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					                                 PREFACE

       I have great satisfaction in introducing this nationwide evaluation
study of the functioning of the National Child Labour Projects (NCLPs) to
the policy makers, academicians, government functionaries, NGOs,
international agencies and all those who are engaged in the task of
prevention and elimination of child labour. This evaluation study was initiated
by the V.V.Giri National Labour Institute at the instance of and with the
financial support from the Ministry of Labour, Government of India. Prior to
the launch of the evaluation, a brain storming session was organised to
discuss the sample universe, sample size and the methodology to be adopted
for the study. This was attended by most of the collaborating agencies as
well as by the Labour Ministry officials. The format of the questionnaire was
also discussed, broadly agreed and adopted. In many ways, it is one of those
rare efforts which is marked by a complete understanding and harmony of
purpose and objectives among all collaborating agencies.

       The study, which has been conducted and completed within a record
time of four months, is an excellent example of cooperative endeavour
among a number of institutions and organisations from different parts of
the country. It was ambitious to undertake such a massive evaluation study
as it encompasses fifty NCLP districts out of a total hundred and located in
thirteen different states. The motivation, tenacity and commonality of
purpose of the research teams, despite their belonging to divergent
organisations helped us to complete the task without obstacles. For all those
who participated in the evaluation, the ultimate motivation was the desire to
put an end to the evil of child labour. This approach has added special value
to this study.

      The evaluation both in terms of spread and sample size (it covers 524
out of 1976 NCLP schools) is indeed convincingly representative. The varied
experiences of the collaborating agencies which have been brought into this
study, the area specific data and idiom, and the scientific analysis make the
report immensely useful and valuable. The parameters of evaluation which
were used separately for the NCLP schools and Societies include attendance,
stipend, nutrition, infrastructure, course material, teachers’ training,
teacher-parent interaction, mainstreaming, vocational training etc. on the
school side and composition of societies, frequency of their meetings, staff
strength, awareness generation, community participation, convergence and
monitoring system etc. on the society side.

      I am grateful to the evaluation team for this report presenting an
assessment of the achievements as well as the constraints faced by the
projects. The report also offers specific recommendations in a number of
areas both for NCLP Schools and the Society itself to strengthen their
present activities and to formulate future strategies for a more meaningful
intervention.

       A large number of individuals and organisations have put in their
efforts and contributed to the successful completion of this study. Much
that I will like to acknowledge their contribution individually, the constraint
of space restricts me from that. However, I must place on record my
profound gratitude to Shri Vinod Vaish, Secretary, Labour, Government of
India, for his constant guidance and encouragement. I will also like to thank
Ms. Uma Pillai, Additional Secretary, Shri K. Chandramouli, Joint Secretary
and Ms. Preet Verma, Director for extending their unstinting support and
offering valuable suggestions in this endeavour. I will like to express my
heart felt gratitude for all the agencies who were our partners in carrying
out this evaluation study and without whose commitment and dedication, the
task would never have got completed. I must wholeheartedly thank and richly
compliment my colleagues in the Institute, both academic faculty and
administrative and publishing staff, particularly the members of the NRCCL,
who through their hard work, sincerity and devotion have completed this
challenging task of evaluation successfully and brought out this report.

      This evaluation study, I trust, would go a long way to strengthen the
functioning of the existing Project Societies and work out action plans for
improved future programmes of similar kind. It is hoped that the day is not
very far when every child of the country will be attending schools and
nothing will stand between him or her and the school, neither poverty nor
deprivation, neither parental indifference, nor societal apathy.




Vijaya Dasami

October 26, 2001                                    (UDAY KUMAR VARMA)
                        ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The National Child Labour Project Evaluation was characterized by the
collective energy of various individuals and organisations. On behalf of the
National Resource Centre on Child Labour, I place on record my sincere
thanks to each and every one of them.

First and foremost I would like to express my deep sense of gratitude to our
Director Shri. Uday Kumar Varma for his guidance at every stage of this
project and the counsel we received. I also thank him for leading an
extremely fruitful discussion every time when the project was presented, his
concern to understand issues as they emerged and contributing significantly
to the content of the project report. We are extremely grateful for his
meticulous and painstaking attention to details while finalising the report
and the encouragement and inspiration we received throughout the project.

We are grateful to the Ministry of Labour for funding the project. We
express our gratitude to Shri K. Chandramouli, Joint Secretary, Ministry of
Labour for his support and guidance. Our special thanks Ms. Preet Verma,
Director, Ministry of Labour for spending much time in designing the
questionnaire and her help in identifying the project societies for evaluation.

A number of institutions have put in their best for conducting the field
survey and given support to the completion of the study. The efforts of all of
them are gratefully acknowledged. Among them are Dr. L. P. Singh and his
team at Indian Institute for Health Management Research, Jaipur, Dr. Ashish
Ghosh and his team at Developing Countries Research Centre, Delhi
University, Ms. Manasi Bhattacharya and team at Centre for Media Studies,
Dr. J. Jeyaranjan and team at Institute for Development Alternatives,
Chennai, Dr. Nil Ratan and team at A.N. Sinha Institute of Social Studies,
Patna, Dr. Usha Abrol and team at National Institute of Public Cooperation
and Child Development, Bangalore, Dr. Alok Nath Chaurasia and his team
at Madhya Pradesh Academy of Administration, Dr. A. Firdausi and team at
Administrative Staff College of India, Dr. Suman Chandra and team at
National Institute of Rural Development, Hyderabad and Dr. G.C. Kar and
team at Nabakrushna Choudhary Centre for Development Studies,
Bhubaneswar.

Particular mention must be made of the faculty members of V.V. Giri
National Labour Institute. Dr T. K. Pachal, Fellow, Dr. M. M. Rehman,
Fellow, Dr. S. K. Sasikumar, Fellow, Dr. Poonam S. Chauhan, Fellow,
Dr. Subhash C. Bajaj, Fellow, Shri Sanjay Upadhyaya, Associate Fellow,
who have visited the field when the survey was conducted and prepared the
field reports and also helped in data processing.

The faculty members at the National Resource Center on Child Labour,
Dr. Mahaveer Jain, Senior Fellow, Dr. Ruma Ghosh, Associate Fellow,
Shri Nikhil Raj, Associate Fellow, in addition to their field work in the study
area, worked hard and for long hours to contribute to the data processing and
analysis and to complete the report writing. I must recognize in particular
Dr. C.S.K. Singh, Senior Fellow, who gave of his best, in terms of time and
ideas, convinced of the importance of the evaluation report.

Our special thanks to Shri P.J. Michael, Administrative Officer for his
unstinted co-operation and Shri A.J. Kaul, Manager (Publication) for his
tireless efforts to give the report its final shape. Our special compliments to
Shri R.K. Kapoor, Supervisor (Co-ordination), Ms. Manjit Kaur and
Shri Naresh Kumar for their efficient administrative support. I am also
grateful to Shri Tarun Kumar, Computer Operator, who worked with deep
commitment providing computer inputs including data entry, tabulation and
typing of the report. Thanks also due to Shri Rajesh Kumar Karn,
Stenographer and Shri Dilip Sasmal, Computer Operator and all the staff of
the National Labour Institute, who have directly or indirectly contributed for
the completion of the project.



                                                            Helen R. Sekar
                                                      Coordinator, NRCCL
                              CONTENTS



       Preface                                               i

       Acknowledgements                                    iii

       Executive Summary and Major Recommendations          1

I.     National Child Labour Projects: An Overview        10

II.    Context, Objectives and Methodology of the Study   13

III.   NCLP Societies                                     18

IV.    NCLP Schools                                       25

V.     NCLP Performance Across Project Districts          42

VI.    Recommendations                                    65

       Annexure I                                         73

       Annexure II                                        76

       Annexure III                                       78

       Annexure IV                                        94

       Annexure V                                         104
                         ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The National Child Labour Project Evaluation was characterized by the
collective energy of various individuals and organisations. On behalf of the
National Resource Centre on Child Labour, I place on record my sincere
thanks to each and every one of them.

First and foremost I would like to express my deep sense of gratitude to our
Director Shri. Uday Kumar Varma for his guidance at every stage of this
project and the counsel we received. I also thank him for leading an
extremely fruitful discussion every time when the project was presented his
concern to understand issues as they emerged and contributing significantly
to the content of the project report. We are extremely grateful for his
meticulous and painstaking attention to detail while finalising the report and
the encouragement and inspiration we received throughout the project.

We are grateful to the Ministry of Labour for funding the project. We
express our gratitude to Sh. K. Chandramouli, Joint Sectary, Ministry of
Labour for his support and guidance. Our special thanks Ms. Preet Verma,
Director, Ministry of Labour for spending much time in designing the
questionnaire and her help in identifying the project societies for evaluation.

A number of institutions have put in their best for conducting the field
survey and given support to the completion of the study. The efforts of all of
them are gratefully acknowledged. Among them are Dr. L. P. Singh and his
team at Indian Institute for Health Management Research, Jaipur, Dr. Ashish
Ghosh and his team at Developing Countries Research Centre, Delhi
University, Ms. Manasi Bhattacharya and team at Centre for Media Studies,
Dr. J. Jayaranjan and team at Institute for Developing Alternatives, Chennai,
Dr. Nil Ratan and team at A.N. Sinha Institute of Social Studies, Patna,
Dr. Usha Abrol and team at National Institute of Public Cooperation and
Child Development, Bangalore, Dr. Alok Nath Chaurasia and his team at
Madhya Pradesh Academy of Administration, Dr. A. Firdausi and team at
Administrative Staff College of India, Dr. Suman Chandra and team at
National Institute of Rural Development, Hyderabad and Dr.G.C. Kar and
team at Nabakrushna Choudhary Centre for Development Studies,
Bhubaneswar.

Particular mention must be made of the faculty members of V.V. Giri
National Labour Institute. Dr T. K. Pachal, Fellow, Dr. M. M. Rehman,
Fellow, Dr. S. K. Sasikumar, Fellow, Dr. Poonam S. Chauhan, Fellow,
Dr. Subhash C. Bajaj, Fellow, Sh. Sanjay Upadhyaya, Associate Fellow,
who have visited the field when the survey was conducted and prepared the
field reports and also helped in data processing.

The faculty members at the National Resource Center on Child Labour, Dr.
Mahaveer Jain, Senior Fellow, Dr. Ruma Ghosh, Associate Fellow, Sh.
Nikhil Raj, Associate Fellow, in addition to their field work in the study
area, worked hard and for long hours to contribute to the data processing and
analysis and to complete the report writing. I must recognize in particular
Dr. C.S.K. Singh, Senior Fellow, who gave of his best, in terms of time and
ideas, convinced of the importance of the evaluation report.
Our special thanks to Mr. P. J. Michael, Administrative Officer for his
unstinted co-operation and Mr. A. J. Kaul, Manager (Publication) for his
tireless efforts to give the report its final shape. Our special compliments to
Mr. R. K. Kapoor, Supervisor (Co-ordination), Ms. Manjit Kaur and
Mr. Naresh Kumar for their efficient administrative support. I am also
grateful to Mr. Tarun Kumar, Computer Operator, who worked with deep
commitment providing computer inputs including Data entry, Tabulation
and Typing of the report. Thanks also due to Mr. Rajesh Kumar Karn,
Stenographer and Mr. Dilip Sasmal, Computer Operator and all the staff of
the National Labour Institute, who have directly or indirectly contributed for
the completion of the project.



                                                              Helen R. Sekar

				
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