Required Navigation Preformance for Improved Flight Operations and Efficient Use of Airspace

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Required Navigation Preformance for Improved Flight Operations and Efficient Use of Airspace Powered By Docstoc
					                                                                                             RNP 10 ➔ 4
                                         RNP 0.3 ➔ 0.1
                                                                                 RNP 5 ➔ 1
                                                                    RNP 12 ➔ 4
                                                                                                            RNP 4

                                                                                   RNP 4
                                           RNP 10 ➔ 4
                                                                                                          RNP 10 ➔ 4



                                                                               AND EFFICIENT USE OF AIRSPACE
                                                                 equired navigation per-              beacons. See “Traditional and Area

                                                                                                                                                                  INDUSTRY EXPANSION OF                Technical Commission for Aeronautics
                                                                 formance (RNP) extends               Navigation” on p. 34.)                              2       ICAO RNP                             (RTCA) and the European Organisation for
2 x RNP                                                          the capabilities of modern             ICAO defined RNP as “a statement of             While the ICAO definition of RNP               Civil Aviation Equipment (EUROCAE) —
                                                           airplane navigation systems by             the navigation performance accuracy               adequately specified 95 percent accuracy       expanded the definition of RNP to include
                                                           providing real-time estimates of           necessary for operation within a                  performance, it did not quantify other         a new lateral containment limit and
                                                           navigation uncertainty, assurance          defined airspace.” This navigation                                                               minimum navigation system capabilities.
                                                                                                                                                        common navigation parameters normally
                                                           of performance through its con-            performance accuracy is quantified                                                               These additional requirements are
                                                                                                                                                        used by industry during equipment design
                                                           tainment concepts, and features            with two values: a distance in nautical                                                          documented in the “Minimum Aviation
                                                                                                                                                        and certification. It also lacked a way to
RNP                                                        that ensure the repeatability and          miles (known as the RNP type) and
                                                                                                                                                        statistically specify potential rare excur-    System Performance Standards (MASPS):
                                                                                                      a probability level. For example, an
                                                           predictability of airplane naviga-                                                           sions from the desired path. Two aviation      Required Navigation Performance for
                                                                                                      airplane is qualified to operate on an
                                                           tion. This precise characterization        RNP 10 airway if it has demonstrated              standards organizations —the U.S. Radio        Area Navigation,” issued by the RTCA.
                                                           of airplane performance is key to          that the capability and performance
                                                           designing more efficient airspace          of the airplane navigation system will
                                                           routes and procedures.                     result in the airplane’s being within
                                                                                                                                                          1       ICAO RNP 10 EXAMPLE
                                                             Before introducing RNP operations        10 nmi of the indicated position
                                                                                                      on the navigation system at least                                    RNP                                     RNP
                                                           into their fleets, operators should
                                                                                                      95 percent of the flying time (fig. 1).
                                                           understand the following:                                                                          RNP
                                                                                                        The most powerful feature of the ICAO
                                                            1. RNP as initially conceived             RNP concept is the specification of a                                                                                Actual airplane
RNP                                                            by the International Civil             minimum performance requirement with-                                10 nmi
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           location within 10 nmi
                                                               Aviation Organization (ICAO).                                                                                                                               of navigation system
                                                                                                      out equipment mandates. This is a major                                                                              position at least
                                                            2. Industry expansion of                  improvement over the previous method                    Desired                                                      95% of flight time
                                                               ICAO RNP.                              of deriving airspace design based on                    path
                                                                                                      traditional discrete navigation systems                 (airway)
                                                            3. RNP capabilities on Boeing             or on a broad population of airplane
2 x RNP                                                        airplanes.                             navigation systems with widely varying                               10 nmi
                                                            4. Assessment of RNP capabilities.        performance. However, other factors
                                                                                                      besides navigation performance (such as
                                                            5. Operational approvals.                 intervention capability, traffic density,
                                                                                                                                                                                  10 nmi              10 nmi
The aviation industry projects that increasing demands                                                and route structure) must be considered
on airspace will result in more air travel delays and                                                 in determining the route separation
related costs, unless the traditional system of airplane          RNP AS INITIALLY CONCEIVED          reduction possible with ICAO RNP (fig. 2).
                                                            1     BY THE INTERNATIONAL CIVIL
navigation, monitoring, and control is changed. In                AVIATION ORGANIZATION
response, a new tool, called required navigation per-
                                                                                                        2       ICAO RNP AIRSPACE BUFFER REDUCTION                           RNP leads to reduced buffers for route spacing and
                                                                                                                                                                             increased traffic capacity in the same airspace.
                                                           In 1983, the ICAO formed the                FIGURE

formance (RNP), is being developed that will be a key      Future Air Navigation System (FANS)                                                                                                                     Navigation performance
                                                           Committee to develop a broad strategy                                            POPP
element in reducing en route airplane separation and,      that included new methods for airplane
                                                                                                                                                                                                          10 nmi
as a result, increase airspace capacity. This tool         communication, navigation, and sur-
                                                                                                                                                      Pre-RNP                       RNP
                                                           veillance, and air traffic management
defines the navigation accuracy an airplane must have      (CNS/ATM) (see “Operator Benefits of
to operate within a defined airspace. Ensured naviga-      FANS” in Aero no. 2, April 1998). The
tion performance and standardized functionality of         navigation element of CNS/ATM centers                          60 to 100 nmi
                                                                                                                   Mitigates navigation errors,                                                                    Mitigates navigation errors,
                                                           on the concept of RNP. RNP provides                                                                                                                     route structure, traffic
RNP allow new procedures to be designed for airports                                                                                                                                       5 x RNP, 6 x RNP
                                                           for the specification of airspace based                 navigation performance, route                                           (50 to 60 nmi)          density, surveillance, ATC,
where infrastructure or terrain makes it difficult or      on demonstrated levels of navigation                    structure, traffic density, sur-                                                                communication
                                                           performance and certain functional                      veillance, ATC, communication
impossible to use some runways. RNP also allows for        capabilities, rather than a required set
improvements to procedures that are demanding on           of navigation sensors or equipment.
                                                           Area navigation (RNAV) functionality
flight crews. Boeing has been a leader in developing
                                                           is a key element of the RNP concept.                                                                                                                          PWVG
national and international technical standards for         (Area navigation systems define
RNP capability, which now is available on all Boeing       waypoints by latitude and longitude
                                                           coordinates and allow for navigation                                             PLWX
airplanes in production and in service.                    on any desired flight path rather than                                                                                                                               Desired path
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                RNP 95% threshold
                                                           one defined by ground-based radio

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Lateral containment limit. The new                                                                       repeatable paths over the ground                 lower landing minimums, and reduced
containment limit specifies an addi-                  3          RNP RNAV CONTAINMENT                    for a given airway or procedure. Also            workload, all of which contribute to         5       RNP SYSTEM SCHEMATIC
tional requirement on navigation                    FIGURE                                               specified in the MASPS was a real-time           improved safety margins.                    FIGURE

system uncertainty beyond the ICAO                                                                       display of the estimated navigation
                                                                        Containment limit: 99.999%
concept of 95 percent accuracy                                                                           system accuracy (called “estimated                       RNP CAPABILITIES ON
performance. The lateral (cross-track)                                                                   position uncertainty” [EPU] or “actual             3     BOEING AIRPLANES
dimension of this containment limit                                                                      navigation performance” [ANP] on                 RNP RNAV functionality is available
is twice the size of the RNP value and                                                                   Boeing commercial airplanes). With               on all Boeing commercial airplanes in
                                                                        RNP: 95%             2 x RNP
centered on the airplane’s defined path                                                                  an explicit display of EPU/ANP, the              production and can be retrofitted on
(fig. 3). The navigation system must                                                                     flight crew can monitor trends while             Boeing models delivered without
ensure that the airplane remain within                                                                   the navigation system automatically              RNP capability.
this containment region 99.999 percent                                                                   checks current performance against
of the flight time. This outer linear                                                                    required performance (i.e., the RNP                The MASPS established all signifi-
                                                          Defined path
containment region will be used to                                                                       necessary for the operation). The                cant aspects of navigation system
                                                          Desired path
assess the safe separation of airplanes                                                                  system alerts the flight crew when               performance, assurance, capability, and
and obstacle clearance when develop-                                                                     performance is inadequate for the                functionality that must be considered
ing routes, areas, and procedures.                                                                       current operation.                               for RNP-based operations. Because
                                                                                                                                                          many current systems will not meet
                                                                        RNP                                This industry-expanded specification           every MASPS requirement, any system
Minimum navigation system
                                                                                                         of RNP is called RNP RNAV to differen-           deviations from the MASPS can be
capabilities. In addition to specifying
                                                                                                         tiate it from the incomplete specifi-            mitigated through limitations or
requirements for continuity and avail-
                                                                                                         cation of RNP defined by ICAO. RNP               operational procedures. This will allow
ability of required positioning accuracy,                               Containment limit
the MASPS specified capabilities to                                                                      RNAV will be an aid in both separa-              as many airplanes as possible to be
ensure consistency of flight paths                                                                       tion and collision risk assessments              qualified during the transition to RNP
and operations across the fleet. For                         s   RNP RNAV is referenced to the           for proposed routes and procedures.              operations. The Boeing RNP RNAV
example, the types of flight plan legs                           airplane defined path                   This will reduce route separation and            designs have addressed all the key func-
that could make up RNP route seg-                                                                        improve obstacle clearance limits                tional and performance requirements
                                                             s   ICAO RNP is referenced to the                                                            of the RNP MASPS. Further MASPS-
ments were limited and standardized                                                                      beyond those provided by ICAO RNP
                                                                 airspace desired path                                                                    compliant changes to Boeing designs
to ensure that all similarly equipped                                                                    (fig. 4). Benefits include increased
airplanes fly consistent and                                                                             airspace capacity and efficiency,                most likely will be warranted by
                                                                                                                                                          operations and the evolution of RNP.
                                                                                                                                                          Questions concerning MASPS compliance
                                                                                                                                                          for specific models should be directed
  4       RNP 4 RNAV EXAMPLE
                                                                                                                                                          to Boeing Field Service representatives.
                                                                         RNP RNAV is a tool to facilitate further optimization                                                                       appropriate area on the crew alerting       certification and limitations approved
                                                                         (reduction) in airspace buffers.                                                   Boeing RNP functionality includes        message display. Other airplanes            by the FAA and other regulatory
                                                                                                                                                          flight crew interface through a flight     (such as the 737 and MD-80) display         authorities. The AFMs for Boeing
                             4 nmi                                                                                                                        management control display unit            the message on the CDU, the naviga-         airplanes certified for RNP RNAV
                                                                                                                        8 nmi
                                                                                                                                                          (CDU) and the airplane crew alerting       tion display, the primary flight display,   capability contain some or all of the
                                                                                                                        4 nmi                             system. Navigation, flight planning,       or a combination of these.                  following information:
                                                                  RNP              RNP 4 RNAV
                                          PLMN                                                                                                            and alerting algorithms are contained
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  s   The minimum demonstrated RNP
                                                                                                                                                          in the airplane flight management
                                                                                                                                      PLMN                function (fig. 5).                           4       ASSESSING RNP CAPABILITIES             as a function of the lateral flight
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      control mode. This is the smallest
                                Mitigates navigation                                             Performance                                               The CDU is used for flight plan and       Materials and references are available           RNP value for which the airplane
                                                                                                                            4 x RNP
          5 x RNP, 6 x RNP      errors, route structure,                                         assurance                                                procedure selection and to display the     to help operators assess the capabili-           equipment has been certified to
                                                                                                                           (16 nmi)
          (20 to 24 nmi)        traffic density, surveillance,                                   region                                                   RNP for the active route segment and       ties of Boeing RNP-equipped airplanes            operate at a given lateral control
                                ATC, communication                                                                                                        the current navigation performance (or     and to obtain regulatory approval to             mode (e.g., the flight management
                                                                                                                                                          ANP). RNP values can be stored in the      conduct RNP operations. The materials            system [FMS] lateral navigation
                                                                                                                                      PWVG                database for route segments, manually      and references include the Airplane              with autopilot engaged). Values
                                                                                                                                                          entered by the flight crew, or selected    Flight Manual (AFM) for each airplane,           are provided for an active and
                                                                                                                                                          automatically, depending on the flight     RNP capability documents, a Boeing               inactive global positioning system
                                        PWVG                                                                                                              phase (fig. 6).                            document for an industry RNP RNAV
                                                                                Note: Optimal case shown. Some                                                                                                                                        (GPS). This accommodates
                                                                                buffer may be needed to mitigate                                             Annunciation to the flight crew         workshop, a U.S. Federal Aviation                airplanes that do not use GPS to
                                                                                nonoptimal communications                                                 occurs when the ANP exceeds RNP. On        Administration (FAA) RNP Web site,               navigate and periods when satel-
                                                                                surveillance or high density.                                             airplanes with crew alerting systems       and software for personal computers.             lite signals may not be available
                                                                                                                                      Defined path
                                                                                                                                      RNP 95% threshold   (such as the 717, 747-400, 757, 767,                                                        to support operations that require
                                                                                                                                      Containment limit   777, and MD-90), a text message simi-      Airplane Flight Manual. The AFM is               GPS to achieve the desired level of
                                                                                                                                                          lar to UNABLE RNP is displayed in the      an information source on equipment               RNP. The AFM notes that an RNP

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                                                                                       Flight Procedures Standards                 representatives. This ensures that
  6      CDU POSITION REFERENCE PAGE                                                   Branch Web site. The FAA’s vision           decisions on route or procedure                    1      RNP CAPABILITY DOCUMENTS
                                                                                       for implementing RNP in the U.S.            configuration, adjacent route separa-             TABLE
                                                                                       national airspace is explained on this      tion, and obstruction clearance take                                        Model                            Document number
                                                                                       site (        into account important factors such as
                                                                                       afs420/OutReach/index.htm).                 the availability and quality of surveil-                   737-300/-400/-500/-600/-700/-800                   D6-39067-2
                                                                                                                                   lance, communications, the navigation
                                                                                       European Organisation for the Safety        infrastructure, traffic density, and air                                  747-400                             D926U050
                                                                                       of Air Navigation (EUROCONTROL)             traffic control procedures. In the future,
                                                                                                                                                                                                             757/767                             D926T0120
                                                                                       Web site. Of special interest are           when routes and procedures are devel-
                                                                                       the Terminal Area RNAV Applications         oped to RNP criteria, the regulatory                                         777                              D243W018-7
                                                                                       subgroup and the “EUROCONTROL               authority responsible for an airline’s
                                                                                       Standard Document for Area Navigation       operation will verify that RNP-capable                     Documents are available at the following Boeing Web site:
                                                                                       Equipment— Operational Requirements         airplanes meet the RNP requirements              
                                                                                       and Functional Requirements.”               for the operation.
                                                                                       This document is available through the
                                                                                       document library on the Web site                       REGIONAL APPROVALS
                                                                                       (         2        OF RNP OPERATIONS
                                                                                                                                                                                                      FOR DETAILS ON RNP RETROFITS, CONTACT BOEING AIRPLANE SERVICES.

                                                                                                                                    TABLE                                                             Phone:      425-865-7950
                                                                                       Software for personal computers.                       RNP value         Type            Region                Fax:        425-865-7896
     flight operation may be subject            page displays and scratch-pad text     Several software applications are                                                                              E-mail:
                                                                                                                                            RNP 4             ICAO         Japan
     to signal availability for both GPS        messages, flight crew alerts, and      available from vendors of GPS receivers                                                                        Address: P.O. Box 3707     MC 7R-72    Seattle, WA 98124-2207 USA
     and ground-based navigation aids           navigation displays related to         that can help operators determine                    RNP 5             ICAO         Europe
     (see the following section on RNP          RNP and GPS navigation.                whether adequate GPS signal coverage                                                                           FOR ASSISTANCE WITH RNP PROCEDURES, CONTACT BOEING
                                                                                       is available for an RNP flight operation.            RNP 10            ICAO         Pacific                    AIR TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT SERVICES.
     capability documents).
                                            s   The availability of different levels
                                                                                       Contact the vendors for copies.                                                                                Phone:      206-662-8500
 s   The minimum equipment required             of RNP to satisfy primary and                                                               RNP 12.6          ICAO         North Atlantic
                                                                                                                                                                                                      Fax:        206-662-8688
     for RNP navigation.                        supplemental means of navigation.
                                                                                         5     OPERATIONAL APPROVALS                        RNP 0.15 ➔ 0.30   RNP/RNAV     Alaska                     E-mail:
 s   RNP values that provide airplane       s   Example applications of RNP                                                                                                (special approval)         Address: P.O. Box 3707 MC 29-09        Seattle, WA 98124-2207 USA
     navigation performance equivalent          for en route and terminal route        RNP operations. RNP operations                                                                                          Attention: David L. Allen
     to traditional airplane navigation         separation and approach area           gradually are being introduced around
     while conducting operations on             obstacle clearance.                    the world on a regional or case-by-case
     current approaches that do not                                                    basis. Operations requiring RNP capa-
                                            s   Discussion of the equivalency          bilities are noted on the applicable
     require RNP.
                                                of RNP operations and values to        airways and regional airspace docu-
 s   Explicit statements of compliance          existing charted instrument            mentation or procedure charts. These
     with regional RNP-related criteria.        approach procedures approved for       operations have varying RNP functional
                                                non-RNP RNAV-equipped Boeing
                                                                                       and performance requirements. Some
RNP capability documents. These                 airplanes.
                                                                                       are more consistent with ICAO RNP,
documents explain Boeing RNP imple-         s   Derivation of the demonstrated mini-   which allows RNAV-equipped, non-RNP
mentation as it relates to equipment            mum RNP values listed in the AFM.      airplanes to be qualified to a level                  RNP allows airspace to be specified according to demonstrated airplane navigation
certification and RNP operational                                                      of RNP equivalency based on originally                performance and certain airplane functional capabilities, rather than a required set
approvals. They include the following      Boeing document for an industry             installed equipment, demonstrated
(see table 1):                             RNP RNAV workshop. A Boeing                 performance, or both. Other operations                of navigation sensors or equipment. RNAV functionality is a key element of the RNP
                                           Web site offers access to the following     require full RNP RNAV functionality.
 s   A detailed technical description
                                                                                       Table 2 lists some initial regional
                                                                                                                                             concept. Knowing in advance that airplanes can perform RNAV functions and achieve
     of ANP, including ANP values that     document on RNP and RNAV opertions:
     can be expected, and when GPS         “FMS RNAV Workshop—General                  approvals of RNP operations.                          a predetermined level of navigation performance allows for more optimal design of
                                           Information on the Functional and
     and GPS coverage predictions may
                                           Technical Aspects of Required               RNP RNAV operations. In most cases,                   airspace and procedures and eliminates the need to mandate specific equipment and
     be required for an RNP operation.
                                           Navigation Performance (RNP) Area           RNP RNAV operations are initiated by                  systems for airspace operations. RNP functionality exists on all Boeing production
 s   Automatic default RNP values and      Navigation (RNAV) and Applications”         a few operators who have determined
     phase-of-flight logic.                (          that their existing airplane RNP RNAV                 airplanes and is available for retrofit on earlier models. Operators who choose to
                                           caft/reference/documents/RNP.pdf).          capabilities can provide operating
 s   The concepts of required avail-                                                   efficiencies. Achieving RNP RNAV
                                                                                                                                             implement RNP can benefit from improved safety of flight in their operations and
     ability of navigation equipment
     and navigation signals.
                                           FAA RNP Web site. This site pre-            operational approval requires operators               access to new, more efficient flight operations procedures.
                                           sents a variety of information on           to closely coordinate with all interested
 s   Flight crew interface, including      existing programs to implement RNP          parties, including airspace providers,
     descriptions of RNP-related CDU       (       regulatory agencies, and flight crew

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