Insight therapy is the psychotherapies in which the therapist helps patients understand their problems Talk therapy is pychotherapies that focus on communicating and verbalizing emotions and motives to understand their problems There are lots of different kinds of insight therapies, but all take a clinical perspective, by using various techniques for revealing and changing a patient’s disturbed mental processes through discussion and interpretation. Fruedian psychoanalysis assume that problems lie hidden deep in the unconscious, so they employ elaborate and time-consuming techniques to draw them out. Carl Roger’s nondirective therapy, minimize the importance of the unconscious and look for problems in the ways people think and interact with each outher. Psychoanalysis is the form of psychodynamic therapy developed by Sigmund Freud. The goal of psychoanalysis is to release conflicts and memories from the unconscious In classic Freudian view psychological problems arise from tension created in the unconscious mind by forbidden impulses and threatening memories. Freudian therapy probes the unconscious in an attempt to bring these issues into the consciousness where they can be rendered harmless. To get unconscious material, Freud needed ways to get around the defenses the ego has erected to protect itself and one method used is called free association where the patient would relax and talk about whatever came to mind, while the therapist would listen, ever alert for veiled references to unconscious needs and conflicts. Dream interpretation from Chapter 3 can also be used. In the final stage of psychoanalysis, patients learn how the relationship they have established with the therapist reflects the unresolved problems they had with their parents. This projection of parental attributes onto the therapist is called transference, and the final phase of therapy is known as the analysis of transference. According to psychoanalytic theory, patients will recover when they are finally released from the repressive mental restraints established in the relationship with their parents during early childhood. Neo-Freudian psychodynamic therapies are therapies for mental disorder that were developed by psychodynamic theorists who embraced some of Freud’s ideas but disagreed with others. They have retained Freud’s emphasis on motivation and now have abandoned couches and treat patients face to face. Neo-Freudians get the job done in a shorter time because they have shifted the emphasis from the unconscious to conscious motivation, so they don’t spend that much time probing for hidden conflicts and repressed memories.