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Hypnosis

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					Hypnosis
Qualities of Hypnosis

May or may not feel sleepy
Usually feel more relaxed
Increased susceptibility to suggestions
Enhanced imagery and imagination
Loss of Initiative
Qualities of Hypnosis (continued)

Availability of visual memories from the
 past, though possibly distorted
Lack of desire to make and carry out
 plans
Retains ability to initiate or terminate
 actions
Qualities of Hypnosis (continued)

Reduction in Reality Testing
   Change in personality
   Accept falsified memories
   Modify the rate which they process time
   Experience the presence of an object that
    isn’t there or visa versa
Standardized Tests for Hypnotic
Susceptibility
Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale
   Three forms:
      A and B: Emphasize compliance with motor
       related suggestions
         Are parallel, permitting test-retest reliability
      C: Emphasizes Cognitive components of
       hypnotic susceptibility
Standardized Tests for Hypnotic
Susceptibility
Barber Suggestibility Scale:
   Like the Stanford test, performed on an
    individual basis, rated by the examiner
   Consists of Only 8 Tasks
Standardized Tests for Hypnotic
Susceptibility
Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic
 Susceptibility
   Administered in a group setting
   Subjects score themselves
   Less accurate
Different Hypnotic
Susceptibility Tests
                               Hand
Eye Closure      Postural Sway
                               Lowering
                                     Verbal
Finger Lock      Arm Rigidity
                                     Inhibition
Posthypnotic     Extreme Thirst      Selective
Suggestion       Suggestion          Amnesia
Arm
                 Fly Hallucination   Eye Roll Test
Immobilization
Physiological Changes

Greater advantage of left body parts
Tendency to go towards the right
Increased Respiration Rates
Decreased Heart Rate
Changes in Cortical ERPs
Hypnotherapy: Habit Control

Obesity
   Direct Suggestion
   Ego - Enhancing Suggestions
   Mental Imagery
   Self Hypnosis
   Audiotapes
Hypnotherapy: Habit Control

Smoking:
   Concentrate on three ideas:
     Cigarettes are poison to the body
     Life is not possible without the body
     Life is possible only if one respects and
      protect’s one’s body
   Success Rates:
     One Treatment: 20%
     Five Treatment: 63%
Hypnotherapy: Phobias

 Used along with systematic
 sensitization
 Uses imagery of being around a snake
 Very successful in reducing phobias
 both in and outside of laboratory settings
Hypnosis and Pain Control

Analgesia: The removal of existing pain
Anesthesia: The prevention of the pain
 that is not currently present
Today, primarily used in conjunction with
 chemical anesthesia
Hypnosis and Memory

Amnesia: The loss of memory
Hyperamnesia: Improving an individual’s
 memory for events experienced in the
 past
   Reports of witnesses providing new
    evidence while hypnotized
   Many reports of inaccurate recollection or
    confabulation
Hypnosis and Memory

Hypnotic Age Regression: Taking
 subjects back n time to recall events that
 happened to them
   In the news recently about hypnosis being
    used to recall childhood sexual abuse. Is
    this accurate?
Hypnosis and Perception

Hypnotic suggestions lead to
 improvement in visual acuity in myopic
 (nearsighted) subjects
Hypnotic Deafness can affect auditory
 sensitivity on Visual Choice Reaction
 Time
Increased performance on the Stroop
 Test
Contemporary Theories of
Hypnosis
Trance Theory: Hypnosis involves a
 trance during which the subject is in a
 heightened state of susceptibility to
 suggestion
   Hidden Observer: When asked to write
    down information, will often reveal info
    against what he/she has already said
   Changes in cognition
Contemporary Theories of
Hypnosis
Sociological Role Theory: Hypnotized
 individuals behave as they do because
 they are striving to enact the role of a
 hypnotized subject as it is defined by the
 hypnotist and society in general
   There is no significant cognitive change
Contemporary Theories of
Hypnosis
Task-Motivation Theory: Hypnosis is not
 an altered state of consciousness, rather
 it is a predisposition in a normal state of
 awareness to attend to commands and
 suggestions from a hypnotist.

				
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