Accelerator R_D by wulinqing


									U.S. Department of Energy

Office of Science

                           High Energy Physics
                        FY 2008 OMB Presentation
                              Backup Slides
U.S. Department of Energy

                            General Comment on Budget Figures
Office of Science

   Note: Apparent HEP budget changes in many subprogram areas reflect
   a change in the way that certain program overhead-type expenses
   (e.g., management, computing and networking, and engineering support)
   are charged at Fermilab.
    Fermilab and SLAC have not previously assessed these expenses across program elements,
     instead directly assessing Facility Operations for the full cost.
    Beginning in FY 2007 (after Congressional appropriations), Fermilab will assess these
     expenses through a proportional allocation across all activities at Fermilab, resulting in
     redistribution of funds among HEP B&R categories. FY 2008 funding reflects the expected
     redistribution. There is no net programmatic impact.
    Similar redistributions are in progress for SLAC as Facility Operations transitions to BES
     support. These changes are not yet incorporated into FY2008 HEP budget distributions.

U.S. Department of Energy

                            Details of "Other" Category in
                            Proton Accelerator-based Physics
Office of Science

    Item                                         FY 2008 Target
      DCAA Audit                                             734
      Federal Laboratory Consortium                           45
      Consortium eJournals Program                            80
      LBNL GPE/GPP                                         5,689
      LHCNet                                               2,300
      Projected IPA Salary/Fringe/Travel                     727
      Support Reserve (HEPAP, IPA, etc)                    1,150
      Unallocated Reserve (1.4% of Program)               11,221
                                         Total            21,946

U.S. Department of Energy

                            Laboratory Infrastructure (GPP)
Office of Science
        HEP labs will invest more than $36M in FY 2008 to ensure infrastructure and facilities are properly
         maintained to support mission needs and minimize down time.

        $13M in GPP funds will be invested in recapitalization projects in 2008 at Fermilab, SLAC, and
         LBNL to make critical upgrades to infrastructure and facilities. Projects include:
           An addition to the Grid Computing Center at Fermilab as well as upgrades to the high voltage
             electrical system.
           Improvements to the Computing Center and other facilities at SLAC to better support research.
           Upgrades to wet and dry laboratories at LBNL to meet current research needs and other facility
             modifications to enhance seismic safety.

        HEP will continue to invest GPP resources which, along with the Science Laboratories
         Infrastructure Program, will ensure the laboratories have state-of-the-art facilities and infrastructure
         to support their missions.

                GPP ($ in millions)   FY 2008      FY 2009        FY 2010       FY 2011       FY 2012
              FNAL                      5.6           8.8           9.2            9.6           9.8
              SLAC*                     3.1           3.6           4.2            3.0           4.5
              LBNL                      4.5           4.1           4.1            4.1           4.2
              *SLAC GPP is funded by both HEP and BES.

U.S. Department of Energy

                            Composition of University “Core” (Research)
                            Program in 2008 – 2012
Office of Science

          The core strength of the University Physics Research program will increase in
           real terms in FY 2008-12 by approximately 15% (planned growth of ~6% per
           year starting 2010)
              A new component will be the build-up of effort for the ILC while maintaining strength
               on LHC, theory, and astro/cosmo. This new effort will come largely from redirection
               of other efforts, but may include some real growth of the manpower base.
              BaBar research will decrease during this time (from 10% to 0%).
              Tevatron research will be decreasing during this time (from 20% to 10%).
              Another new component during this period will be an increase in Equipment funds
               that will support university-based computing, new “small” experiments in dark
               matter, neutrino-less double beta decay, neutrino oscillations, proton decay, …and
               some restoration of university infrastructure.

U.S. Department of Energy

                            Composition of University “Core” (Research)
                            Program in FY 2008
Office of Science

                                         20%                              30
                                                      BaBar                2
                                               10%                        20
                                                      ASTRO/COSMO         10
                                                      THEORY              20

            15%                                                            1
                                                      NEUTRINOS, OTHER

U.S. Department of Energy

                            Composition of University “Core” (Research)
                            Program in FY 2012
Office of Science

                       10%            10%
                                             15%         ILC               2
                                                         ASTRO/COSMO      10
             20%                            25%          NEUTRINOS

U.S. Department of Energy

                            HEP Drives Science Networking
Office of Science

                    DOE Science Networking              Science Topic     Data Size(2008)
                      Workshop (2003) identified                          (PetaBytes/yr)
                      the following drivers for data-
                      intensive science                 Climate           3

                                                        Fusion            1
                    HEP leads the way, though others
                      are not far behind                Nuclear Physics   5-10

                    To meet these needs, HEP            Materials         0.3
                    • Works closely with ESNet
                    • Buys dedicated USCERN           Chemistry         2
                       bandwidth (“LHCNet”)
                    • Supports Grid technology via      Genomes           “potential for”
                       SciDAC                                             10’s
                                                        HEP               10

U.S. Department of Energy

                            SciDAC-2 Competition
Office of Science

       “Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing”
        DOE received 240 SciDAC-2 proposals in 12 application topics
            109 laboratory lead; 131 university lead
        We received 36 HEP-related proposals in 5 application topics.
            19 laboratory lead; 17 university lead
            Three new awards, one 6-month continuation
        Planning follow-on FY 2007 HEP solicitation
            Accelerator Simulation
        HEP SciDAC FY 2006-FY 2007 budget ~$5M / year
            Constant level of effort through FY 2010
            Recompete of HEP SciDAC portfolio planned for FY 2011

U.S. Department of Energy

                            New Awards HEP SciDAC-2
Office of Science

            Astrophysics: Woosley "Computational Astrophysics Consortium:
             Supernovae, Gamma-Ray Bursts, and Nucleosynthesis" (HEP, NP, NNSA)
               PetaScale simulations to investigate Type Ia SNe, Dark Energy,
                  Nucleosynthesis, Radiation Transport, Gamma-Ray Bursters
            Physics with Petabytes: Livny "Sustaining and Extending the Open Science
             Grid: Science Innovation on a PetaScale Nationwide Facility" (HEP, NP,
             ASCR, NSF)
               Large-scale, production-quality, distributed computing critical for LHC,
                  LIGO, and RHIC data analysis and simulation
            Quantum Chromodynamics: Sugar "National Computational Infrastructure
             for Lattice Gauge Theory" (HEP, NP, ASCR)
               Petascale simulations to study the Standard Model, properties of strongly
                  interacting matter under extreme conditions, and masses and internal
                  structure of strongly interacting particles

U.S. Department of Energy

Office of Science

        Collider Program

                             Tevatron
                             LHC
                             B-factory
                             LQCD

U.S. Department of Energy

                                                  Tevatron: Successful Upgrades
Office of Science

  Scheduled shutdown in FY06 for installation of detector and accelerator upgrades
  completed successfully.

  CDF and D-Zero detector upgrades completed on schedule under budget to take
  full advantage of Tevatron performance.

  Setting new record peak luminosities: best is 2.31032cm-2s-1
    Integrated luminosity (fb-1)

                                              Integrated luminosity
                                   8                                                      Mean initial
                                   7                                 design               luminosity
                                       FY04    FY05   FY06   FY07   FY08   FY09
 U.S. Department of Energy

                             Closing in on Higgs at Tevatron
 Office of Science
                                          Higgs ruled out at LEP for mass < 114 GeV.
                                          Precision measurements of top quark and W
                                          boson masses favor low Higgs mass where
          Run II                          discovery sensitivity at Tevatron is best.

                                            95% confidence
                                            exclusion at
                             mtop (GeV)     Higgs mass:

Tevatron expectation for ruling out
or discovering Higgs vs. time.
                                                                              Discover Higgs
                                                                              at 115 GeV

U.S. Department of Energy

                                               Tevatron: Update on Higgs Limit
Office of Science
  Ratio of current limit to SM cross section

                                                                    New limit on SM Higgs
                                                                    based on 1 fb-1 of
                                                                    analyzed data
                                                                     95% confidence level
                                                                    can be reached for the
                                                                    mass range of 115 to
                                                                    185 GeV with 8 fb-1

U.S. Department of Energy

                            Tevatron: Top Quark Mass Improvements
Office of Science

      Expect to measure
      width of the mass
      at ~1.5 GeV accuracy
      by end of Run II

U.S. Department of Energy

                            LHC: Luminosity and Physics
Office of Science
                                   ADD X-dim@9TeV                  SUSY@3TeV

                      Higgs > 200 GeV

                                                                   200 fb-1/yr

                                fb-1/yr   100 fb-1/yr                            1000 fb-1/yr

                First physics run: 1 to a Few fb-1
U.S. Department of Energy

                            LHC Physics – Potential Discovery
Office of Science

  Once LHC reaches steady state operation at its full energy (14 TeV) and design
  luminosity (1033~1034/cm2sec) → start of physics data taking

            Potential discovery              physics data taking for
           SUSY at 1 TeV:                      ~ 6 months
           Higgs > 200 GeV                        ~1 year
           Higgs at 120 GeV                     2~3 years
           Extra-dimension at 9 TeV             3~4 years
           Compositeness at 40 TeV              6~8 years
           SUSY at 3 TeV                > 10 years & luminosity upgrade

U.S. Department of Energy

                            US LHC Research Program
                            - strawman funding guidance
Office of Science

       LHC funding profile - Guidance subject to yearly Congressional approval                                       in $M

       ATLAS                      FY96-05    FY06     FY07     FY08     FY09     FY10     FY11     FY12     FY13      TOTAL
       Research Program               43.0     28.1     31.6     33.0                                                  135.7
                            DOE       29.4     21.3     22.6     24.0                                                   97.3
                            NSF       13.7      6.7      9.0      9.0                                                   38.4
       CMS                        FY96-05    FY06     FY07     FY08     FY09     FY10     FY11     FY12     FY13     TOTAL
       Research Program               42.8     27.1     32.2     33.0                                                  135.1
                            DOE       29.8     20.3     23.2     24.0                                                   97.3
                            NSF       13.0      6.8      9.0      9.0                                                   37.8

       LARP                       FY96-05    FY06     FY07     FY08     FY09     FY10     FY11     FY12     FY13     TOTAL
       Research Program (DOE)          5.5     11.0     11.0     12.0                                                   39.5

       Total Research program        91.40     66.1     74.8     78.0      0.0      0.0      0.0      0.0      0.0     310.3
                            DOE       64.7     52.6     56.8     60.0      0.0      0.0      0.0      0.0      0.0     234.1
                            NSF       26.7     13.5     18.0     18.0      0.0      0.0      0.0      0.0      0.0      76.2
       %increase per year                               13%       4%

         NSF guidelines are established at $9M/experiment through FY 2011,
         and the DOE is currently developing its out-year recommendations.
U.S. Department of Energy

                            LHC Detectors being installed
                            - Impressive progress
Office of Science

  CMS cavern is ready for installation of      ATLAS cavern already filled with a large
  detector components being assembled          fraction of assembled detector
  and tested in the surface buildings          components
U.S. Department of Energy

                            LHC in the News
Office of Science

U.S. Department of Energy

                            B-factory & New Physics
Office of Science

     Some of rare decays studied at
     B-Factory are sensitive to the
     physics of the Terascale

     → Will constrain the discoveries
     possible at the LHC. High
     precision measurements at the                    Current New Physics
     B-Factory could produce                               constraints
     evidence of the limitations of the
     Standard Model by the end of its
     run in 2008.

U.S. Department of Energy

                            B-Factory & New Physics
                            Projections for charged Higgs Limit: B 
Office of Science

                                                    Combined BABAR+Belle

                                                    BF  1.36  0.48  10 4
                                                     Significance: 2.5

                                                     Standard Model expectation

                                                    BF  1.39  0.44  10 4


                                                   BABAR can rule out charged Higgs
    FY07                                           models and reach good precision for
Projected                                             Vub with 2007-2008 running

U.S. Department of Energy

Office of Science

          Major goals of experimental programs in HEP and NP
              Make precise tests of the Standard Model.
              Determine the properties of strongly interacting matter under extreme conditions.
              Understand the internal structure of nucleons and other strongly interacting particles.
          Lattice QCD calculations are essential to accomplish these goals
          Supported jointly by HEP and NP
                              FY06       FY07        FY08      FY09        total
             HEP              $2.0M      $2.0M       $2.0M     $1.2M       $7.2M
             NP               $0.5M      $0.5M       $0.5M     $0.5M       $2.0M
          So far, utilization of installed clusters >99%
          Starting to make significant impacts on physics results from Tevatron, B-factory, RHIC, and

U.S. Department of Energy

                            LQCD Computing Capability Profile
Office of Science

                                    Procure ($M)                TFlops (new)
                                    TFlops (aggregate)          $/MFlops (conservative)
                    20                                                                    1.2





                    0                                                                     0
                            2006    2007                 2008                   2009

U.S. Department of Energy

Office of Science

        Neutrino Program
                             NuMI/MINOS
                             NOvA
                             MINERvA
                             Reactor Neutrino (Daya Bay)
                             Double Beta Decay (EXO)

U.S. Department of Energy

Office of Science

                                          Physics program: after $172M investment,
                                          published its first physics results in less than a year
                                          • 2 GeV neutrinos
                                          • 5.4 Kiloton far detector at Soudan
                                          • 1 Kiloton near detector at FNAL
                                          • Most precise measurements for neutrino oscillation
                                          • mdisappearance observed
               Minos Far detector

                    Minos near detector                                                       26
U.S. Department of Energy
                            MINOS Performance Enhancement
                            Proton Plan I – Tasks & Funding
Office of Science

       Goal: increase beam power from 200kW to 400kW
       Linac
          R&D on replacement for RF power amplifiers to mitigate the venerability of a single
       Main Injector:
          Utilize Booster multi-batch mode in
          Add collimation system and increase aperture of quadrupole magnets to minimize beam losses
       Booster:
          Reduce beam losses at injection from Linac to Booster and from Booster to Main Injector
          Raise average repetition rate                                                   ($M)
          Improve beam control system
                                                         FY06      FY07      FY08       Total
                                              OPE          0.1        9.1       1.1     10.3
                                              EQU          7.2        2.7       0.1     10.0
                                              AIP          2.3        0.0       0.4      2.7
                                              Total        9.6       11.8       1.6     23.0
U.S. Department of Energy

                             EA (and NOA)
Office of Science

         Mission Need Statements (MNS) for Electron Neutrino Appearance (EvA) Experiment
             Submitted in July 2005
             Mission Needs approval granted in Nov 2005
         Options for EvA:
             NOvA: A large scale neutrino detector at Minnesota using NuMI beam
             T2K: Participation of US groups in Japanese experiment
             Do nothing
         A case of one Mission Need Statements resulting more than one venue
             NOvA: Included in FY07 budget as a line-item construction project
                    • Enclosure to house a detector at Minnesota needs to be built
                    • NOvA was reclassified as an MIE in FY08 budget submission (see next slide)
             Also plan to pursue a small scale effort of participation in T2K
                    • Fabrication of a parts of detector equipments for T2K “near” detector by US
                      university groups

U.S. Department of Energy

                            NOA – funding type
Office of Science

       Decision on which option(s) to pursue for EvA was not made at the time of FY07 budget
       FY07 budget assumed NOvA with
          an enclosure to house a detector at Minnesota (estimated to be $20~30M)
          Fermilab will be the contractor to build this enclosure

  Since then -
   DOE conducted a successful CD-1 Lehman review for NOvA project
   Acquisition Strategy was developed → led to a change of funding type
   University of Minnesota proposed to build the far detector enclosure on its land with DOE
      financial assistance as part of its neutrino research program
         UM has experience constructing & operating Soudan Underground Lab & MINOS
         Far detector site will not have any other SC or DOE use
   NOvA will be executed as an MIE rather than a line-item construction project
         Financial assistance for far-detector enclosure will be a part of UM research grant and will
           be captured as a part of NOA OPC (ie. operating fund)
         Need to reprogram FY 2007 PED funds soon after FY07 appropriation occurs
U.S. Department of Energy

                            NOA Is Very Large
Office of Science

     Utilization of existing investments - Fermilab accelerator complex including NuMI Beam
     Require massive new detector (Far Detector) to be located at northern Minnesota
     ▪ Measure oscillations of muon-neutrinos to electron-neutrinos (“appearance experiment”)
       ▪ physics goals: better measure of missing mixing angle (13), study “mass hierarchy”

                                                                    Original Investments:
                                                                     $400M Booster + Linac
                                                                     $200M Main Injector
                                                                     $150M NuMI Beam

        NOvA Detector in the Minneapolis Metrodome                                         30
U.S. Department of Energy
                            NOvA Performance Enhancement
                            Proton Plan II – Tasks & Funding
Office of Science

       Goal: increase beam power from 400kW to 700kW
       NuMI beamline:
          Upgrade to power supplies, magnet cooling and kickers for higher rate operation
          Increase capacity of the target and horn cooling systems
       Booster:
          Raise average repetition rate
          Install additional shielding to minimize radiation damage at higher intensities
       Recycler:
          Removal of antiproton specific devices
          New injection line from Booster to Recycler
          New extraction line from Recycler to Main Injector
          Dampers and instrumentation
       Main Injector:                                        FY08      FY09       FY10    Total
          Additional RF cavities                  OPE           3.3        7.9        7.4  18.5
                                                 EQU          9.0        5.0       2.0     16.0
                                                 AIP          0.0        5.0       4.0      9.0
                                                 Total       12.3       17.9     13.4      43.5
U.S. Department of Energy

                            NOvA Sensitivity
Office of Science

     With Proton Plan II, improvement by > factor of 3

                                                    Original Investments:
                                                     $400M Booster + Linac
                                                     $200M Main Injector
                                                     $150M NuMI Beam
                                                     $200M NOvA Detector

                                                    Additional Investment:
                                                     $43.5M Proton Plan II

U.S. Department of Energy

                            Neutrino Cross Sections
Office of Science

                                         Quasi elastic production

    Oscillation experiments use
     measured cross sections or

     models fit to data.
        Data analysis
            Background mix
            Energy calibration
            A-dependence
        Simulations

    Cross sections at the NuMI
     beam energy
        Done in the 70‟s and 80‟s
         with low intensity beams.
        Have large statistical and
         systematic errors.

U.S. Department of Energy

                            MINERA Detector
Office of Science

     Finely segmented scintillator detector
         Recognize different interaction topologies
     Electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters
     Multiple targets to study A-dependence
     Located in the MINOS near detector hall at
     Use the NuMI beam
         World’s most intense neutrino beam
     Small for a neutrino detector
         180 tons

U.S. Department of Energy

                            MINERA - Benefit to MINOS
Office of Science

At higher values of Δm2 the systematic error becomes larger than the statistical.

                                                                  With MINERvA
                                                                  the systematic
                                                                  error due pion
                                                                  scattering is
                                     Without MINERvA

                                   With MINERvA
                                                       Current MINOS
                                                       Δm2 range.

U.S. Department of Energy

                            Reactor Neutrino Detector
Office of Science

                                         • Measures one of mixing angle 13
                                         for neutrino oscillation
                                         • 3 options evaluated by NuSAG:
                                               Braidwood (Illinois, US)
                                               Daya Bay (China)
                                               Double Chooz (France)

                                                              San Luis Obispo
                                                               or Hong Kong

              Lb                         1
               2                                           Reactor              36
U.S. Department of Energy

                            Daya Bay Reactor Site
Office of Science

      2 reactors in foreground, 2 more in distance (along coast), 2 under const.
      Total reactor power 12-17GW (new reactors come online during exp‟t)
      Detectors to be located under mountain (horizontal tunnel)
      Total cost ~$60M (detectors only); discussion with China ongoing
      Scientific review scheduled for October 16-17, 2006
U.S. Department of Energy

                            Double-Beta Decay Experiment
Office of Science

     Discover particle/anti-particle nature of the neutrino and measure its effective mass
     R&D being pursued: EXO, MAJORANA, and Cuore
     EXO-200 (R&D detector) will be ready for data taking at WIPP in <1 year.
     A large step forward understanding in detector sensitivity.

     Dark Matter SAG report
      expected to be completed by
      early 2007
     Decision on the option for the
      large scale detector (could be
      jointly with NSF and NP)
      expected to be in 1~2 years

U.S. Department of Energy

                            Our Plan for HEP: Neutrinos
Office of Science

       Pursue a coordinated, international program in neutrino physics
              Key physics issue: how large is [13]? [APS Study]
                  Reactor neutrino experiment at Daya Bay with China
                  NOvA (will also address neutrino mass hierarchy)
                  T2K (US to contribute to near detector)
                  NuSAG: “the combination of [NOvA and T2K]…is considerably more powerful
                    than either alone”
              Plus supporting measurements
                  Minerva, SciBooNE to measure low-energy [nu] interaction rates; needed input
                    for MINOS, NOvA, T2K
              R&D on technology choices for large-scale (1000 kg), next-generation neutrinoless
               double beta decay experiment now, build later (~2011)
                  200kg Xenon prototype (EXO-200) in operations at WIPP
                  NP plans similar scale experiment with alternative technology
                  Later experiments could be at DUSEL?

U.S. Department of Energy

Office of Science

        Dark Energy

                             Ground Base: DES, LSST
                             Space Base: SNAP/JDEM

U.S. Department of Energy

                            Ground Based Dark Energy Experiment
                            - an option: Dark Energy Survey (DES)
Office of Science
   Scientific Purpose:                                                                          DES Instrument
      Study Dark Energy – a mid-term (“Stage III”) experiment
      Primary methods are galaxy cluster counting and spatial
         clustering of galaxies
      Other methods are weak gravitational lensing of distant
         galaxies and measurements of Type Ia supernova distances
   Proposal:
      Build a 520 mega-pixel CCD camera & associated hardware in
        exchange for 30% observing time on the NSF-funded Blanco                               Optical Lenses
        telescope in Chile
      This telescope and camera will provide the first high precision
        (5-10% statistical errors on the equation of state w) dark energy
        measurements                                                                                            Prime Focus
                                                                                                                Cage of the
   Collaboration: DOE, NSF (telescope operations and data
    management) + foreign partners
                                                                                                                Telescope to
   Costs: expect to be ~$20M for DOE-HEP                                                                       be replaced
                                                                                                                by DES
   Schedule: 3 year MIE construction + 5 years operations                                                      instrument

   Status/Readiness:
      Technology has been proven
      Design work in progress for fabrication start in FY08

U.S. Department of Energy

                            Ground Based Dark Energy Experiment
                            - an option: Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST)
Office of Science

     Scientific Purpose:
        Study Dark Energy – a longer term ground-based experiment
        Primary method: measurements of galaxy shape distortions caused          Telescope
           by weak gravitational lensing to determine the growth of galaxy
           clusters over time
        Other methods: supernovae, galaxy cluster counting
        Data expected to be used by the larger community for many different
           science topics

     Proposal:
        Build a next-generation 8.4 meter telescope facility with a 3 billion-
          pixel camera and data acquisition system
        Will obtain sequential images of the entire visible sky every 3 nights
          with fast (10 second) exposures                                         Camera &
        Data will provide high precision (2 – 3% errors on the equation of       Filters
          state w) dark energy measurements
        Request DOE to provide funding for camera and data acquisition

     Partnership: DOE, NSF + private
     Costs: DOE TPC $105M, Total ~ $250M
     Schedule: 5 year MIE construction + 10 years operations
     Status/Readiness: R&D continuing
U.S. Department of Energy

                            SuperNova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP)
Office of Science

     •   Next-generation space-based dark energy experiment
     •   SNAP will be a proposed concept for the DOE/NASA JDEM mission
     •   Collaboration: LBNL, JPL, GSFC, U.S. universities, French institutions
     •   Status: Finalizing R&D for the SNAP concept

 SNAP R&D funds ($M):
 FY00 FY01 FY02 FY03 FY04 FY05 FY06 FY07 FY08
 0.6  1.4   1.8   3.5 2.5  1.9 2.9   2.6  7.5

U.S. Department of Energy

Office of Science

        Dark Matter

                             GLAST
                             AMS
                             CDMS II
                             ADMX

U.S. Department of Energy

                            (Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope)
Office of Science

       Scientific Purpose - measures the energy (20 MeV to 300 GeV) and direction of
       celestial gamma-rays with good resolution over wide field of view to:
            • study mechanism of particle acceleration in astrophysical sources
            • determine high energy behavior of gamma ray bursts and transient sources
            • search for dark matter candidates
                                                          Large Area Telescope – all 16 towers
                                                              installed in October 2005
    Large Area Telescope (LAT)
     Primary instrument on the NASA GLAST Mission –
        managed by SLAC
     Partnership between DOE and NASA
          Collaborators from France, Italy, Japan and
     Fabrication cost $155.8M; DOE share is $45M
     Schedule:
          Fabrication 100% completed in Jan „06
          Commissioning and spacecraft integration
            in progress at NRL
          Schedule to launch in Oct/Nov 2007
U.S. Department of Energy

                            (Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer)
Office of Science

   Scientific purpose: What happened         Schedule: unknown
    to the (cosmic) antimatter?                   Scientific merit review conducted
       High quality magnetic                      on Sep 25
         spectrometer in space to
         measure cosmic rays outside
       Will operate on the
         International Space Station
   Partnership: Joint Project, funded
        by DOE, NASA, and Foreign
        Agencies (total 18 participating
        countries largely from Europe and
   Cost for detector fabrication &
        space qualification test > $900M
          DOE share is $5.3M
U.S. Department of Energy

                            Cryogenic Dark Matter Search II
                            (CDMS II)
Office of Science

     Purpose: direct detection of Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPS)
     Location - Soudan Mine in Minnesota
     Data-taking: full operations with 5 towers taking data

  Results so far:
  …set the world's lowest exclusion
  limits on the WIMP cross section
  by a factor of 10 compared to
  other experiments, ruling out a
  significant range of neutralino
  supersymmetric models.
                                                   CDMS-II 

  Blue line – new results
  Dotted Blue line – expected full results

U.S. Department of Energy

                            Super CDMS 25 kg
                            Current and Future Limits on Direct Dark Matter Detection
Office of Science

                                                           Zeplin II
                                                           Xenon 10
                                                           CRESST II
                                                           Edelweiss II   In P5 recommendation

                                                           Super CMDS 25 kg

                                                           Super CMDS 130 kg

                                                          Super CMDS 1000 kg

                                                            X,X supersymmetry models
                                                            Green mSUGRA
                                                            Purple mSUGRA+(g-2)
                                                            ○ ILC standard points

U.S. Department of Energy

                            Axion Dark Matter Experiment
                            (ADMX) Stage-1
Office of Science

           ADMX Physics: What is Dark Matter?
           Search for “axion” as dark matter particle
               Predicted by Peccei-Quinn explanation of strong CP violation
           Continues line of experiments at LLNL
           Utilizes “SQUID” amplifiers, high-Q cavities
           Searches 1-10 micro-eV mass region
           ADMX Cost: $1.9M

U.S. Department of Energy

Office of Science

        Other Particle Astrophysics

                             SDSS
                             Auger
                             VERITAS

U.S. Department of Energy

                            Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS)
Office of Science

 Science  Galaxy surveys, dark matter, dark energy + astronomy
 • Taking data since 1998
 • First Baryon oscillation measurement in Jan 2005
 • Approved for additional data-taking thru summer 2008
 • June 2006: 5th public data release
 • Now have data on 8000 square degrees of sky, with 1,048,960 spectra.

 Funding: Sloan Foundation, NSF, DOE, Japan, Germany
 Project is led by Fermilab
                                                                          Mosaic Imaging Camera

                    Telescope in New Mexico

                                                                          640 fiber spectrograph   51
U.S. Department of Energy

                            Pierre Auger
                            – high energy cosmic ray detector array
Office of Science

                                           Funded by DOE, NSF and Foreign Partners
                                           • Auger Collaboration: 300 members from 18 countries
                                           • Partial Operation started in 2005
                                           • Fabrication expected to be completed by early 2007

    Water Cherenkov surface detectors
                                            Current status
                                             18 (out of 24) fluorescence telescopes operating
                                             last building to house 6 telescopes under
                                            construction, expect to be completed by October 2006
                                             1186 (out of 1600) surface Cherenkov detectors
                                            deployed and 984 operating
                                             some problems with site access for final ~300
                                            surface detectors – negotiating with landowners

           Fluorescence telescopes
U.S. Department of Energy

                            (Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System)
Office of Science

  Scientific Purpose: Study of celestial sources of very high
   energy gamma-ray sources in the energy range of 50 GeV-
   50 TeV & search for dark matter candidates
     Using atmospheric Cherenkov 4- telescope array at
        Kitt Peak
  Collaboration: DOE, NSF + contributions from
   Smithsonian & foreign institutions
  Funding: DOE TPC = $7.4M
  Schedule: DOE fabrication project will be completed at
                                                                        Telescope 1 fabrication
   end of 2006.
  Status: In April 2005, work at Kitt Peak was stopped in
   response to suit filed by Tohono O’odham Indian Nation.
      Mitigation in progress between NSF and Tohono
        O’odham Indian Nation.
      Telescopes are being installed and commissioned at
        the Whipple Base camp

                                                                 Artist‟s conception
U.S. Department of Energy

                            VERITAS - Issues
Office of Science

   In April 2005, work at Kitt Peak was stopped so NEPA (National Environmental Policy Act)
    & NHPA (National Historic Preservation Act) process could be redone according to
    specifications, in response to suit filed by Tohono O’odham Indian Nation.
   Since NSF holds the lease to Kitt Peak, they are leading the NEPA/NHPA process with DOE
    acting as cooperating agency
   Had “government to government” meeting with Tohono O’odham Nation (TON) in January
    2006; NSF had another meeting with the TON in May and sent a draft MoU with proposed
    mitigating actions (sunset clauses, etc.) and waiting to hear TON response.
   Current status: VERITAS telescopes will be installed and commissioned at the Whipple Base
    camp (parking lot) by the end of 2006, while waiting for Kitt Peak access. They have been
    approved for a 2 year engineering run at Whipple, starting early 2007.

U.S. Department of Energy

Office of Science

        Accelerator R&D

U.S. Department of Energy

                            HEP Accelerator R&D Program
Office of Science

        Strong Integration of National Labs, Universities, and Industry
        Supports Unique & Dedicated Research Facilities
            Advanced Wakefield Accelerator at ANL
            Accelerator Test Facility at BNL
            Photo-injector Laboratory (FNPL) at FNAL
            L’OASIS at LBNL
            NLCTA at SLAC
            Neptune Laboratory at UCLA
            Proposed SABER at SLAC
        Support for Cultivation of Next Generation Accelerator Physicists
            HEP Accelerator R&D program supported production of over 230 Ph.D since 1982
            US Particle Accelerator School: started in 1982, office located at FNAL: Two week
             intensive program being offered twice a year. Accepted as being equivalent to graduate
             schedule program credit (2~3 credit course)
            Sponsoring major Conferences and Workshops
U.S. Department of Energy

                            HEP- Current R&D Topics
Office of Science

        New accelerator concepts : 13 institutions (16 groups) including 4 national labs (ANL,
         BNL, LBNL, SLAC)
            Laser acceleration: 6 groups
            Plasma acceleration: 9 groups
            Wakefield acceleration: 2 groups
        Super Conducting Magnet Technology & Materials Development: 8 institutions
         including 3 national labs (BNL, FNAL, LBNL)
        High Powered rf Sources & Accelerating Structures (ex: SC rf cavity): program at 9
         institutions including 4 national labs (ANL, BNL, FNAL, SLAC)
        Code Development: 5 institutions including 2 labs (LANL, LBNL)
        Theory: 14 institutions including 1 national lab (LBNL)
        Accelerator Experiments: 3 institutions including 1 national lab (SLAC)
        Special Facilities: Unique and Dedicated Research Facilities (list in previous slide)

U.S. Department of Energy

                            Accelerator R&D
                            - Tools for other sciences
Office of Science

      HEP has developed accelerators & technology that are used for other science &
        commercial applications – huge contribution to economy.
          Cyclotrons, linacs, synchrotrons – proton, neutron, electron & X-ray based
           cancer therapy; medical isotope production; food sterilization
          Electron synchrotrons & storage rings – synchrotron radiation sources (ALS,
           APS) for material science, biology …
          Electron linacs (SLAC) – FELs for materials science, etc. (LCLS is a direct spin-
           off), food sterilization, ion implants for electronics, X-ray treatment
          Proton linacs & synchrotrons – neutron sources for material science (SNS);
           nuclear physics (RHIC)
          Superconducting magnets – MRI magnets for medical imaging
          Super Conducting RF – material science (SNS) & nuclear physics (CEBAF)
          Compact laser-plasma accelerators – future electron & X-ray based cancer
           therapy (U. Texas)

U.S. Department of Energy

                                        GeV Electron Beams from a cm-scale
                                        - Accelerator R&D at LBNL
Office of Science

• First demonstration of a GeV beam
from laser accelerator
        3.3 cm capillary + 40 TW laser
        few percent energy spread
• Future Work: 10 GeV laser accelerator
                 X108 (pC GeV-1 sr-1)

U.S. Department of Energy

                            Accelerator R&D at other parts of the world
Office of Science

         Hard to account for the total size of the efforts and resources
         Europe: 16 major Advanced Accelerator Facilities
         Japan: 16 Advanced Accelerator Facilities
         Also advanced accelerator research laboratories at Taiwan, Korea, India, China,
          and Israel

U.S. Department of Energy
                            High Gradient Superconducting rf acceleration
                            – a key future technology
Office of Science

  U.S. lags Europe and Japan in developing high
 gradient superconducting rf (SCRF) technology.
  In order to catch up, current estimate for required
 investment on SCRF infrastructure and R&D of cavities
 and cryomodules is ~$300M over 6 years.

                                                     Where U.S. is now ( FNAL Meson Lab)

       DESY Tesla Test Facility >$150M of M&S only (not including any salary)     61
U.S. Department of Energy

                            HEP Plan for SCRF R&D
Office of Science

     Building upon the strength of HEP Accelerator R&D program, SCRF R&D in
     U.S. can be significantly improved from where we are today.
     This R&D program will include:
      FNAL: Coordinating role with infrastructure development for cavity, cryomodule and
     string tests
      ANL: High volume facility for surface preparation using buffered chemical polishing and
      TJNAF: Development of new materials and maintain modest volume capability for
     cavity fabrication and electropolishing
      LANL: test stand for single cavities
      SLAC/LLNL: develop high power rf power systems
      Universities* (Cornell, Michigan State, William & Mary, Old Dominion, Wisconsin,
     Northwestern): modest surface preparation facilities, develop new electropolishing
     techniques, new cavity fabrication techniques, materials research.

U.S. Department of Energy

                            Superconducting rf acceleration –
                            the key to ILC R&D
Office of Science

  DOE/OHEP has recognized the generic importance of SCRF R&D and
  infrastructure and will define a budget category for it in FY 2007. Budget
  $23M (if FY2007 appropriation is at $60M).

  The FY2008 over target request of $47M for SCRF infrastructure and
  industrial partnership is essential for advancing ILC R&D, and for
  establishing the basis for future SC facilities. Without such infrastructure
  and industrial capability, the advanced DOE/SC accelerator facilities will
  not be possible.

  Developing high yield, cost-effective and reproducible SC cavities is the
  highest priority for the ILC R&D program worldwide.

U.S. Department of Energy

Office of Science

        ILC R&D

U.S. Department of Energy

                            ILC R&D
Office of Science

   The US and its international partners are in the R&D phase
   to validate the technology, prepare the detailed design and
   cost of a future ILC project.
   ILC project approval will require successful completion of
   this R&D phase, validation of the scientific potential at the
   LHC, selection of a site and preliminary agreement on the
   partnership and potential roles. Project start would not
   occur before FY2012.
   The R&D phase will deliver much of the societal benefits –
   development of superconducting rf acceleration technology.
   Current R&D expenditures are equal in Asia, Europe and
   Americas (at $60M/yr in US accounting).
U.S. Department of Energy

                            Worldwide Commitment to ILC
Office of Science

EPP2010 Report “The US should launch a major† program of R&D, design,
industrialization, and management and financing studies of the ILC
accelerator and detectors.” (as the highest priority future effort.
CERN Council European strategy for particle physics (2006): “It is
fundamental* to complement the results of the LHC with measurements at
a linear collider.”
“The first general meeting of the [Japanese] Federation of Diet members to
promote the realization of ILC … As an important international project in the
fundamental sciences, the Federation decided to give strong support
toward the realization of the ILC.” (ILC News, 6-22-06)
† EPP2010 identified R&D costs as $500M over FY2007 -- 2011. Adding FY2006 actual
and FY2012 estimate, detector R&D, SCRF infrastructure raises this to $820M.

* CERN strategy group
lexicon:                                                                            66
U.S. Department of Energy

                            International discussions
Office of Science

      China: Staffin/Minister of Science and Technology in June 2006:
      “we will join the ILC”; discussing R&D involvement at $10M level
      India: Staffin/Minister of Science and Technology in October 2006:
      Indian partnership with US in SCRF at $10M level?
      So. Korea: first ILC specific funds allocated in 2006
      Japan: Formation of Federation of Diet members for realizing the
      ILC (Sugawara), with statement of intent to propose ILC in Japan.
      Priority of JPARC had prevented official discussion of ILC in Japan;
      now MEXT expresses its desire to pursue ILC. First infusion of
      significant funds for detector R&D (JSPS).
      Russia: Funding constraints, difficulty in securing the Russian
      contribution to LHC hinders formal ILC role, but the accelerator
      expertise helps ILC R&D.
      Canada: minimal involvement, but growing.
U.S. Department of Energy

                            International discussions
Office of Science

     Europe: Situation in Europe is complex. (Orbach visit in August 2006.)
     Top priority is LHC, with LHC upgrade prominent in many nations
     CERN Council Strategy Group rated ILC as “fundamental”. Council is
     emerging as primary European strategic planning group.
     CERN continues to pursue CLIC R&D as potential future project; expert
     evaluation sees CLIC as being beyond the horizon of next decade.
     Germany is leading the XFEL construction project.
     France is most aligned to CERN future plans.
     UK is contributing large funding to ILC, with focus on beam delivery
     system, detector R&D.
     Tension between CERN and US over operating costs, LHC upgrades
     will tend to limit European funding for ILC in US.                       68
 U.S. Department of Energy

                                 International discussions
Office of Science

                                China - visit       S. Korea - first
                                6/06 – “will join   ILC funding 2006
Europe - LHC priority.          ILC”
CERN Council:                                                     Canada: minimal
“„fundamental to                                                  now, but interest
complement LHC Russia -
with ILC.”          waiting to
                    complete LHC                                   US – NAS panel:
                    commitment                                     “US should launch
                                                                   major ILC R&D”

                                                      Japan: Diet
                                                      Federation: “support
                                                      realization of ILC”
                    India - visit 10/06
                    discuss partnering
                    with US on SCRF

U.S. Department of Energy

                            ILC Funding in Europe and Asia
Office of Science

  Current R&D expenditures for Europe and Asia reported to GDE for current fiscal
  year (JFY starts 4/1; EUFY starts 3/1).
  Europe provided M&S and SWF direct funding. Adding indirect and overheads
  as done in US (average of SLAC and FNAL rates) and associating half the
  expenditures for the DESY XFEL as synergistic to ILC gives total (US accounting)
  of $58M. SWF to M&S ratio similar to US.
  Japan gives only M&S direct (not including funding though industry). Scaling
  their estimate up by European SWF/M&S ratio, adding indirect and overheads as
  above, and estimating total expenditures in China, S. Korea, India at $5M gives
  Asian total (US accounting) of $58M.

  Future outlook: Proposal to EU Framework 7 program for $100M level facilities.
  Both India and China indicate substantial increase in ILC funding. Increase
  detector R&D funding in Japan.

U.S. Department of Energy

Office of Science

  FALC = Funding Agencies Linear Collider (US DOE, US NSF, Canada,
  Germany, France, UK, Italy, CERN (smaller EU nations), Japan, S.
  Korea (India, China, Russia to be added?)
   Established common fund for GDE.
   International review of Reference Design cost estimate (2007)
   Document technological benefits of ILC for governments/industry
   Coordinate planning of large world projects (ILC, LHC upgrade,
        intense  sources, CLIC R&D)
  TO DO:
   Establish procedure and time table for site proposals, evaluations
         (needed to complete TDR).
   Formalize oversight and organization structure of GDE
U.S. Department of Energy

                                          ILC Estimated Time Line
Office of Science

        2006                2007          2008       2009          2010      2011        2012
                                   Ref Design, cost, review
                                                                  Engineering design

                                          FALC proposal for site selection process
                                          Interim R&D oversight organization for GDE

                                                              Identification of site (or 2?)

    GDE                                                             Final site specific TDR
                                                                    ILC organization draft plan
   Govts                                                                            Formal negotiation of
                                   RDR                     LHC                      ILC lab agreements
                                   cost                 results
     offramps                                                               Project start
U.S. Department of Energy

                                GDE FY2007 plans
Office of Science

       Complete Reference Design, cost estimate. Aim for international
      review under FALC oversight (Lehman from US).
       R&D on critical baseline elements and alternates holding promise
      for cost saving or improvement in reliability.
       Restructure the GDE to begin the Technical (engineering) Design
       Develop world R&D plan.
                At present 4 planning task forces:
                 cavities and cryomodule
                 string tests
                 damping rings
                 final focus/beam delivery)

U.S. Department of Energy

                            US FY2007 plans (assuming $60M)
Office of Science

 ~$120M in work package requests for R&D and engineering design from
labs and universities, prioritized to fit $60M budget.

 Top R&D priority is getting reliable 35 MV/m cavities and infrastructure
needed to refine process and test prototypes.
 By end 2006, complete a 3 year R&D plan for US R&D: goals, resource
needs, milestones, deliverables. (Must be iterated with GDE guidance on
worldwide plans)
 Detector R&D multiyear plan with goals, milestones, resource needs.

U.S. Department of Energy

                            Deployment of FY2007 Labs effort
Office of Science

  FNAL (47%): SCRF cavity, cryomodule; SCRF test infrastructure; beam
  optics; civil construction; outreach; magnet design.
  SLAC (37%): rf power sources and tests; rf distribution; high availability
  power supplies; controls; electron/positron sources; damping ring optics;
  bunch compressor; beam alignment; wakefield studies; magnet design;
  electron cloud tests; beam instrumentation.
  ANL (5%): damping ring design; cavity surface treatment.
  BNL (3%): final focus magnets.
  LBNL (3%): damping ring design; positron source; vacuum engineering.
  LLNL (3%): rf couplers; rf pulse power systems; positron target; beam
  position monitor.
  TJNAF (1%): cavity surface treatment, large grain Nb cavity development.
  LANL (1%): cavity testing.                                               75
U.S. Department of Energy

                            Outyear projections
Office of Science

       The R&D phase of ILC R&D should follow a profile similar to that
       of a construction project. The synergy with SCRF activity is
       important to ILC as well as serving the broader DOE SC program.
       EPP2010 estimate (adding infrastructure, detector R&D not
       included) is a five-year integral of $820M.
       Without the SCRF effort the profile fails to meet the need to
       validate the ILC design or put the US in a position to make a
       credible bid to host.

U.S. Department of Energy

Office of Science

        International HEP

U.S. Department of Energy

                             Partnering with others (experiments)
Office of Science

                            Total number of collaborators
            name               Total     US        Non-US                   comments
     BaBar                        620      320         300
     CDF                          750      380         370   Sizable contributions from foreign
                                                             partners for Fabrictions and Operations
     D-Zero                       650      330         320
     MINOS                        200      150          50

     AMS                          450         30       420   ~95% funded by foreign partners
     Auger                        300         70       230   Sizable contributions from foreign
                                                             partners for Fabrictions and Operations
     GLAST/LAT                    130         50        80

U.S. Department of Energy

Office of Science

        Advisory Processes

U.S. Department of Energy

                            New Ways
Office of Science

U.S. Department of Energy

                            Advisory Committee Flow Chart
Office of Science

                        DOE-NP        NSF         DOE-HEP       Other agencies


                             NSAC           HEPAP               Other panels



                                    NuSAG                   Other SAG‟s

U.S. Department of Energy

                            Role of P5
Office of Science

          To develop and maintain the roadmap of the field
          To address relative priorities of (medium-sized) proposed projects within the
           program context

      (Ideally) P5 would be asked to compare the recommended options from the SAG
          process and prioritize relative to one another

      (More realistically) P5 will be given a nominal (optimistic but not “blue sky”)
         envelope of available funding for new initiatives and asked to prioritize within
         that constraint

U.S. Department of Energy

                            NuSAG – Report #1 & 2
Office of Science

                        Recommendations                              Actions
              Double Beta Decay                       Double Beta Decay
             Initiate a two-phase program: (1) two     HEP is sponsoring EXO-200 and
                  or more exp’ts on the 200kg scale,      supporting R&D to demonstrate its
                  then (2) one 1000kg experiment          viability for a 1000kg exp’t. NP
                                                          has the lead on the alternative
              Reactor Experiments                        technologies.
             Mount one multi-detector experiment       Reactor Experiments
                sensitive at the level of sin2y13 ~    We are working with the Daya Bay
                0.01                                      collaboration to mount a successful
              Accelerator Experiments                    experiment in China.
             1. Pursue NOvA                            Accelerator Experiments
             2. Participate in T2K                     1. Done; at CD-1 stage
             3. Support a program of R&D on            2. Supporting detector R&D (2006);
                liquid argon detector technology          in FY2008 Request
                                                       3. Collaboration on R&D efforts
                                                          forming. No formal program yet.

U.S. Department of Energy

                            Dark Energy Task Force - Report
Office of Science

     DETF was a subpanel of both HEPAP and AAAC
     Their final report was released in June 2006 and it was transmitted by HEPAP to DOE-HEP on July
     17, 2006 and by AAAC to DOE-HEP on June 30, 2006.

     From the report:
     Dark Energy could be Einstein‟s cosmological constant, new exotic form of matter or may signify a
     breakdown in Einstein‟s GR. To date, there are no compelling theoretical explanations for the dark
     energy, therefore, observational exploration must be the focus

     No single technique can answer the outstanding questions - need combinations of at least two of
     techniques, at least one of which is a probe sensitive to the growth of cosmological structure in the
     form of galaxies and clusters of galaxies.

     Recommends medium term (stage III) and longer term (stage IV) program. Stage III should improve
     the DETF figure of merit (FOM) by at least a factor of 3 and stage IV by at least a factor of IV.
       DETF FOM: reciprocal of the area of the error ellipse enclosing the 95% confidence limit in the
     w0–wa plane.

     Recommends that high priority for near-term funding should be given to projects that improve our
     understanding of the dominant systematic effects

U.S. Department of Energy

                            AARD - Report
Office of Science

                    Recommendations                     Actions

          1. Develop a strategic R&D plan   1. Draft plan in development by
                                               OHEP staff + consultant
          2. Conduct an annual external
             review of the medium- and      2. OHEP staff and consultant are
             long-range R&D program            drafting a charge and
                                               identifying members for a
                                               Review Committee
          3. Grow Accelerator Science
             from 5% of the OHEP budget     3. Accelerator science is 4.3% of
             to 6% over 10 years               the HEP budget in FY 2007
                                               Pres. Request, 4.9% in FY
                                               2008 OMB Request

U.S. Department of Energy

                             Dark Matter SAG - Charge
Office of Science

                           What are the most promising experimental approaches for the direct
                            detection of dark matter using particle detectors in underground
                            laboratories? DMSAG should consider:
                              Technology: Ge/Si crystals, liquid Xe, two-phase Xe, liquid Ar,…
                              Relative stage of development; time to implement; ultimate sensitivity;
                               scalability; required overburden
                           What is the optimum strategy to operate at the sensitivity frontier in
                            the short and intermediate term, while making the investments
                            required to meet the ultimate sensitivity?
                           Assess the state of the worldwide program. Does the US program have
                            the potential to make unique contributions?
                           What guidance and constraints can be gained from other approaches to
                            understanding dark matter?
                              E.g., astronomical observations, TeV-scale colliders, theory,…

U.S. Department of Energy

                            University Grant Program Subpanel - Charge
Office of Science

         In broad terms, what should be the goals and objectives of the university grant
         What defines the scope of the program?
         Appraise the scientific and technical quality of the work supported.
         Assess the impact of the program on the US and worldwide HEP efforts.
         Does the program have the correct number and distribution of researchers at all
          levels to meet program objectives?
         Does the program have sufficient resources to carry out its scope of work? How
          should the program respond to an increase or decrease of resources?
         Examine how the programs are managed and suggest improvements if
         Consider the impact of the program reach to the broader community.


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