Nutrition by wpr1947


                       Warm Up
• Food Labels: Grab a bag of Animal Food from
  the lab. Please remember where you got this
• Answer the following:
  – Who is your food made for? How do you know?
  – What are the top 5 ingredients?
  – What is the nutritional values in %s?
  – Write/Copy the description of your food.
  – What are the feeding directions? Amount per day?
  – Are there any warnings? If so what are they?
  – What audience is your product being advertised to and how do you
  – Give a visual/smell/touch description of your food.
• Students will be able to:
  – Identify the purpose behind nutrition
  – Label Nutrition’s main aspects
  – Summarize the main nutrient requirements for
    small large animals
  – Analyze Feed labels for animals
  – Balance a feed ration
        Unit Essential Question
Why is nutrition important to animal ownership
 and production?
           Essential Question
• What is Nutrition?
• Nutrition is:
• The science or study that deals with food and
• Food
• Required for an organism to live and is used
  for growth
            Nutrition Activity
• Each type of candy/ cereal represents an
  important part of nutrition. Each table will
  have a problem and will need to provide the
  appropriate type of ration for your group’s
  scenario .
     Build your Own Feed Ration
• Table 1: Build a ration with 2x more fat than
• Table 2: Build a ration with equal parts
  vitamins and minerals
• Table 3: Build a ration with 4x more carbs than
• Marshmallows=- Protein , Carbs= Pop corn,
  Vitamins= Raisins , M & M= Fat , Minerals=
  Pretzels, Water = Chez Its
         What are Nutrients?
• Provides nourishment for growth or
• Examples Include:
  – Carbohydrates
  – Fat
  – Protein
  – Water
  – Vitamins
  – Minerals
• Mainly sugar and starches
• Simple
  – Monosaccharide
• Complex
  – Normally derived from plants
• Energy comes from carbohydrates, fats, and
  some proteins in feed.
  – Most concentrates have higher energy than do
  – Energy is stated as total digestible nutrients (TDN).
             Energy Expanded
• Energy is measured in calories.
• A calorie is the amount of heat needed to
  raise the temperature of one gram of water
  one degree C.
• Calories in feed or as requirements are stated
  as kilocalorie (kcal) or megacalorie (Mcal).
  – A kcal is 1000 calories.
  – An Mcal is 1000000 calories.
• Forms that fat comes in:
• Soluble
• Insoluble
• Solid
• Liquid
• Added to feeds to increase
• Also added to reduce dust
    – Molasses
• Protein is stated as crude protein on a
  feed label and is given as percentage or
  grams on the feed label.
  – Protein needs are higher for young,
    lactating, and pregnant animals.
  – The needs of an animal must be matched
    with its diet,
  – Required for structure, function, and
    regulation of body cells, tissues, and organs.
  – Essential components of muscle, skin, and
Important in many life functions
  – Do you know any examples?

What might prevent an animal from getting its daily
    water intake?
What can we do to help fix this problem?
                    Organic components in
                    food that are needed in
                    small amounts for growth

A- Plays roles in; vision, gene transcription, immune
function, embryonic development and reproduction, bone
metabolism, skin and hair health: Found in dark green
E- Protects blood cells from free-radicals which break down
cell structure, Protects destruction of A and C: Found in
soybean, corn and cottonseed
D-Promotes absorption of calcium: can be synthesized in
the skin when exposed to sunlight
K- Needed for proper blood clotting and protein synthesis
occurring in plasma, bone and kidneys.
Classified as Macro or Micro
    reflect the amount in the diet not
physical size
Sometimes difficult to digest
    How do we fix this problem? CHELATE
    Chelate: formation of bonds between
Inorganic nutrients: include sodium,
magnesium, and calcium
Calcium and Phosphorus:
   – work hand in hand, present in ratios
       Calcium works in muscle function
       Phosphorus works in metabolic functions
       Phosphorus can be deficient in legumes in certain areas,
  or too high in others ( Delaware has an abundance, Australia
  has a deficiency)

Sodium and Chloride: help maintain water balance in body
Potassium: organ function, cellular water balance
                 What does a Cow Require?
     Growing-      Gestating   Lactating
     Finishing     Dry Cows     Cows
       BW            BW          BW          Max.      Performance

      650 lbs      1,250 lbs   1,200 lbs   Tolerable    Impacted

      0.31          0.18        0.27         1.8        Growth
,     0.27          0.18        0.27         0.3        Growth
      0.07          0.07        0.10         4.0       Milk Prod.
l,                                           4.0       Milk Prod.
•   Nutrition
•   Nutrient           Add these to your
                       concept map!
•   Water
•   Carbohydrate
•   Mineral
•   Vitamin
•   Protein
•   Fat
             ANSC 3 Activity
• Consider small and large animal nutrition.
  Research a required nutrient for a small or
  large animal. Explain how the nutrient
  requirement is met through diet. What would
  be the implications if this nutrient was not
  present in the diet?
• Example: Cats require taurine in their diet.
  Taurine is supplied in Cat food. Without
  taurine cats suffer from Central Retinal

           Essential Question
• What are the different types of digestion
  systems , and give example on how they differ
• Define Ruminant. Monogastric, Modified
• Explore Monogastric and Ruminant digestive
• Explain the four chambers of the Ruminant
  stomach and their purpose.
• The process by which large, complex nutrient
  molecules are broken down into simpler
  molecules capable of being used by an
  organism for food
• Types of Digestive Systems
  – Mono Gastric
  – Modified Mono Gastric
  – Ruminant
  – Poultry
• Carnivores and omnivores have a “simple
• System only has one compartment

• Examples of mono gastric systems: swine,
  rabbits, humans
       Monogastric break down
• Small Intestine
• Its Job: enzymatic digestion and absorption
  – Digests proteins, carbohydrates, and fats
• Small intestine has 3 parts
  – Duodenum- most digestion occurs here
  – Jejunum- digestion and absorption
  – Ileum- mostly absorption
  Bile is secreted from the liver and helps breakdown
       Monogastric Breakdown
• Cecum- nonfunctioning in many monogastrics.
  Rabbits and horses have an enlarged cecum
  – Why do you think this is true? ( think about what
    rabbits and horses eat)
• Large intestine
  – Bacterial activity
  – Water absorption
  – Waste storage
   Rabbits- Modified Monogastric
• Coprophagy - eating of cecotropes resulting in
  food having a double pass through the
  digestion system. Without the double pass
  many of the nutrients in feed would be lost to
  the animal.
• Name some Ruminants

• What are differences between the ruminants
  and nonruminants?
• 4 Chambered Stomach

•   Reticulum
•   Rumen
•   Omasum
•   Abomasum
        The Process of Digestion
• Step 1. Get the food!!
• This process is called retrieving, or grazing.
• How do ruminants get their food?
      Step 2. Chew and Swallow
• The process of chewing is called mastication.
• What directions do you chew?
• What direction does a cow chew?
  – Why do you think this
               Step 3. Rumen
• Largest of 4 compartments
  – Continuous mixing and moving
  – Anaerobic environment/Diverse bacterial pop.
  – Breaks down fibrous feed in volatile fatty acids
• Papillae lining
• Nonfunctional at birth , shunted off
Calf Stomach Engineering
            Step 4. Reticulum
• Feed boluses come from here
• Honeycomb appearance
  – Regurgitation from rumen to mouth
  – Expulsion to omasum
  – Fermentation gases
           Step 5. Rumination
• Regurgitation of ingesta from the reticulum,
  followed by remastication and reswallowing.
  – What’s the purpose rechewing and reswallowing?
     • Helping out the microbes
             Step 6. Omasum
• Many folds
• Its Job: REDUCE
  – Reduces particle size
  – Absorb some water, minerals

  Why would you reduce particle size?
            Step 7. Abomasum
• “True Stomach”
• Glandular , meaning it secretes
  – Does your stomach excrete anything? Why ?
  – Begin digestion here
  – Feed leaves abomasum and enters the small
    intestine where further digestion takes place
  – Feed leaving abomasum is high in water content
     • Why do you think this happens?
            Ruminant Project
• Title your poster
• Diagram your digestive stomach
• Tell us:
  – What does it do?
  – Why is it important?
  – What is happening?
• Don’t forget your names!
             Avian Digestion
• Crop- Food storage
• Proventriculous – glandular part of the
  stomach that stores and starts to digest food
  before it enters the gizzard
• Gizzard- grinds and processes food. VERY
    Activity: Digestion Role Play!
• Each Student will receive a section of the
  digestion system
• Students will read the description of their
  section of the digestion tract.
• Monogastric, Ruminant, and Avian digestion
  pieces are included!

• Ruminant, Monogastric, Modified
  Monogastric, Corprophagy,
  mastication, rumination, gizzard,
  crop, rumen, reticulum, omasum,
  abomasum, duodenum,
  jejunum, ileum, cecum
      Digestion Review Test!!!

You may use your notes.
    Library Project Today! No EQ
• On you own:
  – Based on what we learned today about nutrition
    and food movement through the digestive system
    Pick an animal ( other then a cow) and complete
    the following on your own sheet of paper:
     • Name the Animal
     • Why type of stomach does it have?
     • Give a step by step breakdown from beginning to end,
       following food movement within the animal’s digestive
       system . Be sure to include what is happening to the
       food at each section of digestion
Reading and Analyzing a Feed

            ANSC 2
           Essential Question
• What are the four main steps in balancing a
• Review food label basics
• Summarize the basic importance of nutrition
• Explore minor small and large animal nutrition
  requirements and their effects
• Define ration
• Outline the steps in balancing a ration
     Why is Nutrition important?
• Diets should be based on the needs of the
  animal being fed and the nutrient content of
  the feed available.
• What are you feeding for?
  – Maintenance ?
  – Performance?
     •   Lactating
     •   Showing/ exhibition
     •   Reproductive
     •   Growth
         Reading a Food Label
• Feed is analyzed for production animals and
  some companion animals
• The two nutrients found in the greatest
  amounts in most rations are protein and
• Ingredients are listed in order from most to
  least according to amount present.
Food Label
          Small Animal Nutrition
• Birds
  – Cuttlebone, Calcium, and Grit
• Dogs
  – Protein and Carbs
• Cats
  – Taurine: Helps digest fat-soluble vitamins
• Guinea Pigs
  – Vitamin C: general health aide
          Large Animal Nutrition
  – Roughage and fiber, Vitamins A and E required
  – Sheep- must have a 2:1 ratio of Calcium to
      • Also required for lactation and growth in cattle
   Non Ruminant
    - Humans: What type of nutrition do we require?
Animals who feed mostly on grass:
   – Need magnesium
   Any examples you may know?
• A ration is the total amount of feed an animal
  consumes in a 24-hour period.
• A ration needs to provide the right amount
  and proportion of nutrients needed by the
  animal during its particular life cycle stage
• A good ration should be balanced, have
  variety, be succulent, be palatable, bulky,
  economical, and suitable.
             Rations Contin…
• Nutritional information about feeds is used to
  formulate rations.
• The amount of each nutrient is figured into
  the ration.
• This is based on the nutrient requirements of
  the animal.
• The information tells how much roughage,
  concentrate, and supplement are needed.
             Goals of Rations
• A balanced ration will increase gain, decrease
  expense, and increase profits.
• Gain weight
• More lustrous coat
• Specifications to accommodate for:
  – Illness
  – Muscle mass
  – Lactation
  – Old age
            Balancing a Ration
• There are four basic steps that should be
  followed when developing a balanced ration.
  – 1. Identify the needs of the animal
  – 2. Identify available feed stuffs.
  – 3. Calculate how much of each feed stuff is
  – 4. Check ration against the nutrient needs of the
1. Identify the needs of the animal
• Find out: Age, Kind, Weight, and Function of
  the animal
• Nutrient need requirements are called Feed
  – Feeding standards are based on average
    requirements and may not meet the needs under
    specific feeding conditions i.e. illness, breeding or
   2. Identify available feedstuffs
• A feedstuff is an ingredient used in making
  feed for animals.
• The producer must then choose which
  feedstuffs to include in the ration based on
  nutrient value of the feedstuff and availability
• Nutrient content of an item may be found by
  consulting a feed composition table.
• Availability of the feedstuff is determined by
  the location of the producer developing the
  – For example, a producer in the Midwest is more
    likely to use soybean meal as a source of protein
    while a producer in the southern United States
    would be more likely to use cottonseed meal as a
    protein source in livestock feed.
• What would producers in Delaware most likely
  use? Corn or Soybean?
  3. Calculate the amount of each
   feedstuff to use in the ration.
• Several methods
• Commercial feed company would most likely
  use a computer program to develop the
• Producers developing their own rations can
  use a simpler method known as the Pearson
  Square to manufacture a balanced ration on
  their own farm or ranch.
  4. Check ration against nutrient
       needs of the animal.
• Ration developed needs meets all of the
  requirements of the animal for minerals and
• Deficiencies require recalculations.
             Balancing Rations
• Balanced rations are normally shown in the
  form of a ratio.

• Ratio Practice Activity
  – Hand in at the end of class in the Vet Tech In Bin
        Words you should know!
• Ruminant
• Non Ruminant
• Ration
• (Animal at) Maintenance
• Balanced (ration)
• Essential (if something is essential what does
  that mean for the animal?)
               Think Further
• Choose any animal. Write a 1 page paper
  double spaced ( SKIP LINES) about how you
  will provide your animal’s nutritional needs.
• You will be graded on spelling and sentence
Answer the Following Q’s in your
 – What is required for the animal at maintenance?
    • Balanced ration? High in Carbs? Does it need extra
 – What would cause the animal’s nutritional needs
   to change?
    • Remember when animals are under “work” they
      require more energy, vitamins, and nutrients.
 – What special instructions should you as an owner
   of this animal consider when providing a balanced
Pearson Square Method
        ANSC 2
          Essential Question
• What is the Pearson Square Method and What
  is it used for?
• Successfully balance a ration for various
  content using the Pearson Square Method
              Pearson Square
• The Pearson square method is a simple way to
  calculate a ration for a specific animal.

• It can also be used to calculate ingredients for
  batches of feed.

• Follow along as we practice !!
    Pearson Square Step By Step
• Step 1. Draw a 1- to 2-inch square.
• Place diagonal lines across the square.
• Step 2. Write the percentage of crude
  protein needed by the animal in the center
  of the square where the diagonal lines
    Pearson Square Step by Step
• Step 3. Write the feeds to be used at each left
• Place the percent of crude protein in the feeds
  after the name of feed.
    Pearson Square Step by Step
• Step 4. Subtract the smaller of the numbers
  from the larger numbers.
• (This involves crude protein needed by the
  animal and that provided by the feed.)
• Write the difference at opposite corners.
    Pearson Square Step by Step
• Step 5. The numbers at the two right corners
  are parts of the two feed ingredients that are
• (Parts can be measured as weight or volume
  just so the proportion remains as was
    Pearson Square Step by Step
          Almost there!!
• Step 6. The percentage of each feed needed in
  the ration can be found by dividing the
  number of parts by the total parts.
 Pearson Square Finished Product!
• Step 7. The amount of each feed ingredient
  for a large batch of feed is determined by
  multiplying the percentage of each by the
  total amount of feed desired.
         Class Practice

Formulate a supplement to
 contain 0.8% calcium. Use
 corn (0.2% Ca) and limestone
 (35% Ca). How many pounds
 of each feed is in 100 pounds
 of the supplement?
     Practice! Turn into Bin

Formulate a supplement to
 contain 0.8% calcium. Use
 corn (0.2% Ca) and limestone
 (35% Ca). How many pounds
 of each feed is in 100 pounds
 of the supplement?
• Pearson Square Method
  – Be sure to include what it is , and what purpose it
                  Assignments to Date
• 4 Essential Questions:
    – 1. Why do owners need to know what nutrition they are giving their animals?
         • Are these reasons different for Producers of livestock vs. companion animal
    – 2. What are the different types of digestion systems , and give example on how they
    – 3. What are the four main steps in balancing a ration?
    – 4. What is the Pearson Square Method and what is it used for?

•   Digestion Project (Follow the Food) 3/16
•   Pearson Square Problems 3/16
•   Meeting the Nutritional Requirements 3/23
•   VOCAB DUE Monday Completed!!!!
•   TEST 3/24
  Feed Analysis
Middletown High School
      Vet Tech 1
• Identify the purpose of Feed analysis
          Essential Question
• Why do we analyze feed?
              Feed Analysis
• Feed analysis is the process of determining
  the nutrients in a feedstuff or prepared mixed
  feed and is most often done in a laboratory.
• The information gained through this process is
  important in selecting the diets of animals to
  assure a balanced ration.
• An analysis provides information in several
         Areas of Feed Analysis
• Dry matter - Dry matter is the weight of feed
  materials after moisture has been driven out.
  – Feed quality is based on the proportion of water
    in the feed.
• Crude protein - Crude protein is the nitrogen
  content of feed multiplied by 6.25 (a constant
  – Feedstuffs with higher crude protein are typically
    more nutritious.
         Areas of Feed Analysis
• Fat - Fat content is determined by using an
  ether extract process.
  – The ether dissolves the fat.
  – The remaining feed material is weighed and a
    percentage of fat is calculated.
• Crude fiber - Crude fiber is determined by
  boiling the feed material in an acid and using
  laboratory procedures to dry the feed.
  – The weight before and after drying is measured
    and used to calculate percent.
Food Label Example
       Nutrition and Poor Health
• Example: Vitamin D Deficiency
• What happens to humans
   – Rickets in Children, soft bones
• What happens to small animals
  – Dogs can experience higher cancer rates
• What happens to large animals
  – Cattle experience decreased fertility
        Vocabulary Sheet Terms You
•   Ruminant
              Should Know
                 •   Mineral
•   Non Ruminant
                 •   Vitamin       •   Rickets
•   Ration
                 •   Grass Tetany •    Feed Analysis
•   Maintenance
                 •   Protein       •   Feedstuff
•   Balanced
                 •   Fat           •   Calorie
•   Essential
                 •   Ration        •   Duodenum
•   Nutrition
                 •   Pearson Square•   Jejunum
•   Nutrient
                 •                 •
                     Balanced Ration   Ileum
•   Water
                 •   Crude Protein
• Animal-
  – The Merck Veterinary Manual 8th Edition

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