Document Sample
					maY 2007  

                                         CLIMATE CHANGE:
                                WHAT IT MEANS FOR APPLES

                                     WINTER CHILL:

                                         GROWER PROFILE:
                                    MAROONDAH ORCHARDS

                               FARM L ABOUR MANAGEMENT

       The official magazine for apple and pear growers in ausTralia
                                                                                                                                                                              chairman’s thoughts
Australian Fruitgrower

                                           Editor’s Note
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            table of
Australian Apple and Pear Ltd (APAL)
is the peak industry body repre-
senting the interests of commercial
apple and pear growers in Australia
in matters of national importance
                                           There’s no doubt on the need for debate on climate                                                                         Brazil – another slant on growing apples

including regulation, legislation,
marketing, research
                                           change, and while we can’t cover every facet of this                                                                       Recently I had the opportunity to accompany
and development.

Australian Fruitgrower will be
                                           challenging topic, we can at the very least explore                                                                        the Chairman of the International Pink Lady
published monthly, except for              some of the current thinking on climate change and our                                                                     Alliance (IPLA) Peter Dall from South Africa
combined issues in June–July and
December–January, to bring industry        possible responses and futures. Together with Dr Perry                                                                     and our Managing Director, Jon Durham, to                                                             Editor’s Note ..................................... 2
news to every orchardist in Australia.
                                           Wiles of the Bureau of Meterology, Gordon Brown brings                                                                     South America to finalise the Master License for                                                      Chairman’s Thoughts......................... 3
Apple and Pear Australia Ltd               us a collection of information directed at issues affecting                                                                managing the Pink Lady™ trademark in Brazil.                                                          Grower Profile ................................... 4
39 O’Connell Street
                                           our industry. In particular, it examines what is happening                                                                 Brazil has a population of 200 million people                                                             Maroondah Orchards ........................ 4
North Melbourne VIC 3051
t: (03) 9329 3511                          globally and projected more locally, we look at three of                                                                   and the capital, Sao Paulo, is an amazing
f: (03) 9329 3522                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           APAL News ........................................ 5

Produced by SCENE Business Group
                                           the major apple and pear growing districts of Australia.

                                           Another important issue is our response to pests and
                                                                                                            meetingthechallenge                                       city that is rated as the third largest in the
                                                                                                                                                                      world with a population that exceeds the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                         however the grade four fruit would be unlikely
                                                                                                                                                                                                                         ever to get into a fruit bin in Australia but
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Tracking orchard costs workshops ...... 5
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Horticulture Code of Conduct ............ 5
                                                                                                                                                                      total population of Australia. From there we
10 Patriarch Drive                         disease. We have promoted the upcoming Annual Levy                                                                                                                            as Brazil has a high level of poverty there
Huntingfield Tas 7055                                                                                                                                                 went by plane to Port Allegro followed by the                                                             Prevar™ study trip to New Zealand .... 5
t: (03) 6229 3571                          Payers’ Meeting where we plan to seek your response                                                                                                                           is a ready market for this fruit. The packing
f: (03) 6229 2055                                                                                                                                                     hairiest 300 kilometres road trip that I have                                                             Future Orchards 2012 study tours
                                           to a plant health levy for apples and pears, to be set to                                                                                                                     line runs 24 hours a day, 6 days a week and            2007 and 2008 ............................... 5
w:                                                                                                                                                   ever had. The first thing that I noticed about
Chair, Editorial Committee                 zero. APAL became a signatory to the industry’s response                                                                                                                      total permanent staff, including the orchard,
                                                                                                                                                                      traveling by road in Brazil is that there are                                                             PHA levy vote ................................. 5
Stuart Gray, Communications                deed in 2004 and to meet our obligations we need to                                                                                                                           is 900. As mentioned earlier, wage rates are
Manager, APAL                                                                                                                                                         no rules. It appears that you can overtake                                                            Industry News................................... 8
                                           introduce a levy. In this edition we outline the options                                                                                                                      approximately AUD$1.50 per hour however
Editor                                                                                                                                                                wherever it takes your fancy and double lines
Jess Tyler                                 and let you know how you can have your say at the                                                                                                                             there is still a sizeable weekly wage bill.            Green Invaders .................................
t: 0408 298 292
                                                                                                                                                                      etc appear to be there only for decoration.
e:                      meeting – either in person or by proxy.                                                                                                                                       Mr Schio runs the business with his son                $200,000 to help citrus get to
                                                                                                                                                                      Eventually we arrived at Vacaria, a major apple                                                           markets efficiently ........................... 8

                                                                                                             MARK THIS DATE NOW!
Technical Editor
                                           This edition we also bring our regular HAL marketing                                                                                                                          and appears to have his finger on the pulse
Gordon Brown                                                                                                                                                          producing area where there appears to be                                                                  Fruity faces a winner........................ 8
                                                                                                                                                                                                                         right across his operation. As well, he has
t: (03) 6239 6411                          update, packed with visuals and reports on the various                                                                     significant other horticulture production. The
e:                                                                                                                                                                                                    retained a 50 per cent interest in the trucking        AFFCO–IHD expo uses
                                           marketing activities and campaigns around the country.                                                                     grower that we came to spend time with was                                                                cutting-edge technology ................... 9
Advertising                                                                                                                                                                                                              business that his brother still runs. Their
The publishers accept no                   There has been an enormous effort around pears in some                                                                     Mr Francisco Schio and it did not take long to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                         fleet has 650 trucks that have an average          Feature: Growing in the greenhouse .. 10
                                                                                                                                              email details to
responsibility for the contents of
advertisements. All advertisements         quirky and imaginative campaigns.                                                                                          be extremely impressed at the Schio operation.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                         age of three years, which must be unique               Apples and pears
are accepted in good faith and the                                                                                                                                    His area planted to apples totals 2,500 hectares
liability of advertising content is the    There’s also news of workshops, conferences and major                                                                                                                         in Brazil where most of the trucks on the              in a warming world......................... 10
responsibility of the advertiser.                                                                                                                                     (or just over 6,200 acres) made up of Gala
                                           events around the country – in particular the Future                                                                                                                          road appear to be at least 30 years old.               Changing rainfall patterns of
Enquiries:                                                                                                                                                            strains, Braeburn, Fuji and Pink Lady™.
                                           Orchards ‘Plan to Co$t’ workshop – a four-hour interac-                                                                                                                                                                              Australia’s apple growing districts ..... 12
Max Hyde                                                                                                                                                              Average production where trees are five years      The Schio operation is very professional and
Hyde Media
                                           tive session featuring expert Clark Seavert and his                                                                                                                                                                              HAL Marketing Update ..................... 14
t: (03) 9870 4161                                                                                                                                                     old is around 50 tonne per hectare. During         extremely impressive and I am sure that their
e:                    free software. The workshop promises to be extremely                                                                       harvest, Mr Schio employs approximately            involvement in the global Pink Lady™ business      Research Update ............................. 17
Annual Subscription                        valuable in helping you understand your real costs in the
Australia: AUD$66                                                                                                                                                     2,500 people to help pick the crop. One of the     will add to the strength, and hence the returns,       Global climate change and
Overseas: AUD$110                          orchard.                                                                                                                   things that helps to make an operation of this     for the most desirable apple in the world.             its relation to the main growth
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                stages of apple ............................. 17
Editorial                                                                                                                                                             size viable is the cost of production. There
Opinions expressed are not                 In time, we hope to expand our events coverage in                                                                                                                                                                                    Winter chill: apples and pears
necessarily those of the publisher.                                                                                                                                   are many areas where there are large cost
                                           combination with the APAL website to help you plan your                                                                                                                       Senate Committee hearing                               for warmer districts ....................... 18
Copyright                                                                                                                                                             advantages and Mr Schio was amazed when
All material in Australian Fruitgrower     time and attendances at industry events.                                                                                                                                      As most would now be aware, the Senate                 Methyl Bromide
                                                                                                                                                                      we discussed the cost of apple production in
is copyright. NO material may be                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                alternatives conference .................... 20
reproduced in whole or in part                                                                                                                                        Australia. He was even more amazed when we         Regional and Rural Affairs Committee will
without the permission of the                                                                                                                                                                                            be holding an enquiry in the NZ apple                  International Research Update ........ 21
                                                                                                                                                                      mentioned the cost of labour and he discovered
publisher. While every effort is made      Jess Tyler, Editor
to ensure the accuracy of contents,                                                                                                                                   that one days wage paid on an orchard in           import process in Canberra at 4.00 pm on           Orchard Management ...................... 22
APAL and SCENE Business Group
accept no liability for the information.                                                                 Apple and pear growers in many regions have faced            Australia would pay for 12 days work in Brazil.    Wednesday 9 May. This will give APAL an                The Accommodating Syndrome ........ 22
All editorial enquiries regarding
                                                                                                                                                                        THE DRAFT CONFERENCE PROGRAM
                                                                                                         very difficult growing conditions this season with some The amazing thing about this orchard is that              opportunity to present issues that have
                                                                                                                                                                                                                         been a major concern to us. Hopefully the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Regional Roundup ........................... 24
contributions should be addressed
to the editor. Articles, letters, notes,
                                                                                                                                                                        WILL ADDRESS THE FOLLOWING KEY TOPICS
                                                                                                         areas having faced extremes of cold and heat combineda tree was not planted until 1988. Prior to                Senators will understand the issues that
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Calendar .......................................... 27
                                                                                                                                                               that, Francisco Schio was in business trucking
etc, from any apple and pear growers                                                                     with a severe shortage of water.                               (subject to change):                             have been raised and their report will lead
are welcome. Contributions are                                                                                                                                        apples from Argentina to Brazil with his brother
preferred as MS Word documents                                                                                                                                                                                           to some sanity prevailing over the proposed
delivered by email as a separate                                                                         Despite these conditions, at the back of the mind of many however• in Meeting the Challenge
                                                                                                                                                                                   1988 he decided to plant some
                                                                                                                                                                                                                         protocols even though we understand that
attachment. Photos, maps, etc,                                                                                                                                         apple trees to see how they would grow.
should be submitted as separate                                                                          growers is another challenge that looms as large, if not                 Profitability of Australian Orchards    the work plan is already being developed
files and saved as either a TIF, PDF
or JPG at a resolution greater than
                                            Edition 2007                    Booking deadline             larger, than the recent difficult climatic conditions, and thatIn the early nineties he constructed a coolstore
                                                                                                         Copy deadline               Ad material deadline                                                                between MAF New Zealand and AQIS.
300 dpi. The editor reserves the right      February                         10 January                                                                                        • Meeting the Challenge
                                                                                                                                                                       and packing operation with the result that the
to reject, revise and change text
                                                                                                         10 January
                                                                                                         is the prospect of apples15 Januaryimported into this country Schio coolstore complex (a mixture of ordinary
editorially.                                March                             7 February                   7 February                12 February                                  through your Business Structure
                                                                                                              the                     memory.
                                                                                                         forMarch first time in living12 March                          and C/A) now stores around 110,000 tonnes.
Cover photograph submissions
                                            April                             7 March                      7
                                                                                                                                                                               • Meeting the Challenge
                                                                                                                                                                      Most cool rooms have a capacity of 3300 bins.
should preferably be digital taken
at a resolution greater than 300 dpi.
                                            May                               9 April                    HOW REAL IS THE ‘THREAT’April IMPORTED APPLES? WHAT
                                                                                                                              12 OF
                                                                                                          9 April
                                                                                                                                                                                  through Marketing & Value Adding
                                                                                                                                                                      The packing house currently packs about
                                            June-July                        30 May                      30 May                4 June
Web resolution images and colour                                                                         WILL THE CHALLENGES BE? HOW CAN AUSTRALIAN                   150,000 tonnes (about half the Australian crop)
prints (unless exceptional) are not         August                            4 July                      4 July               9 July                                          • Meeting the Challenge – Fruit Quality
of sufficient quality for full colour                                                                    PRODUCERS MEET THE COMPETITION ‘HEAD ON’?                    over four packing lines in the one complex.
                                                                                                                                                                               • Meeting the for 70 per
                                                                                                                                                                      The domestic market accountsChallenge – Coping with Change
printing. Colour transparencies             September                         3 August                    3 August             8 August
are also acceptable. Photographs
for articles may be prints, slides          October                           5 September                This conference will explore these issues and attempt to
                                                                                                          5 September            10 September
or digital images and may be black          November                          3 October                   3 October               9 October                                    • Meeting the Challenge – APAL Members Forum
                                                                                                                                                                      cent of through put and the remaining 30
and white or colour.                                                                                     define the challenges ahead to give growers a greater         per cent are exported. They pack four grades
                                            December-January                 21 November                 21 November             26 November                                                                       The Growers’ Perspective
                                                                                                         understanding of what the future may hold and provide
ISSN 1447-5618                                                                                           some ideas on how they can meet the challenges.                       • Meeting the Challenge – Levy Payers Meeting
                                                                                                         Of course, there will be time for socialising, with the Official
2       ausTralian fruiTgrower – maY 2007                                                                                           being a cruise on a u              w        We look forward to seeing you in Sydney for the
                                                                                                         Conference Dinner event w w w . a p a l . o r g .Sydney Harbour, w w . a p a l . o r g . a u                                                               maY 2007 – ausTralian fruiTgrower                                
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        APAL news
grower profile
    Maroondah Orchards                                                                                                                                        May 2007
    Nestled in the heart of the Yarra Valley, 50 km east of                                                                                                   Tracking orchard costs work-                        Horticulture Code of Conduct                       He emphasised that all commercialisation
                                                                                                                                                              shops – a new dimension to the                                                                         strategies and licence agreements were
    Melbourne, Maroondah Orchards is a producer of premium                                                                                                                                                        The templates of the Terms of Trade and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     approved by the Prevar™ Board. While Prevar™
                                                                                                                                                              Future Orchards 2012 program                        Horticulture Produce Agreements are now
    pears, apples and peaches. Grower Alan Upton reveals how                                                                                                                                                                                                         would usually determine the commercialisation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  available for electronic download (Word format)
                                                                                                                                                              A leading orchard costing expert from the USA,                                                         strategy for a cultivar, Prevar™ was also
    making consumers his number one priority has made his busi-                                                                                                                                                   from the Horticulture Australia Council (HAC)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     open to commercialisation proposals from
                                                                                                                                                              Professor Clark Seavert, will present at a series   website
    ness a success.                                                                                                                                           of Future Orchards 2012 workshops being
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     the fruit industry itself, particularly for niche
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Accompanying these documents is a copy of a        market opportunities. If such a proposal was
                                                                                                                                                              delivered in late June, in eight locations across
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  grower information brochure (currently being       received, its commercial confidentiality would
                                                                                                                                                              Australia.                                                                                             be maintained but other industry members
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  printed) about the Code. HAC will shortly
    BY YOUNA ANGEVIN-CASTRO                              Markets, unfortunately                                                                                                                                   be developing a companion User’s Guide to          would also be given the opportunity to register
                                                                                                                                                              The workshops will add a new dimension to
                                                         I couldn’t continue                                                                                                                                      the templates, to assist growers with their        their interest and if competing proposals were
                                                                                                                                                              APAL’s Future Orchards 2012 program. They
    Alan Upton has been a busy man. From his             spending as much                                                                                                                                         negotiations with traders.                         received then Prevar™ would of course make
                                                                                                                                                              have been developed by AFFCO and General
    22-hectares property in Coldstream, Alan and         time away from the                                                                                                                                                                                          the final decision.
                                                                                                                                                              Manager of AFFCO, Andrew Dick, says that
    his wife Jenni have just completed harvesting        day-to-day operations
                                                                                                                                                              Professor Seavert knows Australian conditions                                                          Dr Ennis expressed the hope that further
    the last of their Pink Lady and Granny Smith         of the orchard, so we                                                                                                                                    Prevar™ study trip to New Zealand
                                                                                                                                                              well.                                                                                                  Australian pomefruit grower visits could
    apples, and a short break is imminent before         eventually moved to                                                                                                                                                                                         take place in future years. A number of fruit
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  In late April, eight growers from New South
    Alan starts pruning.                                 working with an agent.”                                                                              “Professor Seavert is well known in the USA                                                            marketing companies have already visited
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Wales, Victoria and South Australia made the
                                                                                                                                                              for assisting growers with orchard costings and     trip across the Tasman to New Zealand, to see      and their engagement with Prevar™ has been
    A fourth generation grower, fruit growing is         Effective product                                                                                    in 2006, developed a spreadsheet based on           what new varieties of apples and pears Prevar™     welcomed.
    in Alan’s blood. His great grandfather initially     marketing is an                                                                                      Australian conditions for the Australian cherry     has on the horizon.
    established in Langwarrin in 1908, before            important aspect of                                                                                  grower conference. This was well received
    moving to Wonga Park in the early 1920s, and         Alan’s business, and                                                                                                                                     APAL has a one-third share in Prevar™, the
                                                                                                                                                              by those who attended the conference and                                                               Future Orchards 2012 study tours 2007
    there the family remained until 1986, when                                                                                                                                                                    apple and pear innovation company that
                                                         a recent study tour to                                                                               the follow-up AFFCO computer workshop,” he                                                             and 2008
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  manages the science, testing of selections,
    Alan set up Maroondah Orchards in Coldstream.        Europe allowed him to                                                                                explained.                                          management of intellectual property (IP) and       Those who were involved will know that the
                                                         identify areas of his                                                                                                                                    global commercialisation strategies for novel      Future Orchards 2012 North America study tour,
    With approximately 16 hectares of his property                                                                                                            “The orchard costing workshop team will include
                                                         business which could                                                                                                                                     apples and pears.                                  scheduled for July this year, has been cancelled.
    committed to fruit, Maroondah Orchards also                                                                                                               Marcel Veens, an Australian advisor who is
                                                         be improved. Traveling                                                                                                                                                                                      The cancellation was decided upon when it
    features a packing and storage facility. Seventy                                                                                                          known for his costing spreadsheets and John         The Horticulture and Food Research Institute of
                                                         through Switzerland,                                                                                                                                                                                        became clear that the touring party would
    per cent of the orchard is devoted to a range                                                                                                             Baker, who will provide the market planning         New Zealand Limited (HortResearch) operates
                                                         Germany, Italy and                                                                                                                                                                                          include only eight growers.
    of pear varieties, while the remaining 30 per                                                                                                                                                                 a breeding program to develop new apple and
                                                         France with a group                               apples, rather than pears. However, I read a       information for growers which can assist them
    cent is used for apples and a small quantity of                                                                                                                                                               pear varieties and it is contracted to Prevar™     In place of the study tour, the Future Orchards
                                                         of growers, Alan and Jenni visited a range of     lot of the literature, and by adapting what you    in their aim of growing ‘target fruit’.”
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  to provide the breeding services in accord with    2012 project will conduct three short study trips
                                                         growing enterprises, and came away with a         read, and knowing how the pear grows, you                                                              Prevar’s breeding objectives.                      to New Zealand.
                                                                                                                                                              The aim of the workshop is to arm growers
    “Things have definitely changed since my             better understanding of European production       can experiment a little on your own.
                                                                                                                                                              and orchard managers with the ability and           Prior to Prevar’s formation, this breeding         The proposal for the trips has not yet been
    grandfather’s day,” says Alan. “In his time,         methods and cost structures.                                                                         confidence to develop costing scenarios to use      programme has produced successful new apple
                                                                                                           “One of the major problems growing fruit                                                                                                                  finalised and approved but as soon as it is,
    and also my father’s day, they used to pack a                                                                                                             as part of their short and long term planning to    varieties that include the Pacific series (Gala-   availability of places will be advertised widely.
                                                         “We also found that European markets place        close to Melbourne is the Fruit Bat issue with
    much larger variety of fruit, including cherries,                                                                                                         better assess current and long-term issues and      Splendour crosses) and Jazz™ (Braeburn-Gala        There is always plenty to learn from methods
                                                         a lot of emphasis on regional produce. As         Government firmly sitting on their hands. I can
    peaches, apples, pears and lemons. In those                                                                                                               opportunities. These will be worked through in      cross), that are being grown commercially          and practices utilised in other countries. Future
                                                         a result, on returning to Australia, I’ve now     see it will be the final straw for some growers                                                        throughout New Zealand, Washington (USA)
    days they always had something on the truck,                                                                                                              groups on the day and participants will be able                                                        Orchards 2012 urges growers to consider
                                                         included ‘Produce of Yarra Valley’ on my          in the Yarra Valley unless a suitable and viable                                                       and in Europe.
    every week of the year, and the cost structure                                                                                                            to later access a free copy of the software which                                                      joining one or more of the New Zealand trips
                                                         packing boxes, which was a relatively easy and    solution is found soon.”
    of packing small lines was much different to                                                                                                                                                                  The Australian growers were able to view, taste    and to start thinking now about joining the
                                                                                                                                                              has been developed and will incorporate live
                                                         inexpensive thing to do.”                                                                                                                                                                                   proposed study tour to Europe in 2007.
    today.”                                                                                                At the end of the day, Alan’s main focus is        Australian data.                                    and feel eight new varieties of apples and half
                                                                                                           producing good fruit.                                                                                  a dozen pears of European and Asian stock and
                                                         Alan also observed that tree training methods
    Today, Maroondah Orchards concentrates                                                                                                                    Growers and orchard managers must register to       their crosses. Cross-breeding of the European
                                                         in Europe meant that growers aimed for and
    on fewer varieties to achieve economies of                                                             “In my experience, for as long as I’ve been in     attend the workshops through their local Future     and Asian pears aims to blend the flavour and      PHA levy vote
                                                         consistently achieve higher production yields.
    scale. They grow, store and pack the produce                                                           the industry, the best fruit always sells first.   Orchards Coordinator or by contacting the           aroma of the European pears with the texture
                                                         This gave him the confidence to crop a small                                                                                                                                                                At the Annual Levy Payers Meeting in August
    on-site, and distribute their fruit predominantly                                                                                                         AFFCO head office.                                  and juiciness of the Asian pears, giving rise to
                                                         block of Gala and achieve good size and quality                                                                                                                                                             (part of the apple and pear conference in
                                                                                                           “We’ve managed to stay in business as a small                                                          convenient tree-ripe pears with novel shapes,
    through an agent at the Melbourne and                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Sydney), levy payers will be asked to vote on
                                                         fruit at 83 tonnes per hectare.                   operator because we worked hard to maintain        Future Orchards 2012 project manager Alma           skin colours and flavours.
    Brisbane Markets. Farm gate sales represent                                                                                                                                                                                                                      a proposal to introduce a plant health levy for
                                                                                                           consumer contact. This has always been our         Reynolds of APAL says that it was always
    approximately 10 per cent of their sales, and        While Alan’s direct involvement in research                                                                                                              Brett Ennis, Chief Executive of Prevar™,           apples and pears and set it at a zero rate.
                                                                                                           approach, and will continue to be into the         intended that there be a training component to      described the new apple and pear varieties
    while it reflects only a small proportion of their   trials is selective, he does acknowledge that
                                                                                                           future.”                                           the APAL Future Orchards 2012 program.              being displayed as the best of the recent          In 2004, APAL became a signatory of the
    business, Alan appreciates the value of direct       the research being undertaken by industry
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  breeding program. He updated the growers on        Emergency Plant Pest Response Deed
    contact with consumers.                              has given him the confidence to trial different                                                      “It is exciting that this series of tracking                                                           (EPPRD). This deed sets out in formal terms
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  the current commercial status of the selections
                                                         methods.                                          Maroondah Orchards                                 orchard costs workshops will be followed
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  in New Zealand and elsewhere, and encouraged       the arrangements that would be implemented
    “My father always believed in keeping in touch                                                         713-719 Maroondah Highway                          up by a another series of workshops                 the visitors to consider planting selections       should the apple and pear industry be faced
    with consumers and changing trends. I spent          “I’ve found that most of the research being       Coldstream Vic 3770                                featuring a Westpac ‘Beyond Survival™’              under a trial agreement to determine their         with an outbreak of any emergency plant pest
    22 years selling our produce at the Melbourne        conducted worldwide is mostly focused on          t: (03) 9739 1041                                                                                                                                         or disease.
                                                                                                                                                              program presenter,” she says.                       performance in their orchard.

      ausTralian fruiTgrower – maY 2007                                                                                                                                                                   maY 2007 – ausTralian fruiTgrower                           
                                                                                                                                                                                       NOTICE OF THE 2007
                                                                                                                                                                                   ANNUAL LEVY PAYERS’ MEETING
    In general terms, the deed allows for the
    costs of any outbreak to be shared between
    government and industry. The proportion of the                 Attention Growers & Orchard Managers!
    costs born by each party is dependent upon the
                                                                                                                                                                            ‘Exercise Your Voting Rights as an Apple & Pear Levy Payer’
    impact of the pest or disease on the community
    outside the industry.
                                                                   Plan to Co$t: Co$t to Plan Work$hoP
    In order to meet its funding obligations under
                                                                  APAL’s Future Orchards 2012 program presents a free four-hour                                                           When: 9:00am Saturday 25th August 2007
    the EPPRD, the Australian apple and pear
    industry is required to implement a special levy              interactive orchard costing workshop featuring US costing expert,                                                       (as part of the Apple and Pear Annual Conference)
    through two options:
        · set a levy at an amount agreed to by
                                                                  Professor Clark Seavert, with his specially developed free software.
           the industry and allow those funds to build
                                                                  Register today! Contact your local Future Orchards 2012                                                                    Where: Darling Harbour, Sydney, NSW
           up in government hands until such time as
           it is needed                                           coordinator or orchard costing program co-ordinators AFFCO
        · implement a levy as required by the                     (Keryn Allan email: to register your
           EPPRD, but set the levy at zero

    APAL recommends to industry members that
                                                                  attendance*                                                                                               Purpose of the Meeting:
                                                                  (*Those attending must register by the 12th of June to guarantee a place)
    the second option be implemented.

    The second option has the advantage of                        What will you learn?                                                                                      1.      To provide a forum where levy rate issues are decided. At this meeting
    fulfilling the requirements under the deed
    without imposing any current financial burden
                                                                         • Business costing – long & short term                                                                     there will be motions to implement a levy to provide for the
    on industry members.                                                 • Managing the business in practice – the importance of                                                    obligations incurred by the Emergency Plant Pest Response Deed
                                                                           knowing your costs
    If there is an outbreak of an Emergency Plant
    Pest (EPP), activities to combat the outbreak
                                                                         • Cost minimisation vs profit maximization
    commence immediately. As part of the response                        • Difference between profitability and feasibility                                                 2.      For levy payers to receive presentations from the Apple & Pear Industry
    an eradication plan is formulated and approved                       • Basic economic and financial terms                                                                       Advisory Committee and the Peak Industry Body, Apple and Pear Australia
    by the appropriate groups. All activities go                         • Orchard production – Assessing short run costing problems and
    ahead until such time as a pre-determined
                                                                           solutions (group session – live examples)                                                                Limited (APAL) on –
    spending limit is reached and then no further
    spending occurs until all parties agree to move                      • Orchard establishment – long run problems and solutions: Using A                                         • the Industry Strategic Plan
                                                                           Grower’s Technologies Economic Assessment Software Model (TEAM)
    forward. The current review point for apples
    and for pears is set at 2 per cent of the gross                      • How you can get more help
                                                                                                                                                                                    • the Annual Investment Plan and
    value of annual production.                                          • Growing for a “target” market                                                                            • the IAC Annual Report (including presentations from Horticulture
    The levy can be set at zero because, should                          • Understanding the different markets for your fruit                                                         Australia Limited on R&D and Marketing)
    an EPP outbreak occur, the government has
    undertaken to underwrite the industry’s costs
                                                                  Where & When will you learn?
                                                                                                                                                                            Who Can Vote?
    to the extent of $10 million. This means that
    should there be an EPP outbreak, a levy set at                Fri 22nd June –       Southern Victoria (Knoxfield)   Wed 27th June –      Goulburn Valley (Shepparton)
    zero will not disadvantage the industry. Should                                                                     Thurs 28th June –    Batlow
                                                                  Sat 23rd June –       Tasmania (Grove)
    such an event occur, APAL would then need to
    fulfil the full set of Government guidelines for
                                                                  Monday 25th June –    WA (Donnybrook)                 Thurs 29th June –    Orange                         All apple and pear levy paying enterprises are entitled to attend and vote at this
                                                                  Tuesday 26th June –   Adelaide (Lenswood)             Friday 30th June –   Stanthorpe (DPI Applethorpe)
    increasing levies to raise the funds and repay
    the government.
                                                                                                                                                                            meeting or cast a vote by proxy (1 vote per levy paying enterprise).
                                                                                                                                                                            To be eligible to vote each levy paying enterprise must first register by
                                                                                                                                                                            completing a Voter Registration Form and have it returned to APAL before
         2007 AUSTRALIAN                                                                                                                                                    5pm 10th August 2007 at 39 O’Connell Street North Melbourne, Victoria 3051
         HORTICULTURAL                                                                                                                                                      or by Fax: on (03) 9329 3522
         This will be the 13th Annual Yearbook that Australian United Fresh Fruit & Vegetable Association Ltd has produced,
                                                                                                                                                                            How to get a Voter Registration Form:
         as a service to Australia’s fresh fruit and vegetable industry. Please contact AUF Communications if you require further
         information on making a contribution.                                                                                                                              •    Download from the APAL website (from July)
                                                                                                                                                                            •    As an insert in the June/July 2007 issue of the Australian Fruitgrower Magazine
         If you haven’t already done so, please advise at your earliest convenience if you will be making a CONTRIBUTION
         to the AUF 2007 Australian Horticultural Yearbook.                                                                                                                 •    By phoning APAL on (03) 9329 3511
                                                                                                                                                                            •    By emailing APAL at

                                                                                                                                                                            Enquiries: Phone Alma Reynolds at APAL on (03) 5825 2355

      ausTralian fruiTgrower – maY 2007                                                                                             
                                                                                                                  industry news                                                                                                                                   A TOOL
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  FOR EVERY
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  PRUNING TASK.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  FELCOTRONIC: The powerful,
    Green Invaders
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  robust and light Felco 800 and
                                                                                                                     opportunities presented by the forum to             be prominently seen; we know that children quite like this, so it becomes a              the new 810 electric secateurs.
                                                                                                                     coordinate the industry’s approach to selling       normal, good idea to be taking some fruit with you, wherever you might go.
                                                                                                                     into the domestic and international markets.                                                                                                 LOPPERS: Revolutionary,
                                                                                                                                                                         “The fruit itself is kept fresh and tasty - it doesn’t get
                                                                                                                     “This is an exciting opportunity for all            squashed, damaged and unappetising.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  modular two-hand pruners with
                                                                                                                     the industry to get together and look at                                                                                                     ultra-light carbon fibre handles.
                                                                                                                                                                         Julie said, “FruityFaces™ have been a huge success in the UK
                                                                                                                     possible improvements that could benefit the
                                                                                                                     industry as a whole,” Mr McGauran said.
                                                                                                                                                                         and are making a real difference with children there.                                    SECATEURS: Wide choice of
                                                                                                                                                                          “A recent survey showed that 64 per cent of children had                                ergonomic, durable secateurs
                                                                                                                     “The Government has been working
                                                                                                                     in partnership with the citrus industry
                                                                                                                                                                         increased their fruit consumption by between 1–4 portions                                and spare parts.
                                                                                                                                                                         per week since using their FruityFace™,” she claims.
                                                                                                                     for a number of years now and                                                                                                                SHARPENER: The diamond-
                                                                                                                     we look forward to continuing that                  “Feedback from the survey showed that 96 per cent of children had either a               coated Felco 903 sharpens
                                                                                                                     partnership with this new project.                  positive or extremely positive reaction to FruityFaces™; 94 per cent of children
                                                                                                                                                                         used their FruityFaces™ to take fruit to school and 84 per cent said that
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  and burnishes.
                                                                                                                     “In an era when produce markets are
                                                                                                                                                                         having FruityFaces™ made eating fruit fun and positive for their children.”
                                                                                                                     becoming increasingly competitive, it is
                                                                                                                     essential that all stakeholders work together
                                                                                                                     to shore up the industry’s longterm future.”
                                                                                                                                                                         AFFCO–IHD expo uses cutting-edge technology
                                                                                                                     The funding will be provided under the
                                                                                                                                                                         The AFFCO IHD Expo is a new initiative this year, and the overall
                                                                                                                     government’s Industry Partnerships
                                                                                                                                                                         program promises to be excellent. Put the dates in your diary:
                                                                                                                     Programme’s Action Partnerships
    Green lorikeets are feasting on applegrowers’ profits. Photo: Melanie Faith Dov                                                                                      Thursday 24 May
                                                                                                                     initiative, which aims to help industry
                                                                                                                                                                         AFFCO Stonefruit workshop, Goulburn Valley

                                                                                         apal news
    The ravenous green invaders from the                         Harcourt’s 23 apple growers contribute              sectors undertake practical projects
                                                                                                                                                                         Friday 25 May
    skies know no fear. Hungry musk lorikeets,                   around $20 million annually to the local            of lasting benefit to industry.
                                                                                                                                                                         AFFCO IHD Expo, Shepparton
    driven out of the bush by drought, have                      economy but the arrival of the musk lorikeets
                                                                                                                     Source: Ministerial media release, 17 April 2007    Saturday 26 May                                                                                                                    Also available with
    become a nightmare for apple growers in                      six weeks ago has decimated the crop.
                                                                                                                                                                         AFFCO Postharvest Workshop and Granny Smith Ball, Melbourne                                                                        aluminium handles
    central Victoria and the Yarra Valley.                       Mr Temby conceded farmers had limited                                                                   Sunday 27 May
    With a shortage of nectar in their box                       options beyond placing expensive netting            Fruity faces a winner                               Field visit, southern Victoria
    ironbark forest feeding grounds, musk                        over their orchards but advised them
                                                                                                                                                                         Minimising water use, reducing labour costs and improving
    lorikeets have made a meal of this year’s                    not to resort to shooting the protected
                                                                                                                                                                         logistical, storage and packing-shed efficiency are just some
    apple harvest, which frost, hail and drought                 wildlife species without a permit.
                                                                                                                                                                         of the topics to be covered in the upcoming AFFCO-IHD Expo
    had already reduced by 70 per cent.                          “We don’t know how much of the overall musk                                                             and series of AFFCO workshops from 24–27 May 2007.
    Farmers have tried everything from scare                     lorikeet population migrates into orchard
                                                                                                                                                                         The Expo component, to be held on May 25, is a joint effort between the two
    guns and electronic bird scarers, imitation                  areas in these tough times of drought so
                                                                                                                                                                         business groups, with the expo format offering a new method of learning.
    hawks and scarecrows to stereos blaring music                large-scale destruction of the birds would be
    from vehicles parked in the orchard, in their                a significant conservation issue,” he said.                                                             Aimed at producers and packers of apples, pears, stonefruit and
    attempts to send the hungry flocks packing.                                                                                                                          cherries, the Expo offers a facilitated tour through new technologies
                                                                 Source: Lorna Edwards, The Age, 18 April 2007.
    But the lorikeets don’t mind indulging their                                                                                                                         and their applications, led by national and international experts.
    sweet-tooth cravings with musical backing.                                                                                                                           Day one of the workshop series is a stonefruit workshop at DPI Tatura,                                                        NEW Felco 810
    “They are just not easily scared … a farmer
                                                                 $200,000 to help citrus get                                                                             with orchard visits. A postharvest workshop on day three will be followed                                                     hi-capacity; up to 35mm.
    can shoot a musk lorikeet (under permit)
                                                                 to markets efficiently                                                                                  by the traditional AFFCO Ball, including annual Honour Roll presentations.
    and their mates will stay in the tree and                                                                                                                            The fourth day offers orchard tours through southern Victoria.
                                                                 The Government will provide $200,000
    continue feeding,” said the Department                       to support a major citrus industry forum                                                                Australian Fresh Fruit Company (AFFCO) GM Andrew Dick says the
    of Sustainability and Environment’s                          aimed at getting Australian fruit into key                                                              program addresses many challenges producers face, such as water,
    senior biodiversity officer, Ian Temby.                      markets as efficiently as possible.                 FruityFaces™ are a fun inflatable fruit case that   frost and sun, and provides opportunities to address these.
    Trevor Peeler, an aptly named fifth-                         Minister for Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry,   helps to encourage children to eat more fruit,      “Other, non-climatic challenges include the increasing need
    generation apple grower and president of                     Peter McGauran, said the forum would draw on        and helps with fund-raising for good causes.        to produce fruit to a defined size parameter. This will be
    the Harcourt and District Fruit Growers                      the views of people from across the industry        They give a fun, positive, cool and trendy          addressed with a focus on tree manipulation.”
    Association, said orchardists were at                        – including the growing, packing, processing,       message to eating fruit. The cases are available    IHD CEO Bill Dowdle, says “At a challenging time, this is a great
    their wit’s end over the lorikeets.                          shipping and retail sectors – to identify ways      in four different colours and striking designs,     opportunity to be at the leading edge in a very cost-effective manner.”
                                                                 tomake the supply chain more efficient.             named Fenne, Tunda, Sesey and Mengi after
    “They are coming in plague proportions
                                                                                                                     varieties of African fruit. FruityFaces™ are        David Morey, of Shepparton IHD distributor IK Caldwell, says “Visits in the
    now and destroying our crops, where                          “Our citrus industry is a significant contributor
                                                                                                                     economical at $9.95 each or three for $27.50.       unique Expo format will be to some of the best sites in the Goulburn Valley,
    before we didn’t mind if the birds took                      to many regional communities, with production
                                                                                                                                                                         where there has been considerable investment in new technology.”
    the odd piece of fruit,” he said.                            worth about $335 million a year, and exports in     Already an outstanding success in the United
                                                                 2006 reaching $163 million,” Mr McGauran said.      Kingdom this healthy concept and product            Mr Dick says “This year’s theme for the AFFCO Ball is ‘Granny
    “We had to pick our Fuji apples early to try
                                                                                                                     is being imported by Ripe Trading, based            Smith’, so come dressed in black tie with a touch of green!”
    to save as many as possible but now we                       “It’s vital that our produce gets to
    are concerned about our pink lady apples                     markets – both domestic and overseas                on Queensland’s Sunshine Coast. Ripe                Participants can attend all workshop components or select a couple.
    — our most profitable variety — which                        – as quickly and cheaply as possible.”              Trading’s owner/manager, Julie Stringer,
                                                                                                                     said the FruityFaces™ idea would help               For more information, or to register (RSVP is May 10), please contact:
    are just starting to sweeten on the tree
                                                                 Speaking at the Australian Citrus Growers’          increase awareness about healthy eating.            AFFCO
    now.” The orchardists want alternative
                                                                 59th Annual Conference in Renmark, South                                                                t: (03) 5420 7444
    feeding sites set up to feed the birds.                                                                          “These bags attach to the outside of a school                                                                                                Call 1800 730 257 for a dealership
                                                                 Australia, Mr McGauran highlighted the                                                                  w:
                                                                                                                     back-pack or in some other way that can                                                                                                      near you.

      ausTralian fruiTgrower – maY 2007                                                                                                                                                              FEL0655_TFM.indd 1   maY 2007 – ausTralian fruiTgrower
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  5:58:10 PM
     growing in the greenhouse?
     Apples and pears in a warming world
                                                           If this is the broad-brush global picture,           the average number of days with minimums              Wales, can be attributed to human caused            winter and spring rainfall in New South Wales        Finally, although it is not yet certain that
     What does global warming                              what can we say about Australia, and in              below 7˚C from about 215 days to just below           global warming, or whether they are just            and Victoria (with Tasmania showing a range          warming will necessarily lead to reduced rainfall,

     mean for Australia’s apple                            particular what does global warming mean             200, indicating a reduction in winter chill units.    an expression of the natural variability of         from a small decline to a significant increase in    there is a significant possibility that it will,
                                                           for Australia’s apple and pear industry?                                                                   Australian rainfall on the decadal timescale        winter rain, but a similar range to New South        especially in southern Australia where autumn/
     and pear industry? To                                 To examine what is happening and projected
                                                                                                                                                                      – or perhaps a combination of both.                 Wales and Victoria in spring).                       winter rainfall does seem to have declined. In
                                                                                                                Rainfall trends are complex, because Australian                                                                                                                any case, warmer conditions will increase water
                                                           more locally I will focus in on three of the major                                                         The projections                                     These large ranges reflect significant differences
     examine what is happening                             apple and pear growing districts of Australia:
                                                                                                                rainfall is highly variable on a year-to-year basis
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          between the models when it comes to rainfall
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               requirements while also increasing evaporative
                                                                                                                but also, as we are beginning to understand,          As well as looking at trends, climate scientists                                                         losses, putting pressures on water availability
     globally and projected                                the Central Tablelands region around Orange in
                                                                                                                on a decade-to-decade basis, with abrupt,             are also seeking to establish projections of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          projections, including even the direction of the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               for irrigation, as indeed has been the case in the
                                                           New South Wales, the Goulburn Valley region                                                                                                                    trend, and highlight the fact mentioned above
                                                                                                                step-like changes apparent in the records.            future climate change, using climate computer
     more locally, we look at                              of Victoria, and the Huon Valley in Tasmania.
                                                                                                                                                                      modelling based on possible future emission
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          that rainfall is one of the parameters that the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               current drought.
                                                                                                                In southern Australia, including Tasmania                                                                 climate models do least well.                        Meeting the challenge
     three of the major apple                                                                                   and Victoria there has been a significant
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               All in all, climate change poses a significant
                                                                                                                and relatively abrupt decline in autumn and           These models are much better at capturing
     and pear growing districts                                                                                 winter rainfall in the last ten years related to      broad, global scale information than the more
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The potential impacts                                challenge to Australian agriculture, not least
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               the apple and pear industry. What can be done?
                                                                                                                an increase in mean sea level pressure which          localised national or regional scale. They also     Given the observed trends and the projected
     of Australia.                                                                                              has been inhibiting the fronts and storms in          deal better with temperature than rainfall,         changes, what are the potential impacts likely
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Well basically there are three parts to any
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               reasonable response:
                                                                                                                the westerlies that bring much of our winter          where there is often considerable disagreement      to be for the apple and pear industry?
                                                                                                                rain. A similar decline occurred over 30 years        between models.                                                                                             1. awareness – staying up to date with
     Manager, NSW Bureau of Meteorology Climate Services                                                                                                                                                                  The most obvious impact for pome fruit such as
     Centre.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         what’s happening both globally but also
                                                                                                                                                                      With that caveat in mind, what is expected for      apples and pears will be the expected continued
     The progressive release over the course of                                                                                                                                                                           rise in temperatures and hence a reduction in              in your local area (the Bureau of
                                                                                                                                                                      Australia, and in particular for those regions
     this year of the Intergovernmental Panel on                                                                                                                                                                          chilling hours. This is a particular issue for the         Meteorology’s extensive climate records
                                                                                                                                                                      where apples and pears currently grow?
     Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report                                                                                                                                                                              Australian apple and pear industry because                 can assist – check out the climate
     (IPCC 4AR), as well as Al Gore’s film, An             The observations                                                                                                                                               there is little scope for adapting through                 information on our website gov.
     Inconvenient Truth and the British Stern                                                                                                                         Mean temperatures                                   relocation. As the CSIRO’s Kevin Hennessy said             au/climate)
                                                           Mean temperatures
     Report, have all served to bring concern                                                                                                                                                                             in an article over a decade ago “… the overall          2. mitigation – support and encourage
                                                           All three regions show an increase in mean                                                                 The CSIRO in 2001 published a set of Australian
     about climate change to the fore in public                                                                                                                                                                           effects on horticultural production in Australia           attempts to lower greenhouse gas
                                                           temperatures of between 0.5–0.7˚C since 1950,                                                              regional projections based on the outputs of the
     consciousness, both globally and in Australia.                                                                                                                                                                       may be greater than in many temperate regions              emissions
                                                           with a significant part of the rise occurring                                                              then available climate models. These projections
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          of the northern hemisphere due to the marginal
     The IPCC 4AR is a thorough and                        since 1970. This is broadly in line with the                                                               indicate a warming by 2030 of 0.4–2.0˚C in                                                                  3. adaptation – preparing sensibly for the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          nature of some fruit growing areas and the lack
     comprehensive review of all published                 global picture presented in IPCC 4AR.                                                                      average annual temperatures over most of                                                                      changes we are likely to face. Given there
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          of extensive higher altitude or higher latitude
     research and observations concerning                                                                                                                             Australia (less in coastal areas and in Tasmania)                                                             is still a deal of uncertainty associated with
                                                           The story in relation to minimum                                                                                                                               regions where chilling requirements may
     climate change up to the end of 2005,                                                                                                                            and 1–6˚C by 2070. The warming is expected to                                                                 projections, a risk management approach
                                                           temperatures is more complex, which                                                                                                                            continue to be met under warmer conditions.”
     and as such represents the consensus                                                                                                                             be less in winter, with a 1–4˚C projection range                                                              can be of value. Most state Departments of
                                                           is not unexpected, because minimum                                                                                                                             With thus little room to move, the main
     of our current scientific understanding                                                                                                                          for Tasmania and Victoria, and 1–5˚C range for                                                                Primary Industries are now geared up
                                                           temperatures are affected by many factors                                                                                                                      adaptive strategy available to industry would
     of what is happening to our world.                                                                                                                               the Orange district of New South Wales. The                                                                   to assist farmers in this process. For the
                                                           such as local topography, soil moisture,                                                                                                                       seem to be moving to varieties that have a
                                                                                                                                                                      ranges are due to both differences between                                                                    apple and pear industry adaptation will
     Its basic conclusions:                                and the amount of overnight cloud cover.
                                                                                                                                                                      models and also to a range of possible emission     lower chilling requirement.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    most likely include, for example, the
        · global warming is unequivocally occurring        The clearest warning signal in minimums                                                                    scenarios – the lower end if we significantly       Another impact of warming, particularly rising            development at an industry level, and use
        – the global mean temperature has risen            is for the Huon Valley of Tasmania, which                                                                  curtail emissions, the higher end for ‘business     minimum temperatures, is expected to be a                 at a location level, of cultivars (either new
         0.74˚C in the last 100 years. The                 has shown an increase in average minimum                                                                   as usual’. The overall message is clear however:    decreased incidence of frost. As apples require           or existing) with lower chilling hour
         evidence is multi-faceted and compelling          temperatures from 1950 of about 0.6˚C across                                                               while there will undoubtedly be much year-to        frost-free conditions once the buds begin to              requirements and greater pest and
        · based on climate modelling by many               both summer and winter. During winter, at this                                                             -year variation with occasional cooler years,       open there may be some benefits in this,                  disease resistance.
         different scientific groups around the            location, there have been fewer days with a                                                                we can expect over time for temperatures to         however the situation is likely to be more
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               While the challenges are large, Australian
         world, global mean temperatures                   minimum below 7˚C (235 days down to 220)                                                                   continue to rise.                                   complex. For example, if rising minimums are
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               farmers have always had to deal with a
         are expected to rise by about a further 1˚C       with a corresponding decrease in the chill                                                                                                                     accompanied by greater variability there may be
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               challenging climate – our “…droughts and
         by 2020–2029 and about 2–5˚C by                   hours received by the fruit trees. In the Orange                                                                                                               an increased risk of unexpected frost at critical
                                                                                                                                                                      Rainfall                                                                                                 flooding rains.” The skills and resourcefulness
         2090–2099 (depending on our future                district of New South Wales, the winter average                                                                                                                times.
                                                                                                                ago in southwest Western Australia and still                                                                                                                   of our agricultural sector, its scientists,
         C02 emissions)                                    minimums have also risen by 0.6˚C, although                                                                The picture in the CSIRO projections is not as
                                                                                                                continues. Drier conditions arose in New South                                                            A secondary, but nevertheless significant            horticulturalists and farmers, gained in coping
                                                           this increase in minimum temperatures was                                                                  clear-cut, due to a lack of consensus between
        · there is now very high confidence                                                                     Wales around 2000, with about a 20 per cent                                                               potential impact of warming temperatures on          with the vagaries of Australia’s highly variable
                                                           not observed in the summer months. At this                                                                 the various models. The projections for 2070
         (estimated at 90 per cent) that the primary                                                            decline in their average annual rainfall.                                                                 horticulture would be expansion in the ranges        climate will stand Australian agriculture,
                                                           location there has been little change in the                                                               range from a significant decline to a small
         cause of this observed and                                                                                                                                                                                       of diseases and pests, such as fruit fly, that are   including the apple and pear industry, in good
                                                           number of days with minimums below 7˚C.              While there is some evidence that the
                                                                                                                                                                      increase in autumn rainfall affecting Tasmania      now limited by temperature. While presumably
         projected warming is due to human                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     stead as it faces the considerable challenge of
                                                           The Goulburn Valley area of Victoria shows           decline in southern autumn/winter rain
                                                                                                                                                                      and Victoria (where a definite decline has          being open to various possible management and
         emissions of greenhouse gases,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        growing in the greenhouse.
                                                           the least change in minimums, with no strong         may be related to human-induced climate
                                                                                                                                                                      already been observed), and similarly from a        control strategies, these would no doubt add to
         primarily C02
                                                           trend in either the annual or winter average         change, it is not yet certain that these recent
                                                                                                                                                                      significant decline to a marginal increase in       the costs of production.
                                                           minimums, though there has been a decline in         declines in rainfall, particularly in New South

10      ausTralian fruiTgrower – maY 2007                                                                                                                                                                             maY 2007 – ausTralian fruiTgrower                            11
     The changing rainfall patterns of
     Australia’s apple growing districts


     Climate change is a natural
     phenomenon that has been
     occurring ever since the
     earth was formed. It is a
     result of both natural causes
     as well as human influences.
     Natural causes of climate change include
     Southern Oscillation (El Nino), Pacific Decadal
     Oscillation, North Atlantic Oscillation, volcanic
     eruptions, fluctuations in solar output and
     orbital cycle and polar ice variations. Human
     influences on climate include changing land
     uses, urban climate effects, production of
     greenhouse gases such as CO2 and methane as
     well as aerosols and other air pollutants.

     While the records and models are well
     developed for climate change effects on
     temperature, the impact on rainfall is poorly
     understood. It is known that large areas of
     Australia have become drier since 1950 and this
     reduction in rainfall has become more severe in
     recent years (figures 1 and 2).

     In the previous article, however, Perry Wiles
     states that “trends in rainfall are complex as
     Australian rainfall is highly variable on a year
     to year basis but, as we are beginning to
     understand, also on a decade to decade basis,
     with abrupt ‘step-like’ changes apparent in
     the records”. At the recent ITFA conference
     in Hobart earlier this year, the Queensland
     Department of Primary Industry presented a
     paper on the current observed climate changes
     with some detailed information on rainfall for
     the past 80–100 years for the Stanthorpe,
     Batlow, Bacchus Marsh and Huon regions
     (figures 3 to 6). This data clearly shows the
     ‘abrupt step-like’ changes referred to by Perry     The rough guide to climate change
     Wiles. While we are currently at a below            Paperback - ISBN: 9781843537113 - AU $24.95
     average rainfall point in time, these drought                             The Rough Guide to Climate Change gives      The book looks at:                            · the debates: sceptics, politicians,
     events have occurred over decade periods in                               the complete picture of the single biggest      · the symptoms: how rising                   activists and lobby groups - how
     the past 100 years of records.                                            issue facing our planet. Cutting a swathe         temperatures and sea levels, plus          and why climate change became a
                                                                               through scientific research and political         changes to extreme weather                 political hot potato
                                                                               debate, it lays out the facts and assesses        patterns, are already effecting          · the solutions: how governments,
                                                                               the opinions – global and personal – for          life around the world                      scientists and engineers plan
                                                                               dealing with the threat of a warming            · the science: what we know and how          to tackle the problem, plus in-depth
                                                                               world.                                            we know it, plus the fascinating story     information about what you can
                                                                                                                                 of climate through the ages                do to help. Source: CSIRO Publishing

12     ausTralian fruiTgrower – maY 2007                                                                                                                  maY 2007 – ausTralian fruiTgrower   1
     HAL marketing update
     The 2007 apple and pear seasons have kicked                                                         To date, Tony Russell, Darral Ashton and                                                           Food Media Club Educational Event                   In addition to the sampling, we will also have
     off to a great start with the advertising and                                                       Jon Durham have met with Radio 2GB, New                                                                                                                a merchandising team visiting independent
                                                                                                                                                                                                            The Food Media Club of Australia is
     public relations programs in full swing.                                                            Idea, ABC TV Midday Report, Woman’s Day,                                                                                                               greengrocers to ensure our point of sale that
                                                                                                                                                                                                            an association of food professionals
                                                                                                         Australian Women’s Weekly, Australian Gourmet                                                                                                          communicates low GI and taste messages
     With apples named as Australia’s favourite                                                                                                                                                             including journalists, publishers, recipe
                                                                                                         Traveller, Today Tonight, Australian Table, The                                                                                                        are displayed prominently. Point of sale
     fruit in 2006 and pears the third most                                                                                                                                                                 developers, nutritionists and teachers.
                                                                                                         West Australian and Good Health and Medicine.                                                                                                          developed includes 1 x A3 poster and 2 x
     consumed fruit by Australian consumers, this
                                                                                                                                                                                                            The Food Media Club meets regularly to              wobblers (low GI and new season Packham).
     year’s program has been designed to drive
                                                                                                                                                                                                            discuss issues in food writing, products
     demand and increase per capita consumption                                                          Kissed by nature
                                                                                                                                                                                                            and produce, innovations in the industry
     of two of Australia’s favourite fruits.                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Mums’ endurance
                                                                                                         In April a media release was distributed                                                           and breaking news. In May, Apple and Pear
                                                                                                         that talked about the difference in the                                                            Australia Limited will be hosting an apple          At the start of the 2007 pear public relations
                                                                                                                                                           for 31 days. This will be supported in-
                                                                                                         2007 apple crop compared to previous                                                               and pear educational event for the media.           campaign, it was known that mothers were
     Valentine’s Day                                  Online advertising also took place on NineMSN                                                        store by price board inserts, information
                                                                                                         seasons. This included the affect                                                                                                                      clearly buying pears, but what was not known
                                                      and Lavalife from 31 January –14 February,                                                           leaflets, on-pack stickers (pre-packs) and a     The event will include presentations on the
     Cupid’s favourite holiday marked the                                                                of the drought, frost and hail.                                                                                                                        was if they were eating them themselves.
                                                      while downloadable ‘Bite Me!’ ecards were                                                            magazine advert in Australian Good Taste.        state of the 2007 apple and pear seasons,
     start of the apple season this year and to
                                                      available at          Media coverage of this media release                                                               future breeding programs, the launch of
     ensure the occasion didn’t go unnoticed,                                                                                                              We will also have a merchandising team
                                                                                                         included The Age, Australian Good                                                                  the Jazz™ apple, the truth about being an
     both the advertising and public relations                                                                                                             visiting independent greengrocers to ensure
                                                                                                         Taste, Sunshine Coast Daily, Brisbane                                                              apple and/or pear grower and the benefits
     campaigns went into overdrive.                                                                                                                        our point of sale that communicates health
                                                                                                         Times and The Sunday Telegraph.                                                                    of eating more apples and pears.
                                                                                                                                                           messages and new season varieties are
     After securing Fast Flowers as a partner in
                                                                                                                                                           displayed prominently. Point of sale developed   The event will be held in Sydney and a
     the launch, 1,500 boxes of red roses were
                                                                                                         The wheels are in motion                          for this campaign includes 2 x A3 posters        full recap will be given in an upcoming
     delivered with an apple and an apple ‘Bite
                                                                                                                                                           and 3 x new season variety wobblers.             issue of Australian Fruitgrower.
     me!’ card, across Melbourne and Sydney.                                                             Television Campaign

                                                                                                         The successful ‘Bite Me!’ campaign aired
                                                                                                                                                                                                            IT’S GOT TO BE PEAR-FECT
                                                                                                         on the Seven and Nine TV networks. The            WHAT’S NEXT
                                                                                                                                                                                                            Outdoor activity
                                                                                                         campaign ran in Sydney from the week              What’s In Your Lunchbox?
                                                                                                         commencing 4 March and will continue to                                                            With May upon us, you will start to see the
                                                                                                                                                           Set to launch at the end of May, the ‘What’s
                                                                                                         do so until the week commencing 22 April.                                                          2007 pear outdoor advertising in the coming
                                                                                                                                                           in your lunchbox?’ report will look at what                                                          In order to address this, a ‘Mums’ endurance’
                                                                                                         The ads aired in Melbourne from the week                                                           weeks. Scheduled to take place in May, June
                                                                                                                                                           Australians snack on at work. The report                                                             survey has been conducted to address
                                                      To support the advertising campaign the            commencing 25 February until the week                                                              and July, the backlit posters will be placed
                                                                                                                                                           will focus on what snacks are available                                                              the dietary habits of mothers, the amount
                                                      public relations program launched the              commencing 15 April, and if you were in                                                            outside shopping centres and will feature
                                                                                                                                                           in the workplace and promote apples                                                                  of energy needed to complete their daily
                                                      ‘Bite Me’ survey to gather information on          Brisbane between the week commencing 11                                                            three different designs, all focusing on a
                                                                                                                                                           as the healthy, convenient choice.                                                                   routine and how mothers would approach
                                                      Australians’ attitude towards Valentine’s          February and the week commencing 1 April,                                                          different delicious way to enjoy Australian
                                                                                                         you would have caught a glimpse of the ads.                                                                                                            getting more energy out of their days.
                                                      Day, the most and least desirable celebrities                                                                                                         pears, together with the low GI message.
                                                      and health and exercise behaviour.                                                                                                                                                                        The results of the survey showed that 98 per
                                                                                                                                                                                                            The ads will also be placed in metropolitan
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                cent of mothers would like more energy in
                                                      The result was a ‘tongue in cheek’ ambush          In-store sampling                                                                                  areas across Sydney, Melbourne and Brisbane.
     Transit sampling also took place on the big                                                                                                                                                                                                                their day, 49 per cent found balancing their
                                                      of Valentine’s Day, with key results
     day (14 February 2007) with promotional                                                             You can expect to see in-store sampling                                                                                                                part-time/full-time job as well as being a
                                                      including coverage in The Daily Telegraph,
     staff handing out new season Gala apples,                                                           in Coles, Woolworths, IGA, Foodworks or                                                            In-store sampling                                   parent the most tiring thing about motherhood
                                                      The Courier Mail, The Herald Sun, The
     ‘Bite Me!’ tattoos and cards with a 5 per cent                                                      Independent greengrocer stores nearby to you                                                                                                           and only 25 per cent would change their
                                                      Sunday Mail (Adelaide) and Mix 106.5.                                                                                                                 The national sampling campaign will be
     discount offer to Fast Flowers between 7 am                                                         in the coming months. The sampling staff will                                                                                                          diet to get more energy out of their day.
                                                                                                                                                                                                            kicking off shortly in Woolworths, Coles, IGA,
     and 9 am. More than 380,000 consumers were       In addition to the ‘Bite Me’ survey, the public    be offering consumers who purchase 1kg or
                                                                                                                                                                                                            Foodworks and independent greengrocers.             The results of the survey are
     reached at Town Hall, Wynyard and Martin         relations campaign targeted all national media     more of Australian apples a ‘Bite Me!’ watch.
                                                                                                                                                                                                            Scheduled to begin week commencing                  scheduled for release in May.
     Place stations in Sydney, and Flinders Street    with a ‘season launch’ media release focusing
                                                                                                         In-store sampling in the independents                                                              4th June and running through to week
     and Spencer Street stations in Melbourne.        on the start of the season and the early arrival                                                                                                                                                          Media Campaign
                                                                                                         and IGA commenced on 12 March                                                                      commencing 8th August, the sampling
                                                      of Australia’s most consumed fruit in 2006.
                                                                                                         nationally. The in-store sampling                                                                  activity will include a gift with purchase          Also to come from this season’s public relations
                                                                                                         campaign will conclude on 6 May.                                                                   offer (one kilogram of Australian pears             campaign are two additional media releases that
                                                      One-on-one media briefings                                                                                                                            purchased on the day will entitle consumers         will look at diabetes and low allergenic diets.
                                                                                                                                                                                                            to a special pear slicer). A pear recipe leaflet
                                                      As part of this year’s public relations            Bite Me! Watch                                                                                                                                         The first media release will focus on the
                                                                                                                                                                                                            will also be handed out by sampling staff.
                                                      campaign, Apple and Pear spokespeople will                                                                                                                                                                growth of Type-2 diabetes in Australia. The
                                                                                                         In addition to the in-store sampling
                                                      be meeting (either in person or over the                                                                                                              Focusing on high traffic fruit retailers            release will talk about the role of Low GI
                                                                                                         Woolworths and Safeway will be the home
                                                      phone) with a range of Australia’s leading                                                                                                            and supermarkets, there will be a total             diets in combating Type-2 diabetes and the
                                                                                                         to a month long campaign in May, which
                                                      journalists to talk about the industry, the                                                                                                           of 250 sessions nationally, covering                important role of pears in a low GI menu. This
                                                                                                         will drive sales of apples. Consumers will
                                                      latest developments and breaking news.                                                                                                                NSW, VIC, WA, QLD, SA and TAS.                      release is scheduled for release in June.
                                                                                                         be given the chance to win an iPod a day

1     ausTralian fruiTgrower – maY 2007                                                                                                                                                                 maY 2007 – ausTralian fruiTgrower                       1
                                                                                                                                                                            research update
                                                                                                          Global climate change and its relation to
     The second media release, scheduled for          Any apple or pear grower with a
                                                                                                          the main growth stages of apple
     distribution in August, will look at pears as    story to tell should contact:                       BY GORDON BROWN
     only one of two low allergenic foods. The
                                                      Coreena Ryles
     release will focus on the benefits of pears      IMPACT Communications                               During the recent IFTA
     for mothers looking to introduce solids into     t: (02) 9519 5411
     their childrens’ diets and expanding the
                                                      e: coreena@
                                                                                                          conference in Hobart a
     menu for those with strong allergies.  
                                                                                                          paper was presented on
     Orchardist profiles – calling all growers
                                                                                                          the effect of climate change
     To help give Australian pears and apples a
     face for consumers, profiles of apple and pear                                                       on the duration of the main
     growers will be featured as case studies.
                                                                                                          growth stages of apples by
     The orchardist profiles will communicate
     life as a grower and will build a rapport                                                            J Racsko, Z Szabo,
     between the industry and consumers.
                                                                                                          L Lakatos, M Soltesz and                             Figure 1. The average temperature at apple flowering 1980–2005 in eastern Hungary.

                                                                                                          J Nyeki of the University
                                                                                                          of Debrecen, Hungary,
                                                                                                          Institute for Research and
                                                                                                          Development. A summary is
                                                                                                          presented here.

                                                                                                          Given the dependence of physiological
                                                                                                          processes on climatic conditions, changes
                                                                                                          due to predicted global warming may affect
                                                                                                          apple production. Detailed climatic conditions
                                                                                                          and the dates of flowering, fruit growth              Figure 2. The average day of full bloom for the earliest and latest cultivar of 586 cultivars over 25 years
                                                                                                                                                                in eastern Hungary.
                                                                                                          and fruit maturation for 586 apple cultivars
                                                                                                          growing at the Ujfeherto Research Station
                                                                                                          in Eastern Hungary were collected over a         become more compacted with full bloom
                                                                                                          25-year period. Over this time the average       occuring over a 15-day period, rather than
                                                                                                          temperature during flowering has risen by 5ºC    a 40-day period for the 586 cultivars.
                                                                                                          from 12ºC in 1980 to 17ºC in 2005 (Figure        Of interest is that the warmer temperatures
                                                                                                          1) This has seen a reduction in the incidence    have been associated with a longer growing
                                                                                                          of frost during flowering from 5.5 per cent of   season between flowering and harvest (Figure
                                                                                                          the flowering days below 0ºC (1980–1989)         3). For late maturing cultivars the growing
                                                                                                          to 1.5 per cent of the days (1996–2005).         season has been extended by ten days from
                                                                                                          This increase in temperature has been            150 days to 160 days although the effect
                                                                                                          associated with changes in the flowering         is smaller for earlier maturing cultivars. As
                                                                                                          pattern of trees. For the early blooming         flowering was on average advanced by ten
                                                                                                          cultivars there has been little change in        days and the growing season extended by ten                Figure 3. The length of the growing season in
                                                                                                          flowering date which occurs approximately        days, the date of harvest for late maturing                Eastern Hungary for a 25-year period.
                                                                                                          100 days after 1 January (Figure 2). For the     apples was not dramatically affected by the
                                                                                                          late blooming cultivars, however, there has      increase in temperature over the 25-year
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       of apple trees has been advanced by about
                                                                                                          been an advancement in flowering date from       period. As the effect on the growing season
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       ten days and the duration of flowering has been
                                                                                                          about 145 days after 1 January to about          for early maturing apples was less, these
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       reduced. Although flowering has been advanced
                                                                                                          110 days. On average, the date of flowering      cultivars are harvested slightly earlier.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       it appears that the higher temperatures have
                                                                                                          has been advanced by about ten days from         In conclusion, it was found that over the                   been associated with an increase in the growing
                                                                                                          120 days after 1 January to 110 days after 1     25-year period in eastern Hungary, the average              season. This has resulted in little change in the
                                                                                                          January. In addition, due to the large impact    temperature rose by about 5ºC. Associated with              harvest date of late maturing cultivars and a slight
                                                                                                          on late flowering cultivars, flowering has       this rise in temperture the date of full bloom              advance in harvest date of early cultivars.

1      ausTralian fruiTgrower – maY 2007                                                                                                                       maY 2007 – ausTralian fruiTgrower                                  17
     research update
     Winter chill: apples and pears
     for warmer districts   Temperature requirements                                                          In Java in the early 1970s, apples were grown        Rootstocks                                                     Chemicals                                                would be preferred. The selection of new
                                                                                                              in the highlands (Janick 1974). They grew two                                                                                                                                low chill cultivars with desirable marketing
                                                         In a 1500-hour chill period on apple MM.111                                                               The chilling requirement of a rootstock can                    Dormancy can be broken with chemicals such
     Winter chill hours has been                         rootstock, 15˚C in the last 500 hours had a
                                                                                                              crops per year, one harvested in April and one
                                                                                                                                                                   have an effect on the chilling requirement of                  as Cyanamide (Dormex, Duomax and Cyan),
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           traits is urgently required for these regions.
                                                                                                              in October. To do this the fruit was picked, the                                                                                                                             Alternatively, the selection of dwarfing low chill
                                                         positive effect on bud break (Young 1992),                                                                the variety. Most of the clonal apple rootstocks               thiourea dinitro-ortho-cresol (DNOC), fatty acid
     traditionally calculated from                       while 15, 20 and 30˚C in the first and second
                                                                                                              trees were left alone for a month before all the
                                                                                                                                                                   used commercially were selected and bred in                    esters (Waiken) and potassium nitrate, (note:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           rootstocks may prove a useful tool against
                                                                                                              leaves were picked off. They would flower in a                                                                                                                               global warming effects on bud break of high
     the number of hours below                           500 hours had a negative effect. Ashcroft et
                                                                                                              month, have three months of growing before
                                                                                                                                                                   much colder climes, so how they work in warm                   please check current registration status prior to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           chill apple and pears growing in a warm
                                                         al. in 1977, published a method determining                                                               districts has not been fully tested. Granny                    use) but suitable varieties for the chill hours of
     7˚C. However more recent                            chill units and growing degree hours from
                                                                                                              being picked again. Tip bearing varieties like
                                                                                                                                                                   Smith seedlings have a low chill requirement                   the region are more effective. One per cent and
                                                                                                              Rome Beauty were best for this system and
     research has shown that                             temperature data and observed dates of full
                                                                                                              they have selected new varieties to suit the
                                                                                                                                                                   and may be used as rootstocks but the tree                     2 per cent cyanamide applied 20 days before
                                                         bloom. Figure 1 is a simple ready reckoner to                                                             vigour tends to be too high. There are fewer                   bud burst and one month later were effective in
     most varieties require a                            calculate the possible winter chill occurring in a
                                                                                                                                                                   problems with pear rootstocks as P. calleryana                 breaking dormancy 78–81 per cent, but 2 per
                                                         warmer area (not developed by author).               Apples                                               rootstock (D6) is the dominant rootstock grown                 cent was more effective (Finetto 1993).                  References
     period of heat after chilling                                                                                                                                 all over Australia and this has a low 400 hours
                                                         In recent times, moves have pushed ahead to          Apple species are much more complex in                                                                                                                                       Ashcroft, G.L., Richardson, E.A. and
     to complete the bud break.                          grow apples in warmer climes of Australia, that      their ancestry than pears and more mixed
                                                                                                                                                                   of chill requirement. Williams’ on their own                                                                            Seeley, S.D. (1977). A statistical method of
                                                                                                                                                                   roots required over 1100 hours, however, on P.                 Conclusion
                                                         do not have sufficient winter chill in winter.       up. Selections were grafted from at least 600                                                                                                                                determining chill unit and growing degree
                                                                                                                                                                   calleryana it requires an intermediate number                  Although varieties needing high chill can
                                                         Other areas have enough chill most winters           BC from Asia Minor and Eastern Europe. No                                                                                                                                    hour requirements for deciduous fruit trees.
                                                                                                                                                                   of hours (Westwood & Chestnut 1964). This                      be grown in warmer districts or in marginal
     BY DR JILL CAMPBELL,                                but others are too mild, such as at Stanthorpe       particular species has been grown in a definite                                                                                                                              HortScience 12(4):347-348.
                                                                                                                                                                   indicates that the choice of a low chill requiring             regions subject to global warming with the
     New South Wales Department of Agriculture           in Queensland, parts of southern Victoria and        area of the world, so apples commercially are
                                                                                                                                                                   rootstock may help avoid lack of chill units in a                                                                       Ghariani, K. & Stebbins, R.L. (1994). Chilling
                                                         Western Australia. With global warming these         the same the world over, with some certain                                                                          aid of bud breaking chemicals, using suitable
     Most deciduous fruits commercially grown in                                                                                                                   high chill requiring apple cultivar.                                                                                    requirements of apple and pear cultivars. Fruit
                                                         regions may experience problems with bud             varieties that may be grown in a particular                                                                         low chill varieties of apples, pears and nashi
     the world today come from the family of plants                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Varieties Journal 48(4):215-222.
                                                         break in spring.                                     country for their taste and quality under local
     Rosaceae. Mostly they come from the north                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Janick, J. (1974). The apple in Java.
                                                         Variety selection
     temperate zone, which includes Europe, Asia                                                                                                                                                       High Chill                 Medium Chill                       Low Chill             HortScience 9(1):13-15.
                                                                                                              Quite often low chill varieties flower early and
     and North America.                                  How much winter chill is required for a variety
                                                                                                              high chill varieties flower late. This tendency to                                                                                              Dorsett Golden (250)         Finetto, G.A. (1990). The effect of hydrogen
                                                         is often decided by where that plant grew
     Many commercial fruit species today were                                                                 chill hour requirements is often carried into the                                                                                                    Anna (300)              cyanamide on breaking endo-dormancy of mid-
     developed over the centuries from native                                                                 progeny in a breeding program. It is difficult to                                                                                                Ein Scheimer (400)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Akane                                                 chilling apple cultivars in Yemen A. R. during 2
                                                                                                                                                                         Early Maturity                   Gala                                                     60-39 (400)
     populations in colder countries than Australia.                                                          find in the literature what chill hours varieties                                                                    Gravenstein                                             years. Acta Hort. 329:268-270.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   88-20 (375)
     The way they coped with winter was to drop                                                               require, whether apple or pear, but there are                                                                                                     Tropic Mac (300)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Tropic Sweet (300)          Linvill, D.E. (1990). Calculating chilling hours
     their leaves in autumn and for the buds to break                                                         a few references (Spiegel Roy & Alston 1979,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           and chill units from maximum and minimum
                                                                                                              Ghariani & Stebbins 1994).
     in spring as temperatures became warmer. One                                                                                                                                                     Delicious
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Precocious                                             temperature observations. HortScience
     of the ways to overcome a warm spell in winter                                                                                                                    Medium Maturity             Golden Delicious
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Early bearing                                           25(1):14-16.
     was to develop a requirement of a certain time                                                           Pears
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Spiegel Roy, P. and Alston, F.H. (1979). J. Hort
     at low temperature before the buds would                                                                                                                                                                                     Granny Smith
                                                                                                              Pear species commercially world wide are:                                                  Fuji                                                                              Science 54(2):115-120.
     break. This stopped bud break coming too early,                                                                                                                     Late Maturity                                             Sundowner
                                                                                                                  · Pyrus communis European pear                                                                                    Pink Lady
     with the buds being destroyed when the cold                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Westwood, M.N. and Chestnut, N.E. (1964).
     weather returned.                                                                                            · Pyrus pyrifolia nashi particularly from                                                                                                                                Rest period chilling requirements of Bartlett
                                                                                                                                                                   Table 1. Apple varieties of different maturity requiring different chill hours.
                                                         Figure 1. Winter chill ready reckoner.                    Japan and Korea                                                                                                                                                         pear as related to Pyrus calleryana and P.
     Most apples and pears need many hours of
                                                                                                                  · Pyrus ussuriensis nashi from China                                                                                                                                     communis rootstocks. Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort.
     winter chill (below 7˚C) to break dormancy in                                                                                                                                                          High Chill                 Medium Chill                       Low Chill
                                                         Varieties grown in high latitudes and cold                                                                                                                                                                                        Sci. 84:82-87.
                                                                                                                  · Pyrus x bretschneideri nashi from China
     spring and flower. The major varieties grown        climates are likely to require high chill. Others
                                                                                                                                                                                                             Comice                                                   Flordahome           Young, E. (1992). Timing of high temperature
     in the world need between 800–1500 hours of         grown in lower latitudes and warmer winter           Most of the first three grew naturally in much                                                                             Packham’s
                                                                                                                                                                                                         Dr Jules Guyot                                                  Hood              influences chilling negation in dormant apple
     chill. Lack of chill makes buds slow to break in    temperatures may require lower chill.                colder climates than Australia and so need a               Pyrus communis                                                   Josephine
                                                                                                                                                                                                            Williams’                                                  Moonglow
                                                                                                              lot of winter chill to break dormancy. The last                                                                            Conference                                        trees. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 117(2):271-273.
     spring and if severe, trees will not break buds                                                                                                                                                      Beurré Bosc                                                   Magness
                                                         More recently, perhaps in the last 30 or more
                                                                                                              species is more from Southern China and some
     at all. Further, the flowering period may be        years, many warm climate countries have
                                                                                                              of these do not require so much chill. Varieties                                               Nijisseiki
     4-6 weeks rather than 1-2 weeks, with very          wanted to grow their own apples, including
                                                                                                              in Australia are mostly P. communis, pyrifolia                                                  Shinsui
     irregular bud break all over the tree. This may     some tropical or sub-tropical countries. In these                                                                Pyrus pyrifolia                      Kosui                           -                              -
                                                                                                              and bretschneideri or hybrid crosses. Some
     mean that the cross pollinating variety’s flowers   countries, new plantings were planted in the                                                                                                          Hosui
                                                                                                              of these have European pear ancestry or are                                                    Dan Bae
     may not be synchronised properly leading to         high hills or mountain areas. Some varieties
                                                                                                              European pear crossed with another species,
     poor pollination. Also fruit quality and maturity   have been bred or selected requiring less hours
                                                                                                              which may have given the new variety a low                                                                                                                   Tsu Li
                                                         of winter chill, mostly in the warmer regions of                                                            Pyrus x bretschneideri                       -                            -
     will be uneven leading to harvesting and storage                                                         chill characteristic.                                                                                                                                         Ya Li
                                                         the world such as Florida, West Australia, South
                                                         Africa, Israel, Indonesia, or Brazil.                                                                     Table 2. Pear varieties with certain species ancestry and different chill requirements in Australia.

1      ausTralian fruiTgrower – maY 2007                                                                                                                                                                                           maY 2007 – ausTralian fruiTgrower                         1
 Methyl Bromide alternatives conference                                                                                                                        International research
 Orlando, November 2006                                                                                  however, there has been a problem with gluing
                                                                                                         this material, limiting its application to bed        Production                                         without symptoms (nine days) prior to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  storage at 5ºC for six months. All infected
 In November 2006 I was                              Agency. The USDA has 9,000 staff including
                                                     2,500 scientists in 100 research labs. They also
                                                                                                         based fumigation systems.                             USA
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  fruit had viable fire blight bacteria after
                                                                                                                                                               A comparison was made of reflective film                                                               A study of two cultivars of differing
 fortunate enough to                                 have staff located in France, Rome, Greece,         Some papers were presented on the use of
                                                                                                         brassicas for control of nematodes. As has
                                                                                                                                                               against a reflective particle film such as
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  storage and 19.5 per cent had latent infec-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      ethylene production patterns found that
                                                     Brisbane, China and Argentina. Currently they                                                                                                                tions (ie, no visible symptoms) indicating a
                                                                                                                                                               kaolin applied to the tree or on the orchard                                                           1-MCP reduced ethylene production of Fuji
 obtain funds from the                               are spending $19 million on research into           been found elsewhere it has been identified
                                                                                                                                                               floor. It was found that the reflective film
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  potential long distance spread mechanism
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      fruit even when applied seven days after
                                                     alternatives to MeBr.                               that nematodes live quite happily on brassica                                                            for this disease.
                                                                                                                                                               increased fruit colour while the reflective
 USDA/California tree fruits                         Monitoring atmospheric ozone-depleting
                                                                                                         roots and as such there is a need to incorporate
                                                                                                                                                               particle films, applied to either the tree or      Russia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      harvest but the material only depressed
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      ethylene production of Orin apples at this
                                                                                                         a large vegetative biomass in order to fight                                                             In a study of ten cultivars over two seasons
                                                                                                                                                               the orchard floor, increased fruit weight. It
 commission to attend the                            substances has revealed a dramatic reduction
                                                                                                         the nematodes that have multiplied on the
                                                                                                                                                               is proposed that the increase in fruit weight      it was found that removing shoots infected
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      application time.
                                                     of methyl bromide in the atmosphere, indicating
                                                                                                         brassica roots. It was highlighted that the                                                                                                                  Argentina
 methyl bromide alternatives                         that soil fumigation was having a bigger effect
                                                                                                         conversion of brassica metabolites to MITC (the
                                                                                                                                                               was due to increased infra-red radia-              with powdery mildew during the summer
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  was more efficient at controlling the disease
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      A non toxic bacteria (Rahnella aquatilis)
                                                     on the atmosphere than previously thought.                                                                tion compared to red from the reflective
                                                                                                         chemically active fumigant in Brassicas) after                                                                                                               found naturally on apple leaves, when
 conference. The purpose of                          There are still other ozone-reducing compounds
                                                                                                         cell destruction is rapid, within a few hours so it
                                                                                                                                                               particles.                                         than removing them during the winter.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      applied to harvested apples, dramatically
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The summer removal also improved fruit
                                                     in the atmosphere including (in order of                                                                  China                                                                                                  inhibited the development of Penicillium
 this travel was to present                          concentration) CFC12, CFC11, CH2Cl, CH2Br,
                                                                                                         is better not to slash prior to incorporation.
                                                                                                                                                               Spraying apple trees with abscisic acid,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      and Botrytis fruit storage rots.
                                                     CCl4, CH2CO2 and Halons. MeBr has a half-life       A paper presented on replant in Prunus species        salicylic acid or oxalic acid increased the        Japan
 results on Tasmanian                                of a few months, most of these other materials      found that chloropicrin was superior to other         drought resistance of the trees. The best          A comparison of different pear rootstocks
                                                                                                         fumigants against replant disease and that                                                                                                                   Application of 1-MCP to Chinese Nashi pear
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  growing in salty soils reveals that Pyrus
 research funded from the                            are several years, so their reduction in the
                                                                                                         diseased trees had destroyed feeder roots. This
                                                                                                                                                               effects were with abscisic acid followed by
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  betulifolia is a salt tolerant rootstock
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      (Pyrus bretschneideri) not only maintained
                                                     atmosphere will be slow.                                                                                  salicylic acid.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      fruit firmness and TSS but also maintained
 USDA on CATTS treatment                                                                                 is a similar response to the work in Germany on
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  compared to P calleryana and P pyrifolia.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      the antioxidant content of the fruit resulting
                                                                                                         apples. These people are using fungal culture                                                            China
                                                                                                                                                               Four strains of growth promoting bacteria                                                              in lowered flesh and stem browning.
 to replace methyl bromide                           Current situation in the USA – soil                 plates with fungicides to identify the cause of
                                                                                                                                                               were inoculated onto M9 and MM106                  The water use efficiency of pear (Pyrus
                                                     fumigation                                          replant but none of the fungicides have had
                                                                                                                                                               rootstocks prior to planting. Inoculated           bretschneideri) was increased by the use of
 disinfestation of apples. The                       To use methyl bromide in the field, various         an effect, indicating that the cause was not of
                                                                                                                                                               trees had shoot lengths up to 59 per cent          alternative root zone irrigation rather than        Marketing
                                                     restrictions have been brought into place.          fungal origin as has been found in Tasmania.                                                             conventional root zone irrigation.
 following summary presents                          Fumigation management plans are now                 Information on a new (or should I say old)
                                                                                                                                                               longer and yields of fruit were often more
                                                                                                                                                               than doubled.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      The average price received for Jonagold
 relevant information on                             required as well as large buffer zones, notifying
                                                     surrounding land owners, providing respiration
                                                                                                         material, sodium or potassium Azide was               USA                                                                                                    apples in Belgium 2004–2006 was E0.36
                                                                                                         presented. This is active in the water phase          In a study of apple tree growth it was             Nursery & New Varieties                             per kilogram.
 soil treatments which may                           equipment, restrictions on fumigations prior to     of the soil and is very effective against             found that spreading tree forms grow
                                                     climatic inversions – to name a few.                fusarium. Metal azides are used as explosives         rapidly in the two months after flowering
 have potential for replanting                       In California there have been some interesting      so they have a bad reputation, however,               while upright tree forms have slow growth
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Utilisation of a temporary immersion                Human Health
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  bioreactor tissue culture system for M9
                                                     legal cases. In one, the long-term exposure         the Na and K salts are stable although use            during this period and are more rapid later.                                                           Poland
 apples.                                             to methyl bromide has been reduced from             in conjunction with metal tanks and pumps             Rootstocks had no effect on growth or
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  rootstocks produced superior plants to a
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      A comparison of cloudy and clear apple
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  continuous immersion system.
                                                     9 to 1 parts per billion, and this is going to      should be avoided. The material has been              flowering patterns.                                                                                    juice found that both had similar radical
                                                                                                         used in replant situations since 1903 and                                                                China                                               scavenging activity (antioxidant) which
                                                     have a significant impact on the size of buffer                                                           Japan
 BY DR GORDON BROWN                                                                                                                                                                                               Zhong ai 2 is an efficient dwarfing rootstock
                                                     zones and other management requirements.            is currently used in pharmaceuticals as an                                                                                                                   could be useful in the pharmaceutical or
                                                                                                                                                               Fruit set in Fuji with self pollination is 0–4.5
                                                                                                         active against hypotension and in tamiflu.                                                               for pears that leads to early full production       food industry.
                                                     In another case, a group of 200 residents have                                                            per cent of flowers developing into fruit,
                                                                                                         The global marketing of this material will be                                                            and high quality fruit.                             Poland
                                                     been exposed to Metam (metham sodium) due                                                                 highlighting the need for cross pollination
                                                     to an accident and the ramifications of this have   through the Gowan company and it will be                                                                 Romania                                             Antioxidants in apples are considered an
                                                                                                                                                               with this cultivar.
                                                     yet to be identified. Also in California there      traded as SEP100. In the soil it breaks down                                                             In crosses between Liberty and Florina              important component for human health. In
                                                                                                                                                               South Africa
                                                     is a problem with volatile organic compounds        to N and H in a few hours in acid soils so there                                                         (scab-resistant due to Vf gene as Vfvf) only        a study of many cultivars it was found that
                                                                                                                                                               In a comparison of evaporative cooling,
                                                     (VOCs) and there is a need to reduce these.         are no residues. Of interest is that azides                                                              vfvf and Vfvf progeny and no VfVf were              there was a high variation in the level of
                                                                                                                                                               shade net and Surround® compared to
                                                     They have identified EC pesticide formulations      control potato scab, an actinomycete pathogen                                                            produced (Vfvf is scab resistant vfvf is not).      antioxidants in the flesh compared to the
                                                                                                                                                               untreated for sunburn control, it was found
                                                     as a problem with VOCs and these are being          (bacteria) and they are not active against                                                               Poland                                              skin. In all cases the levels of antioxidants
                                                                                                                                                               that evaporative cooling increased the rate
                                                     reformulated to reduce this problem. Again this     trichoderma, a useful soil organism.                                                                     A comparison a five apple cultivars found           were highest in the fruit peel.
                                                                                                                                                               of photosynthesis, shade net increased
                                                     has been to court and a judge has stipulated a                                                                                                               that Ambassy and Spartan had the highest            United Kingdom
                                                                                                         DMDS (CH3-S-S-CH3) is a FDA-approved                  water use efficiency and had no effect on
                                                     20 per cent reduction in VOCs. This has led to                                                                                                               yields, Koral, Spartan and Pikant had the           From dengue to herpes and influenza to
                                                                                                         food additive which also breaks down in               the rate of photosynthesis and Surround
                                                     further restrictions, including better tarping of                                                                                                            highest productivity index, Pikant produced         AIDS, the phytoestrogens that are present
                                                                                                         the soil in a few hours. This is a naturally          and untreated trees had reduced photosyn-
 The baseline for methyl bromide reduction in                                                                                                                                                                                                                         in fruit and vegetables including apples
                                                     fumigants and applicator licensing.                 occurring substance found in peas, brassicas,                                                            the largest fruit, Spartan and Koral
 America is 1991 when 25,000 tonnes was used.                                                                                                                  thesis due to high leaf temperatures.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  produced the best colour and Perla was not          have anti-viral properties and can help to
                                                     There have been various studies on sealing          onions, coffee and beans. This is undergoing
 This has been reduced and currently the level                                                                                                                 Poland                                                                                                 control these diseases.
                                                                                                         registration at the moment and it is anticipated                                                         productive and produced the smallest fruit.
 has stabilised at 21 per cent, or 5,250 tonnes      methods for fumigants to reduce emissions from                                                            After a five-year study it was found that
                                                                                                         that it will be used at 400 kilograms per                                                                Slovenia                                            Poland
 for critical use exemptions. Use for orchard        the soil. Sealing the surface by watering has                                                             apple trees on M9 rootstocks grew signifi-
                                                                                                         hectare.                                                                                                 In 2003 and 2004 it was found that Kiku             Pasteurisation of apple jams reduces the
 replant situations is currently at 400 tonnes per   been shown to be as effective with chloropicrin                                                           cantly larger and were less productive if the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  8 had superior red colouration and higher           antioxidant properties of the apple pomace.
 year in the US. Over the same period Australia      as tarping in plastic, while it is superior with    Finally, another old material, PPO, looks like        trees were planted with the graft union 7
                                                     Telone. While plastic tarps have been very          re-entering the market. PPO is a relatively safe      centimetres underground.                           sugars compared to Kiku 7, Naga-fu 6 and            New Zealand
 has reduced its soil use of methyl bromide from
                                                     effective at sealing in MeBr and chloropicrin                                                                                                                standard Fuji.                                      A foam extraction process to extract poly-
 679 tonnes to 42 tonnes in 2006 and in 2006                                                             material and is currently used in postharvest         Japan
                                                     it has been found that they are completely                                                                                                                                                                       phenols from fruit juices for the functional
 won the Stratospheric Ozone Protection Award                                                            disinfestation situations. More information is        460 harvested apples were infected with
                                                     ineffective against Telone. With Telone it is       needed on this material as a soil sterilant.                                                                                                                 foods market has been developed.
 from the United States Environment Protection                                                                                                                 fire blight which was allowed to establish
                                                     necessary to use very impermeable film (VIF)

20   ausTralian fruiTgrower – maY 2007                                                                                                                                                                         maY 2007 – ausTralian fruiTgrower                     21
                                                             orchard management                                                                                                           meetingthechallenge

 The accommodating syndrome
                                                                               Sooner or later these individuals enter the        case, for instance, when they look the other
 University of California
                                                                               workforce, where things are not much different.    way at poor quality work, or when their own
                                                                               Individuals who are perceived as working           lack of loyalty is an example for all to follow.
 Gregorio Billikopf is an international expert with
                                                                               too hard are often targeted for punishment         Supervisors who yield to the pressures of the
 many years of experience in the field of farm
                                                                               by coworkers. When employees become                accommodating syndrome may be surprised

                                                                                                                                                                                           MARK THIS DATE NOW!
 labour management. He has assisted agricul-
 tural managers in the USA, South America,                                     supervisors, foremen or crew leaders these         to find out that in the long run, they end up
 Russia, and Africa. He will visit Australia in July                           challenges are compounded. As supervisors,         loosing the respect of both the boss as well as
 2007 to present a series of seminars on effec-                                such individuals seek the approval of              the employees they manage.
 tive farm labour management.                                                  subordinates rather than their own supervisor.

 There are a number of competing influences
                                                                                                                                  Not for a moment am I suggesting that                                                     email details to
                                                                               Even though the boss might clearly explain         supervisors should only be concerned with
 that help mould our behaviour. One set of                                     why a task needs to be done a certain way,         the needs of the enterprise without regard
 forces that often clash is a desire to do our duty                            when it comes time to explain it to the workers,   to the employees. Such individuals are often
 and the need to be liked and fit in. Youth often                              this supervisor is more likely to just blame       autocratic and self-serving, prone to abuse of
 grow up in subcultures where succeeding is                                    the change on management. I like to call such      power and authority. They are willing to climb
 simply not fashionable. They quickly learn that                               behaviours the accommodating syndrome.             the organisational ladder at the expense of
 achievement often brings envy and disdain.                                    These supervisors want to be seen as one of the    those they step over. Sometimes they work
 Stories abound of young people who have                                       gang: to be liked by the subordinates. When a      very fast to impress those in management, but
 buried their talents so as not to appear too                                  person decides to favour subordinates without      then cannot sustain the pace they have set for
 successful, talented, or intelligent in the eyes of                           regard to the situation, sooner rather than        themselves. Their loyalty is to themselves. It is
 their friends.                                                                later they will hurt the enterprise. Such is the   not surprising that supervisors who only look at
                                                                                                                                  their own needs, or those of management, are                                                                                                                 greatly detested by employees.

                                                                                                                                  Instead, what is needed is a supervisor who          Apple and pear growers in many regions have faced
                                                                                                                                  carefully seeks to understand the needs of both      very difficult growing conditions this season with some            THE DRAFT CONFERENCE PROGRAM
                                                                                                                                  management and workers. It is clear to such
                                                                                                                                  individuals that effective policies must benefit
                                                                                                                                                                                       areas having faced extremes of cold and heat combined            WILL ADDRESS THE FOLLOWING KEY TOPICS
                                                                                                                                                                                       with a severe shortage of water.                                 (subject to change):
                                                                                                                                  both the enterprise and the employees if they
                                                                                                                                  are to be sustainable. This supervisor is loyal      Despite these conditions, at the back of the mind of many        • Meeting the Challenge
                                                                                                                                  to both the worker and the organization. They        growers is another challenge that looms as large, if not
                                                                                                                                  are kind but firm—and above all, fair, honest,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Profitability of Australian Orchards
                                                                                                                                                                                       larger, than the recent difficult climatic conditions, and that
                                                                                                                                  and full of integrity. Such a person is not afraid                                                                    • Meeting the Challenge
                                                                                                                                                                                       is the prospect of apples being imported into this country
                                                                                                                                  to take chances and help management or                                                                                  through your Business Structure
                                                                                                                                  employees understand the valid concerns the          for the first time in living memory.
                                                                                                                                  other may have.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Meeting the Challenge
                                                                                                                                                                                       HOW REAL IS THE ‘THREAT’ OF IMPORTED APPLES? WHAT                  through Marketing & Value Adding
                                                                                                                                  This foreman or crew leader does not take            WILL THE CHALLENGES BE? HOW CAN AUSTRALIAN
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Meeting the Challenge – Fruit Quality
                                                                                                                                  pleasure in the authority they have. Sometimes       PRODUCERS MEET THE COMPETITION ‘HEAD ON’?
                                                                                                                                  he will have to take flack from employees. With                                                                       • Meeting the Challenge – Coping with Change
                                                                                                                                  time subordinates will often come around and         This conference will explore these issues and attempt to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Meeting the Challenge – APAL Members Forum
                                                                                                                                  not only recognise that they acted fairly, but       define the challenges ahead to give growers a greater
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      The Growers’ Perspective
                                                                                                                                  even defend the supervisors even when though         understanding of what the future may hold and provide
                  Large Central Otago Export Orchard                                                                              they are not around.                                                                                                  • Meeting the Challenge – Levy Payers Meeting
                                                                                                                                                                                       some ideas on how they can meet the challenges.
     •	 41.4253 ha (in excess of 23,000 trees)               92 Kinaston Road, Roxburgh,
     •	 Modern four bedroom, one office, high quality        South Island, New Zealand                                            Certainly, it takes time and effort to become
        homestead                                                                                                                                                                      Of course, there will be time for socialising, with the Official
     •	 New eight bedroom backpacker lodge & 4
        bedroom staff house
                                                             Inspect:	   Phone Vendor’s Agent to inspect                          such a supervisor. The good news is that at
                                                                                                                                                                                       Conference Dinner event being a cruise on Sydney Harbour,        We look forward to seeing you in Sydney for the
                                                             Price:	     $3m + GST                                                least some supervisors are able to leave behind
     •	 Excellent variety of export summerfruit and
     •	 Strong production and new planting potential
                                                                         Hamish Russell
                                                                         00 11 64 274 818 630                                     the ugliness of the accommodating syndrome.          aboard the Paddlesteamer ‘Sydney Harbour Ballroom’.              2007 National Apple & Pear Conference
                                                             	           Office 00 11 64 3 489 6800
     •	 The Rolls-Royce of irrigation and frost protection                                                                        If you have found such an individual among
     •	 Excellent shelter and newly erected Netpro           	           After Hours 00 11 64 3 486 1170
                                                                                                                                  those who work for you, it is worth going out of
        cherry nets
     An extremely well-presented orchard with a large                                                                             the way to retain him.
                                                                                                                                                                                          To register your interest in attending this Conference:
     amount of capital development. Purchase an
     orchard that achieves strong returns with limited                                                                                                                                    please email your contact details to or contact Lauren on (02) 8251 1821.
     ongoing capital expenditure.                            Wayne Graham Realty Ltd MREINZ                                       For more information log on to www.agrico.
                                                                                                                                                                                          Conference brought to you by:

22   ausTralian fruiTgrower – maY 2007                                                                                                                                                                            maY 2007 – ausTralian fruiTgrower       2
 regional roundup                                                                                          who are genuinely keen to shed their single
                                                                                                                                                              practical ways of interpreting the Planning
                                                                                                                                                              Policies to allow sustainable development
                                                                                                                                                              to continue. The issues were discussed
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 of Packham sales will be delayed as a result.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Pack outs for the small amount of Packhams
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 that have been packed have been poor at
 Western Australia                                     Tasmania                                            status and find a partner in life. So, if you
                                                                                                                                                              at two levels – Policy and Strategy.
                                                                                                                                                              The second meeting was with the Outer
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 around 20-40 per cent, due to frost damage.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 The facilitator for the Goulburn Valley FO2012
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Harvest in Queensland is well under
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     way. Royal Gala, Red Delicious and Pink
                                                                                                           know anyone or you fit the bill yourself, please                                                                                                          Lady™ fruit are now in store with Granny
 ‘Water, water everywhere but not a drop to            The apple harvest in Tasmania is well underway                                                         Metropolitan Adelaide Region (OMAR) – Mt Lofty     orchard walk was Ross Wilson from AgFirst
                                                                                                           contact Stephanie Coleman on 0412 819 805                                                                                                                 Smiths and Sundowners to follow soon.
 drink’ is the old saying, and whilst WA fruit         with some of the early varieties completed. As                                                         Ranges Watershed Working Group. The aim of         NZ and guest speaker was Katrina Buxton,
                                                                                                           or via email at
 growers are not in the desperate position             previously advised the crop is down this year                                                          this group is to “recommend to the Minister for    DPI Agribusiness Development Officer. The           Growcom Stanthorpe Apple Special Interest
 of facing the possibility of very low levels          mainly due to frost experienced to varying                                                             Urban Development and Planning policies and        walk was held on Tuesday 3 April at Ian             Group member Ugo Tomasel said fruit quality
 of water as are our colleagues in parts of
 the Eastern States, ongoing access to and
                                                       degrees by Tasmanian growers. For some of           South Australia                                    management measures for the MLR watershed
                                                                                                                                                              to ensure new developments have a beneficial
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Bolitho’s Mooroopna North property and was
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 attended by 24 growers. 36 growers attended
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     to date generally has been excellent with
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     reasonable growing conditions, however,
                                                       the smaller growers, there is no crop. The fruit
 the cost of water is high on our agenda.              that is being packed is of good quality and size.   The Pink Lady™ harvest has been                    or neutral impact on water quality. Such           the southern Victoria orchard walk held on          there have been isolated severe hail storms
 How much will we pay is the question which                                                                somewhat difficult with the very mild to           policies and measures should be consistent with    Saturday 31 March held at Montague’s Narre          resulting in ruined fruit and hail netting.
                                                       The Taiwan Officer is due in Tasmania
 WA fruit growers are currently asking, as                                                                 warm autumn weather. With temperatures             economically viable primary production and         Warren property. Following a talk by Dr. Robert
                                                       in early May to undertake the annual                                                                                                                                                                          Fruit size and harvest quantity have
 the water reform package recently released                                                                in the high twenties and low thirties and          the administrative capacity of governments.”       Holmes from DPI Knoxfield, Craig Hornblow
                                                       audit prior to fruit being exported.                                                                                                                                                                          been above average. This has been
 by the WA Government, in the form of their                                                                no cool evenings it has been difficult to                                                             from AgFirst led the walk around the close
                                                                                                                                                              While the process with OMAR is slow, we                                                                reflected in sales volume and price.
 Response to the Blueprint for Water Reform in         Registrations are coming in for the FGT             achieve good colour and maturity at the                                                               planted Pink Lady™ block. In the afternoon
                                                                                                                                                              believe that we can achieve some positive
 WA, includes significant costs for water users        May Conference (previously the May                  appropriate times. Notwithstanding this                                                               the monitoring block group met and talked           The past few weeks have been particularly
                                                                                                                                                              gains for primary production within the region.
 without delivering a similar level of benefits.       Stone Fruit Seminar). Focus for the                 there has been a good crop of Pink Lady™                                                              primarily about pruning strategies for Gala.        dry. Growers are beginning to run out of
                                                       conference is the effects of frost.                 harvested. Both cool storage space and bins        Congratulations to John Jeffs on being                                                                 surface water and as the Stanthorpe district
 WAFGA has reacted with concern over parts of                                                                                                                                                                    Allocation in the Goulburn system is now 27per
                                                                                                           have and continue to be at a premium.              selected as one of 21 young people from                                                                is reliant on summer rainfall this is extremely
 the reform package as it seems to have given          Presenters include - Steve Wilson & Penny                                                                                                                 cent and water level in Eildon is 7 per cent.
 little consideration to the nature of water supply,                                                                                                          around Australia to participate in the inaugural                                                       concerning regarding next season’s crop.
                                                       McMahon, Tasmanian Institute of Agricultural        We would expect the Pink Lady™                                                                        There is concern in the Goulburn Valley about
 particularly contained resources like farm dams,                                                                                                             ‘Pathways to Rural Leadership Course’. John
                                                       Research; Mac Ross from Netafim; Aksel              and Sundowner™ harvest to be                                                                          the water availability for next year’s crop. A      In addition, the Fruit Train, which previously
 which is the case with many apple and pear                                                                                                                   participated in the leadership course in
                                                       Jepsen, SIS Frost Protection; Earnscy               completed in the early part of May.                                                                   meeting was organised by the Shepparton East        transported juicing apples to Golden Circle’s
 growers. There is no doubt that some form of                                                                                                                 Canberra during the period 16–19 April 2007.
                                                       Weaver, New Zealand; Jesse Reader & Nick                                                                                                                  Ethnic Landcare Group and Mellie Phander, John      site at Northgate, has ceased. Growers
 licensing system will provide certainty for all                                                           The crop level is expected to be above                                                                                                                    are concerned as a suitable alternative
                                                       Griggs, Serve-Ag; Peter Morrison, Roberts                                                              Trevor M Ranford, APGA of SA                       Reed and Henry Schneider from DPI presented
 water users, however, WAFGA has highlighted                                                               the average yield by 10-- 15 per cent
                                                       Ltd. The keynote speaker is Hugh Dendy,                                                                                                                   strategies to maximise next year’s yields.          solution has not yet been finalised to the
 areas of concern that we are opposed to,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     satisfaction of everybody concerned.
 including significant costs, unnecessary levels of
 compliance and inequity amongst water users .
                                                       grower from Canada/New Zealand.
                                                       Penny McMahon will be presenting on
                                                                                                           Sales have been variable through April due to
                                                                                                           Easter, Anzac Day and the school holidays.         Victoria                                           The meeting identified risks involved for the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 2007-08 crops and showed pruning techniques         On a positive note, the most recent orchard
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 required to maximise crop efficiency. Choosing      walk for the Future Orchards 2012 project held
 On a positive note however the Easter                 the work she has been doing on Fruit                Duchess/WBC sales have been excellent              Fruit Growers Victoria Limited has a new           the better production blocks to care for            on 28 March was well supported by growers.
 weekend saw a break in the weather with               Cracking and Water Retention.                       and Lemon Bergamot pears are being                 Office Administrator. Kath Boast has been          first, and sacrificing the poorer production
 significant levels of rainfall on the following                                                           used to try and extend the time                    appointed to replace Jeni Rankin whilst                                                                Growers heard the finer points of growing
                                                       The location is Cradle Mountain National                                                                                                                  blocks, can improve business bottom lines.
 weekend. Perth received 40 mm of rainfall                                                                 before Packham sales commence.                     she is on leave overseas. Welcome Kath                                                                 and harvesting the Cripps Pink (Pink Lady™)
                                                       Park - Conference venue Cradle Mountain
 in one day with similar levels falling in some                                                                                                               and Bon Voyage Jeni! Jeni will return              The southern Victorian 2007 VicFruit school         variety. Speaker, AgFirst consultant, Ross
                                                       Chateau. There will be a dinner on the              The Association continues to work with
 of the growing areas. This has been followed                                                                                                                 after her leave on a part-time basis.              program will commence immediately following         Wilson, discussed the tight maturity and quality
                                                       Saturday night sponsored by Edwards Transport       Apple and Pear Australia Limited (APAL) on
 up with ongoing rainfall and whilst this has                                                                                                                                                                    the school holidays, initially with presentations   standards needed in harvesting the popular
                                                       and for those who wish to participate a             a number of issues relating to the proposed        In other people moves, Dominic Nardi retired
 impacted upon harvest, most people are                                                                                                                                                                          at four schools each week until mid May.
                                                       walk around Dove Lake on the Sunday.                importation of apples from New Zealand.                                                                                                                   apples to maintain their premium quality.
 happy to trade one off for the other.                                                                                                                        as the Fruit Industry Development Officer          Fruit Growers Victoria is have two new
                                                       Sponsorship support has been fantastic              The Association intends to submit a                on April 24th. We wish Dominic a happy             “Aussi Apple” costumes made to assist in the        The orchard walk talk also covered options for
 In last month’s report I noted that a period
                                                       with Amcor as Platinum sponsors. Gold               submission to the Senate hearing that will         retirement and thank him for his service.          schools program and other promotions.               growers when planting new orchards. Mr Wilson
 of very hot days had given WA fruit growers
                                                       Sponsors include Topqual, Cardboard                 be held in Canberra on the 9th May 2007.           The FIDO project is currently being reviewed                                                           discussed the problem that irrespective of a
 some grief with all of the growing regions
                                                                                                           It is our intention to call for a full review      in April with the likely outcome to be a new       Ross Wilson, Fruit Growers Victoria                 grower’s planting decisions there is always talk
 suffering a four day hot spell in early March.        Cartons & SGS. Silver and Bronze sponsors
 At the time it was estimated that considerable        Serve-Ag, Worldlink, Reitsema Packaging,            of the process undertaken and the lack of          project focused on market development.                                                                 of a better variety just around the corner. He
 sunburn damage had resulted with estimates
 up to 20 per cent in some areas had resulted.
                                                       Carter Holt Harvey, Roberts and of
                                                       course Fruit Growers Tasmania Inc.
                                                                                                           ‘natural justice’ being given to growers.          Locally good size and good quality fruit is        New South Wales                                     told growers that the good news was that if you
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     plant the best available variety and manage it
                                                                                                           On Friday 13th April Michael Nicol, John           selling well and large Gala apples are fetching
 The four week period since then has revealed                                                                                                                                                                    All districts are pleased to report the finish      well there would be adequate returns and you
                                                       Fruit Growers Tasmania Annual General               Plummer, Mark Joyce and Trevor Ranford             $3 per kilogram. There is limited supply of
 that those damage estimates may been an                                                                                                                                                                         of harvest, apart from a few Pink Lady and          could continue to redevelop with new variety
                                                       Meeting and Annual Industry Awards dinner           met with the Hon Alexander Downer. The             some early Pink Lady™ apples, which are
 under-estimate and also had a follow on effect                                                                                                                                                                  Sundowner. The last few weeks have again            options later when they are proven performers.
                                                       is to be held on Friday 17th August. Details        meeting was very constructive and covered          realising up to $5 per kilogram. Southern
 on Cripps Pink with growers reporting that their                                                                                                                                                                been difficult with higher than average
                                                       will be provided as they are confirmed.             a wide range of industry issues. Mr Downer         Victoria has crops with good quantities of fruit                                                       Also on the program was a speaker from
 fruit is not colouring up as was expected.
                                                                                                           has agreed to continue to raise the concerns       on the trees. Dry weather conditions have          temperatures and lack of natural water.             Nufarm Australia Ltd who discussed the new
 The damage to fruit crops from Black Cockatoos        Representatives from FGT will attend the                                                               contributed to picking progressing well despite
                                                                                                           of industry in all appropriate forums. The                                                            All sub soils are now very low and on farm          plant growth regulator, Regalis®, which
 continues as does WAFGA’s efforts to have             Plant Health Australia - Biosecurity Awareness                                                         a lack of workers. In the northeast all surface
                                                                                                           Association is most appreciative of the                                                               storage has been used to finish this years crop.    is used to regulate apple shoot growth.
 some meaningful discussions with the State            Training to be held in Launceston on 15 May.                                                           water is now gone and growers are reliant on
                                                                                                           strong support given by Mr Downer.                                                                                                                        Julie Moore, Apple Industry
 government on support for the control and                                                                                                                    bores. The Pink Lady™ crop in the Goulburn         All districts are hoping for the
                                                       Tasmania has been invited to attend the
 management of the species. Currently WAFGA                                                                A reasonable amount of media coverage                                                                 much awaited autumn break in the                    Development Officer
                                                       Senate hearing on Wednesday 9th May                                                                    Valley has a high level of damage. It is mainly
 is compiling several case studies to provide to                                                           has been received through the Mount                                                                   weather and good soaking rain.
                                                       regarding the NZ Apple IRA. In addition,                                                               attributed to frost but there is cracking at the
 government agencies to win support for some                                                               Barker Courier, The Stock Journal, ABC
                                                       Thomas Frankcomb continues to represent                                                                calyx that may be caused by fruit stress.          Prices for good quality fruit have
 form of financial incentive and/or tax relief                                                             Radio and Five AA. We need to continue to
 for exclusion netting and amendments to the           FGT and Tasmanian apple growers on                                                                     Stone fruit exports are all but finished. Late     been very encouraging with demand
                                                                                                           build the community interest and challenge
 relevant legislation to allow the continuation        the State Biosecurity Working Group.                                                                   season plums, especially Angelino have             reflecting the reduced supply.
                                                                                                           the comments of Minister McGauran and
 of use of all forms of audible scaring devices.       Tim Reid will be a presenter at the Quarantine      representatives of DAFF through such mediums.      strong demand from the UK and the Middle           Processing fruit demand has also been
 Finally on a very positive note WAFGA conducted       and Market Access Conference to be held                                                                East. Apple exports have been sluggish, with       very strong, with this section clearing
                                                                                                           The Industry has been represented at a number
 interviews for our Pome Fruit IDO position            in Canberra from 22-24 May 2007.                                                                       the Granny Smith window for Australian             all small and over ripe fruit which in
                                                                                                           of planning meetings over the past month.
 in early April. We were very pleased with all                                                                                                                fruit very short due to the late finish of         turn strengthens the market.
                                                       Looking for Single Tassie farmers - Channel 9
 of the applicants and it is our expectation                                                               One meeting organised by the Adelaide              US product. Pears are moving slowly.
                                                       TV have contacted FGT asking “Do you know                                                                                                                 Not much else to report at this time
 that the position will be filled in mid-May.                                                              Hills Regional Development Board, and
                                                       a fabulous Tassie farmer who is single, but                                                            Williams’ pears will continue to be supplied       other than “Bring on the rain!”.
                                                                                                           including Council, EPA and Industry
 Vick Grozotis, APAL Director                          would really love to be married?” They are                                                             to markets until mid May. This is two to three
                                                                                                           representatives, looked at progressing                                                                David Gartrell
                                                       looking for farmers aged approximately 25-40                                                           weeks longer than anticipated and the start

2   ausTralian fruiTgrower – maY 2007                                                                                                                                                                      maY 2007 – ausTralian fruiTgrower                         2
 State Association Contacts
     State   Name             E-mail                      Address
                                                          WA Fruitgrowers Association Inc
     WA      Allan Hill         Mail Point 96, Market City, 280 Bannister Road               (08) 9455 2075
                                                          Canning Vale WA 6155

     NSW     Luke Jewell
                                                          NSW Farmers’ Association
                                                                                                                       (02) 8251 1700
                                                                                                                                        APRIL                                   29-31                                    25                                      10-12
                                                          GPO Box 1068, Sydney NSW 2001                                                                                             Onions Australia Conference,             ABARE Regional Outlook Conference    Australasian Postharvest Horticul-

     QLD     Julie Moore
                                                                                                                       (07) 3620 3844
                                                                                                                                        15-19                                       Sydney Convention & Exhibition           – VIC, Bairnsdale, Victoria.         ture Conference, Crowne Plaza,
                                                          Floor 1, 385 St George Terrace Fortitude Valley Qld, 4006                                                                 Centre, Sydney, New South Wales.         P: (02) 6272 2265                    Terrigal, New South Wales.
                                                                                                                                          59th Australian Citrus Growers
                                                          Apple & Pear Growers Association of SA                                                                                    P: (08) 8538 5509                        E:            P: (02) 4348 1942
     SA      Trevor Ranford                                                                  (08) 8349 5073     Conference and Exhibition,
                                                                                                                                                                                    E:                  W:        E:
                                                          6 Frederick Street, Cavan SA 5094
                                                                                                                                          Renmark, South Australia.
                                                          Fruit Growers Tasmania Inc
     TAS     Sally Tennant
                                                          Macquarie Wharf No. 1, Hunter Street, Hobart Tas 7000
                                                                                                                       (03) 6231 1944     P: (03) 5023 6333
                                                                                                                                                                                                                         AUGUST                                  26
     VIC     John Wilson
                                                          Victorian Apple & Pear Growers
                                                                                                                       (03) 5825 3700
                                                                                                                                                                                JUNE                                     3
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  ABARE Regional Outlook Conference
                                                          2 Rumbalara Road, Mooroopna Vic 3629                                                                                                                                                                    – SA, Tailem Bend, South Australia.
                                                                                                                                        18-20                                   6                                            Produce Marketing Association        P: (02) 6272 2265
                                                                                                                                          Food Safety World Conference and          ABARE Regional Outlook Conference        (PMA), Mastering the Supply Chain    E:
                                                                                                                                          Expo, Washington DC, USA.                 – NSW, Griffith, New South Wales.        Conference; Sydney, New South        W:
                                                                                                                                          E:           P: (02) 6272 2265                        Wales.
                                                                                                                                                                                    E:                P: (02) 9744 6366
                                                                                                                                                                                    W:            E:

                                                                                                                                        MAY                                     8                                        6-10                                    OCTOBER
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             38 Australian Cherry Industry

                                                                                                                                        3-4                                         20 Years of Plant Breeder’s Rights
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Conference, Hilton International,   12-15
                                                                                                                                                                                    in Australia Symposium, Visions          Victoria Square, Adelaide,
                                                                                                                                          National Vegetable Expo, Werribee -                                                                                     Produce Marketing Association
                                                                                                                                                                                    Theatre, National Museum of              South Australia.
                                                                                                                                          Gordon Institute of TAFE, Werribee,                                                                                     (PMA) Fresh Summit Convention
                                                                                                                                                                                    Australia, Canberra, ACT                 P: (08) 8349 4556; Fax:
                                                                                                                                          Victoria.                                                                                                               and Exposition; Houston,
                                                                                                                                                                                    E:                  (08) 8349 5316;
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Texas, USA.
                                                                                                                                          P: 0427 335 518                                                                    M: 0417 809 172
                                                                                                                                                                                    P: 07 3346 7506                                                               P: (02) 9744 6366
                                                                                                                                          E:                                                       E:

                                                                                                                                        10, 11 & 12                                                                      6-10
                                                                                                                                                                                14-16                                        ‘Keep it Real’ Conference incor-
                                                                                                                                          Agro-Trend 2007, Bundaberg,
                                                                                                                                                                                    Seventh Australian Banana Industry       porating the 5th National EMS in     ABARE Regional Outlook Conference
                                                                                                                                                                                    Congress, Conrad Jupiters, Gold          Agriculture and the 5th National     – NT, Darwin, Northern Territory.
                                                                                                                                          P: (07) 4153 3955
                                                                                                                                                                                    Coast, Queensland.                       On Farm Food Safety and Quality      P: (02) 6272 2265
                                                                                                                                                                                    P: (07) 3254 0522                        Conferences, Hobart, Tasmania.       E:
                                                                                                                                                                                    E: bananacongress@                       P: (03) 6424 6612                    W:
                                                                                                                                        13-16                                       W:

                                                                                                                                          HOFEX, Hong Kong.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                         22                                      NOVEMBER
                                                                                                                                        16                                          Australian Hydroponic & Green-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             ABARE Regional Outlook Confer-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             ence – WA, Geraldton, Western
                                                                                                                                          ABARE Regional Outlook Conference         house Association Conference,            Australia.                           Malaysia International
                                                                                                                                          – QLD, Goondiwindi, Queensland.           Grand Chancellor Hotel, Laun-            P: (02) 6272 2265                    Gourmet Festival
                                                                                                                                          P: (02) 6272 2265                         ceston, Tasmania.                        E:            W:
                                                                                                                                          E:                 P: 0414 333 996                          W:
                                                                                                                                          W:             E:

                                                                                                                                                                                    W:                       24-26
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Apple & Pear Australia Annual
                                                                                                                                          The National Mango Industry
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Conference, Four Points Darling
                                                                                                                                          Conference 2007, Gold Coast
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Harbour, Sydney, New South Wales.
                                                                                                                                          International Hotel, Gold Coast,      4                                            P: (02) 8251 1821
                                                                                                                                                                                    ABARE Regional Outlook Conference        E:
                                                                                                                                          P: (07) 3392 3588
                                                                                                                                                                                    – TAS, Launceston, Tasmania.             W:
                                                                                                                                                                                    P: (02) 6272 2265

                                                                                                                                          Australian Vegetable Industry         19-21                                    5-7
                                                                                                                                          Conference, Sydney Convention             The Australian Custard Apple             Fruit Logistica Asia, Bangkok,
                                                                                                                                          & Exhibition Centre, Sydney, New          & Persimmon Industry Confer-             Thailand.
                                                                                                                                          South Wales.                              ence, Surfair Conference Centre,
                                                                                                                                          P: (03) 9544 8098                         Marcoola Beach, Sunshine Coast,
                                                                                                                                          E:                     Queensland.
                                                                                                                                          W:                       P: (02) 6629 5333

                                                                                                                                        Readers are invited to contribute to this column. Phone AUF Communications on (07) 4128 0585 or Mobile: 0407 589 445 or Email:

2    ausTralian fruiTgrower – maY 2007                                                                                                                                                          maY 2007 – ausTralian fruiTgrower                           27
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