Review for air pollution and climate change test All pollutants—your chart—16 of them in all—see power points on line All chemical equations and important formulas and reactions Photochemical smog Acid rain/ normal rain (sulfuric acid, nitric acid, carbonic acid) Limestone Combustion- complete vs incomplete Methods of control/reduction Legislation/international agreements Clean air act Café standards Kyoto and Copenhagen—others??? Scrubbers/Electrostatic precipitators/low oxygen or two stage burners other technologies for power plants and industry Cap and trade for pollutants or polluter pays Catalytic converters Carbon sequestration Understand the following key processes Layers of atmosphere Thermal inversion Green house effect- Natural vs anthropogenic sources of greenhouse gases Topography and wind patterns (acid rain blows west--- why?) Ways acid rain impacts ecosystems—direct and indirect (for example acids ability to leach heavy metal from rocks or nutrients from soil—what effects does this then have?) Impacts of climate change on our planet pH scale and pH of rain and acid rain Natural cycles that impact climate(sun spots/milankovich cycles, volcano) Ozone hole Know the chemical equations for the natural formation and break down of ozone Know the basic chemical equation for the destruction of ozone by CFC’s What are two other ozone eaters? Where is the hole? When does it form and why? Over which countries?\ What are the three kinds of UV light? How does each impact living organisms on a cellular level? What are 4 impacts on humans and ecosystems of the ozone hole Montreal protocol Is this a problem solved? Why or why not. Math- Do the examples WITHOUT A CALCULATOR!! Percentage change Rate of change Examples--- On a planet called Pluton the atmosphere has been changing. From 1960 to 2010 carbon dioxide has increased from 250 ppm to 350 ppm. The average temp on the planet today is 100 F (year 2010) a. What is the rate of change for carbon dioxide over the past 50 years? b. If the rate does not change how much carbon dioxide be added by 2050? c. If the temperature increased 2 deg F from 1960 to 2010 what is the ration of degrees F to increase in carbon dioxide? d. Use this ratio to predict what the temperature will be in 2050. e. what assumptions did you make to come to the prediction in d? f. Name three other gases and the source of each that could also add to temperature changes. Another. In 1970 the 30,000 tons of sulfur dioxide was emitted from power plants in the US. In 1999 18000 tons was emitted a. Describe three reasons for this change? b. Calculate percentage change in sulfer emissions c. calculate rate of change for sulfur emission. d. If this rate continues what will sulfur emission be in 2049 (fifty years later) e. Describe two actions that we could take to reach ZERO emissions.
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