Transistor Transistor by wulinqing

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									        Transistor

Victor Hugo Estrada Rivera
     University of Texas at El Paso
         Molecular Electronics
              Chem 5369
                                  Definition
     An electronic device made of a semiconductor that can
      act as an insulator and a conductor.
     The ability to change from these two states enables the
      device switch or amplify.
     It has of three components:
        Source
        Gate
        Drain




http://www.privateline.com/
TelephoneHistory3/History3.html
                      Importance
“The Transistor was probably the most important invention of the 20th
   Century and the story behind the invention is one of clashing egos
                       and top secret research.”
                             Ira Flatow


      Transistors replaced vacuum tubes.
      Transistors are central to the Integrated Circuit, and
       therefore, all electronic devices of the information
       age, such as: pc’s, cellular phones, ipods, pda’s,
       intelligent cars and buildings…….. are made possible.
                                    Timeline




                                                  1968
•Click on a Year to Learn its




                                                 1958
                                                1957
Significance




                                              1955
•Click on the Blue Triangle to Return




                                             1950
•You can also click to see how a




                                           1948
                                          1947
transistor works




                                        1945
                                      1936
                                     1934
                                    1928
                                   1907
                            1906
                     1898
              1895
       1883




                                           How a transistor works?
1874
                           1874
   Ferdinand Braun discovered
    Rectification
       crystals that can conduct
        current in only one direction
        under certain conditions.




                                        http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Ferdinand_Braun.jpg




                                                                                    ◄
                             1883

   Edison effect ( thermionic
    emission).
       The flow of electrons from
        metals caused by thermal
        vibration energy (heat) that
        overcomes the electrostatic
        forces that hold the electrons
        to the surface.




                                http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Thomas_Edison.jpg   ◄
                     1895


   Guglielmo Marconi -
    sent a radio signal
    over a distance of
    more than a mile.




                          http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Marconi.jpg




                                                                           ◄
                              1895
   John Ambrose Fleming -
    developed the Vacuum
    Tube
       a device that modify a
                                     http://concise.britannica.com/ebc/art-58608
        signal by controlling the
        movement of electrons in
        an evacuated space.
       The electrons flow only
        from filament to plate
        creating a diode (a device
        that can conduct current
        only in one direction)


                                         http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:
                                         Diode_vacuum_tube.png                     ◄
                   1898



   Thomson discovered
    the electron.




                         http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Jj-thomson2.jpg


                                                                         ◄
                        1906
   Lee De Forest -Triode in
    vacuum tube (amplify
    signals) allowing farther
    telephone conversations.    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Deforest.jpg
   The problems with this
    Triode is that it was
    unreliable and used a lot
    of power.




                                  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Triode_
                                  vacuum_tube.png
                                                                               ◄
                       1907
   Bell telephone patents
    expire.
   AT&T (Bell’s company)
    bought De Forest’s
    triode patent.
   Result: transcontinental
    telephone service.

                               http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Ale
                               xander_Graham_Bell22.jpg



                                                                        ◄
                    1928
  The first patents for the
transistor principle were
registered in Germany by
Julius Edgar Lilienfield.
 He proposed the basic
principle behind the MOS
field-effect transistor        http://chem.ch.huji.ac.il/~eugeniik/history/
                               lilienfeld.htm


                                                                        ◄
                   1934


   German Physicist Dr.
    Oskar Heil patented
    the field effect
    transistor


                           http://www.precide.ch/eng/eheil/eheil.htm


                                                                  ◄
                            1936
   Mervin Kelly Bell Lab's
    director of research. He
    felt that to provide the
    best phone service it will
    need a better amplifier;
    the answer might lie in
    semiconductors. And he
    formed a department
    dedicated to solid state
    science                      http://   www.pbs.org/transistor/album1/addlbios/kelly.html




                                                                                        ◄
                          1945
   Bill Shockley the team leader of
    the solid state department
    (Hell’s Bell Lab) hired Walter
    Brattain and John Bardeen.
   He designed the first
    semiconductor amplifier, relying
    on the field effect.
   His device was a small cylinder
    coated thinly with silicon,
    mounted close to a small, metal
    plate.                             http://www.lucent.com/minds/
   The device didn't work, and        transistor/history.html

    Shockley assigned Bardeen and
    Brattain to find out why.
                                                                  ◄
                                   1947
   Bardeen and Brattain built the point contact
    transistor.
   They made it from strips of gold foil on a plastic
    triangle, pushed down into contact with slab of
    germanium.




                              http://www.lucent.com/minds/   http://www.lucent.com/minds/t
http://www.lucent.com/minds   transistor/history.html        ransistor/history.html
/transistor/history.html
                                                                                        ◄
1947 cont.
                              1947 cont.

   Shockley make the
    Junction transistor
    (sandwich).
   This transistor was more
    practical and easier to
    fabricate.
   The Junction Transistor
    became the central
    device of the electronic
    age


     http://www.ecse.rpi.edu/Homepages/schubert/Unused%20stuff/Educational%20resources/
     Picture%20First%20junction%20transistor.jpg
                           1947 cont.
   A thin piece of semiconductor of
    one type between two slices of
    another type, is able to control the
    flow of the current between emitter
    and the collector.
   Even if the input current is weak,
    the transistor can control a strong
    current.
   The effect accomplish is that the
    current through the collector
    mimics and amplify the behavior
    of the current through the Emitter.




                                           ◄
                  1948
 Bells Lab unveil the transistor.
 They decided to name it transistor instead
  of Point-contact solid state amplifier.
 John Pierce invented the name, combining
  transresistance with the ending common
  to devices, like varistor and thermistor.

                                     ◄
                     1950’s
   Sony receives a license from
    Bell Labs to build transistors
   In 1946 Sony produced
    products for radio repair. In
    1950 they decided to build
    something for the mass
    consumption; the transistor
    radio.
   In United States they used
    the transistors primarily for    http://www.sony.net/Fun/SH/1-6/h2.html

    computers and military uses.
                                                                     ◄
                                               1955
   Foundation of Shockley Semiconductor,
    sowing the seeds of silicon valley




                                                      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:SJPan.jpg




http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:ShockleyBldg.jpg
                                                                                                     ◄
                                   1957
   The traitorous eight abandoned Shockley
    founding Fairchild Semiconductor.




            http://   www.fairchildsemi.com/company/history_1957.html

                                                                        ◄
                                1958
   Jack Kilby of Texas Instruments –
    Invent the Integrated Circuit (IC)
      It occurred to him that all parts of
       a circuit could be made out of the
       same piece of silicon.
      The entire circuit could be built
       out of a single crystal
           Reducing the size
           Easier to produce




                                                                       ◄
                                         Texas Instruments' first IC
    1958 cont. - Integrated Circuit
   A single device that
    contains an
    interconnected array
    of elements like
    transistors, resistors,
                                                         http://www.helicon.co.uk/online/datasets/
    capacitors, and                                      samples/education/images.htm

    electrical circuits
    contained in a silicon
    wafer.


http://www.ece.uiuc.edu/grad/7reasons/5reputation.html
                                       1968
   Bob Noyce and Gordon Moore, two of the
    traitorous eight together with Andy Grove,
    form Intel Corporation




     http://www.itnews.sk/buxus_dev/images/
     2006/Intel_logo_nove1_velky.jpg



                                              http://www.granneman.com/techinfo/
                                              background/history/
                                                                                   ◄
           How a Transistor Works
   The transistor can function as:
        An insulator
        A conductor
   The transistor's ability to fluctuate between these two states that
    enables to switch or amplify.
   The transistor has many applications, but only two basic functions:
    switching and modulation (amplification).
   In the simplest sense, the transistor works like a dimmer.
        With a push the knob of the dimmer, the light comes on and off. You
         have a switch. Rotate the knob back and forth, and the light grows
         brighter, dimmer, brighter, dimmer. Than you have a modulator.



                                                                               ◄
    How a Transistor Works cont.
   Both the dimmer and the
    transistor can control
    current flow.
    Both can act as a switch
    and as a
    modulator/amplifier.
    The important difference
    is that the “hand”
    operating the transistor is
    millions of times faster.
                                  http://www.ieicorp.com/consum/dimmer.gif




                                                                             ◄
   Transistors are made of semi-conductors such
    as silicon and gallium arsenide.
   These materials carry electricity not well enough
    to be called conductors; not badly enough to be
    called insulators.
   Hence their name semiconductor.
   The importance of a transistor is in its ability to
    control its own semi conductance, namely acting
    like a conductor when needed, or as an insulator
    (nonconductor) when that is needed.


                                                      ◄
      You can compare a transistor to an ordinary faucet.
      The water enters the faucet in the pipeline from the
       water distributor, which would correspond to the source
       in the Transistor.
      The water then leaves the faucet into the sink, this would
       be the drain in the Transistor.
      The water tap controls the amount, flow, of water. In the
       Transistor the gate operates as this controller.
      With a small force you can control the water flow with the
       water tap, just as you can control the current flowing
       from the source to the drain, with a small change of the
       charge of the gate.



http://nobelprize.org/educational_games/physics/transistor/function/watertap.html   ◄
    Transistors are Made of Silicon
   Silicon is a grey colored element with crystalline
    structure.
   It is the second most abundant element in the earth's
    crust, after oxygen.
   Silicon is always found in combined form in nature, often
    with oxygen as quartz, and is found in rocks and silica
    sand.
   To be able to use silicon as a semiconductor, it needs to
    be in a very pure form.
   If there is more than one impure particle in a million, the
    silicon can not be used.
   Silicon is the most frequently used semiconducting
    material today.


                                                                  ◄
               Doping
   The addition of a small
    amount of a different
    substance to a pure
    semiconductor crystal.
   The impurities give an                          n-type doping
    excess of conducting
    electrons or an excess of
    conducting holes which is
    crucial for making a
    working transistor.

    http://www.astro.virginia.edu/class/oconnell/
    astr511/im/Si-B-doping-JFA.jpg

                                                     p-type doping   ◄
                         Donor doping




                         Acceptor doping




http://   131.104.156.23/Lectures/CHEM_462/462_chapter_1.html

                                                                http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/
                                                                Hbase/solids/dsem.html#c2               ◄
     Conduction Band: Is a part in which electrons can move freely and can
        accelerate under an electric field, constituting an electric current.

                       Conduction Band
                                                                      Metals
                           Valence Band

Energy Gap: Is
the energy               Conduction Band
difference                                                            Semiconductors
between the                                        Energy gap
valence gap and            Valence Band
the conduction
band


                         Conduction Band

                                               Bigger Energy gap       Insulators
                          Valence Band

    Valence Band: Is a part of the molecule, called band, where you can find the
                                     electrons                                      ◄
      Transistor types

 MOS - Metal Oxide Semiconductor
 FET - Field Effect Transistor
 BJT - Bipolar Junction Transistor




                                      ◄
             Moore’s Law
 It’s an observation made by Gordon E.
  Moore, in which he predicted that the
  number of transistors, inside an Integrated
  Circuit, could be doubled every 24 months.
 At the density that also minimized the cost
  of a transistor.




                                                ◄
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/06/Moore_Law_diagram_%282004%29.png   ◄
              Transistor problems
   Power density increased
   Device variability
   Reliability
   Complexity
   Leakage
   Power dissipation limits device density
   Transistor will operate near ultimate limits of size and
    quality – eventually, no transistor can be fundamentally
    better

                                                               ◄
              The Future of transistors
                                                     Molecular electronics
                                                     Carbon nanotubes transistors
                                                     Nanowire transistors
                                                     Quantum computing
                                                     CMOS devices will add
                                                      functionality to CMOS non-volatile
                                                      memory, opto-electronics,
                                                      sensing….
                                                     CMOS technology will address
                                                      new markets macroelectronics,
                                                      bio-medical devices, …
                                                     Biology may provide inspiration for
                                                      new technologies bottom-up
                                                      assembly, human intelligence
"Photo: National Research Council of Canada.“
http://www.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/multimedia/picture/
fundamental/nrc-nint_moleculartransistor_e.html                                        ◄
       Pictorial History of Transistors




http://www.bellsystemmemorial.com/belllabs_transistor.html   ◄
              Further Resources
   Riordan, Michael and Lillian Hoddeson. Crystal Fire: The Invention of
    the Transistor and the Birth of the Information Age. New York: W. W.
    Norton and Company, 1997.
   Brattain, Walter H. "Genesis of the Transistor." The Physics Teacher.
    (March, 1968) pp. 109-114.
   Hoddeson, Lillian. "The Roots of Solid State Research at Bell Labs."
    Physics Today. (March, 1997).
   Holonyak, Jr., Nick."John Bardeen and the Point-Contact Transistor."
    Physics Today.
   (April, 1992).
   Shockley, William. "How We Invented the Transistor." New Scientist
    21. (December, 1972) pp. 689-91.
   http://www.pbs.org/transistor
   http://www.aip.org/history
   http://www.lucent.com/minds/transistor/history.html
   http://chem.ch.huji.ac.il/~eugeniik/history/lilienfeld.htm
   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page
   You can find two very cool games on transistors in the next link:
   http://nobelprize.org/educational_games/physics/transistor/function/in
    tro.html                                                                 ◄

								
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