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					Advertising Unit




               Grade Nine Curriculum Guide
                          Version 1.0: September 2009
Table of Contents: Advertising Unit

                         Activity                   Page #


Introduction to Unit                                  3
Unit Template with Learning Plan                      4
Student Progress Monitoring                           7
Academic Vocabulary                                   9
Pre-assessment                                       10
Creating Media Awareness                             12
Representations in Advertisements                    24
The Audience of an Advertisement                     35
How to Read an Ad                                    37
Techniques of Persuasion and Advertising Claims      41
Analysis of an Advertisement                         50
Culminating Assessment: Analyzing and Creating an    52
Advertisement
Taking Action                                        58
Differentiation                                      61
Resources                                            62




                                    2
Introduction

Movies, television, video games, and advertisements take up an increasingly large part of
the already crowded life of a typical teenager. These media outlets share a reliance on
the visual image to influence the consumer. We have prepared students to tackle the
written and spoken word, but what about their knowledge of visual texts that will help
make them a wise consumer of the media? This unit introduces the ways that advertising
affects or manipulates the audience’s reactions. We know that advertising can affect
adolescents’ body image and self-esteem, so we need to give students the tools to
deconstruct some of the media’s messages. This, however, is a unit for a Language Arts
classroom, not a media studies program, so the real focus of the unit is on how well
students can analyze and interpret, specifically with regard to audience and intended
effect. The culminating assessment is to both analyze an advertisement for its persuasive
techniques and to create a new ad that appeals to a different audience. This is a unit that
may pay off double for us: make students effective readers and creators of visual texts
AND to make them wise and careful consumers of the media.



John Golden
TOSA-Rice
jgolden@pps.k12.or.us




                                             3
                            Advertising Unit Template
Stage 1: Desired Outcomes
Priority Standards:
9.02. Use the features of informational text to reach supported conclusions.
9.05 Infer an author’s unstated ideas, analyzing evidence that supports those unstated ideas and
      make reasonable generalizations about text.
9.06. Draw conclusions about the author’s purpose.
9.11. Develop a thesis, providing connections and insights.
9.11. Provide details/examples to support ideas developed into separate paragraphs.
9.17. Analyze advertisements, entertainment and news programs for how they affect targeted
      audiences.
9.18. Make informed judgments about television, radio, and film productions.
Understandings:                                     Essential Questions:
Students will understand that…                         What happens when we do not see
 Advertisements use persuasive techniques              ourselves represented fairly in the media?
    to influence consumer choices.                     How do we become active and critical
                                                        consumers of the media and advertising?
   Advertisements create unrealistic
    representations                                    How does the media and its advertising
                                                        seek to influence us?
   The media should not be received
    passively.
Students will know:                                 Students will be able to:
 The main techniques that advertisements            Deconstruct any advertisement by
    use to influence their consumer choices             examining its language and visuals
 How audience affects language and visual           Create an advertisement that uses the
    choices in advertising and the media                techniques used by the media
   More about their own media habits                  Explain the role that audience plays in the
                                                        choices of advertisers.


Stage 2: Assessment Evidence
Culminating Assessment                              Other Evidence
(learning task)
                                                        1. Advertising and media viewing logs
                                                        2. Practice paragraphs on advertising
                                                           techniques
                                                        3. SOAPStone and found poems on
                                                           nonfiction pieces




                                                4
Stage 3: Learning Plan
Activity Title       Priority Standards                                               Page
Pre-Assessment       9.05 Infer an author’s unstated ideas, analyzing evidence that
                           supports those unstated ideas and make reasonable
                           generalizations about text.
                     9.11. Provide details/examples to support ideas developed
                     into separate paragraphs.
                     9.17. Analyze advertisements, entertainment and news
                            programs for how they affect targeted audiences.
                     9.18. Make informed judgments about television, radio, and
                     film productions.
Creating Media       9.02. Use the features of informational text to reach
Awareness                  supported conclusions.
                     9.18. Make informed judgments about television, radio, and
                     film productions.
Representations in   9.02. Use the features of informational text to reach
Advertisements             supported conclusions.
                     9.05 Infer an author’s unstated ideas, analyzing evidence that
                           supports those unstated ideas and make reasonable
                           generalizations about text.
                     9.06. Draw conclusions about the author’s purpose.
                     9.18. Make informed judgments about television, radio, and
                     film productions.
The Audience of an   9.17. Analyze advertisements, entertainment and news
Advertisement              programs for how they affect targeted audiences.
                     9.18. Make informed judgments about television, radio, and
                     film productions.
How to Read an Ad    9.02. Use the features of informational text to reach
                           supported conclusions.
                     9.05 Infer an author’s unstated ideas, analyzing evidence that
                           supports those unstated ideas and make reasonable
                           generalizations about text.
                     9.06. Draw conclusions about the author’s purpose.
Techniques of        9.02. Use the features of informational text to reach
Persuasion and             supported conclusions.
Advertising Claims   9.05 Infer an author’s unstated ideas, analyzing evidence that
                           supports those unstated ideas and make reasonable
                           generalizations about text.
                     9.17. Analyze advertisements, entertainment and news
                           programs for how they affect targeted audiences.
                     9.18. Make informed judgments about television, radio, and



                                           5
Activity Title   Priority Standards                                               Page
                 film productions.
Analysis of an   9.05 Infer an author’s unstated ideas, analyzing evidence that
Advertisement           supports those unstated ideas and make reasonable
                        generalizations about text.
                 9.11. Develop a thesis, providing connections and insights.
                 9.11. Provide details/examples to support ideas developed
                 into separate paragraphs.
                 9.17. Analyze advertisements, entertainment and news
                        programs for how they affect targeted audiences.
                 9.18. Make informed judgments about television, radio, and
                        film productions.

Culminating      9.06. Draw conclusions about the author’s purpose.
Assessment:      9.11. Develop a thesis, providing connections and insights.
Analyzing and    9.11. Provide details/examples to support ideas developed
                 into separate paragraphs.
Creating an
                 9.17. Analyze advertisements, entertainment and news
Advertisement           programs for how they affect targeted audiences.
                 9.18. Make informed judgments about television, radio, and
                 film productions.




                                       6
Student Progress Monitoring: Advertising Unit

Student          9.05 Infer an author’s   9.11. Provide           9.17. Analyze          9.18. Make informed
                  unstated ideas,         details/examples to     advertisements,        judgments about
                  analyzing evidence      support ideas           entertainment and      television, radio, and
                  that supports those     developed into          news programs for      film productions.
                  unstated ideas and
                                          separate paragraphs.    how they affect
                  make reasonable
                  generalizations about                           targeted audiences
                  text.


                 E     M     D      n/e   E     M     D     n/e   E    M     D     n/e   E     M     D     n/e    E   M   D   n/e
Student   9.05 Infer an author’s   9.11. Provide               9.17. Analyze          9.18. Make informed
           unstated ideas,         details/examples to         advertisements,        judgments about
           analyzing evidence      support ideas               entertainment and      television, radio, and
           that supports those     developed into              news programs for      film productions.
           unstated ideas and
                                   separate paragraphs.        how they affect
           make reasonable
           generalizations about                               targeted audiences
           text.


          E     M     D      n/e   E     M     D     n/e       E    M     D     n/e   E     M     D     n/e    E   M   D   n/e




                                                           8
Academic Vocabulary

The vocabulary used extensively in this unit:


Advertisements
Analysis
Audience
Author’s purpose
Headline
Layout design
Media
Persuasion
Slogan
Thesis statement
Topic sentences
Pre-assessment for Advertising Unit

Time: one class period
Objective: to determine students’ prior knowledge of the persuasive techniques used by
advertisers and how they can determine and analyze the intended audience for
advertisements.
Materials: Locate 5-7 print advertisements. Ideally, they would be color, full-page ads.
Post these ads on the walls around the room.

Steps:
   1. Have students take out two blank pieces of paper; they should label one as
       “Notes” and the second as “Response.”
   2. Students should walk around the room with their “Response” page, examine each
       ad closely, and take notes on what the visuals and the text in the ads.
   3. Next, ask them to choose ONE of the ads and respond to the following prompt on
       their other piece of paper: “Who is the intended audience of the advertisement and
       what does the advertisement include to attempt to persuade that audience?” Direct
       them to write a topic sentence and to include support for that topic sentence.
   4. When you assess their responses, consider two separate topics: how well they can
       interpret the advertisement and how well they can write about it. Use the guide on
       the next page, and be sure that students have an opportunity to reflect for
       themselves on how well they did. Also, after students have been exposed to and
       have had an opportunity to practice with advertising analysis, you might want to
       return to this pre-assessment by re-viewing the ads, and asking students to revise
       their responses.




                                           10
Scoring Guide for Advertising Unit Pre-Assessment

    Priority                 6-5                      4-3                      2-1
   Standard
9.05 Infer an       Makes an                 Identifies that the      At this point the
author’s unstated   exceptionally clear      inferred purpose of      response is mainly a
ideas, analyzing    analysis about how       the advertisement is     description of the ad.
evidence that       the advertisement        to persuade, but the     There is not an
supports those      achieves its purpose     analysis of the          analysis yet nor is
unstated ideas
                    in persuading an         techniques used to       there a reasonable
and make
reasonable          audience.                persuade lead to a       inference made about
generalizations                              somewhat simplistic      the ad.
about text.                                  conclusion.


9.11. Provide       Even in this short       The response             At this point, the
details/examples    response there are       includes appropriate,    response does not
to support ideas    several effective        if somewhat limited,     include any specific
developed into      examples offered to      examples from the        examples from the
separate
                    support the topic        advertisement. The       advertisement to
paragraphs.
                    sentence. The            examples may not be      support the topic
                    examples are fully       fully explained at       sentence.
                    explained.               this point.
9.17. Analyze       The targeted             A possible audience      There is little or no
advertisements,     audience of the ad is    of the advertisement     mention of the
entertainment       clearly identified and   of the ad is             intended audience of
and news            thoroughly analyzed      identified, though the   the advertisement at
programs for
                    by examining             analysis of the          this point and no
how they affect
                    language and visual      language and visual      analysis of the
targeted
audiences           choices made in the      choices may be           language or visual
                    ad.                      somewhat limited at      choices.
                                             this point.




                                              11
Creating Media Awareness


Materials           
                    
                    

Purpose             
                    


Steps

 1.
      activate prior knowledge
 2.                                   underline



 3.

 4.
                                                  transforming the text


 5.
                                                                          graphic
      organizer


 6.




                                 12
Creating Media Awareness

 7.                             debate



      
      
      
      
      




                           13
Creating Media Awareness

Part One



                 Question        Before Reading   After Reading




                            14
Creating Media Awareness



Part Two
1.
           Dollars Spent
           by Children
            (in Billions)




            Year            1968   1984        1994   2002


2.




                                          15
Creating Media Awareness

Just the Facts About Advertising and Marketing to Children



Advertising Expenditures Spiral Upward







Ad Industry Spends Billions to Target Kids










Little Big Spenders — Children and Teen Spending Skyrockets









The “Nag” Factor Works — Kids Influence on Parents’ Purchases Continues to
Grow





                                       16
Kids Are Glued to the Tube and Bombarded by Commercials






Creating Brand-Conscious Babies










What Do Kids Really Want?







                                    17
18
Creating Media Awareness




    Medium           Week One   Week Two   Week Three   Total Hours
Television



Films
(in theaters on at
home)

Radio
(not an I-pod)


Magazines



Newspaper



Facebook,
Myspace, etc.


Other Internet



Facebook,
Myspace, etc.

Media Total
Hours




                                   19
Creating Media Awareness




                                   Hours per Day
    Medium          You     A Classmate    Class Average   National Average
Television




Radio




Internet




Magazines




Movies




Total Hours




                           20
Creating Media Awareness



       Total Hours with Media




                                Me   Classmate         Class    National average
                                                      average




                                                 21
Creating Media Awareness


Log 1: Memorable Ads




    Product     Where Seen        Describe Ad




                             22
Log 2: Ads in School




       Ad Type         You See   Total Number   Where Seen




                         23
Representations in Advertisements


Materials          
                   
                   
                   

Purpose            

                   


Steps

 1.




 2.                                          skim

                                           think-pair-share

             prediction
 3.




 4.



 5.                                                           activate their
      prior knowledge




 6.                         underline


 7.                                      SOAPSTone


 8.                       quickwrite



                                    24
 9.

10.       chunk the text


11.         paraphrase
      
      
      
      
12.                             to write a frame poem




                           25
Representations in Advertisements




                 Men                              Women




                  How Represented?       Effect           Quote
Females




Males


Teenagers


Americans




                                    26
The Price of Happiness: Advertising and Image




                                27
28
29
Politically Correct Barbie: She Stops Saying “Math Class Is Tough”
as Toys Get More Sensitive




                                       30
31
To Be Real?
A Young Woman Walks the Media’s Invisible Fence




                           32
33
34
The Audience of an Ad


Materials    


Purpose      

             


Steps

 1.



 2.
                             close reading


 3.

 4.




                        35
The Audience of an Ad




 1.
 2.
 3.
 4.
 5.

 6.

 7.
 8.

 9.

10.




                        36
How to Read an Ad



Materials    


Purpose      

             


Steps

 1.




 2.                      close reading



 3.




                    37
How to Read an Ad

    1.




    2.




    3.



















                    38

























    39
Slogan   Product             Copy              Logo




“Plot”   Audience       Representations   Layout/Cinematic
                                             Elements




                   40
41
Techniques of Persuasion and Advertising Claims



Materials     
              

Purpose       

              


Steps

 1.          accessing prior knowledge


 2.                 chunk the article



 3.




 4.

 5.                                               dramatization




                                         42
Techniques of Persuasion and Advertising Claims


Techniques of Persuasion of Advertisers




                                 43
44
Techniques of Persuasion




Part 1




                           45
Part 2




         46
Techniques of Persuasion and Advertising Claims




              Bandwagon                             Avant-garde




              Testimonials                        Facts and Figures




                Transfer                          Other Techniques




                                 47
Techniques of Persuasion and Advertising Claims




Part 1




                                 48
Part 2




         49
Techniques of Persuasion and Advertising Claims




             Weasel Words                         Unfinished Claims




             Unique Claim                         Rhetorical Claims




                                 50
Analysis of an Advertisement



Materials        


Purpose          

                 


Steps

 1. Think-Pair-Share




 2.

 3.                          close reading



 4.                    present




                                             51
Analysis of an Advertisement




Part 1




         Persuasive Techniques Used              Claims Made




         Audience/Representations          Cinematic Elements/Layout




Part 2




                                      52
Culminating Assessment: Analyzing and Creating Ads

Assignment




Steps
  1.    Look through magazines and newspapers to locate effective print advertisements. Select
        two that you think might work well for this project.
  2.    Complete the Prewriting Form that asks you to examine the persuasive language, claims
        made, persuasive techniques, and targeted audience for each advertisement. After
        completing the Prewriting Form, you should select one of the two advertisements.
  3.    Show your selected advertisement to several people representing a variety of ages. Ask
        each person whether he or she would buy the product based on this advertisement.
        Record their responses on separate paper; you may want to refer to these responses in
        your analysis.
  4.    Begin writing your analysis of the selected advertisement by writing on each of the
        following topics:
             The advertisement’s use of persuasive techniques
             The specific claims made by the advertisement
             The advertisement’s use of persuasive language
             The intended audience of the advertisement and how the choices used are
                appropriate for that audience
  5.    Be sure that you have an introduction with a thesis statement and context about the ad
        and the product. Your conclusion should address The overall effectiveness of the
        advertisement: why it is persuasive. Also, consider and explain if the ad makes any
        unfair representations of gender, social class, people, or places.
  6.    Ask a peer to look at your advertisement and your analysis. Incorporate any appropriate
        suggestions into your final copy of your analysis.
  7.    Begin designing your new advertisement by using the Prewriting Form that asks you to
        consider the text, images, claims, and language that would be appropriate to persuade the
        new audience to buy the product. Create a rough draft of your new advertisement and
        show it to as many people as possible that are in your targeted audience; ask them if your
        advertisement seems to relate to them and whether it is persuasive.
  8.    Create a final copy of your advertisement. You can draw the final images, take
        photographs, or locate images on line or in magazines.




                                               53
    9.   Compare the original advertisement with the new one that you have created by using the
         Venn diagram. Write an analysis of what changes were made and why the changes were
         made to fit the new audience. Focus on the specific language you used and the claims
         made. Also, be sure to consider any unfair representations you – or the original ad –
         make about individuals and/or groups of people or places.
Culminating Assessment: Analyzing and Creating a New Advertisement

    Priority                6-5                       4-3                     2-1
   Standard               Exceeds                    Meets             Does Not Yet Meet
9.05 Infer an       Makes an                 Identifies that the      At this point the
author’s unstated   exceptionally clear      inferred purpose of      response is mainly a
ideas, analyzing    analysis about how       the advertisement is     description of the ad.
evidence that       the advertisement        to persuade, and         There is not an
supports those      achieves its purpose     there are some           analysis yet nor is
unstated ideas
                    by thoroughly            references to the        there a reasonable
and make
reasonable          explaining visual        visual and text          inference made about
generalizations     choices, as well as      choices, though some     the ad.
about text.         the persuasive           significant elements
                    techniques and           may go unexamined.
                    claims made.
9.11. Provide       Numerous, relevant,      The response             The response does
details/examples    and effective            includes appropriate,    not include many
to support ideas    examples from the ad     if somewhat limited,     relevant or specific
developed into      are offered to support   examples from the        examples from the ad
separate            the ideas. The           ad. A few of the         to support the
paragraphs.
                    examples are fully       examples may not be      writer’s ideas.
                    explained.               fully explained or
                                             may not be relevant.
9.17. Analyze       The targeted             The audience of the      There is little or no
advertisements,     audience of the ad is    advertisement of the     mention of the
entertainment       clearly identified and   ad is identified,        intended audience of
and news            thoroughly analyzed      though the analysis      the advertisement
programs for        by examining             of the language and      and only limited
how they affect
                    language and visual      visual choices may       analysis of the
targeted
audiences           choices made in the      be somewhat limited      language or visual
                    ad with a convincing     or inaccurate in         choices.
                    explanation of how       places. The effect on
                    the audience is          the audience is
                    affected.                mentioned, though
                                             not fully examined.
9.17.               The chosen language      The chosen language      The audience of the
Demonstrate         and visuals are          and visuals make the     new ad may not be
how                 varied, original, and    new audience clear       clear and/or the
advertisements      extremely effective      to the viewer and is     persuasive

                                              54
affect targeted   in persuading the    generally persuasive   techniques may not
audiences         targeted audience.   to the targeted        be appropriate for the
through the new                        audience.              intended audience.
advertisement




Analyzing Advertisements: Prewriting


Product #1:
Examples of Persuasive Techniques                       Claims Made




                                             Intended Audience: How do you
 Examples of Persuasive Language
                                                        know?




Product #2:
Examples of Persuasive Techniques                       Claims Made




                                             Intended Audience:           How do
 Examples of Persuasive Language
                                                       you know?




                                        55
               New Audiences   Persuasive Techniques
Product One:




Product Two:




                          56
Creating a New Advertisement: Prewriting
Product:                    New Audience:


                                             Why would this be
                     New Advertisement      effective for the new
                                                 audience?
     Key Image(s)




      Persuasive
      Techniques



  Slogan/Key Text




       Additional
         Text/Key
Persuasive Words



     Claims Made




                                57
Original
                New




           58
Taking Action



Materials   


Purpose     


Steps

 1.             think-pair-share



 2.
 3.




                                   59
The Importance of Youth-Produced Media: Youth Who Don’t Like the Media and
Make Their Own




                              60
61
62
Differentiation

This is a perfect unit to work on the flexible grouping differentiation strategy because
students are in and out of various pairs and small and large groups as they examine
advertisements. Based on the students’ prior knowledge of persuasive techniques as
determined by the pres=assessment, you can create a variety of different group structures.
You can also differentiate by process and by product because even though much of the
unit focuses on print advertisements, you could easily adapt the groups to student interest
in radio advertisements, TV, even internet pop-up ads.




                                            63
Resources
Adapted from Web English Teacher http://www.webenglishteacher.com/media-ads.html


Ad*Access
 Images and database information for over 7,000 advertisements
printed in U.S. and Canadian newspapers and magazines between 1911 and
1955. Five main subject areas: Radio, Television, Transportation, Beauty and
Hygiene, and World War II.
http://library.duke.edu/digitalcollections/adaccess/

Adbusters Culture Jammers
 From the folks who bring us "Buy Nothing Day,"
ads against ads, or, more properly, against the materialistic mindset. A good
site for showing students a contrasting point of view. (Some material may
not be appropriate for the classroom.) https://www.adbusters.org/

Advertisement Ave.
 Top 50-rated television ads, browsable by category or
searchable. http://www.advertisementave.com/

The Advertising Century
 In 1999 the magazine Advertising Age published a
special edition called "The Advertising Century." This online version includes
top ad campaigns, jingles, and slogans, and a timeline of the century's most
important advertising-related events. http://adage.com/century/

Campaign Ads
 An interactive learning environment where presidential
campaign ads are entry points to learn about campaign issues and their
historical context, as well as the persuasive techniques and strategies that
are part of political campaigns. http://www.easehistory.org/index2.html

Girlpower: Retouch
 This interactive site reveals how a model's photograph
is retouched before it appears on a magazine cover. Every teen girl
concerned about her body image should visit this site.
http://demo.fb.se/e/girlpower/retouch/retouch/index.html

The Merchants of Cool
 The Frontline documentary has been broken into 6
segments for easier online viewing. Follow the link to find a teacher guide.
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/cool/




                                       64

				
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