Vegetarians

Document Sample
Vegetarians Powered By Docstoc
					Always eat your vegetables,
        says Mom.
   A simple review of
     Vegetarianism.                                        http://www.vrg.org/nutshell/nutshell.htm
                              http://kidshealth.org/parent/nutrition_fit/nutrition/vegetarianism.html
                                     http://www.americanheart.org/presenter.jhtml?identifier=4777




What is a Vegetarian?




Vegetarians do not eat meat, fish, and poultry; however,
there are various stages of vegetarians. The main categories
are listed below.
     Ovo vegetarian - eats eggs; no meat
     Lacto-ovo vegetarian - eats dairy and egg products; no
      meat
     Lacto vegetarian - eats dairy products; no eggs or meat
     Vegan - eats only food from plant sources
     Other categories include: Pesco vegetarians - eats fish
      but no other meat; and Pollo vegetarians - eats poultry
      but no other meat
Reasons for Vegetarianism




Among the many reasons for being a vegetarian are health,
ecological, and religious concerns, dislike of meat,
compassion for animals, belief in non-violence, and
economics.


Vegetarian Nutrition
The key to a healthy vegetarian diet is to eat a wide variety
of foods, including fruits, vegetables, plenty of leafy
greens, whole grain products, nuts, seeds, and legumes. As
with any healthy diet, you will want to limit your intake of
sweets and fatty foods.




Protein
Vegetarians easily meet their protein needs by eating a
varied diet. A mixture of proteins throughout the day will
provide enough "essential amino acids."
Good protein sources are: lentils, tofu, low-fat dairy
products, nuts, seeds, tempeh, peas... Many common foods
such as whole grain bread, greens, potatoes, pasta, and corn
quickly add to protein intake.
Iron
Good iron sources are: dried beans, spinach, chard, beet
greens, blackstrap molasses, bulgur, prune juice, and dried
fruit are all good sources of iron. To increase the amount of
iron absorbed at a meal eat a food containing vitamin C,
such as citrus fruit or juices, tomato, or broccoli. Cooking
food in iron cookware also adds to iron intake.




Calcium

Good calcium sources are: collard greens, broccoli, kale, low fat
dairy products, turnip greens, tofu prepared with calcium, and
fortified soy milk.

Vitamin B12
The adult recommended intake for vitamin B12 is very low.
Vitamin B12 comes primarily from animal-derived foods.
A diet containing dairy products or eggs provides adequate
vitamin B12. Fortified foods, such as some brands of
cereal, nutritional yeast, soy milk, or soy analogs, are good
non-animal sources. Check labels to discover other
products that are fortified with vitamin B12. Tempeh and
sea vegetables may contain vitamin B12, but their content
varies and may be unreliable. To be on the safe side, if you
are one of the few people who do not consume dairy
products, eggs, or fortified foods regularly, you can take a
non-animal derived supplement. Much research still needs
to be done on vitamin B12 needs and sources.
Vitamin D
Vegans should have a reliable source of vitamin D. Vegans
who get little sunlight may need a supplement.

Zinc
Zinc is needed for growth and development. Good plant
sources include grains, nuts and legumes. Shellfish are an
excellent source of zinc. Care should be taken in selecting
supplements containing no more than 15-18 mg zinc
because supplements containing 50 mg or more may lower
HDL ("good") cholesterol in some people.
Vegetarian Foods
                       Common vegetarian foods: macaroni
                       and cheese, spaghetti, cheese
                       pizza, eggplant parmesan, vegetable
                       soup, pancakes, oatmeal, grilled
                       cheese, bean tacos and burritos,
                       vegetable lo mein, French toast,
                       French fries, vegetable pot pie, fruit
                       shakes, bread, yogurt, cheese lasagna,
                       peanut butter and jam, fruit salad,
                       corn flakes...


      Some vegetarians also eat: tofu, tempeh, bulgur,
lentils, millet, tahini, falafel, nutritional yeast, whole wheat
flour, wheat germ, sprouts, chickpeas, tamari, kale,
collards, carrot juice, barley, rice cakes, carob, split peas,
kidney beans, soy burgers, kiwi fruit, papaya, blintzes,
curry, nut loaf...




Food Alternatives
Egg Replacements (Binders)
Any of the following can be used to replace eggs:
     1 banana for 1 egg (great for cakes, pancakes, etc)
     2 Tablespoons cornstarch or arrowroot starch for 1 egg
     Ener-G Egg Replacement (or similar product available
      in health food stores or by mail order)
     1/4 Cup tofu for 1 egg (blend tofu smooth with the
      liquid ingredients before they are added to the dry
      ingredients.)



Dairy Substitutes




The following can be used as dairy substitutes in cooking:
     soy milk (found in health food or Oriental stores)
     soy margarine
     soy yogurt (found in health food stores)
     nut milks (blend nuts with water and strain)
     rice milks (blend cooked rice with water)



Meat Substitutes in Stews/Soups
The following can be used as meat substitutes in soups and
stews:
     tempeh (cultured soybeans with a chewy texture)
     tofu (freezing and then thawing gives tofu a meaty
      texture; the tofu will turn slightly off white in color)
     wheat gluten or seitan (made from wheat and has the
      texture of meat; available in health food or Oriental
      stores)

				
DOCUMENT INFO