries 2003/04

   Table 8 – Districts that provided detailed bulky waste figures

4.4 Comparative data from recent wider recent M-E-L studies

   Graphs 3 to 6 - Breakdown of bulky waste in 4 districts in Essex – refrigeration and
   other bulky items




                                                                                                    2
Analysis of bulky waste collections and bulky CA residue in Essex and Thurrock     Katarina McCartney
- Identifying opportunities for diversion and reuse                              ECORRN/WasteWISE

   Graph 7 – Percentage split from a detailed analysis of bulky waste collections – average
   of Thurrock and Crawley (West Sussex) 2003/04

   Graph 8 – Percentage split from a detailed analysis of bulky waste collections in
   Greenwich 2003

   Graph 9 – Actual and estimated number of bulky waste items collected by 7 districts in
   Essex 2003/04

   Graph 10 – Actual and estimated tonnes of bulky waste collected by 7 Essex districts
   2003/04

   Graph 11 – Actual and estimated number of bulky items collected by all Essex districts
   2003/04

   Graph 12 – Actual and estimated tonnes of bulky items collected by all Essex districts
   2003/04

   Table 9 – Breakdown of items in Essex district

4.6 Achievable diversion of household bulky waste

   Table 10 – Applying the waste hierarchy ladder to bulky waste - staged approach for
   maximising recovery and reducing waste

   Table 11 – Estimated reusable and recyclable fraction of bulky waste collections in
   2003/04

5.0 Essex and Unitary Civic Amenity and Recycling Centres (called ‘CA site’ for
    short below)

   Graph 13 – Total tonnage of bulky waste collected at CA Site in Essex (M-E-L research)

   Table 12 – Total CA Site waste quantities

   Graph 14 – CA Site detailed analysis– bulky waste breakdown for 9 sites in Essex

6.0 Total potential tonnage diversion

   Table 13 – Total potential tonnages that could be saved from landfill
   Tabulated information shown also in Graph 15

7.0 Conclusions

7.1 Reuse – Wider benefits of taking bulky waste out of landfill
   Table 14 – The triple bottom line/wider benefits of reuse

7.2 Developing partnerships

7.3 Further research and planning


                                                                                                    3
Analysis of bulky waste collections and bulky CA residue in Essex and Thurrock     Katarina McCartney
- Identifying opportunities for diversion and reuse                              ECORRN/WasteWISE

Appendices
  1 – Estimated quantities of collected bulky waste in Essex (from M-E-L report)

   2 – Categorisation of common items in bulky waste
   (including listing of items regularly featuring in collections)

   3 – Five different levels of ‘bulky reuse partnerships’ - for increasing reuse/diversion of
   both collected bulky waste and CA waste bulky residue – WasteWISE concept diagram

Executive Summary
Currently, all 12 Essex district councils and the 2 neighbouring unitaries – Southend and
Thurrock – all collect household bulky waste in door-to-door collections on request from
the householder.

Of the 12 districts in the Essex County Council area, 9 replied to the ECORRN/
WasteWISE survey late 2004, and 5 districts also provided detailed analysis on their bulky
waste collection quantities.

Information on the 4 councils that did not reply (Brentwood, Chelmsford and Tendring, and
Southend unitary) has been added from their websites and from the previous composition
studies by M-E-L Consultants. Data has also been extrapolated using realistic estimates
for quantities in the councils who did not reply to this recent survey.

Overall, the analysis is that an estimated 6208 tonnes of bulky waste items are currently
collected and buried in landfill sites across Essex, irrespective of the quality or re-usability
of the items.

On top of this, a further estimated 4470 tonnes of undiverted bulky waste items are
deposited by householders, along with other waste, at Essex, Thurrock and Southend
CA Sites and also landfilled, after separation of value items by the site contractors.

Of this 10,678 tonnes of bulky waste, an estimated 2130 tonnes (20%) could be potentially
reused by community groups (or other reuse contractors) and a further 1065 tonnes (10%)
recycled by them, adding to a projected minimum of 3200 tonnes (30%) diversion from
otherwise wasted tonnage. This would yield substantial benefits for Essex communities
socially and economically, as well contribute to each council’s recycling targets.

The majority of councils make charges for collections (Table 6) but a significant number
provide free bulky collections, but several are reviewing this policy. The application of
charging by all councils, preferably on a consistent basis, paired with the development of
community reuse alternatives. would yield a significant reduction of bulky waste going to
landfill.

With over 60% of the above being timber, this will also contribute at least 1600 tonnes to
the challenging future Essex and unitary LATS targets for organic household waste.

Roughly 70,000 Essex fridges were also collected and recycled via Technowaste at
Basildon last year, resulting in an estimated further 3000 tonnes of metal and plastic
recycling.


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Analysis of bulky waste collections and bulky CA residue in Essex and Thurrock     Katarina McCartney
- Identifying opportunities for diversion and reuse                              ECORRN/WasteWISE

This is in addition to significant recycling of metal white goods and other metal by sites
contractors from the CA site element.

This report, combined with quantification study into community groups ability to accept
more items for reuse, provides a consolidated information base for future in depth analysis
by London CRN and ECORRN into bulky waste opportunities in Essex. This analysis will
be a positive step in aiding both councils to reduce their waste going to landfill, and
community organisations to achieve their training, redistribution and environmental aims.

Currently, bulky items are not managed or collected in a way to enable reuse. The system
is based on efficient disposal to landfill. A wide range of (low cost) changes would be
needed from effective information to, and choices by, households, dry storage pre
collection, separation of ‘readily reusable/recyclable’ items from real waste, careful
handling, collection then in appropriate flatbed vehicles not compaction vehicles, delivery
to reuse project, etc. These will be developed in the London CRN consultancy work.

Links to three related detailed Essex bulky waste studies

(1) WasteWISE/MEL also recently undertook a very detailed compositional and seasonal
2004 analysis of bulky waste collections for Thurrock Borough Council, including a
comparison to Crawley - an area with very similar demography and reuse plans. This
study assisted the future development of the Second Generation reuse centre, which
secured approximately £250,000 funding for 2005 to 2007. This report is available on
request and is of particular value to councils/organisations with areas demographically
similar to Thurrock.

The Thurrock report included an analysis of the different levels of ‘bulky reuse
partnerships’ applicable for both collections and CA sites e.g. in Thurrock - Appendix 3.
Staged increased diversion starts with service integration at Level 1, running all the way
up to community reuse projects taking over the whole service – Level 5. This concept
diagram provides the means for assessing the best option for each district/unitary given
the need for ‘different horses for different courses’, and for managing expansion in stages.

(2) We can also share a more detailed 2004/5 study by Community Recycling Services
Ltd of bulky waste diversion opportunities for Braintree District Council and its potential
community recycling/reuse partners.

(3) The ECORRN/WasteWISE research team earlier quantified diversion by the Essex
community projects and charity shops in a further report, and estimated that, among a
total diversion of approximately 10,000 tonnes/year, well over 1000 tonnes of household
furniture and electricals are also reused annually by Essex projects and charities
- see ‘publications’ at www.ecorrn.org.uk.

This research also showed that, while on average Essex reuse projects are medium scale,
they have considerable strengths and resources, and the capacity to expand significantly.

The link with this wider research matters, as the diversion opportunities lie in developing
partnerships between councils and projects/infrastructure with the capacity and
commitment to put sustainable diversion schemes in place.



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Analysis of bulky waste collections and bulky CA residue in Essex and Thurrock     Katarina McCartney
- Identifying opportunities for diversion and reuse                              ECORRN/WasteWISE


1.0 Introduction
This report assesses current practice in household bulky waste collections by districts and
unitaries in Essex and analyses diversion opportunities. It is based on responses from 9
districts, Essex County Council and unitary Thurrock Borough Council.

This is supplemented by parallel analysis of opportunities via CA sites and the recent in-
depth analysis of Thurrock bulky waste composition. Thurrock has been used due to
previous work on collected bulky waste item composition in the district. This report is
available on request.

This report analyses how much bulky waste that community organisations, in the 14
districts/unitaries in Essex, could potentially need access if local or combined bulky waste
reuse schemes were to be created. Organisations would need to work in partnership with
the local authorities in seeking to maximise reuse of materials from the council’s/ waste
contractor’s bulky waste collection services and extra diversion working with CA site
contractors. This assessment provides a base for three purposes:


                           Table 1 - Purposes of the report
1 Subsequent analysis on the most practical way of maximising the amount of
  household bulky waste that can be diverted from landfill through additional reuse
  and/or recycling by the community sector. This could be achieved by implementing
  best UK practice and by assessing the transferability of reuse partnerships/contracts
  working elsewhere.
2 Making wider recommendations e.g. to improve bulky collection systems and
  recording methods (given the limited data available for the current project) or
  improving marketing/awareness of reuse opportunities so the public assists increased
  reuse.
3 Both councils and reuse projects to separately assess current issues and future
  opportunities, tackle obstacles, and then discuss the potential for joined up delivery
  and increased diversion to reuse (and so the report has been written for both
  audiences).

Furniture and electrical goods are replaced and discarded by households at an ever-
increasing rate. This occurs, at higher replacement rates in affluent areas, well before the
item has broken or is worn out. Discarded items enter the waste stream, and become a
council responsibility, when they are either:

           Table 2 – Routes that bulky waste becomes a council responsibility
                   A                                  B                          C
Taken by the householder to CA          Collected by district        Fly tipped or dumped
Sites (known in Essex as to Civic       councils as part of their    (*) except in the rarely
Amenity and Recycling Centres)          bulky waste service.         successful prosecution.
(*) includes opportunities from household waste left behind by tenants

Currently the final destination for most items is landfill. This report will assess the
potential of these items to be ‘readily reused/recycled’.




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Analysis of bulky waste collections and bulky CA residue in Essex and Thurrock     Katarina McCartney
- Identifying opportunities for diversion and reuse                              ECORRN/WasteWISE


2.0 Bulky Waste
2.1 What bulky household waste consists of?

Bulky household waste is defined in waste regulations as predominantly household effects
that the householder no longer has a use for and wishes to discard. Setting aside
garden/green and DIY waste, the bulk of this is large items, mainly furniture and electrical
goods that are usually being replaced. Households also store significant quantities of such
items, in between occasional clear outs/home moves.

The six major categories of bulky waste items adopted in this analysis are:
            Table 3 – Six major categories adopted for bulky waste analysis
    Bulky waste category            Example of items
    Hard furniture                  Cupboards, tables, chairs, wardrobes, mainly wooden
1
                                    but not exclusively
    Soft furniture                  Beds and mattresses
2
     Refrigeration                        Fridges and freezers, requiring specialist processing
3
     Large kitchen appliances             Washing machines, cookers, tumble dryers
4
     (known also as ‘white goods’)
     Domestic electronic                  Computers, TV’s, stereos, toasters, vacuum cleaners
5    equipment

     Other bulky items                    Carpets, garden and external play items
6
               See the wide range of bulky waste items categorised in Appendix 1

On electricals, the three way split also mirrors the opportunity for separating each stream,
assisted by the WEEE Directive requirements.
Other items do not enter household waste but reach reuse via furniture projects, charity
shops, second hand sale or exchange, car boot sales, donation to friends and relatives. It
has not been part of this study to quantify reuse of items that do not enter the household
waste stream but this is an essential element in understanding and expanding reuse in
Essex. A previous study carried out by ECORRN quantifies the tonnage of items reused
by the community sector and charity shops – see ‘publications’ at www.ecorrn.org.uk.

2.2 Assumptions in calculating tonnages
                    Table 4 – Assumptions in calculating tonnages
                      Items                      Average weight (tonnes)
      Fridges, freezers and fridge freezers                0.045
                  White goods                              0.032
           Other bulky electrical items                    0.018
               Furniture buly items                        0.024
                   Other bulky                             0.023
                   (All WEEE)                             (0.025)
      (Bulky items, excluding refrigeration)              (0.030)

Source: Averages based on CRN/FRN ‘Measure your Treasure’ weights / item categories.


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Analysis of bulky waste collections and bulky CA residue in Essex and Thurrock     Katarina McCartney
- Identifying opportunities for diversion and reuse                              ECORRN/WasteWISE



3.0 Bulky waste collection stages
As with most local authorities, Essex districts and unitaries currently offer a fairly traditional
bulky waste service where large items are collected from households on request and the
districts charge varying amounts and set different collection policies (Table 6)

Across Essex, separately collected fridges and in the case of Uttlesford, white goods and
larger electrical items, are sent for recycling. Virtually all other bulky waste, including
items collected in mixed loads, and hard/soft furniture etc., are currently sent for direct
disposal to landfill.

There is very little evidence of reuse in Essex once material enters household waste.
Some districts, Colchester, Maldon, Thurrock and Uttlesford actively refer residents to the
local reuse groups in their area. Reuse has, arguably, been neglected in national policy
until recent announcements re: reuse of WEEE, plans for new reuse credits etc.

3.1 Stages in Households Obtaining Bulky Collection - Detailed Look at Five Stages

It is important to understand current collection processes as a base for any changes, and
for better combining the objectives and collections of both councils and community
reuse/recycling groups.

Stage 1: Resident has item to dispose of and chooses between two options if they
require ‘disposal’ – delivery to CA site or collection by district council

The resident decides to dispose of the bulky item.

Their alternative is to take the unwanted item to the nearest CA site. For the 19% of
households in Essex without a car or van this is not normally an option readily open to
them (2001 census figures).

Another deciding factor for the resident is whether they feel they can afford (or more often
want to pay) the collections fees set by districts. Some Councils - Basildon, Harlow,
Rochford and Uttlesford – currently provide collections for free, which provides little
incentive on households to reuse, or value their unwanted item. Understandably, many
Councils offer reduced charges or free collection to pensioners those on benefit. Table 6
shows the charging to residents of each district in Essex.

The alternate option for the resident is to take the item directly to a local reuse
organisation. This has its limitations transferring goods, locating organisations and the
current countywide lack of reuse awareness, being addressed at least initially by the
current joint council/ECORRN awareness campaign. Information quality for households
needs to be significantly improved and be consistent, with the same information provided
by both councils and reuse groups.

Stage 2: Resident contacts council or waste/client department if they require
collection of bulky item(s)




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Analysis of bulky waste collections and bulky CA residue in Essex and Thurrock     Katarina McCartney
- Identifying opportunities for diversion and reuse                              ECORRN/WasteWISE

Households can contact their council office call centre or contractor call centre (Table 5),
at the office either by phone or by completing an application form. Either the contact
centre or waste/client department informs the resident of the options available. Some may
refer the resident to a possible reuse organisation but often only if they ask.

Essex district council websites are generally more informative on average than typical
council sites but more can be learnt and ‘best practice’ adopted, including Castle Point’s
online booking form and Chelmsford’s effective summary of the service and charging, and
referrals to alternative reuse organisations/charity shops.

Stage 3: Call centre informs resident of options, obtains payment and arranges
collection time/details

Households confirm requirements, and Council (or sometimes contractor) then book and
process the job details and passes them on to the relevant collection crew, which is either
an in-house Direct Services Organisation (DSO) or waste contractor (Table 5).

Data management is a key issue here, and the development of IT based systems which
guide all staff, and also enable the managed increase of viable reuse/recycling.

Stage 4: Collection of the item and handling on to vehicle

As shown by council responses (Table 5), in Essex’s case a large amount of collections
are made with caged vehicles or box vehicles with 2 to 3 staff. What is un stated however
is the % collected in compaction vehicles As long as the items are handled with care,
using the appropriate vehicles and handling, most will be in a suitable state for
ready/potential reuse, or to be recycled. The use of boxed vehicles is preferable, as
identified in national guidance prepared for DEFRA by Network Recycling, as this would
prevent water damage due to rain, a problem that materials in caged vehicles suffer.

A key issue is the unquantified proportion of bulky waste collected locally by compaction
refuse freighters – and immediately rendered unreusable/unrecyclable. Potentially
reusable items are being destroyed even before they reach landfill, which would be
averted by both district-led separation, and were the county council to require effective
separation as a pre-condition to accepting worthless bulky waste at landfill.

Stage 5: Delivery of bulky item direct to its final recycling/landfill destination, or
bulking up/ transhipment via temporary storage

Since January 2002, all fridge/freezers are separated and recycled due to the legal
requirement to remove Ozone Depleting Substances from refrigeration equipment. The
success in effective separation, and the systems set up to achieve this, show what can
also be achieved for each other category in Table 3

Apart from refrigeration equipment, current separation is limited:

- only 1 out of the 9 district councils surveyed currently recycles white goods
- 1 out of the 9 reuses some furniture, and
- 1 out of the 9 recycles or reuses other bulky waste.



                                                                                                    9
Analysis of bulky waste collections and bulky CA residue in Essex and Thurrock      Katarina McCartney
- Identifying opportunities for diversion and reuse                               ECORRN/WasteWISE

The London CRN consultancy will follow up ECORRN investigations, expanding the
research, and assessing barriers/opportunities. The other side of the coin, in reducing
residual bulky waste, is the need to have more reuse/recycling infrastructure – for the
community sector facilities to expand and be taken to their economically sustainable limit,
and for other options to be considered to assist this succeed and complement this change.


Currently, the system is based on efficient disposal to landfill. A wide range of (low cost)
changes would be needed from effective information to, and choices by, households, dry
storage pre-collection, separation of ‘readily reusable/recyclable’ items from real waste,
careful handling, collection then in appropriate flatbed vehicles not compaction vehicles,
delivery to reuse project, etc. These will be developed in the London CRN research study.




4.0 Bulky Waste Collections in Essex
                Table 5 – Current bulky collection methods and staffing
                                                             Number of full time
                     Who books in                            employees on
           District requests?         Current vehicle used   bulky collections
                                              Box vans and any of 11
        Basildon                              different freighters
                         Contact Centre       (compaction vehicles)        Unanswered
        Brentwood
                         Contact Centre
        Braintree                             1 box vehicle with tail lift
                         Contact Centre       for refrigeration, 1 freighter 2 staff 3 days/week
                                                                             No permanent
        Castle Point     Contact Centre       1 caged, 1 freighter           collectors
        Chelmsford
                      Contact Centre
        Colchester    Customer Service
                      Centre              1 freighter                      2
                      S Herts Waste
        Epping Forest admin team
        Harlow
                      Central call centre 1 freighter                      2
        Maldon
                      Contractor          Unanswered                       Unanswered

        Rochford         Automated service    1 caged for metal
                         – refuse dept        1 freighter for furniture
        Southend         Cory admin team
        Tendring         Onyx admin team
        Thurrock         Cleanaway
                         admin team           1 caged, 1 freighter         3
        Uttlesford       Environmental        1 caged (white goods)
                         services admin.      Rest in any of 11
                         team                 freighters                   Unanswered



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Analysis of bulky waste collections and bulky CA residue in Essex and Thurrock               Katarina McCartney
- Identifying opportunities for diversion and reuse                                        ECORRN/WasteWISE




4.1 Demand for bulky waste collections in Essex

The demand for bulky waste collections in Essex varies from district to district. Key factors
in the quantity of bulky waste collection requests are the level of district charges, the
proximity of CA sites to the resident, and whether they have a car. The largest number of
collections per household occurs where districts offer a free service. Table 6 lists the
current collection charges in Essex.



                             Table 6 – Bulky waste collection charges

             Local         FREE       £12     £15    £20    £21-    £27    £37     £40     £45   Quoted
           Authority                                        £25
          Basildon        Free up
                         to 5 items
          Braintree                                                                Up
                                                                                   to 12
                                                     Each
                                                     f/f
          Brentwood                                                                              Quoted
                                                                                                 each
                                                                                                 time
          Castle Point   OAP’s 2                            Up
                          items                             to 5
                          per yr
          Chelmsford                          £18                                                Higher
                                              Up                                                 amounts
                                              to 6                                               quoted
          Colchester                  Each                  Up
                                      white                 to 5
                                      good
          Epping                                            Up      Up     Up              Up    Run by
          Forest                                            to 3    to 7   to 10           to    S Herts
                                                                                           15    Waste
          Harlow          Free up
                         to 3 items
          Maldon                              Per           For
                                              trip          each
                                                            f/f
          Rochford        Free up
                         to 3 items
                            per 3
                          months
          Southend         Left to                                                               Quoted
                         contractor                                                              by Onyx
          Tendring         Left to                                                               Quoted
                         contractor                                                              by Cory
          Thurrock                    Up to                 Up                                   > 10
                                      3                     to 10
          Uttlesford      All free,
                          no limit




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Analysis of bulky waste collections and bulky CA residue in Essex and Thurrock     Katarina McCartney
- Identifying opportunities for diversion and reuse                              ECORRN/WasteWISE

The Controlled Waste Regulations 1992 state that a reasonable payment for collection can
be levied on bulky household items, but there is no guidance as to how to set this charge.

In Essex, very few districts charge the same. Different committees have reached different
conclusions over the years, and member influence has been a significant factor. In cases
of free service, there is no defined rationale for the charging regime. It will generally have
occurred due to being based on delivering a service (to reduce fly-tipping) rather than a
managing a diversion project to reduce landfill.

It would be easier for Councils to market their service together if they shared the same
pricing scale and this would also make it much easier for the general public to understand.

If there were to be effective 121 links made with local community reuse organisations,
there could also be an agreement between the local authority and the organisation to what
share of the collection charge/current bulky collection and disposal budgets goes to which
party, and also covering wider joint issues.

What would be essential would be for the costs of collection by a community organisation
to be covered (e.g. transport costs, administration etc) if any scheme involving reuse
organisations in diverting more bulky waste were agreed. This could be achieved by
agreement, for example, by forwarding a percentage or a fixed amount of the charge to the
householder.

To achieve the successful introduction of a community organisation in bulky waste
collection, there needs to be no loss of service/so noticeable change is positive for the
household. Therefore, there should often be no immediate change to the collection
charges to the public, unless explained by councils for wider reasons.

In Basildon, Harlow, Rochford and Uttlesford, where collection is currently free for the first
specified number of items, there would need to be an alternative method for the reuse
organisation collection costs to be covered e.g. transfer of budget saving, or a new
charging arrangement would need to be implemented. Another element, for the
organisation achieving more items for reuse, may be that the Councils could pass over any
recycling credits gained from the bulky collection for items that turned out to not be
reusable.

Thought should also be given by the districts giving the option of ‘7 items or more’ to
reducing this, thus decreasing the amount of waste being collected. From our research in
Thurrock, there was clear evidence that this type of charging results in ‘pooling’ – where
households share the charge and arrange a single collection. This is definitely not
assisting in waste diversion/reduction.

Table 7 identifies the current vehicle trips made to collect bulky waste from households in
Essex. All analysis presupposes that each household has only made one request in the
year analysed (2003/04). In reality it is likely that some houses never use the service and
others that use it more than once a year.




                                                                                                   12
Analysis of bulky waste collections and bulky CA residue in Essex and Thurrock                                                                Katarina McCartney
- Identifying opportunities for diversion and reuse                                                                                         ECORRN/WasteWISE


                     Table 7 – Analysis of collections trips made in Essex – 2003/04
                              Number of households in                                      Number of collections in                         Collections per
                              district (2001 census)                                       2003/04                                          household per year
* Basildon                    72,095                                                       19,000                                           0.3
Braintree                     56,790                                                       4,000                                            0.07
Brentwood                     30,182                                                       1,811                                            0.06
Castle Point                  35,461                                                       1,905                                            0.05
Chelmsford                    66,110                                                       3,967                                            0.06
Colchester                    66,403                                                       1,300                                            0.02
Epping Forest                 52,125                                                       4,000                                            0.08
* Harlow                      34,019                                                       18,200                                           0.5
Maldon                        25,323                                                       780                                              0.03
* Rochford                    33,180                                                       7,000                                            0.2
Southend                      70,000                                                       4,200                                            0.06
Tendring                      63,751                                                       3,825                                            0.06
Thurrock                      61,018                                                       3,591                                            0.08
* Uttlesford                  28,965                                                       7,700                                            0.3
Numbers in black are actual figures. * Districts with free collections. These have been
omitted in extrapolating districts to the four non-reply councils as none of these ‘unknowns’
provide a free service. The numbers in red are estimated using averages from charging
councils.

Graph 1 uses the information in Table 7 for 2003/04 to estimate how often the average
household requests a bulky collection.

Overall it suggests that while some households depend on the service, and use it fairly
frequently, most Essex households rarely or commonly never use it.
                           Frequency that households in Essex districts are estimated to require a bulky waste
                                          collection - the overall average is once every 8 years


           50
           45
           40
           35
   Years




           30
           25
           20
           15
           10
            5
            0
                                                                                                                                                                     Uttlesford
                                                                              Colchester
                                                                 Chelmsford




                                                                                                                      Rochford
                                                        Castle
                                            Brentwood




                                                                                                                                                          Thurrock
                                                                                                    Harlow


                                                                                                             Maldon




                                                                                                                                               Tendring
                                Braintree
                Basildon




                                                                                                                                 Southend
                                                                                           Epping
                                                                                           Forest
                                                        Point




                                                                                            District



The Districts that offer a free service have the highest rate of requests.




                                                                                                                                                                                  13
Analysis of bulky waste collections and bulky CA residue in Essex and Thurrock                                                 Katarina McCartney
- Identifying opportunities for diversion and reuse                                                                          ECORRN/WasteWISE

Harlow offers a free service for up to three items but does not appear to have such a large
amount of collection requests. This could be due to Harlow being a small district with a
fairly concentrated population. People with a car, are therefore not far from the Temple
Bank CA Site.

Colchester has the lowest demand for collections. Colchester charges for white goods
separately at £12 and only offers up to 5 items at £21.54. This could be an indicator as to
the best charging method. It may also be related to CA site usage.

4.2 The impact of charging rates

The relation of charging to the number of collection trips/requests is shown in Graph 2. It
is clear that there is strong correlation between the two where Basildon, that has the
highest demand, also charges the lowest amount.

Irregularities in the correlation occur in Thurrock (with householders opting to take their
items to the CA Site); in Braintree (perhaps due to it giving an option for 12 items); and
Castle Point (again due to increased use of local CA Site).

Graph 2
                                        Correlation between demand for bulky waste collection and method of
                                                                    charging

                          12
   demand/charge rating




                          10
                          8
                          6
                          4
                          2
                          0
                                                                                                                                  Harlow
                                                                   Braintree


                                                                               Epping
                               Maldon




                                                          Castle




                                                                                                                                           Basildon
                                             Colchester




                                                                                                     Rochford



                                                                                                                Uttlesford
                                                                                          Thurrock
                                                                               Forest
                                                          Point




                                                                                   District

                                           Number of collections (1 = highest demand)                 Charging (1 = lowest charge)


4.3 Quantities of bulky waste collected by Essex districts/unitaries 2003/04

A detailed look at districts with available data.

Each Essex district offers a bulky waste collection to its residents. In surveying the 14 the
districts, only 5 were able to provide detailed information (and therefore have detailed
processed records/analysis) on the tonnages of bulky waste their service collected.

This shows the need for districts to improve data collection/recording and begin effective



                                                                                                                                                      14
Analysis of bulky waste collections and bulky CA residue in Essex and Thurrock        Katarina McCartney
- Identifying opportunities for diversion and reuse                                 ECORRN/WasteWISE

recording so improvements can be made and tonnages to landfill reduced. Table 8 shows
the number of items/tonnages of bulky waste collected by the 5 providing detailed data.

                     Table 8 – Districts that provided detailed bulky waste figures
 Item          Quantity Braintree          Castle        Rochford       Thurrock            Uttlesford
 type                                      Point
               Number
   Freezers
   Fridges /




                               1,333           1476          1,967         1,821               2,322
               of items
               Tonnage
                                 60             66            62             82                 116

               Number
                              5,806           6384               -               9,393        15,000
               of items
 bulky
 other




               Tonnage
 All




                               174             192               -                282           450
               Number
     TOTAL




                              7,139           7860               -               11,214       17,322
               of items
               Tonnage
                               234             258               -                364           566

Where tonnages were not supplied, they have been calculated using the coefficients listed
in Table 4. The figure for fridges and freezers in Rochford includes all WEEE, hence the
tonnage calculation takes this into account.


4.4 Comparative data from recent wider recent M-E-L studies

A recent detailed bulky waste composition analysis/comparison carried out by M-E-L/
WasteWISE in Thurrock and Crawley (West Sussex), as well as in Greenwich (SE
London), provides Graphs 7 and 8, breakdowns of the bulky waste items collected. From
comparing these with overall Essex breakdowns (Graphs 3 – 6), there is relative
consistency in the percentage of refrigeration against the percentage of other bulky waste.

The range of Essex refrigeration composition is from 13% to about 20%, with the lowest in
Greenwich and Uttlesford and the highest in the Crawley/Thurrock comparison. From
these figures it is possible to estimate an average Essex breakdown of bulky waste at 17%
refrigeration and 83% other bulky. Using these estimates, it is also possible to predict
some further breakdowns for the districts in Essex that were unable to supply complete
information (graphs 9 and 10) and detailed provide results for 7 districts.

Graph 7 also provides a good guide to the likely split of wider bulky waste composition
across Essex districts and unitaries who charge - though a further split between hard and
soft furniture is acknowledged as a useful next step.

The quality of material collected by councils offering a free service is lower on average, as
people use the free service (and arguably abuse the free service) to also dispose of
rubbish they would find other means to dispose of. There is also sometimes a thin line
between collections of bulky waste and flytipped material, with both ending up in the same
vehicle.




                                                                                                       15
Analysis of bulky waste collections and bulky CA residue in Essex and Thurrock       Katarina McCartney
- Identifying opportunities for diversion and reuse                                ECORRN/WasteWISE

Graphs (3 – 6) – Breakdown of bulky waste in 4 districts in Essex – refrigeration and other
bulky items


     Castle Point               Braintree                Thurrock                 Uttlesford


                                         19%                                                13%
                19%                                              16%




   81%                       81%                       84%                       87%


                               Refrigeration             Other Bulky items
Graph 7

                      Percentage split from a detailed analysis of bulky waste
                       collections - average of Thurrock and Crawley (West
                                          Sussex) 2003/04
                                                22%
                          26%
                                                                        Refrigeration
                                                                        White Goods
                                                                        Other Electrical
                                                    7%
                                                                        Furniture
                                                    5%                  Other Bulky


                                   40%



Graph 8

                      Percentage split from a detailed analysis of bulky waste
                                 collections in Greenwich 2003

                                            13%
                         35%
                                                                            Refrigeration
                                                  9%
                                                                            White goods
                                                  4%                        Other electrical
                                                                            Furniture
                                                                            Other bulky

                                         39%




                                                                                                     16
Analysis of bulky waste collections and bulky CA residue in Essex and Thurrock                          Katarina McCartney
- Identifying opportunities for diversion and reuse                                                   ECORRN/WasteWISE


Graph 9
                                  Actual and estimated number of bulky waste items collected
                                                  by 7 Essex districts 2003/04


                     25,000
   Number of items




                     20,000

                     15,000

                     10,000

                      5,000

                           0
                                 Harlow    Uttlesford    Rochford    Thurrock     Castle    Braintree     Maldon
                                                                                  Point
                                                                      District

                                                             Refrigeration   Other bulky

Using the tonnage conversions in Table 4, it is possible to convert these estimates into
tonnes.
Graph 10 shows these tonnages and the actual tonnages from the surveys.


Graph 10

                                   Actual and estimated tonnes of bulky waste collected
                                           by 7 Essex districts in Essex 2003/04


                     800
                     700
                     600
                     500
   Tonnes




                     400
                     300
                     200
                     100
                       0
                               Harlow     Braintree     Uttlesford   Rochford    Thurrock    Castle       Maldon
                                                                                             Point
                                                                     District

                                                           Refrigeration     Other bulky




                                                                                                                        17
Analysis of bulky waste collections and bulky CA residue in Essex and Thurrock                                                                                                Katarina McCartney
- Identifying opportunities for diversion and reuse                                                                                                                         ECORRN/WasteWISE

Fridges make up a significant percentage of the collected bulky waste stream in all the
districts. The quantity of fridges has been consistently high since the EU regulations on
Ozone Depleting Substances took effect. Householders often have no other options and
retailers have effectively have passed this cost on to the councils, by ending most take-
back. Reuse groups would be more willing to test/refurbish these items if councils would
agree to accept un-reusable ones back.

Using these known and estimated quantities, per household, it is also possible to estimate
the breakdown for districts that did not reply to the survey or did not have the data to
supply (Graphs 11 and 12).

Graph 11

                                     Actual and estimated items of bulky waste collected
                                                 by Essex district - 2003/04


                             40000
           Number of items




                             30000


                             20000


                             10000


                                0
                                                    Harlow




                                                                                                                                                                                      Maldon


                                                                                                                                                                                               Brentwood
                                                                          Southend




                                                                                                                          Rochford




                                                                                                                                                  Epping
                                                                                     Colchester




                                                                                                               Tendring
                                      Basildon




                                                                                                                                                                          Braintree
                                                             Uttlesford




                                                                                                                                       Thurrock




                                                                                                                                                           Castle Point
                                                                                                  Chelmsford




                                                                                                                                                  Forest




                                                                                                               District


                                                 Number of Fridges/freezers                                                          Number of other bulky



Some of these figures are estimates, but useful nevertheless to assist an overall
countywide modelling of volumes and opportunities.




                                                                                                                                                                                                           18
Analysis of bulky waste collections and bulky CA residue in Essex and Thurrock                                                                                               Katarina McCartney
- Identifying opportunities for diversion and reuse                                                                                                                        ECORRN/WasteWISE

Graph 12



                     Final actual and estimated tonnes of waste from bulky
                         waste collections by districts in Essex 2003/04


              1200

              1000
     Tonnes




              800

              600

              400

              200

                0




                                                                                                                                Epping Forest


                                                                                                                                                Castle Point
                                                                                                                     Thurrock




                                                                                                                                                                            Maldon
                                                                                 Chelmsford


                                                                                              Tendring
                                                                    Colchester
                      Basildon




                                                         Southend
                                            Uttlesford




                                                                                                          Rochford




                                                                                                                                                               Braintree
                                 Harlow




                                                                                                                                                                                     Brentwood
                                                                                              District

                                          Tonnes of Friges/freezers                                      Tonnes of other bulky items

As with Graph 11, some of these figures are estimates, but useful to assist an overall
countywide modelling of volumes and opportunities. Appendix 1 shows overall M-E-L
modelled estimates on the quantities of bulky waste in Essex.

Table 9 details the estimated amount of furniture and WEEE in the bulky waste collections
for each council, an essential means to assist 1-2-1 partnerships between councils and
local reuse projects, and for wider analysis e.g. the case for central /shared reuse centres,
combinations with CA sites etc.

Using the detailed analysis of Thurrock/Crawley and Greenwich, it is also possible to
predict that a substantial percentage of ‘other bulky items’ is furniture (average 39.5% of
total) and other WEEE (average 12.5%).

Table 9 shows the estimated total quantity of the three most interesting categories of bulky
waste collected by each district in Essex. In addition to these totals, a further 3873 tonnes
across Essex does not fall into these 3 categories (examples of these other items may be
seen in Appendix 2). These items will generally be less predictable in terms of reusability
but may have higher potential for recycling.




                                                                                                                                                                                                 19
Analysis of bulky waste collections and bulky CA residue in Essex and Thurrock     Katarina McCartney
- Identifying opportunities for diversion and reuse                              ECORRN/WasteWISE


                        Table 9 – Breakdown of items in Essex districts
                              Refrigeration      Furniture           WEEE
               District                                       (excl. refrigeration)
                            Quantity Tonnes Quantity Tonnes Quantity Tonnes
          Basildon            7123     321   12291      295     3890         97
          Harlow              3552     160    6850      164     2168         54
          Uttlesford          2322     104    5925      142     1872         47
          Southend            2380     107    4590      110     1453         36
          Colchester          2258     102    4354      104     1378         34
          Chelmsford          2248     101    4335      104     1372         34
          Tendring            2168      98    4180      100     1323         33
          Rochford            1967      89    3794       91     1201         30
          Thurrock            1821      82    3710       89     1174         29
          Epping Forest       1772      80    3418       82     1082         27
          Castle Point        1476      66    2522       61      798         20
          Braintree           1333      60    2293       54      726         18
          Maldon              1133      51    2186       52      692         17
          Brentwood           1026      46    1979       47      626         16
          TOTAL              32,579 1466 27,280         653     8631        215
          Total quantity                        68,490 items
          Total tonnes                          2334 tonnes



4.6 Achievable diversion of household bulky waste

Not all of the bulky waste collected through district bulky waste collections will be reusable,
some will be too worn out to be reused. For example, much currently may have been left
out in the rain for collection and will have to be recycled or disposed of.

Table 10 identifies a six stage process for recovering value and reducing bulky waste,
whether collected by councils or delivered by the public to CA sites (given that waste
reduction is not an option at this stage).

A key issue is the effective streaming of material as it is collected, with a clear focus on
‘readily reusable/reusable’. Such items must be in resaleable condition, or easy to recover
to that point. Much as people may hope that a missing chair leg can be fixed, the reality is
that the cost and hassle will generally prevent it being anything other than a timber
recycling opportunity. Such choices need to be swift and brutal.

Reuse will usually be the preferred environmental option, including over recycling,
provided it is practical, financially deliverable and properly managed, including swift
resale/redistribution given very limited storage facilities, and the high overheads they
involve. Given their current success in waste diversion, it is acknowledged that a high
percentage of bulky waste still available at CA Sites is made up of ‘potentially’ rather than
‘readily reusable’ bulky household items.



                                                                                                   20
Analysis of bulky waste collections and bulky CA residue in Essex and Thurrock     Katarina McCartney
- Identifying opportunities for diversion and reuse                              ECORRN/WasteWISE


            Table 10 – Applying the waste hierarchy ladder to bulky waste
           - staged approach for maximising recovery and reducing waste
   ‘Readily                                 Stage 1                          Minimal
   reusable’       Can be reused/resold with nil or negligible extra effort  resource
                                                                             use
   ‘Potentially                             Stage 2                          Resource
   reusable’       Clearly require extra effort - refurbish, repair and then dependent
                                      sell/transfer them
   ‘Readily                                 Stage 3                          Minimal
   recyclable’          Easy to separate materials like metals and           resource
                                   uncontaminated wood                       use
   ‘Potentially                             Stage 4                          Resource
   recyclable’      Require disassembly or reclaim to enable materials       dependent
                                           recycling
                                            Stage 5
            Treat and remove hazardous components in the remaining residue
                                            Stage 6
                     Dispose of the remaining non-hazardous residue

This report therefore focuses particularly on the district collections made from households,
which are considered to offer greater opportunities for increased diversion, including a
significant ‘readily reusable’ fraction. There will, however be items that will fall into any
one of the other 5 categories of bulky item streams in Table 3.

Various studies have attempted to quantify and categorise bulky waste collected from
households around the country. The Liverpool-based Furniture Resource Centre (FRC)
are a project that are contracted to carry out all bulky waste collections for Liverpool City
Council, and have also taken over collections for nearby Halton Borough Council. FRC
continue to achieve a reuse / recycling figure above 32% from the bulky waste collected, in
areas less affluent than all Essex districts, and significantly less affluent than the majority.

As demonstrated by FRC, at least 30% of all bulky waste collected can be reused or
recycled, particularly collected/non-CA items. The following estimated figures in this report
are calculated based on that achievable 30% diversion rate. It is believed that two thirds
of this figure is reusable (level 1-2 in Table 10) and one third recyclable (level 3 and
potentially 4). It should be noted that factors that are likely to be of influence the local
diversion quality figure include: socio-economics; car ownership; access to Civic Amenity
sites; and public attitudes to waste. There is also a large amount of ‘attic waste’ in Essex,
material stored by households that is also ‘readily reusable/reusable’.

In addition to the throughput tonnes in Table 9, Table 11 provides critical data to assist in
modelling the scale of potential community reuse/recycling facilities needed, and to assist
in income projections. All fridges currently go to Technowaste and that is expected to be
the subject of a separate study.

Constant coefficients have been used in this analysis, but it recognised that the ‘readily
reusable/recyclable’ %s will vary across the different categories.




                                                                                                   21
Analysis of bulky waste collections and bulky CA residue in Essex and Thurrock     Katarina McCartney
- Identifying opportunities for diversion and reuse                              ECORRN/WasteWISE

             Table 11 – Estimated reusable and recyclable fraction
                  of bulky waste collections in 2003/04 (tonnes)
           Divertable    Refrigeration WEEE       Furniture     Other                      Total
           to…                                                  bulky
Basildon   Reuse             64.2         19.4         59         108.2                       250.8
           Recycling         32.1          9.7        29.5        54.1                        125.4
           Total             96.3         29.1        88.5        162.3                       376.2
Harlow     Reuse              32          10.8        32.8        60.4                         136
           Recycling          16           5.4        16.4        30.2                          68
           Total              48          16.2        49.2        90.6                         204
Uttlesford Reuse             20.8          9.4        28.4        52.2                        110.8
           Recycling         10.4          4.7        14.2        26.1                        55.4
           Total             31.2         14.1        42.6        78.3                        166.2
Southend   Reuse             21.4          7.2         22         40.6                        91.2
           Recycling         10.7          3.6         11         20.3                        45.6
           Total             32.1         10.8         33         60.9                        136.8
Colchester Reuse             20.4          6.8        20.8        38.6                        86.6
           Recycling         10.2          3.4        10.4        19.3                        43.3
           Total             30.6         10.2        31.2        57.9                        129.9
Chelmsford Reuse             20.2          6.8        20.8        38.2                          86
           Recycling         10.1          3.4        10.4        19.1                          43
           Total             30.3         10.2        31.2        57.3                         129
Tendring   Reuse             19.6          6.6         20         36.8                          83
           Recycling          9.8          3.3         10         18.4                        41.5
           Total             29.4          9.9         30         55.2                        124.5
Rochford   Reuse             17.8           6         18.2        33.4                        75.4
           Recycling          8.9           3          9.1        16.7                        37.7
           Total             26.7           9         27.3        50.1                        113.1
Thurrock   Reuse             16.4          5.8        17.8        32.8                        72.8
           Recycling          8.2          2.9         8.9        16.4                        36.4
           Total             24.6          8.7        26.7        49.2                        109.2
Epping     Reuse              16           5.4        16.4        30.2                          68
Forest     Recycling           8           2.7         8.2        15.1                          34
           Total              24           8.1        24.6        45.3                         102
Castle     Reuse             13.2           4         12.2        22.2                        51.6
Point      Recycling          6.6           2          6.1        11.1                        25.8
           Total             19.8           6         18.3        33.3                        77.4
Braintree  Reuse              12           3.6        10.8        20.4                        46.8
           Recycling           6           1.8         5.4        10.2                        23.4
           Total              18           5.4        16.2        30.6                        70.2
Maldon     Reuse             10.2          3.4        10.4        19.4                        43.4
           Recycling          5.1          1.7         5.2         9.7                        21.7
           Total             15.3          5.1        15.6        29.1                        65.1
Brentwood Reuse               9.2          3.2         9.4        17.4                        39.2
           Recycling          4.6          1.6         4.7         8.7                         19.
           Total             13.8          4.8        14.1        26.1                        58.8
TOTAL                       440.1        147.6       448.5        826.2                      1862.4



                                                                                                   22
Analysis of bulky waste collections and bulky CA residue in Essex and Thurrock                                     Katarina McCartney
- Identifying opportunities for diversion and reuse                                                              ECORRN/WasteWISE

From Table 11, it is possible to see that there is large potential for increased reuse of
furniture, WEEE, and refrigeration. Much is potentially divertible locally as most (but not
all) districts in Essex have viable furniture reuse projects and or hospice/charity shops that
reuse/redistribute/resell furniture. Several also reuse WEEE, after function/PAT testing.

The category ‘other bulky’ may have a smaller reusable fraction than average as it
includes a range of household/garden items and often also includes parts of items or items
that are non-standard, some of which may not be easily reused (for the range of items see
Appendix 2). There will, however, be compensating scope for a larger % of recycling from
this category. The split here may reverse (20% recycled, 10% reused).

5.0 Civic Amenity and Recycling Centres
(shortened to ‘CA site’ below)

There is further potential for reuse of bulky waste from items that are taken to CA sites in
Essex. A recent study, carried out by M-E-L measured the amount of residual bulky waste
landfilled from CA Sites in 9 districts in Essex. Graph 13 shows the total estimated tonnes
of bulky waste (using averages from figures of one month in the winter and one in the
summer, multiplied up) and Table 12 shows the CA Site estimated further
reusable/recyclable tonnes for a year. Harlow and Tendring show the least bulky waste
delivered to their Sites. Harlow also has a significant quantity of bulky waste collected
from door-to-door collections (Graphs 9 and 10).

Graph 13

                             Total tonnage of bulky waste residue at CA Sites in Essex
                                               (from M-E-L research)

            250


            200


            150
   Tonnes




            100


            50


             0
                                                                                                                           Tendring
                                                          Rochford
                                  Chelmsford




                                                                                                                  Harlow
                                                                          Epping




                                                                                        Colchester
                                               Southend




                                                                                                     Brentwood
                  Basildon




                                                                          Forest




                                                                     CA and R Centre


                                                          WEEE           Furniture     Other

Source: Figures taken from M-E-L Report for Essex CC 2004




                                                                                                                                      23
Analysis of bulky waste collections and bulky CA residue in Essex and Thurrock      Katarina McCartney
- Identifying opportunities for diversion and reuse                               ECORRN/WasteWISE


                    Table 12 – Total CA Site bulky waste quantities
                                        Total    Potentially Potentially                      Total
                CA Site
                                      tonnage     reusable   recyclable                      potential
   Pitsea, Basildon                      519        104           52                           156
   Drovers Way, Chelmsford               463         93           46                           139
   Stock Road, Southend                  402         80           40                           120
   Rayleigh, Rochford                    329         66           33                            99
   Luxborough Lane, Epping Forest        323         65           32                            97
   Shrub End, Colchester                 316         63           32                            95
   Coxtie Green, Brentwood               231         46           23                            69
   Temple Bank, Harlow                   137         27           14                            41
   Rush Green, Tendring*                148*         30*         15*                           45*
   TOTAL TONNES                         2868        574          287                           861

Source: Figures taken from M-E-L Report for Essex CC 2004

*Results appear too low. No furniture was recorded for the analysed month, so it is likely
that there may be issues with this data – as furniture was not counted during the summer
month analysed.


Graph 14 – Detailed CA Site analysis - bulky waste breakdown for 9 sites in Essex

                         WEEE                    Furniture             Other bulky
                   WINTER - Drovers Way,                       SUMMER - Drovers Way,
                        Chelmsford                                 Chelmsford
                                                                          0.95
                9.04                   8.55                               (2%)
               (34%)                  (33%)

                                                             23.03
                                                             (45%)
                                                                                     27.51
                                                                                     (53%)
                             8.55
                            (33%)

                    WINTER - Shrub End,                         SUMMER - Shrub End,
                        Colchester                                  Colchester
                     3.55                                                         6.73
                    (14%)                                     7.91               (25%)
                                                             (30%)

                                         11.37
                                         (44%)


                10.91
                (42%)                                                    12.06
                                                                         (45%)



                                                                                                         24
Analysis of bulky waste collections and bulky CA residue in Essex and Thurrock        Katarina McCartney
- Identifying opportunities for diversion and reuse                                 ECORRN/WasteWISE




                         WEEE                   Furniture              Other bulky
                    WINTER - Rush Green,                      *SUMMER - Rush Green,
                         Tendring                                  Tendring
                                      4.31
                                     (20%)                                           0.85
                                                                                    (28%)
              9.91
             (45%)
                                                                                         0%

                                        7.55                  2.18
                                       (35%)                 (72%)


                WINTER - Rayleigh, Rochford                 SUMMER - Rayleigh, Rochford

                                     6.41
                                    (17%)                                             6.44
                                                                                     (39%)
                                                         7.98
              17.32                                     (49%)
              (45%)


                                       14.75                                  1.97
                                       (38%)
                                                                             (12%)

                  WINTER - Pitsea, Basildon                  SUMMER - Pitsea, Basildon
                                    6.64                                          6.06
                                   (14%)                                         (18%)
                                                          11.39
                                                          (34%)
              21.68
              (45%)


                                       19.38
                                       (41%)
                                                                                 16.41
                                                                                 (48%)




                                                                                                      25
Analysis of bulky waste collections and bulky CA residue in Essex and Thurrock        Katarina McCartney
- Identifying opportunities for diversion and reuse                                 ECORRN/WasteWISE


                     WINTER - Stock Road,                     SUMMER - Stock Road,
                          Southend                                Southend
                                      4.6                            1.03
                                     (9%)                            (6%)

              21.33                                        4.35
              (42%)
                                                          (26%)

                                        24.61
                                        (49%)                                       11.06
                                                                                    (68%)

                  WINTER - Coxtie Green,                      SUMMER - Coxtie Green,
                       Brentwood                                   Brentwood
                              0.2
                                     2.29                                            2.49
                             (1%)
                                     (9%)                                           (20%)

                                                          5.56
                                                         (43%)
              23.3
             (90%)                                                                    4.69
                                                                                     (37%)


                   WINTER - Temple Bank,                      SUMMER - Temple Bank,
                         Harlow                                     Harlow
                                                                            0.96
                                         9.84                               (5%)
                                        (35%)                                        2.96
                                                                                    (17%)
             14.02
             (50%)
                                                        13.85
                                         4.37           (78%)
                                        (15%)


                WINTER - Luxborough Lane,                  SUMMER - Luxborough Lane,
                      Epping Forest                             Epping Forest
                                 2.26
                7.88             (9%)
                                                                                     10.24
               (28%)                                      11.48                      (40%)
                                                          (44%)




                                         17.67
                                         (63%)                               4.00
                                                                            (16%)




                                                                                                      26
Analysis of bulky waste collections and bulky CA residue in Essex and Thurrock     Katarina McCartney
- Identifying opportunities for diversion and reuse                              ECORRN/WasteWISE

Eight out of the nine CA sites follow the sequence that more bulky waste delivered during
the winter months (after Christmas/January sales, many people replace major household
items) than in the summer months (when many people are on holiday more than spending
time on major purchases). The only CA Site not to follow this pattern is the one analysed
by M-E-L in Tendring, where the results appear to be in error (perhaps problems occurred
in recording) as there is no furniture measured in this month. There is little consistency
across CA sites on bulky waste composition or in seasonality. A number of factors (car
ownership, accessibility to site, etc.) will affect the use of the CA Sites and also
composition, combining differently for specific sites.


6.0 Total potential tonnage diversion
The following analysis combines data sourced for both Essex door-to-door bulky
collections and CA Site bulky waste and is shown graphically in Graph 15.


         Table 13 – Total potential tonnages that could be saved from landfill
                            Deliverable       Extra diversion      Total extra
                       diversion from door-   projected from     diversion from
     District           to-door collections     CA Sites             landfill
     Basildon                   376                 156               532
     Braintree                        70                   96 (ave) #               166
     Brentwood                        59                       69                   128
     Castle Point                     77                    96 (ave)                173
     Chelmsford                      129                       139                  268
     Colchester                      130                       95                   225
     Epping Forest                   102                       97                   199
     Harlow                          204                       41                   245
     Maldon                           65                    96 (ave)                161
     Rochford                        113                       99                   212
     Southend                        137                       120                  257
     Tendring                        125                       *45                 *170
     Thurrock                        109                    96 (ave)                205
     Uttlesford                      166                    96 (ave)                262
     Total                         1862                      1341                  3203
# - CA average from M-E-L survey also applied to CA sites in districts not covered by
M-E-L compositional analysis.

*As stated previously, Tendring result appears too low. In total there are 4 CA sites in
Tendring, so actual figure will be higher than average Essex district, notwithstanding local
factors such as relative deprivation of most of Tendring etc.


                                                                                                   27
Analysis of bulky waste collections and bulky CA residue in Essex and Thurrock                                                                                    Katarina McCartney
- Identifying opportunities for diversion and reuse                                                                                                             ECORRN/WasteWISE


                           Graph 15 - Potential annual tonnages to be diverted to
                                 reuse/recycling - for each Essex district
          600

          500

          400
 Tonnes




          300

          200

          100

            0




                                                                                                                   Maldon
                                                                                                          Harlow
                                         Brentwood




                                                                                                                                                    Tendring

                                                                                                                                                               Thurrock
                                                                                   Colchester


                                                                                                Forrest
                                                      Castle Point
                             Braintree




                                                                                                                            Rochford
                Basildon




                                                                      Chelmsford




                                                                                                                                       Southend




                                                                                                                                                                          Uttlesford
                                                                                                Epping




                                                                                                             District
                                                     Total potential diversion from CA and R Centre
                                                     Total potential diversion from door-to-door collections




7.0 Conclusions
To summarise, the potential for reusing a larger quantity of Essex bulky waste in is high.
In each district there are hundreds of tonnes of furniture, fridges, washing machines, that
are being sent to landfill, many in good, working/reusable condition,. It is important to
recognise the combined benefits of reuse of these potential tonnages.

7.1 Reuse – wider benefits of taking bulky waste out of landfill

Reuse is worth more effort, combining the agendas of different sectors, and combining the
complementary objectives of different council departments. This is enhanced by changes
such as the favouring of reuse in the WEEE directive, and the likelihood of reuse credits
coming into effect nationally in the near future.

                                                                     Table – 14 The triple bottom line

                 Environmental                                                               Economic                                                       Social
          Less landfill space filled                                               Local economies can                                            Families/ individuals/
                                                                                   benefit, including in less                                     communities/
                                                                                   affluent areas                                                 businesses can benefit
                                                                                                                                                  from affordable furniture
          Less energy used than in                                                 Greater economic                                               Jobs are created for
          disposal/recycling                                                       efficiency in reduced use                                      manual/skilled workers


                                                                                                                                                                                       28
Analysis of bulky waste collections and bulky CA residue in Essex and Thurrock     Katarina McCartney
- Identifying opportunities for diversion and reuse                              ECORRN/WasteWISE

                                        of raw materials, and less
                                        expense in buying reused
                                        than in buying brand new
     Less manufacture of virgin         Less expense than in              Training and job
     materials                          disposal or reprocessing          opportunities are
                                                                          available for those who
                                                                          find it hard to get work or
                                                                          training (e.g. people with
                                                                          learning difficulties, ex-
                                                                          prisoners & other
                                                                          groups)
                                        Reuse of bulky waste can          Opportunities for
     Other environmental                become self supporting            community volunteering
     impacts e.g. global warming        with proper management
     reduced.


7.2 Developing partnerships

In improving performance, the most important factor to be addressed is then to develop
effective dialogue and equal partnership between the district councils and local or
potentially new reuse organisations. In a majority of Essex districts (Harlow, Epping
Forest, Rochford, Uttlesford, Thurrock, Maldon, Tendring, Southend) the bulky waste
collections are managed by waste contractors. These districts would have to create clear
three-way agreements for successful diversion of bulky waste. CA Site contractors also
have contracts and need to be included in plans for increased diversion.

For Essex to manage and implement successful bulky waste reuse schemes, it will be
beneficial for projects to be defined on a district-to-district basis, rather than a simplistic
‘one size fits all’ countywide approach. The three fairly recent ‘waste strategy areas’ also
assist as building blocks in expanding reuse and diversion.

Districts that have strong reuse groups will be ideal initial project areas, where there will be
less need for complex new and/or partnership arrangements.

Different solutions will be appropriate in different parts of Essex, and it is also useful to trial
and develop alternatives, as there are few models to follow in equivalent UK councils.

Appendix 3 shows the various partnership alternatives for increase both bulky waste and
CA site items reuse, starting with service integration at Level 1, and running in stages all
the way up to community reuse projects taking over the whole service – Level 5. This
concept diagram provides the means for assessing the best option for each Essex
district/unitary/strategy area, and for managing expansion in stages.

For this start to be achieved, these districts will often need to improve the quality of their
data with regards to bulky waste. There is, currently, a lack of data on both the quantities
of waste arising and on what quantity of this waste is ‘readily reusable’ – the opportunity
for a greater understanding of the nature of bulky waste. The approach of Thurrock,
Crawley and Greenwich is a step forward in recording each item collected electronically for
data analysis, a process that could be emulated by all districts in Essex.


                                                                                                    29
Analysis of bulky waste collections and bulky CA residue in Essex and Thurrock     Katarina McCartney
- Identifying opportunities for diversion and reuse                              ECORRN/WasteWISE


This will be assisted by further developments of the county and unitary management of
disposal e.g. separate recording of bulky waste and bulky residue tonnages to landfill.

Districts councils that have not taken advantage of linking within themselves, with their
housing and social services departments, would also benefit from doing so. These
departments are involved in house clearances, where many good quality items are
collected and often sent to landfill. These departments also work with ‘needy families’ and
could provide opportunity in increasing market demand, an issue that is also important to
address.


7.3 Further research and planning

In furthering a bulky waste reuse partnership, research into the optimum future
arrangements, expanding retail/redistribution, and market development are necessary to
avoid risks of market saturation for some of the reuse organisations involved. Plans need
to be made for creating new markets.

This may include shifting items from affluent postcodes to more deprived postcodes and
the targeting of items that are more ‘sellable’. This will include assessing both the facilities
and funding held by the group, potential for districts to aid in renting of facilities or storage,
as well as realising the prime aims of the reuse organisation. All of the reuse
organisations in Essex focus on providing for social needs and this focus cannot be lost.

It will also be important for London CRN to extend the research and to target gaps e.g. the
understanding key aspects like reusable material in the residue being delivered to landfill
from CA Sites. There is also greater opportunity to engage the support of the public if they
know collected items are going to a ‘good cause’ e.g. their stored and currently wasted
‘attic waste’ can often be of better quality than items collected in door-to-door collections.


Overall, having a system that operates more transparently, with full analysis and focus,
and with increased consistent diversion quality across Essex will maximise the opportunity
for councils to reduce their waste, and achieve their LATS and recycling targets.
It will also enable community, training and reuse organisations to achieve much more in
the future on their social aims.




                                                                                                   30
Analysis of bulky waste collections and bulky CA residue in Essex and Thurrock         Katarina McCartney
- Identifying opportunities for diversion and reuse                                  ECORRN/WasteWISE


Appendices 1 to 3
A recent analysis of Essex’s entire household waste stream by M-E-L estimated the
following quantities of bulky waste in each district. The methodology in this analysis was
to adopt the national average that bulky waste comprises around 2% of the total municipal
waste stream.

APPENDIX 1 – OVERALL ESTIMATED BULKY WASTE TONNAGES (M-E-L)


                   M-E-L Report - Estimated quantities of collected bulky waste in
                                              Essex

            2500

            2000
   Tonnes




            1500

            1000

            500

               0
                                                   t




                                                  n
                   w




                                   ng ee
                                   Br on




                                    en d
                                    Te s t




                                                  d
                                                  g

                                     tle d



                                                 rd




                                                  r
                         ck




                                                  d
                                                in




                                               te
                                             do
                                                n

                                             oo
                                             rin

                                              or




                                              or
                 lo




                                             re




                                             fo
                         ro




                                          Po
                                           ild

                                             tr




                                          he




                                          es
                                          hf




                                          sf
              ar




                                          al
                                         tw
                                         nd
                                        Fo
                              Ep ain




                                         es
                       ur

                             s




                                       ut




                                      ch
                                      lm
                                      oc
             H




                                      M
                          Ba
                   Th




                                     ttl



                                  So




                                   ol
                                  he
                                   R



                                  U
                                 as




                                 Br



                                C
                                pi




                                C
                               C




                                                   District




                                                                                                       31
Analysis of bulky waste collections and bulky CA residue in Essex and Thurrock      Katarina McCartney
- Identifying opportunities for diversion and reuse                               ECORRN/WasteWISE


                 APPENDIX 2 – CATEGORISATION OF COMMON BULKY ITEMS

                         Table                 Fridges       Fridge
                         Chair                    and        Freezer
                         Storage/wall unit     freezers      Fridge/freezer
                         Coffee table
                         Shelving                            Washing machine
                         Wardrobe               White
                                                             Tumble/spin dryer
                         Cupboard               goods        Dishwasher
         Furniture       Filing cabinet                      Cooker
                         Chest of drawers
          (hard)         Bedside cabinet
                         Dressing table                      Microwave
                         Desk                                Hi-Fi
                         Kitchen cupboards                   Record player
                         Book cabinet                        Speakers
                         Fire guard                          TV
                                                 Other       Video
                                               electrical    Computer
                         2-piece suite           items       Vacuum cleaner
                         Sofa                                Lamp
                         Sofa bed                            Heater
                         Armchair                            Electric fire
                         Recliner                            Sewing machine
                         Single bed -                        Telephone set
                         (inc.mattress)
       Furniture                                             Doors (interior and exterior)
                         Double bed -
       (soft)            (inc.mattress)
                                                             Carpets/flooring/underlay
                                                             Paint
                         Bunk bed -
                                                             Storage box
                         (inc.mattresses)
                                                             Bric-a-brac (boxes)
                         Mattress -
                                                             Curtains/blind
                         (on their own)
                                                             Curtain rails/pole
                         Swivel chair
                                                             Push chair/pram
                         Foot stool/pouffe
                                                             Cot
                                                             Baby seat
                                                             Large toy
                         Lawnmower
                                                             Bin
                         Strimmer               Other        Suitcase
                         Barbeque             household      Head board (on their own)
                         Gate
                         Green waste            items        Bathroom suite items (sink/bath etc)
                                                             Shoe rack
                         Bicycles
                                                             Ironing board
          Garden         Garden furniture
                                                             Exercise machine
           items         Ladder
                                                             Stack of wood
                         Garden toys
                                                             Bags of packaging (plastic/cardboard)
                         Tent
                                                             Sports equipment
                         Wheel barrow
                                                             Mirror
                         Washing line
                                                             Quilt/duvet
                         Fencing
                                                             Typewriter
                         Plant pots
                                                             Wheel chair
                         Water butts
                                                             Tools




                                                                                                     32
Analysis of bulky waste collections and bulky CA residue in Essex and Thurrock     Katarina McCartney
- Identifying opportunities for diversion and reuse                              ECORRN/WasteWISE


APPENDIX 3 - FIVE DIFFERENT LEVELS OF ‘BULKY REUSE PARTNERSHIPS’
– WASTEWISE CONCEPT DIAGRAM




    Five levels of bulky waste diversion - partnerships for increasing
      reuse/diversion of collected bulky waste and CA waste residue


    Maximising Diversion                                 Maximising Diversion
  – Bulky Waste Collections                          - Residual CA Site Bulky Items


Group refurbishes items and/or           Level 5     Group refurbishes items on a
takes over whole bulky.                              retail site located on the CA site.


Alternating collections:                 Level 4     Group opens retail site (bring
Week 1 = Reusables (group                            and buy) on CA site.
collection)

Week 2 = Disposal (contractor)


Group ‘cherry picks’ material            Level 3     Group operates permanent
from depot after collection e.g. 3                   container on CA site.
times per week.


Joint booking system/shared              Level 2     Contractor diverts target
forms on website.                                    material/group ‘cherry picks’ e.g.
                                                     3 times per week.


Shared calls/call centre/ With           Level 1     Information at CA site to divert
referrals to community                               people with items that local
organisations.                                       groups need.




                                                                                                   33

				
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